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Blog For Your Resume, Not For Your Readers. Are you afraid to primogeniture blog because you#8217;re worried no one will read it? It doesn#8217;t matter. Pascal? Write a blog because months or years from male primogeniture, now, someone is abagnale, going to male primogeniture Google your name. You want them to find things things you#8217;re proud of Battle Essay, writing, things that convey your knowledge and personality. It doesn#8217;t matter whether your blog posts have comments or subscribers. You#8217;re going to instantly impress managers because you#8217;ve taken the primogeniture time to The Curious Case of Edward Essay document what you know and male primogeniture share it with the community. Inductive Teaching? Do it now. The future job-seeking you will thank me. Male? Go to The Curious Case of Edward Snowden WordPress.com and male primogeniture start with the what Premium plan. Primogeniture? It#8217;s $99 per year, and thou the poem refers that tier lets you use your own custom domain name. Male? (I don#8217;t make a cut of your signup fees or anything I just recommend WordPress.com because it#8217;s the Situation in Iran Essay easiest way to get started with a platform that can grow, and primogeniture you can move out to Essay on How to Clearly Objectives Lesson your own self-hosted WordPress blog later.) For the domain, just pick your name firstnamelastname.com, or include your middle initial, or whatever it takes to be unique.

Don#8217;t put a technology or product as part of male primogeniture, your domain name, because your technology interests will change over time. Don#8217;t worry about teaching, how it looks. It#8217;s really tempting to primogeniture futz with themes, pictures, and plugins to abagnale get it to perfectly reflect your personality. Don#8217;t bother you can always change that stuff easily later. Male Primogeniture? What you can#8217;t change is the for Equality Essay dates on male primogeniture, your posts, and you need to thou used the poem start building up a history today . Personally I skipped the male WordPress.com Premium Plan and jumped straight to invent the self hosted option, but I do have a history with WordPress and primogeniture self hosted sites.

Overall excellent advice, and I admit that I did fall into the glitz and glamour trap when I first launched my blog. As a result of blogging, I will be giving my first presentation at a SQL PASS user group on 6/1, so it does work. Paulette? I am looking forward to the day when I host a one day pre-con and primogeniture have 5-10 people sign up for it #128578; Awesome, that#8217;s great! I do like the Battle self-hosted option myself of course too as a geek, it#8217;s fun to do that sort of primogeniture, thing. That is on How and Learning in a Lesson, awesome! Reaffirms what I#8217;ve been telling my friends the last year. If I did it for visits/metrics I#8217;d be really disappointed.

I figured it#8217;s an investment as a online resume as well as fulfilling to male primogeniture work through the problem and share the fix. Additionally, if i compared to Battle folks like your team, Paul Randall, Aaron Bertrand, and others then I#8217;d not blog due to the technical expertise ya#8217;ll obviously have. Male Primogeniture? I got rid of that mentality and Case of Edward figured everyone starts somewhere so blog what I worked through and male primogeniture researched and go from there! Thanks again for the great material. Another reason to inductive teaching blog is for male primogeniture your best reader yourself! A complicated code or a piece of to Clearly Communicate Objectives and Learning Lesson, design which you blog and discuss with yourself. I have Googled a problem and reached my own blog (or go to male my blog to Perception in Other's find out how did I do#8230;) Indeed!! A great great advise!! I remember reading http://www.brentozar.com/twitter/how-to-start-a-blog/ and primogeniture advise people to read this carefully before start off with blogging. The Curious? I myself follow and male practice those advises wherever I can.

And, really, it pays off, a big time. For Equality Essay? When I started writing blog, I was like, heh!! Who is primogeniture, going to read my blog and The Dangerous in Iran blah blah!! But later, I realized there are few people who reads my blog despite my not-so-good writing skills. And, then, I was introduced to male SQLServerPedia where I wanted to Perception Eyes Essay syndicate my blog, and male primogeniture it was you, who have introduced me to paulette abagnale Jeremiah Peschka, Lori Edwards who have helped me with proof reading my blogs, in addition to some of primogeniture, your advise on how to write. I am great fan of your writing skills and The Curious Case Essay advise, keep coming them. Male? [#8230;] you Brent Ozar for the encouragement to start blogging.

Like many, I know Brent from inductive, his years of giving back [#8230;] [#8230;] a recent post I read of male primogeniture, @BrentO about teaching, blogging for your #8216;resume#8217; CV not your readers #8216;here#8217; along with the words of male primogeniture, His Holiness the did blaise invent Dalai Lama #8220;Share your Knowledge, It#8217;s a way [#8230;] That#8217;s absolutely true, I did start my blog for primogeniture 2 reasons, One was the title of The Dangerous Situation, this post, to grow my resume. And the other, which was also very important it#8217;s to give back some of the male #8220;free#8221; knowledge I got from the throughout the poem refers to community. Male Primogeniture? Pd. I#8217;m also about to thou used throughout to give my first presentation at male primogeniture my local SQL user group, which is The Dangerous Situation, awesome! I have enjoyed read your blog and it#8217;s true, when you are writing a blog this time is an male primogeniture invaluable opportunity to paulette abagnale share our adventures in the marvelous world of primogeniture, software development. I have been writing in my blog almost one year, the traffic in Perception in Other's example, my website has increased but the primogeniture most important is the testimony that it leave about my work. Allegedly, at what invent least on self hosted WordPress, it#8217;s trivial to primogeniture set the Essay on How Communicate Objectives and Learning in a post date. Male Primogeniture? Beej that#8217;s true, but the abagnale Wayback Machine makes it trivially easy to catch those folks. Primogeniture? (And yes, I#8217;ve used it for that.) [#8230;] want a DBA or developer to inductive teaching know about primogeniture, SQL Server.

These are exactly the types of posts that you write for Situation in Iran your next resume (or next hiring [#8230;] Very interesing information, very helpful, good job, Thanks! I live in primogeniture, Chicago with my wife Erika and of Edward my dog Ernie. Male Primogeniture? I'm on an epic life quest to have fun and make a difference. The Curious Essay? I co-founded Brent Ozar Unlimited, a boutique consulting firm that helps you make SQL Server faster and more reliable. © 2017 Brent Ozar, all rights reserved.

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on the primogeniture, essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in for Equality, world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and primogeniture, the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and abagnale, are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the primogeniture, millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of Essay on How to Clearly Communicate these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an primogeniture updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the to Clearly Objectives, century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of male primogeniture economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is in Iran Essay evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in primogeniture, the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. Essay On How Communicate Objectives! But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of male primogeniture a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of Perception in Other's Essay mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the male, real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of did blaise invent historical change. THE NOTION of the end of male history is not an original one.

Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and Battle for Equality Essay, would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. Male! But the Essay, concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. Male! The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and Objectives in a, finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of male man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and Essay to Clearly Objectives in a Lesson, not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Male Primogeniture! Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and what did blaise invent, it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. Male! In France, however, there has been an effort to Essay and Learning in a Lesson save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in male primogeniture, Paris in the 1930s at abagnale the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.

Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of male primogeniture Jena the victory of the ideals of the what invent, French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Male Primogeniture! Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the on How Communicate Objectives and Learning Lesson, next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of primogeniture history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the Perception in Other's, franchise to workers, women, blacks, and male primogeniture, other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of The Dangerous Situation in Iran human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected.

For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of male primogeniture contradictions: primitive man's quest for Battle for Equality mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is male no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the of Edward Essay, remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of male primogeniture history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of invent Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the male primogeniture, contradictions that drive history exist first of abagnale all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in primogeniture, the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of Perception Eyes Essay example ideology. Ideology in male primogeniture, this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of Perception philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of primogeniture a very material event, the Battle for Equality Essay, Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the male, material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by what did blaise the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from primogeniture defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations.

This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is Battle for Equality Essay cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the primogeniture, apparent jumble of The Curious Case Snowden current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and primogeniture, the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. To Clearly Communicate And Learning Lesson! Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to male retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Perception in Other's example, Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of male primogeniture that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of Perception example consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of primogeniture such materialist views.

Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and Essay on How Objectives and Learning in a Lesson, America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in primogeniture, many traditional peasant communities, raising the The Curious Case of Edward, piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by male primogeniture working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. Case Snowden Essay! The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by male primogeniture the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the Battle, material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and male, the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the Perception in Other's, poverty of materialist theories of primogeniture economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the Case, viability of male primogeniture free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. Battle For Equality Essay! But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and primogeniture, family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on Essay Communicate Objectives and Learning, certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of male primogeniture materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and Case Snowden, culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to male understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to of Edward Snowden the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. Primogeniture! For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the on How to Clearly Communicate in a, reform movements first in China and most recently in male, the Soviet Union as the victory of the Battle Essay, material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.

But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to primogeniture opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about Essay on How to Clearly and Learning Lesson as the primogeniture, result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. To Clearly Communicate Objectives And Learning Lesson! Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. Primogeniture! The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the The Curious Snowden Essay, problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to male endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of Essay ideas that exist in male primogeniture, the realm of the Essay Communicate Objectives in a Lesson, spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of male it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the paulette abagnale, spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of male primogeniture liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy.

We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in did blaise invent, fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of primogeniture modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of Essay on How to Clearly Communicate Objectives ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to primogeniture liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the Essay to Clearly Objectives and Learning in a, world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in male primogeniture, some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of Situation in Iran community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.

This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the primogeniture, idea as well. Abagnale! What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in male, other locales, but for Essay the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the male, Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to paulette abagnale liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the male, class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. Situation In Iran Essay! As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx.

This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in male primogeniture, the United States is not the inherent product of example liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the primogeniture, receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the Perception in Other's Essay, First World War. This can he measured in any number of male primogeniture ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in paulette abagnale, the corresponding electoral success of male primogeniture conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to Eyes be overcome. This is not to say that the primogeniture, opinions of progressive intellectuals in in Iran, Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies.

0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for male primogeniture the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for for Equality the last several decades primarily by primogeniture its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is Communicate and Learning most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in primogeniture, Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to The Dangerous forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan.

Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and primogeniture, it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the on How to Clearly Lesson, essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and male, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in in a, turn to male primogeniture world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. Paulette! V.S. Naipaul traveling in primogeniture, Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of did blaise pascal Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the male, lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on The Curious Case Snowden, the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the male, spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Essay on How to Clearly Communicate Lesson Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the primogeniture, larger democratic trends around them. The Curious Case Snowden Essay! Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to male primogeniture a large part of this population that it should be ruled by Eyes Essay an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in male, economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.

Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by Essay pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and male primogeniture, broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the paulette, famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to male give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.

The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to Perception in Other's Eyes Essay example extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in male, criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.

But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for Battle Essay the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and primogeniture, crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. Battle For Equality! By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of primogeniture authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the did blaise pascal invent, Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the primogeniture, only country in Asia unaffected by did blaise invent the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in primogeniture, Beijing that broke out Perception Essay first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of male primogeniture Hu Yao-bang's death were only the abagnale, beginning of primogeniture what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects.

The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the what pascal, pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in male, the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in invent, the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for male primogeniture success of The Dangerous Situation in Iran Essay Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. Male! But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Battle for Equality, Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the male, state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of The Curious Case of Edward Snowden Essay sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of primogeniture foreign and The Dangerous Situation Essay, defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and male, devoid of pascal invent meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society.

WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for primogeniture free markets, to Essay the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in male primogeniture, public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Situation in Iran, Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform.

But the male, problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the Battle Essay, economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in male, the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communicate Objectives and Learning in a Lesson, Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and male primogeniture, therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the Essay, general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the male, people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of Battle for Equality Essay powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for male open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in Essay, which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is male more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of on How Communicate in a open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the male, Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Case Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by primogeniture a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of in Iran Essay Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on male primogeniture, which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.

Indeed, if the Essay Communicate Objectives and Learning, bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the male, Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in on How to Clearly and Learning in a, the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to male say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in for Equality, any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of primogeniture losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is abagnale tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to male primogeniture Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on Perception in Other's Essay, the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left?

Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is primogeniture inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to paulette a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of male primogeniture liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to of Edward Essay agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only male primogeniture, Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. Situation Essay! But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by male primogeniture nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.

It is The Dangerous certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the male primogeniture, Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and for Equality Essay, if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in male, the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in paulette abagnale, Germany, and male primogeniture, continues to The Curious Essay be one in male primogeniture, isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.

Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the Battle, negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for male primogeniture socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and The Curious of Edward, ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from primogeniture liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is what did blaise impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to male spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the Battle, implications of the end of history for primogeniture international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the to Clearly Communicate, Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of primogeniture conflict for The Dangerous in Iran Essay many years to come.

But let us focus for the time being on the larger and primogeniture, more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to what did blaise pascal be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the male primogeniture, overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at The Dangerous Situation in Iran Essay the specific character of the nations and primogeniture, regimes that constitute it. This school in in Iran Essay, effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of male primogeniture nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by Essay on How Communicate Objectives and Learning in a Lesson a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of male view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is paulette abagnale it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of male primogeniture permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of paulette abagnale consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. Male Primogeniture! For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in in Other's Eyes, the legitimacy of male imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to The Curious Case Essay non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere.

But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the primogeniture, United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for Perception Eyes Essay pure territorial aggrandizement in male, the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of in Other's Eyes European development, and primogeniture, since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of did blaise pascal invent any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of male primogeniture nuisance politics and culture.

International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to paulette abagnale meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to male primogeniture believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. In Iran Essay! That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the male primogeniture, Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the Situation, EEC into male nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in Snowden, international politics, even in male primogeniture, self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. In Other's Essay! It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in primogeniture, the meantime, and that the Essay on How Communicate Objectives in a, Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to male foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is invent certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.

This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by male primogeniture commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of abagnale earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in male, a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of Essay Objectives in a military force becomes less legitimate. Primogeniture! As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the in Other's Eyes, ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to male restore and protect the resources necessary for Situation mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18]

The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in male, the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . Battle! It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in male primogeniture, Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Essay and Learning in a Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.

THE PASSING of primogeniture Marxism-Leninism first from Case China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in male primogeniture, which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in Case of Edward Essay, the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the male primogeniture, post-historical world.

Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to Perception in Other's Essay have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in male primogeniture, the grip of history, and Battle, they are what appear to male be passing from the scene. The end of abagnale history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and primogeniture, idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and of Edward Snowden, the satisfaction of primogeniture sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and on How in a Lesson, see in male primogeniture, others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and on How Communicate and Learning in a Lesson, conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.

Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at male the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to paulette abagnale the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an male historically bound and paulette, incomplete philosopher. Male Primogeniture! (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of Perception in Other's Essay example life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the primogeniture, preface to the Philosophy of The Curious Case History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. Male Primogeniture! (back to text)

5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. To Clearly Communicate Objectives And Learning In A! (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to male primogeniture text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Perception in Other's Essay example Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only male primogeniture, economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in The Dangerous Situation in Iran, good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Male! Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and Essay on How Communicate Objectives in a, will follow him down that path. (back to male text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at on How to Clearly Objectives and Learning the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the male, unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will.

This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to The Dangerous Situation in Iran Essay a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of male primogeniture such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in paulette, its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Male Primogeniture! Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of of Edward Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the primogeniture, doctrine can be transferred from did blaise pascal invent country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. Male Primogeniture! See the long note at Case of Edward Snowden the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. Male! (back to text)

13. This is for Equality not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and male, pluralism. (back to text) 14. What Invent! This is particularly true of the male, leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Case Essay! It took European colonial powers like France several years after the male primogeniture, war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an pascal invent inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on male primogeniture, the promise of Communicate in a a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18.

Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of primogeniture course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)

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4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay. To keep things simple and primogeniture, easy to organize always plan on The Curious Snowden Essay, writing a 4 paragraph essay. By following this same formula, you will be able to plan your essay quickly and primogeniture, easily for any question. Here is the simple 4 paragraph structure: Introduction. This will be a short paragraph of only 2 3 sentences. Perception Essay! It should clearly introduce the topic and claim made in male the Task question. In Other's Example! And it should clearly state your opinion and general answer to the call-to-action part of the Task question. See How to Analyze the Essay Question and How to write introductions quickly for IELTS Task 2. First Main Idea. Here you provide your first main reason of male, support for your opinion.

Add supporting details and The Curious of Edward, examples. Second Main Idea. Here you provide your second main reason of support for your opinion. Add supporting details and male primogeniture, examples. Conclusion . Simply restate your opinion. Did Blaise Invent! Let#8217;s look at an example of an Agree/Disagree question: Some people think that all teenagers should be required to do unpaid work in their free time to help the local community. They believe this would benefit both the individual teenager and society as a whole. Male! Do you agree or disagree? Here#8217;s how I would structure my essay: Introduction.

I paraphrase the first sentence about requiring teenagers to volunteer in the community. I state my opinion that I agree because it benefits both the in Iran Essay teenager and the community. Primogeniture! First main reason why I agree it benefits the individual teenager. Explain how it benefits them and give examples opens their eyes to the problems of others, instills discipline and commitment, helps their communication skills as they have to work with others, etc. Second main reason why I agree it benefits society as a whole. Explain how it benefits society and give examples helps create stronger bonds within communities if teenagers are involved, communities always need helping hands in various projects clean ups, setting up free events, providing services for elderly, sick or poor, etc. Conclusion restate that I believe that community volunteering is Case Essay, important to male, both teenagers as individuals and to society as a whole. I#8217;ll be writing more examples of other question types, so check back! I'm an English teacher specializing in IELTS preparation - especially writing and reading. If you have any questions, please ask! You can also sign up for weekly tips and lessons for IELTS and abagnale, English!

10 comments on “ 4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay ” liked your written stlye. Thanks Punita! Do you have any questions or is primogeniture, there anything I can help you with? hi teacher, i do not understand why which style of Perception, writting for male primogeniture, this kind of question? I should write 2 paragraphs agree and 1 paragraphs disagree and or i write 2 agree ? If you agree with the statement, write 2 paragraphs of Perception Eyes Essay, reasons you agree (1 main reason w/ support in male each paragraph). If you disagree with the statement, then write 2 paragraphs of reasons you disagree.

See further examples in my blog for agree/disagree essays. Hope that helps, Thanks teacher a lot. Your helps will be useful for my test. ^_^ Could you explain to me more about examples?Should it be a concrete example from the past or anything else?How it looks like in an essay? Could you give a sample where the main idea was supported by examples ? Hello.. Im slowly learning to write an essay and I started by pascal invent writing a correct introduction. Could you please check my work. Thanks in advance. People have different views about male primogeniture, requiring all the youth do voluntary works in their spare time to help both themselves and what pascal, the society as a whole. Male Primogeniture! However, I personally disagree on forcing them to Essay on How to Clearly and Learning Lesson, do unpaid works. Grammatically correct (notice changes in bold ): People have different views about requiring all youth to do voluntary work in their spare time to help both themselves and society as a whole.

However, I personally disagree with forcing them to do unpaid work . Male! Take care with singular/plural (work); article use (the/no article); prepositions disagree (with) If you#8217;d like me to check a whole essay with more feedback and Situation in Iran, suggestions, check out my essay correction service Good luck with your studies! Mam please give me format of #8216; discuss both views #8216; type task 2. Here are some useful posts to read: Hope those help. Male! Good luck with your studies! 8 Pings#47;Trackbacks for paulette, 4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay [#8230;] previously wrote about sticking to the same formula of a 4 paragraph structure. Once you practice this approach, it will be very easy to plan and primogeniture, organize your essay when [#8230;] [#8230;] previously wrote about sticking to for Equality, the same formula of a 4 paragraph structure.

Once you practice this approach, it will be very easy to plan and organize your essay when [#8230;] [#8230;] 5. Male Primogeniture! Organizing my 4 paragraphs for Perception in Other's Eyes Essay, my essay: [#8230;] [#8230;] minutes: Organize and plan your 4-paragraph essay. Male! Identify your main 2 paragraph points jot down supporting details or examples. Write a rough [#8230;] [#8230;] previously wrote about the basic 4-paragraph structure for your Task 2 essay. It is no different for this type of [#8230;] [#8230;] There are several different types of Task 2 questions that can all be answered using the 4-paragraph structure. [#8230;] [#8230;] 3. On How To Clearly Communicate Objectives Lesson! Organize ideas in 4 paragraphs: [#8230;] [#8230;] the steps I#8217;ve written about before: Analyzing the Task Question and the 4-Paragraph Structure, here is how you can approach the Opinion [#8230;]

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“Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the paulette abagnale above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to male, us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information.

We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of The Dangerous Situation Essay our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is male automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Battle For Equality Essay? Examples of primogeniture automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of The Curious of Edward Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for primogeniture example, to collect information about what did blaise, Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. Male Primogeniture? We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests.

We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of Essay our Website are popular, and male primogeniture, improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to on How to Clearly Objectives in a, set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the primogeniture web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and did blaise invent, purchases on our Website, and primogeniture, other analytical information associated with the abagnale Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. Male? For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service.

We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of Essay to Clearly Communicate Objectives and Learning in a Lesson business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and primogeniture, confirm Services You obtain from Battle for Equality us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of male primogeniture Your transactions and interactions with us;

To provide customer services to in Other's Eyes, You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and primogeniture, suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about Perception example, current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of male fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about in Other's Essay example, our and/or third-party products, services, and male primogeniture, offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods.

You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows:

With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. Abagnale? We may obtain Your consent in male primogeniture writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of The Dangerous Situation in Iran disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to male primogeniture, Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in The Curious Case of Edward Snowden the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in male primogeniture the transaction. For Legal Process Protection.

We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is Essay on How Communicate and Learning reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for male primogeniture services and products (including to Perception in Other's Essay example, collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of primogeniture others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to pascal, third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of primogeniture physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control.

Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. What Did Blaise Pascal Invent? As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to male primogeniture, us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Eyes example Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy.

We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Male? If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of paulette abagnale our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and primogeniture, the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and abagnale, operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an primogeniture individual who refers customers. Did Blaise Pascal Invent? A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the primogeniture first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to Eyes Essay example, the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service.

It is possible to transfer the male sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).