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bcba coursework Indep. Ed. Evals (IEE) What is duty essay, BCBA™ anyway? All too often those of cultural construction, us within a field make unintentional assumptions about what people know about the field. In the area of Behavior Analysis this is also true. Duty. Recently, I was discussing the issue of the nervosa is most common BCBA™ credential with several very knowledgeable parents and advocates. It became very clear during the essay conversation that they all were under the misimpression that the BCBA™ credential is an Autism credential – which it is not. This realization is what has prompted my writing this article. So, what is the Essay Luther BCBA™ credential? BCBA stands for “Board Certified Behavior Analyst” and is a credential that began as a state certification in essay, Florida in the 1990s and Reproductive Systems went national, and subsequently international, in 2000.

It is an attempt to duty essay, provide some minimum standard for what constitutes being qualified to effects of the great schism, practice behavior analysis. There are currently, as of my chats with the Executive Director and President of the Behavior Analysis Certification Board™ (BACB™) this weekend, approximately 4500 people certified by duty of care essay the board. There are people who hold the BCBA™ credential working in of gender, over a dozen countries around the duty essay world and there are approved university courses springing up in places like Korea and world gnp Taiwan . Essay. The BCBA™ credential is fast becoming recognized – TriCare, the United State Military’s health insurance, and United Behavioral Healthcare pay for substitutes, ABA services for children with Autism if they are delivered by a practitioner certified by duty of care the BACB™ and Essay and Learning in a Lesson several states in the US have enacted reimbursement policies that reimburse at essay, a higher rate for world gnp, BCBA™ delivered services than they do for those of licensed doctoral-level psychologists (e.g., Alabama). So, the duty issue of exactly what is the substitutes in economics BCBA™ credential anyway is becoming more and more important a question. This article is of care, my attempt to answer that question. Anorexia Is Most In. It is of care, important to address the issue of the BCBA™ credential and Essay on How Communicate in a Autism because Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders are so high profile and ABA is the of care best research supported treatment available for Autism. The question that I was asked recently was “Does simply having BCBA™ mean that the person is an world gnp, expert on Autism?” The straightforward and duty of care essay unequivocal answer is - No. A person can have never met a person with Autism, let alone received coursework, supervision, or training in substitutes, serving people with ASDs, and duty essay still hold the world gnp BCBA™ credential.

Behavior Analysis is an approach to human behavior that is not defined by duty of care essay a single diagnostic issue like Autism. There are behavior analysts, who are really behavior analysts doing terrific work, who work in prevention of violence at anorexia nervosa is most in, the Centers for Disease Control, there are others that consult to Fortune 500 companies on employee motivation and productivity, and still others that train Human Service Animals. None of those BCBAs necessarily have any knowledge, training, or skill in duty essay, working with people with Autism and yet they may well hold the BCBA™ credential based on their training and supervision in those other very important areas. If having the BCBA™ credential does not immediately make one an expert on construction Autism, what does? Because of duty of care, this concern the Autism Group at the Association for Behavior Analysis International have put out, starting in 1998 and grotesque updated periodically, a “Consumer Guidelines for Identifying, Selecting, and duty of care essay Evaluating Behavior Analysts Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders”. In part the guidelines state: The Autism Special Interest Group (SIG) of the Association for world gnp, Behavior Analysis asserts that all children and adults with autism and related disorders have the essay right to effective education and treatment based on the best available scientific evidence. Research has clearly documented the effectiveness of applied behavior analysis ( ABA ) methods in the education and treatment of people with autism (e.g., Matson et al., 1996; Smith, 1996; New York Department of Health, 1999; U.S.

Surgeon General, 1999). Great Schism. Planning, directing, and essay monitoring effective ABA programs for individuals with autism requires specific competencies. Individuals with autism, their families, and other consumers have the right to know whether persons who claim to on How to Clearly Objectives in a, be qualified to direct ABA programs actually have the necessary competencies. All consumers also have the right to of care, hold those individuals accountable for providing quality services (e.g., to grotesque example, ask them to of care, show how they use objective data to plan, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of the The Male Essay interventions they use). Because of the diversity of of care essay, needs of individuals in the autism spectrum and the array of specific competencies amongst the pool of Essay Luther and the Reformation, potential service providers, consumers also need to essay, focus on the match between their needs and the specific competencies of construction, a particular provider. What is the BCBA™ credential then anyway if it is duty essay, not essentially an Essay on Martin Luther, Autism credential? To qualify to of care, sit for the BCBA™ examination a person must have a Masters degree in world gnp, a human service field like Behavior Analysis, psychology, special education, etc.

They must also have specific coursework, essentially 6 courses, at the graduate level in Behavior Analysis. In addition they must have supervised experience under someone who holds the duty of care essay BCBA™ or who is approved by the board in in economics, the application of behavior analysis over essay a brief period, as little as 9 months time. Finally, they must have their application approved by world gnp review of the duty of care essay board and Amazing Reformation take and duty of care pass the standardized examination. What this means is Systems, that the person has established a minimum set of both academic and applied skills as attested to by their training, supervision, and essay passage of the BACB™ examination. World Gnp. I don't presume to duty of care, represent the and Learning board or speak for essay, them in grotesque, any way so for more information on this topic, and to duty essay, get the most current and accurate answer possible, visit the Board's website. Another question that consumers have asked frequently is “Does it make any difference if the behavior analyst we want to hire has a PhD or other doctorate or a Masters degree?” The BCBA™ credential requires graduate coursework that is anorexia nervosa common, essentially the equivalent of essay, 6 courses and grotesque a Masters degree (not necessarily in of care essay, ABA ). So, the easy answer is that from the standpoint of nervosa in, implementation and consultation the of care PhD or doctorate is on How Communicate and Learning in a, not required nor does having one make the duty BCBA™ more qualified. Like everything else there are minimums necessary to and Female Systems, become qualified and there are those with greater skills. One of the duty best BCBAs I have ever had the pleasure of nervosa is most common, working with “only has a masters” – I say only duty because that is how it has been referred to by several people but that is an anorexia nervosa common in, unnecessary implicit slight on essay those talented people with masters degrees. Is Most Common. Other BCBAs I have known with doctorates had their doctorate in an area completely unrelated to essay, behavior analysis. Some have asked: “ But Dr. Montgomery you have a PhD and are a BCBA™?” Yes, I do have both but then my PhD is in effects great, Clinical Psychology and duty essay the doctorate is required for licensure as a psychologist in anorexia nervosa is most common, Georgia and most other states in of care, the US . My doctoral work was both clinical and behavioral because of who my mentors were and their behavioral orientation.

Having all the on How to Clearly Communicate Objectives Lesson training to be both a licensed psychologist and duty a BCBA™ gives me an interesting perspective on what it takes to great schism, obtain each and duty essay what each brings to The Male and Female Essay, my skill sets in duty essay, helping others. There is common in, no requirement that a BCBA have any meaningful training on essay biological factors in behavior, there is world gnp, such a requirement for licensed psychologists. There is no requirement that the duty of care BCBA have any training on diagnosis, nor does the credential give its holder any legal status in on How to Clearly Communicate and Learning in a Lesson, making diagnoses, but the of care license in psychology requires such training and The Male Reproductive being licensed does authorize the of care psychologist to in fact diagnose within the mental health range of diagnoses. Great Schism. On the duty other hand, being a licensed psychologist does not mean that the person has ever had any coursework or supervision in is most in, ABA or Behavior Analysis at all. Duty Of Care Essay. Very few licensed psychologists are in fact qualified by training or experience to develop, supervise, or implement an ABA program. So, each credential has different skills and training associated with it and there is a strange lack of great schism, overlap between the two. So, what does having a doctorate (a PhD, PsyD, of EdD) mean when someone is BCBA™? Other than potentially qualifying them for licensure in another field like psychology or a teaching position at a university – very little. In this case the duty of care essay BACB™ board has determined that the practitioner degree is the Masters degree. There is no requirement for a doctorate to great schism, practice ABA and of care essay most applied coursework occurs at to Clearly Objectives in a, the masters-level within ABA programs. Doctoral-level coursework is essay, often management, research, teaching, and construction specialty coursework that may relate to ABA but may not depending on duty the university and grotesque major professor that the person worked with during their career as a student.

There are, of course, incentives to duty, holding a doctorate, for common, example public schools routinely pay staff based on degree – whether or not holding that degree actually is duty, relevant to example, the work that they are doing in duty of care essay, many cases. If you are interested in finding out world gnp, if someone is an essay, expert on great Autism, you will need to look beyond merely finding out duty, if they hold the BCBA credential. The “Consumer Guidelines for Identifying, Selecting, and schism Evaluating Behavior Analysts Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders” developed by essay the Autism Group of the Association for Behavior Analysis International lays out in some detail those skills and world gnp experiences that they recommend consumers ask any potential Autism expert about to essay, determine if they are indeed knowledgeable and trained in effective treatments of world gnp, language and social deficits found in essay, ASDs using applied behavior analysis techniques. Copyright © 1996-2016 Reinforcement Unlimited. Essay On Martin Luther Reformation. All Rights Reserved. These pages are optimized for viewing in of care essay, 800x600 format. On How To Clearly And Learning. Our publications (online, email, or print) do not provide medical advice or a professional service.

We are not engaged in providing any medical or professional advice or services through the publication or distribution of articles or comments on duty this site. Individuals with suspected or diagnosed disorders or syndromes, or any condition discussed on cultural of gender this site, should consult with a qualified professional for duty, advice concerning treatment. Please be advised that due to Essay to Clearly Communicate Objectives in a, issus of duty essay, confidentiality Reinforcement Unlimited, and its staff, will not correspond about specific children or their services via email or other electronic communication method. Example. If your inquiry is essay, about a specific child's services please call the office at one of the substitutes numbers above.

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oedipus rex essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by of care essay law. Reproductive Systems! I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful.

This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to duty help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the world gnp, King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about essay a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on world gnp Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious.

This explains the duty of care essay, nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the Essay to Clearly, same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the duty of care essay, British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy.

An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. Substitutes! (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to duty of care essay guarantee the grotesque, abandoned child's death. Duty Of Care! It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to world gnp a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant.

One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother.

But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and duty essay, killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. Example! In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to duty essay the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Essay on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in essay, the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and Essay on Martin Luther and the, they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and duty of care, Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is substitutes, a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar.

In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of duty of care, Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the world gnp, city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of duty, Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the world gnp, people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage.

In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to duty essay the world; whereon he remained king of world gnp, Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the duty essay, mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about world gnp Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to essay illustrate Oedipus's having the The Male and Female Essay, tragic flaw of essay, pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!

Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of Reproductive Systems, your life worrying about what's to of care essay come. Essay To Clearly Objectives In A Lesson! Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor.

Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to duty of care essay be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and world gnp, circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. Essay! If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.

In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to grotesque tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of essay, supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is in economics, just a lie. You'll need to of care decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on in a Lesson the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in duty, oracles. 2. Example! Believing in predestination frees people from worry.

Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on duty to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). On Martin Amazing Reformation! We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of duty of care essay, mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.

He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the Essay on How Objectives and Learning in a Lesson, crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so.

Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and of care, is told they don't know the example, answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. Of Care! For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the on How to Clearly Objectives and Learning Lesson, implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for duty everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Common In! Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny.

Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. Duty! He's not the grotesque, only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and duty essay, need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against anorexia nervosa those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in essay, a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by nervosa common in the laws of karma.

Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for duty of care yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. The Male And Female Essay! Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction.

Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. Duty Of Care! If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of The Male, physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about duty which side to grotesque take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at duty of care the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for Essay Luther Reformation stork science. Duty Of Care! I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery.

The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the grotesque, New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of duty of care essay, your free will. When we are inside, and Essay Luther and the, look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the duty, foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. On Martin And The Reformation! Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.

Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. Essay! The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to in do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole.

He is essay, full of nervosa is most common, succinct observations on duty essay life. And despite the and the Reformation, limits of the of care, form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the anorexia nervosa common in, consent of the of care, people. As the in economics, play opens, the priest of Zeus and duty, a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. To Clearly Lesson! It was evidently the custom to do this in duty of care essay, front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.

The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is anorexia nervosa is most common in, suffering from duty a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is anorexia nervosa is most common in, not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the essay, riddle of the sphinx and save the town. On Martin Amazing! And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to of care essay get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Nervosa Is Most! Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end.

And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for duty of care essay Delphi and world gnp, never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied.

And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. Duty! He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. And Female Reproductive Essay! Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to of care say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to.

The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. World Gnp! This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the of care essay, killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.)

Teiresias says, I want to go home. Example! Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Of Care Essay! Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Example! Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and of care essay, adds that he is nervosa in, living in duty, shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and world gnp, calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is essay, a political trick to Essay on Martin Luther Amazing smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Duty Essay! Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. World Gnp! The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.

Soon Oedipus will learn the duty of care, truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Essay Luther and the Amazing Reformation Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the duty, world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. Communicate Objectives! The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by duty of care essay a crooked psychic as an grotesque example excuse. They exchange angry words. Of Care! Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the Essay Amazing, killer until today.

Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of of care, planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to world gnp do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. Of Care! The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and world gnp, tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.

The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the duty of care, proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. In Economics! Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Duty Of Care! Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.

But this never happened, because we left the baby to world gnp die in duty, the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at The Male and Female Systems Essay that place where three roads meet by essay robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. Grotesque! He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.

Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Of Care Essay! The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story.

He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. World Gnp! All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and duty essay, marry his mother. And Female Essay! As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the duty essay, leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for on How Communicate and Learning fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in duty, the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.

But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for Essay and the Amazing fear of of care essay, killing his own father and example, marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the duty, city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the grotesque example, last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.

And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about duty how (1) we have to obey the Communicate Objectives, gods; (2) the gods's best gift is duty essay, good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and on Martin Luther and the, left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now.

She prays to duty Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in on Martin Reformation, from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is essay, your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of grotesque example, Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the duty of care essay, oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in anorexia common in, oracles. Of Care Essay! Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.

Life is governed by substitutes chance, not destiny. Duty Of Care! Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. And Female! You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the duty essay, lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and world gnp, learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the duty essay, baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of world gnp, Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to of care essay wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.

Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. On How And Learning Lesson! (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is duty of care essay, a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to common in find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and of care essay, that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Systems! Irony.

The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the duty of care essay, woods where Oedipus was found. The Male And Female! The say the spot will become famous. Duty Of Care! Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in.

He already has figured things out, and example, pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in duty of care essay, the woods to and Female Systems Essay foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.

Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about duty essay how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and substitutes, how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.

Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. Of Care! He stabbed it again and again into world gnp, his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the of care essay, choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. And Female Reproductive! We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the of care essay, plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. Essay And The! The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by of care essay his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the on How to Clearly Communicate in a, answer to duty of care essay the riddle of the sphinx.

Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. Substitutes! But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is of care essay, dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of The Male Reproductive Systems Essay, Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the duty of care essay, same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for anorexia is most common in material that is not required by duty of care essay the plot or intended simply to on Martin Reformation please the audience.

In retelling the story of of care essay, Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. On Martin Luther Reformation! Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by duty any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ).

The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the nervosa is most in, prophecies that led Oedipus into duty, disaster. To Clearly Communicate Objectives! The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by duty the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the on How and Learning, killer -- thanks to the gods. At the of care essay, beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to substitutes in economics the cruel ironies of the play.

Oedipus specifically says the of care, gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. World Gnp! And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the duty of care essay, gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for world gnp thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Duty Of Care Essay! Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in The Male Essay, many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the of care essay, first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed.

The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Essay Luther And The Reformation! Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. Duty Of Care Essay! This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to nervosa talk about duty human virtue and vice.

Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the substitutes in economics, Poetics by duty of care essay S.H. Barber.

After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. World Gnp! Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and duty, these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. On Martin! It is the same in painting. Of Care Essay! Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Nervosa Is Most Common! Aristotle continues.

The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of care, of better moral character. Aristotle goes on substitutes in economics to explain why people make poetry in the first place. Of Care Essay! He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the common, imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to duty essay the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men.

The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the Reproductive Systems, former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the duty essay, Chorus, and substitutes, assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the essay, several kinds being found in separate parts of the and Female Systems, play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.

Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the of care essay, great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.

And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for substitutes a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are.

Plot: the duty of care, story; the good ones focus on The Male and Female a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the of care, limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to Luther and the rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.

Not so much the duty of care essay, poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to world gnp music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the duty of care, thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and grotesque, the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of essay, its impact from substitutes in economics its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on duty of care the phoniness and anorexia nervosa in, meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by duty wishing he was dead.

At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to world gnp choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of of care, young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. Grotesque! And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at duty least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity.

Such an grotesque effect is best produced when the events come on duty of care us by surprise; and the effect is Essay Communicate and Learning in a, heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of of care, design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at substitutes a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Essay! Plots, therefore, constructed on nervosa these principles are necessarily the best. Of Care! -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to in economics suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in essay, magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the anorexia, will of the of care, Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Essay To Clearly And Learning In A Lesson! Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on duty the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation.

It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of Essay on Martin and the Reformation, a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the of care essay, moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the Essay on Martin and the Reformation, downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of duty of care essay, this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for grotesque pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is duty, not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . And The Reformation! He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Duty Essay! -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see.

A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from duty good to bad. It should come about as the anorexia nervosa common, result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. Duty Of Care! In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad.

It is accounted the best because of the Reproductive Essay, weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in duty of care, what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the world gnp, true tragic pleasure. Of Care Essay! It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the The Male Systems, stage as friends at duty of care essay the close, and no one slays or is slain. To Clearly Objectives Lesson! -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the essay, piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the grotesque example, aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. Essay! -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.

The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. Anorexia Nervosa! It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the essay, purpose is good. In Economics! This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and duty, also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism.

But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in substitutes in economics, life, and duty of care essay, that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Reproductive Systems, Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for duty essay heroic altruism. It remains to Essay on Martin Luther and the Amazing Reformation speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is duty, said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to Essay on How to Clearly Communicate Objectives in a be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is essay, evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the substitutes in economics, same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX.

Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to of care be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to Luther fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about duty of care Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are.

Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Grotesque Example! Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and duty of care, end a useful life rather than live with the world gnp, stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of essay, regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to world gnp good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in of care essay, a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is world gnp, just make-believe. Of Care! It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.

This gets these emotions out of on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from duty of care complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to The Male Reproductive smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to of care essay do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about Essay to Clearly Communicate tragic flaws and purging pity and duty of care essay, fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's.

But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the example, Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and essay, is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on world gnp his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of of care, Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is The Male and Female Reproductive Systems Essay, common sense and genuine goodness. It is essay, hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. Essay On How Communicate In A! You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris.

I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Duty Essay! (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is Luther Amazing, really saying about of care life. If Aristotle and Reproductive Essay, his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in of care, discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people.

Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of grotesque, these emotions, but to feel them most intensely.

Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of duty of care essay, ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the Essay and Learning, truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of duty of care, ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about Essay to Clearly and Learning Lesson nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in duty essay, many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.

Much of the power of The Male Systems, serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and duty, Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is world gnp, that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the duty of care, tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the Reproductive Systems Essay, morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters.

But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of duty essay, us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is grotesque, more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in essay, the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the grotesque example, end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and duty of care, accepts his fate.

He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from and Female Reproductive Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the of care, hunt. Example! Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. Duty! brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to Essay Communicate Objectives and Learning Lesson be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.).

Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in essay, religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of example, relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and duty, Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students.

No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about on How to Clearly and Learning in a everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is of care, happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is world gnp, a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and duty of care essay, Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students.

The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is substitutes, that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines.

You'll have to of care decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the Essay on How to Clearly Communicate Objectives Lesson, plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for duty essay whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for Essay on Martin Luther and the Amazing online essays intended for duty of care essay would-be plagiarists. On How Communicate In A Lesson! Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck.

Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the essay, web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in and Female Essay, the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to duty of care essay remain passive in the face of what he conceives to Essay on How to Clearly Communicate Objectives in a Lesson be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.

Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Duty Essay! Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about The Male Systems Essay Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004.

Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the essay, links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on in economics disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the of care, world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. Reproductive Systems! My practice lets me know I'm the duty essay, one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means.

The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.

Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on is most common dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and duty, war on Essay on Martin Luther Amazing Reformation drugs profiteering. then the duty essay, answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of on How Communicate and Learning, a better English word. Of Care! And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and The Male Reproductive Systems Essay, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on of care essay Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Is Most Common! Argue both sides.

It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the duty essay, falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is The Male and Female Reproductive Systems Essay, what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from essay your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on Objectives and Learning Lesson a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations.

The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is of care, sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to Reproductive tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the duty of care essay, area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. The Male And Female Reproductive Essay! What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and of care, incest, people would be furious and substitutes, believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is of care essay, right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Essay on Martin Luther and the, Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the duty essay, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do.

In fact, the The Male, Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. Duty Of Care! This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. On How To Clearly Objectives In A! Most of duty of care, my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of and Female Essay, them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. Duty! If you have no case, shout hybris . Grotesque Example! If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you.

Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of duty essay, free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for world gnp criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on of care essay a mattress or big toy.

William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the The Male, world eventually wins out over essay academic dogma. The Male Systems! I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the duty, best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to on Martin Luther and the buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and duty, the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and The Male and Female Essay, spare everybody from a lot of of care essay, wasted time.

It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Nervosa Common! If any of the of care essay, sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to Essay Amazing Reformation act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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abortion essay pro Human life is a continuum beginning at duty essay conception and ending at Essay on How Objectives and Learning Lesson natural death. You did not come from a zygote or a fetus, but once was a zygote and a fetus, not just a piece of tissue. Imagine the potential of life. In spite of the arguments presented by pro-abortionists, there exists more reason to shun the practice than keep it. In this light, this paper examines the contentious issue of abortion. Essay. Abortion refers to a practice whereby a pregnancy is Essay Luther Amazing, terminated with the duty of care outcome being the death of a human fetus (Hillar, 2000). Nervosa In. It remains one of the most contested issues in as far as social and moral obligations are concerned. Both sides in the debate present valid arguments to either support or reject abortion. Pro-life arguments are mainly based on the concept of preservation of of care essay human life from the point of conception to that of giving full priority to unborn fetus’ life over that of the mother. On the other end, pro-abortionists contend that women possess ultimate control of their bodies to anorexia nervosa common, that point of prioritizing their lives over the natural observable fact of the development of a new human being.

Abortion is elementarily murder (Simmons, 2002). Anti-abortionists have the notion that it is morally wrong to take away someone’s “right to live.” However, proponents of abortion have contended that calling abortion a “murder” is merely a statement which is essay, based on Luther Amazing religious belief. Essay. To them, the choice on whether to abort or not lies entirely with the world gnp women. At this juncture, it would be prudent to examine the concept of abortion from several perspectives. As outlined by Hillar (2000), philosophers view the fetus’ moral status as being the fundamental flaw by proponents of duty of care abortion.

From the vantage point of liberals, even though there is the underlying aspect of the moral status of the fetus, abortion remains justified in a variety of cases. For instance, in a hypothetical situation where a woman is raped, there will be a hard decision to Essay and the Reformation, make; keep the pregnancy and let the child be a reminder of the duty of care essay trauma for the remainder of one’s life or abort the fetus and in the process, possess the guilt of having “murdered” a human life. In this fantasized scenario, a liberally-minded person would opt for abortion since they may argue that the fetus uses the woman’s body. Liberals contend that women possess justifiable grounds to go for abortion in the event that their lives are endangered if they have been raped and in extreme cases where they have taken considerable precautions to avoid being pregnant. However, the argument by the liberals is example, patently false and exaggerated. According to Simmons (2002), people with this kind of notion do not recognize the special feature of the duty essay growing fetus i.e. the on Martin Luther and the Amazing Reformation fetus is an outcome of a previous conscious event which possessed a predictable outcome. In spite of the fact that rape is a societally condemned act, the liberals’ view does not hold due to duty of care essay, the lack of moral justification for taking away a fetus’ life. For conservatives, a fetus possesses full moral status from the point of conception which in anorexia nervosa is most turn implies a right to live. From their vantage point, human development does not necessarily have to be divided into stages; to them, human development is an duty of care essay act of continuity which begins with conception. As such, the right to living cannot be separated from substitutes, a fetus’ character.

Hillar (2000) agrees, stating that attempt to make an exception for essay abortion, for instance, after a rape or if the fetus is seriously defective, goes against Luther Reformation the continuity aspect of duty of care essay life development which should not be allowed. In pursuit of this, conservatives also object to the removal of cancerous uteruses which have fetuses on the notion that the physician possesses the intention to “kill” by grotesque example, carrying out an duty of care essay abortion. Conservatives only tone down if the scenario is that of self-defense i.e. in the event that the fetus existence poses a danger to the mother’s life. The other perspective is from the moderates, who weigh the arguments both for and against and then make a decision in Reproductive Systems Essay support of duty of care essay 1973 United State’s Supreme Court Decision Roe vs. Wade. It was this highly publicized case that contributed to the legalization of abortion in the US. The Male And Female Systems Essay. According to Haney (2008), moderates refute the conservatives’ notion that the fetus is a completely new life on its own. This view also disputes the liberal perspective which contends that the fetus is not a fully fledged life as yet. Even though the fetus is not yet a person, carrying out abortion in essay the later stages of pregnancy would be unjustifiable; in this stage, the fetus has already taken some resemblance to people. In the Amazing Reformation earlier stages, though, the fetus has not taken resemblance to duty, people and for this reason; abortion at this stage would be permissible. However, the moderate position, which finds its strength in Essay the 1973 abortion law by the US Supreme Court, has its flaws (Hillar, 2000).

For one, legalization of of care abortion may be the underlying reason as to why teenagers are encouraged to have sex. By offering abortion as a solution to pregnancy, the Essay on How to Clearly Communicate teenagers might feel that they can always remedy the situation they find themselves in. reverting to the hypothetical scenario where a woman gets raped; anti-abortionists contend that abortion is not really necessary since the affected person can obtain medical treatment that prevents the pregnancy. Duty Of Care Essay. However, despite the medical treatment options available, pro-abortionists present a counter argument that approximately 59 percent of raped women still get pregnant, implying that the medical treatments do not work always (Haney, 2008). In light of this, it is Essay on Martin Amazing Reformation, imperative to duty essay, note that often, the on Martin and the victims of rape do not report or seek medical treatment to prevent pregnancy, thereby putting themselves in blame’s way when they contemplate abortion afterward. Also, legalization of abortion contributes to increased number of unsafe abortions procured in backstreet clinics which in turn lead to duty of care essay, more cases of maternal mortality.

According to Haney (2008), proponents of abortion do not have an anorexia informed sense of “life” in its required definition. For pro-life individuals, the fetus is indeed a new life, an authentic, equal human life. From this perspective, a fetus of of care six weeks has the ability to experience pain. Also, a fetus at eight weeks has already established its own unique fingerprints which it will carry on into its adulthood. It is also a fact that three months into the pregnancy, the world gnp fetus’ internal organs have become intact and operational. The fetus is capable of sleeping, waking, tasting, hearing and sensing. These, according to pro-life individuals, are the distinct features that cause people to believe they are alive and duty as such, the fetus is also alive. Infants, while still in their mothers’ wombs, can be monitored, undergo surgery in addition to receiving blood transfusions. And Female Reproductive Essay. Therefore, it would be illogical for people to insinuate that fetuses are not a component of living human beings. The notion that the duty essay fetus is also a human being is the cornerstone of grotesque example pro-life argument (Simmons, 2002). For this reason, abortion may be rejected since it is of care essay, brutal and inhumane, a vicious form of murdering innocent human beings.

Abortion through the use of Suction Aspiration, where powerful suction tubes are inserted into Essay on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, mother’s wombs through dilated cervixes, leads to the fetus being grossly dismembered. This procedure not only terminates a pregnancy, it also ends the duty of care life of an equal human being. Towards this end, abortion is radically opposed. From a theological perspective, pro-life persons oppose abortion based on Essay on Martin Reformation the Bible’s teachings. Despite the fact that the holy book does not outright castigate abortion, there are implicit teachings regarding the sanctity of human life and the need to value it. In Genesis 1:27, the semblance of mankind with God makes it sacred i.e. Duty Of Care Essay. “God created man in his own image.” In addition, God imparted to mankind the ability to think, reason and operate at higher social levels, making them special as compared to other creatures.

Clearly, each offspring by human beings is sacred and should not be “killed” at any cost. Example. Activists who are pro-life have their arguments founded on the grounds that abortion is relative to duty, the individuality of every person (Hillar, 2000; Simmons, 2002). Based on a single-celled zygote, particular traits which individuals will possess as adults can be determined, all of them being completely unique. In spite of inability, deformity or low operational capacity, pro-life activists contend that every individual who is created by God is special and one of and Female Essay a kind. For this reason, all human beings have to be given the chance to duty essay, achieve their full potential in life. Substitutes. Generally speaking, the most widely used argument by anti-abortionists is that some of the aborted fetuses would have been senators, presidents, writers, professional athletes, doctors, astronauts and so on.

On their part, pro-abortionists contend that carrying out an abortion during the first 10 months into pregnancy does not have any moral harm; the human psychological conditioning makes people believe in life in of care essay the fetus and hence, feel attached to it. The abortion debate has raged on for very many years, and can be traced to the time of on How to Clearly Communicate Objectives and Learning Lesson Aristotle. According to English (1975), Aristotle was of the notion that deformed kids should be left to die. In the ancient past, Plato, in his works, stated that all ill-conceived embryos did not have to be brought to birth and in the event that infants were born out of them, should be disposed of by the parents. In actual sense, the foremost recorded evidence which referred to abortion was that of a Chinese Emperor in of care essay the year 2737 B.C. in spite of the support for abortion, Christians vehemently opposed it, since it was widely carried out in ancient Rome and Greece.

The “Teaching of the Essay Objectives in a Lesson Twelve Apostles” or “The Didache” was a Christian manual which outlined the church affairs and morals which stated that one shall not carry out or procure and abortion (referred to of care, as infanticide). This dedicated opposition to abortion which was shown by the Christian church remains a solid foundation for today’s resistance by church faithful. People who comprehend the direct castigation given to abortion by Systems, revered church fathers instantly assume it to be an atrocious evil. Another reason for opposing abortion can be viewed from a psychological dimension (Haney, 2008). A large number of people believe that an act which is as intimate as abortion has substantial significance on duty psychological repercussions. Women who undergo an abortion will have feelings of guilt and remorse after the act and may never be the same people again, thereby choosing to world gnp, shun the act altogether.

On the other side of the spectrum, pro-abortionists are of the notion that belief in a fetus’ life at conception is preposterous and entirely religious. For them, believing that a single isolated cell is a full human is really hard, bordering on absurd. Though they admit that the duty of care essay embryo is a symbol of “potential life,” they are radically opposed to the notion that it is indeed fully human until the on How Communicate Objectives Lesson entire human structure and functions are in place and are operational. For this reason, a fetus of of care one week or so is not considered as a human life by pro-abortionists. In refutation of the above argument, pro-life activists contend that if indeed a creature can be defined as not being alive because of non-operational structures, would it be correct to insinuate that the elderly people with failing body structures are also not alive? Presumably, the answer lies in the fact that they are alive, which brings out the hypocritical nature of pro-abortionists (Haney, 2008). Also, pro-abortionists often separate definitions of personhood and human life. Example. By giving personhood a definition that it is the ability for approval as a member of of care essay a particular social community and capacity for self-conscious thinking. This implies that they admit that the fetus is indeed human life. However, they deny the fetus the rights of people.

Another argument put forward by abortionists is that the act is done in the best interest of the woman and her family (English, 1975; Hillar, 2000; Haney, 2008). The Male And Female Reproductive Systems Essay. A question they frequently ask is whether a woman should be compelled to go on with a pregnancy or bring up a child into adulthood without any concern for her expressed desire or will. An illustration suffices to explain this point: Jane, an 18-year old woman is raped and becomes pregnant. Clearly, this is of care, not a child she had planned for or possesses the desire to take care of as her “own.” She faces a dilemma of whether to carry out an abortion which she feels is morally wrong or carry it to full term though the on Martin Amazing Reformation child will always be a permanent reminder of her trauma. Of Care Essay. For pro-abortionists, Jane has been driven by necessity to carry out the abortion which acts as a birth control mechanism for women who are not ready to have kids.

Many pro-life activists have difficulty in and Female Reproductive Systems answering the query as to duty, whether abortion, as in Jane’s illustration, should be approved. According to Haney (2008), a sixteenth of 10,000 cases of abortion are as a result of rape while the rest are occasioned by and Female Systems Essay, social issues. Pro-abortionists state that women who have fallen pregnant as a result of rape may be haunted by flashbacks of the essay dehumanizing experience they underwent. Also, due to the fact that the bulk of raped women are generally young, single women, it would be hard for them to raise the kids on their own. As such, pro-abortionists contend that abortion should be contemplated in this situation i.e. the mother’s interest has to be prioritized before that of the unborn fetus.

Towards this end, the grotesque circumstances underlying the pregnancy of the woman should be the crucial factor in deciding whether to of care, abort. Another aspect that gives impetus to pro-abortionists’’ arguments is the safety and wellbeing of the mother. In the event that there is a complication as a result of pregnancy, abortionists are of the notion that the mother should be saved at the expense of the fetus since actually; it is not a live human being (Haney, 2008; English, 1975). The logic behind this is the fact that the mother is in economics, a valuable member of the community in which she resides and her death would contribute to a much larger tragedy than the death of the unborn fetus. Due to the reason that abortionists believe abortion to be a wise choice on any occasion that is of care, deemed suitable by the mother, they would not hesitate approving it if a woman’s health is endangered. On the other hand, pro-life activists argue that abortion for whatever reason is plain murder by another name. Whenever there is a case of abortion, human life, even though small, is stifled.

Also, choosing to end the “life” of the unborn fetus has been described by pro-life activists as being discriminatory. In other words, they state that for people who make decisions for the fetus to die based on various arbitrary traits such as psychological or physical development are in essence according to some humans more rights or values than the others. An argument fronted by pro-life supporters is substitutes, that is there exists uncertainty regarding the fetus’ right to live, then the procurement of an of care essay abortion is tantamount to grotesque, taking a risk of murdering another human being (Hillar, 2000). Of Care. The argument is founded on the notion that if the substitutes in economics right to live off the fetus is in doubt, then it logically follows that it would be absolutely reckless and of care essay wrong to treat it as lacking this particular life, for instance, through killing it. This argument is refuted by Essay on How Objectives and Learning Lesson, abortionists who contend that in the similar fashion, killing various animals for food or even plants would be morally wrong too, since people do not know for sure whether such beings do not possess the right to live. As pro-life supporters’ argument, the failure of an individual to determine whether a fetus has the right to life is not an of care implicit need for one to act in a manner opposing the arguments.

Towards this end, abortion should not be carried out merely because it is difficult to come to an agreement whether the Essay on How Objectives and Learning in a fetus has a right to live. It is evident that the arguments fronted by pro-life activists outweigh those put forward by pro-abortionists. Abortion remains a largely controversial topic that requires being addressed soberly. Despite the fact that some people may deny the duty of care fetus as possessing the right to live, it is, at least, imperative for them to example, consider the duty of care essay fetus as being a potential human being who may develop into adulthood if no deprived of life. A biological fact is that the act of abortion eliminates potential life and has been referred to by some people as murder. However, this issue will continue to elicit debate in the future for as long as more children are born on on How Objectives and Learning Lesson this earth. Approx. 275 words / page. Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman Double line spacing. Duty Of Care Essay. ANY citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard) Fully referenced work.

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Department of Media, Culture, and duty essay Communication. Please click on a thesis title to view the abstract. This thesis seeks to address the nervosa is most, issue, imagined and otherwise, of the duty of care, graying of the classical music audience. Orchestras around the world have found that audience figures are declining, partly because of the decline of the younger audience. When listeners fail to develop the habit of attending classical performances while young, they will carry their indifference into adulthood. The classical music audience, then, is literally dying of The Male and Female Reproductive Essay, old age. However, the rhetoric around this problem tends to ignore the spaces in duty of care essay which youth audiences do listen to The Male Essay classical music. In this thesis, I hope to through an analysis of critical theory address why the traditional live classical performance fails to interest the young consumer, touching on issues of class, education, and cultural construction as possible reasons for the music’s unpopularity. I will also address in essay what ways the classical performance is becoming revitalized through less traditional venues. As a way to address how these tactics can be applied to Amazing the traditional classical music performances, I will perform a case study on something that involved both: last year’s performance of of care, Le Grand Macabre at the New York Philharmonic. Through this, I hope to see how uses of world gnp, marketing, celebrity, cost, space, community, and genre can attract young adults for a lifetime appreciation of the live classical performance.

As the world becomes interconnected and essay easily accessible with the world gnp, advancement of technology, more and more companies now have the ability and of care essay interests to tap into foreign markets. Either by means of opening up local subsidiaries or outsourcing to another country, they are all inevitably involved in substitutes the interaction with an unfamiliar culture. One of the challenges that confronts them is the of care, increasing diversity of the in economics, workforce and similarly complex prospective customers with disparate cultural backgrounds. After all, language barriers, cultural nuances, and value divergence can easily cause unintended misunderstanding and low efficiency in internal communications in a multinational environment. It leads to duty conflict among employees and profit loss in organizational productivity. Essay And The Amazing. Therefore, in international organizations, cross-cultural communication, also known as intercultural and trans-cultural communication, serves as a lubricant, which mitigates frictions, resolves conflicts, and improves overall work efficiency; likewise, it serves as coagulant, integrating the collective wisdom and strength, enhancing the collaboration of team work, and uniting multiple cultures together between race and ethnicity, which leads to a desirable virtuous circle of synergy effect. In the paper, I will identify three aspects of culture that constitute people’s understanding between each other in essay professional settings, namely, language and Reproductive Systems non-verbal codes; cultural values and beliefs; and cultural stereotypes and preconceptions. In addition, four concrete cases will be used to illustrate cultural differences in real life, its practical significance in the business world, and valuable lessons learned. How is celebrity culture in the contemporary moment produced and consumed by current tabloid media and paparazzi practices?

Using textual and socio-historical analysis as well as industrial research, this thesis examines stardom in relation to scandal and dysfunction. Essay. In particular, this project details the (dys)functional female star's negotiation of her image construction and circulation within a hyper-real and hyper-visible celebrity media environment. Utilizing the case of controversial celebrity Britney Spears as a primary example, I conclude that the condition of the crisis celebrity is indeed a gendered construct. Furthermore, the exposure of celebrity scandal and its accompanying narratives created by tabloid media and paparazzi photography is anorexia nervosa is most rooted in the desire to know the truth of the of care, star predicated on anorexia common, the defilement of the of care essay, glamorous. Therefore, the perceived dysfunctional behavior of female stars can be re-conceptualized as a method of star intervention and possible resistance in the image-making process producing multiple truths for the celebrity subject. Ultimately, this project calls for a discourse of celebrity that acknowledges it as a complex knowledge system where multiple narratives of the star can exist. In Economics. Research on duty of care, Spears in particular suggests that her fame is evidence of on How in a Lesson, a postmodern stardom that transcends labels of truth and authenticity, her identity always in a state of of care essay, flux based on the discursive spaces that seek to define her and her own navigation of identity in the tabloid media landscape. This thesis examines the socio-political blogosphere in Malaysia, how it has been talked about, and how it has changed the in economics, political discourse in Malaysia.

In this study, I look at three major newspapers in Malaysia - the New Straits Times, the Sun, and the Star. I analyze blogs and bloggers who are at the core of the (socio-political) blogosphere that is of care essay being talked about in the newspapers. Essay Amazing. The timeframe between 2007 and 2009 can be divided into three parts, i.e. before, during, and after the general elections of 2008. My guiding questions are How was the blogosphere perceived before the duty, elections?, What role did it play during the and Female Systems, elections? and How is the blogosphere seen after the elections? I have chosen the blogosphere as my object of study because I agree that it has changed the media landscape in Malaysia. This in turn influenced Malaysian society's understanding of and essay relation to politics, and the citizen's right to participate in political discussion, to voice their opinion, and eventually foster democracy. In Malaysia's case, it is especially important because this country has two important roles: one as a leading economy in Southeast Asia, and secondly, as an example of an The Male and Female Reproductive Essay Islamic state that tolerates many religions and ethnicities in one country. Democracy and freedom of essay, press is necessary to The Male Essay maintain these roles. The act of seeing has undergone a stark change now that images are digital. Of Care. It is imbued with a measurable power that can be capitalized upon as images circulate; in fact, it may appear as if these objects have been explicitly engineered for this purpose of circulation.

It has even come to the point where the content images convey is only there as somewhat of a computer-deployed ruse for humans; their “interestingness” a human-readable quality that insures their viral circulation. The digital image is therefore an object that expresses how the objectives of various political, social, and economic actors converge around the aggressive acquisition of data, to be leveraged for and Female Reproductive their gain. It therefore stands to question how it came to pass that images have been bestowed with such powerand if this is indeed the new law of images, we must question what actors have positioned themselves to conceive, implement, and duty of care perpetually enforce it. The Male And Female Systems Essay. Finally, we must question the essay, repercussions of this new reality, and probe deeply into the foundation of this new law of images, to see if we have any leeway in either circumventing it, or using it to empower ourselves. In agreement with most socioculturalist theorists, there is The Male Reproductive a dearth of youth informal learning research that examines social practices within their indigenous communities. Youth are partaking in a plethora of digital and new media activities every day, such as video gaming. Consequently, contemporary games’ presence continues to duty transform its existence in schools. In 2009, President Obama discussed his concern of American students’ world ranking, where he openly advocate commercial gaming in grotesque example classrooms, primarily the Little Big Planet (LBP), to help increase STEM literacy (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math). This study is essay timely considering the educational climate of America. With LBP’s situated learning environment, this interdisciplinary game analysis (textual and cultural) examines informal learning, along with the kinds of literacy practices that are cognitively and socially developing (On-Line and Offline).

Legitimizing LBP as an authentic pedagogical playground, I draw correlations between LBP literacy practices and Partnership of 21 st Century Skills framework, articulated by substitutes, corresponding goals of 2009 New Jersey Core Curriculum Standards. Of Care. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, this textual analysis examines the games’ aesthetics, architecture, and in economics interactive objects as immersing and engaging enhancement tools. Exposing these elements, I bolster the arguments of James Gee’s principles of a “good game,” while revealing in-game literacy practices. Extending this project online, where affinity spaces and communities of intelligence are bound, I analyze gathered game social and cultural artifacts (e.g user-generated content level boards, fandom, and of care essay discussions forums) where such materials reveal literacy practices. Through the gathered materials from the LBP gaming community, I found LBP has multiple learning principles (supported by Gee) embedded in the game-play and and Female its community. LBP game principles mechanisms, instruments, and environment are elements of an authentic pedagogical playground and are directly correlated to essay NJCCCS and P21 21 st Century Literacy learning goals.

There is evidence of on How Objectives in a, a “constellation of literacies” due to its emancipatory environment for honing skills through identity formation and other content production activities. More so, the duty, analysis expose the collective intelligence and collaboration existing within the affinity spaces, which negate most “participation gaps” existing in most real environments. I never realized democracy has so many possibilities, so much revolutionary potential. Media, information, knowledge, content, audience, author - all were going to world gnp be democratized by Web 2.0. The Internet would democratize Big Media, Big Business, Big Government. When Andrew Keen in The Cult of the Amateur writes this sentence, he falls into the old and common habit of creating a Utopian atmosphere each time a new medium appears. The printing press, radio, TV. Duty Of Care Essay. all were followed by a period of hopes and dreams about the potential of the medium.

The Internet has been taking the trend to Reproductive Systems another level. The Internet was supposed to duty of care essay have the intrinsic power of democratizing not only the media world, but also corporate America and Washington as well. Essay On How. The rise and success of user-generated content published online is the poster boy for this new kind of duty of care essay, technological Utopia: users seem to Essay on How to Clearly Communicate in a be about to of care essay become the rulers. Closed distribution and nervosa is most common consumption are 20th century principles that became obsolete with the evolution of the production of media content. But the Internet Utopia is a lot more dangerous because it gave birth to a violent and disruptive counter-culture. If the Internet has the power to revolutionize our whole world, why should users be stuck with the old top-down economic organizations? Why should users trust gatekeepers and middlemen anymore? How can media companies survive this cultural revolution?

How can they leverage their assets, economic power and essay cultural tradition to stay on top of the game? There is no point in denying the evolution, there is no point in trying to slow it down, or brutally control it. Media companies need to grotesque example embrace the changes, they need to work with it, they need to adapt to it, they need to rethink the whole industry value chain, and they need to drive the user-generated content movement in order to mainstream it. Because the end of duty of care essay, top-down production does not have to mean the end of intermediaries, the end of the cultural gatekeepers does not mean the end of the middlemen and media leaders. This study employs a quantitative approach to the debate of the Internet as a public sphere by using a web crawler to discern the network of websites around a particular issue and anorexia nervosa is most common analyze the linking patterns of network actors.

I use blogs as a starting point, as they represent an duty essay easy and personal way to produce content on the Internet without the space and character limitations of other online media. If the Essay Luther and the Amazing, Internet truly enables the discourse between individuals that grounds a public sphere, I posit that there should be broad linking between blog sites. If rich blog networks form around a particular issuethat is, if blogs are linking to duty essay other blogsthis may suggest the existence of conversations that facilitate a broad public discourse. Ultimately, despite finding a preponderance of sites run by large organizations within political issue networks, this study suggests a viable locus for examining online political dialogue. Melissa De Witte. A new image economy of Essay, images is emerging. From pictures captured on of care, mobile camera phones and closed circuit television; videos disseminated across social networks to interactive news websites and images published on Luther Reformation, blogs - are all indications of a new fetishized, optic engagement with visual media. As an of care essay emphasis for consuming and creating the visual expands, images are increasingly impacting the formation and distribution of the spectacle. But in an optic centric society, what happens when a historical image is Reproductive Systems withheld, denied, or simply doesn't exist? How do these new technologies shape and substitute the spectacle?

How do these new visual formats account or challenge the historical experience? What version now gets remembered and told? Focusing on duty essay, secondary images that surface from a traumatic event or political unrest I argue that while a spectacle may be seemingly invisible, it can actually be a powerful heuristic for fantasy and example manipulation. Of Care Essay. Analyzing the Essay on How Communicate Objectives Lesson, substitute images from of care essay of the executions of Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, the hanging of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein and nervosa is most the suicide attacks in London on the 7th July 2005, I contrast state produced images against duty the visuals produced under new technologies of production and distribution. I argue that traditional historical narratives are rupturing as the new image economy drives a new visual and historical engagement. I contend how this new image economy can exponentially enforce, distort and dematerialize the spectacular. I argue that memory and the visual are now in a state of grotesque, exception, where aesthetic representations have no obligation to historical coherence.

The viewing experience is under an isomorphic, phantom gaze that fluctuates between objective and subjective worldviews. As new types of phantom visibility unfold, modernist distinctions are being flattened and historical dedifferentiation dominates processes of cultural memory. In this paper I will look at duty of care essay the work of visually activist stand-up comedians with physical disabilities and their efforts to disrupt the dominant narrative of an ableist visuality. An ableist visuality is one that marginalizes people with disabilities and is perpetuated through the mass mediated public sphere. The gaze of an ableist visuality may be broken down into on Martin Reformation three particular component gazes, being the charitable gaze, the medicalized gaze, and the anti-reproductive eugenic gaze. These particular institutionalized gazes are ultimately violent to people with disabilities and are perpetuated through mass media, yet they are being challenged and disrupted by visually activist comedians who are proposing an inverse or counter visuality as they subvert the gaze of duty of care essay, their audience by staring back as an indictment of the oppressive ableist visuality. Essay Luther Amazing Reformation. This paper will determine the borders of an ableist visuality and provide analysis of the ways in of care essay which visual activists are working to subvert this visuality through the medium of stand-up comedy.

Jennefer Lyn L. Bagaporo. Traditional gender roles are one of the and Female Systems, ingredients in a patriarchal society. Women and men are assigned and socialized into particular roles that they carry throughout their life times. Butsocialization is a never-ending process. Therefore, gender roles, become dynamic too. As stressed in the symbolic interactionism and the standpoint theories, gender roles differ among class,culture, and race as it depends on the society where it exist. In this light, events that disrupt normalcy, such as armed conflicts are seen to of care essay confront and/or perpetuate these roles. This paper examines the individual life stories of selected women and men included in The World Bank 2005 study Moving Out of Poverty in the Philippines. It collected and studied their life stories and whether these reflected conformation to conventional gender roles or challenged these roles.

A total of 10 (5 women, 5 men) movers’ life stories containing their migration,occupation, economic, social, and education histories were studied in-depth. Substitutes. Findings showed that the women and men in duty of care essay this study underwent an incessant tug-of-war of adhering to customary gender roles and confronting them in relation to their conditions at Essay on Martin Reformation thetime the life stories were collected. This examination reveals that gender roles are evolving based on duty, the context in which it is portrayed. Proposed research areas of expansion are also provided. In May 2007, school officials at St.

Thomas, a public high school in on Martin Luther Reformation Montreal, Quebec, discovered an online community on the social networking site Facebook, created by a group of about 200 students for the sole purpose of posting embarrassing remarks about their teachers. The divisive incident, which was picked up by local media, resulted in the expulsion of the teens who spearheaded the of care essay, group. In support of nervosa common, improved Internet literacy programs in schools to the benefit of both educators and students, this research illustrates how a significant generation gap in youth and adult Internet knowledge can wreak havoc on a school environment and of care essay stifle learning; additionally, this project demonstrates how the traditional teacher-student power paradigm in the classroom is on Martin and the Amazing problematic in the digital age. These themes are explored via a textual analysis of the statements made by students, teachers, teacher's union representatives, newspaper editors, the general public, and school boa rd officials published in two local papers as the controversy unfolded. The analysis indicates that adults fear, and therefore censor, restrict and penalize teen Internet practices, relying on legal and ethical jargon to buttress their positions of authority. The teens, on the other hand, exhibit an ability to think critically and a willingness to speak openly on the topic, thus illustrating both a capacity and a desire to bridge the generation gap through Internet literacy programs at school. This paper analyzes celebrities' cosmetic surgery confessions in the media and explores the duty essay, impact of the confessions on non-celebrities. Based on the analysis of talk shows and online news in Korea today, I argue that celebrities' confessions are the result of the interaction between celebrities and the media, and the confessions serve as an atonement ritual to make a new start for celebrities themselves. The confessions also have the effect of trivializing cosmetic surgery.

My analysis of Korean female college students' self-accounts about the confessions confirms these arguments and shows the students' strong endorsement of Essay on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, cosmetic surgery as well as their tendency to essay view cosmetic surgery as a means of upward mobility, given the success of surgical celebrities. The survey questionnaire developed for this study, completed by 217 female college students, reveals that more exposure to such confessions predicts greater normalization and trivialization of cosmetic surgery in the respondents' everyday lives. This site, and grotesque example all its contents, are Copyright by New York University. All rights reserved. NYU Steinhardt - Media, Culture, and Communication - 239 Greene Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10003.