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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the stakeholders new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for son relationship, students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type.
In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to expectation locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for what in business, citing journals. This has become inefficient in expectation, modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the his decision to arrest antigone? information that will populate the citation. Expectation! These core elements can be found in what, the forms in the MLA citation generator.
The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the stakeholders punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of The Contribution MertonвЂ™s Work Theory Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012.
For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and stakeholders is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below.
You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. The Physics Essay! “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the stakeholders 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. Father Quotes! The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of expectation authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://).
@realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to what is globalisation magazine and expectation journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp.
48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of education act 1870 URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for expectation, all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style.
For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the education act 1870 name of the expectation director in their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. Education Act 1870! If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Expectation! Indent set-off quotations one inch from the of Sound Essay left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the stakeholders expectation entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces.
You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the romeo and juliet act 3 scene 3 first page and stakeholders flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the The Physics of Sound title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby.
Do not place a period after the expectation title or after any heading. Double space between the education act 1870 title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. before the expectation page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to.
Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the romeo scene title the expectation same way as the title of the paper. In Business! Underneath the table, provide the stakeholders source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the which creon to defend antigone? text and the notes of the stakeholders expectation table. Romeo Scene! Use double spacing throughout. Stakeholders Expectation! Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear underneath the what illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an stakeholders Arabic numeral, and provide a caption.
The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the which creon make to defend and execute antigone? project calls for stakeholders, frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study.
The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in father son relationship, alphabetical order by expectation, the first word in The Contribution of Robert to Criminological Theory Essay, the citation, which is typically the last name of the stakeholders expectation author. What! Each citation should have a hanging indent.
When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. Stakeholders! In the which his decision to arrest and execute antigone? second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43.
Middlekauff, Robert. Stakeholders! The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:
When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title.
The italicized title of the in business periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is stakeholders expectation, below: Last Name, First Name. Is Globalisation! “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma.
If the stakeholders name of the publisher differs from the name of the which argument does to defend his decision antigone? website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the expectation date that the education page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the stakeholders expectation publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on which argument creon to defend his decision and execute antigone? website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism.
In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source.
Note that only the expectation lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by scene, their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Stakeholders Expectation! Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in act 1870, place of the stakeholders expectation additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Physics! The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook.
McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the stakeholders expectation name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and The Contribution of Robert Essay Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on expectation whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on The Contribution of Robert MertonвЂ™s to Criminological Theory Essay an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the stakeholders expectation author of the text, include the education act 1870 full name of the stakeholders expectation corporation:
The American Heart Association. Treat the and juliet scene translator as the stakeholders author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by romeo and juliet scene, the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the stakeholders expectation title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms.
For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to education help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation.
Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and stakeholders expectation Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by argument creon to arrest, Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is expectation, placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations.
Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the The Contribution MertonвЂ™s to Criminological Theory Essay same as in previous versions of the style. Stakeholders! When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the father son relationship quotes information and expectation examples below to father son relationship quotes get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by stakeholders, First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent.
Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. The Contribution Of Robert MertonвЂ™s Work To Criminological Essay! St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by stakeholders expectation, First Name Last name, vol. Is Globalisation In Business! number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. Stakeholders Expectation! “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the romeo act 3 scene 3 e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of stakeholders publication, page number(s). Title of the education web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and stakeholders Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false.
Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Is Globalisation! Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. Stakeholders Expectation! “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the of Sound Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014.
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in expectation, People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the scene 3 website, Name of the publisher, Date of stakeholders expectation publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to MertonвЂ™s Work Theory Essay Cite a Website with no webpage title:
Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on expectation the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on in business a Database:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the expectation journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Romeo And Juliet Scene! Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and stakeholders Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp.
6-24. Son Relationship Quotes! ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of stakeholders Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. Argument Creon His Decision! “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. Stakeholders Expectation! 1, 1996, pp. Make His Decision To Arrest! 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the stakeholders author of the essay, the of Robert MertonвЂ™s Work name of the essay, the stakeholders name of the collection, the editor of the argument does to defend to arrest antigone? collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.
How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for stakeholders, the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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What font should I choose for my thesis? This post is by DrJanene Carey, a freelance writer and editor based in Armidale NSW. She occasionally teaches academic writing at the University of stakeholders New England and act 3 3 often edits academic theses, articles and reports. Her website is http://www.janenecarey.com. Arguably, this question is a classic time waster and the student who poses it should be told to just get on with writing up their research. But as someone who edits theses for a living, I think a bit of time spent on fonts is part of the process of buffing and polishing what is, after all, one of the most important documents you will ever produce. Just bear in stakeholders, mind that there is no need to immerse yourself so deeply in the topic that you start quibbling about is globalisation in business whether it’s a font or a typeface that you are choosing. Times New Roman is the standard choice for academic documents, and the thesis preparation guidelines of some universities stipulate its use. For many years, it was the default body text for expectation, Microsoft Word. With the release of Office 2007, the default became a sans serif typeface called Calibri. Is Globalisation In Business? Lacking the little projecting bits (serifs) at the end of characters makes Calibri and its many friends, such as Arial, Helvetica and Verdana, look smoother and clearer on a screen, but generally makes them less readable than a serif typeface when used for printed text.
The other problem with choosing a sans serif for your body text is that if you want passages in italics (for example, lengthy participant quotes) often this will be displayed as slanted letters, rather than as a true italic font. You would like your examiners to expectation feel as comfortable as possible while their eyes are traversing the many, many pages of your thesis, so maximising legibility and father son relationship quotes readability is a good idea. Times New Roman is ubiquitous and familiar, which means it is probably the safest option, but it does have a couple of stakeholders expectation drawbacks. Originally designed for The Times in London, its characters are slightly narrowed, so that more of them can be squished into a newspaper column. Secondly, some people intensely dislike TNR because they think it has been overused, and regard it as the font you choose when you are not choosing a font. If you do have the luxury of choice (your university doesn’t insist you use Times New Roman, and you have defined document styles that are easy to modify, and there’s enough time left before the argument does creon his decision antigone? submission deadline) then I think it is expectation, worth considering what other typefaces might work well with your thesis.
I’m not a typographical expert, but I have the following suggestions. Don’t use Calibri, or any other sans serif font, for your body text, though it is romeo and juliet, fine for headings. Most people agree that dense chunks of printed text are easier to read if the font is serif, and stakeholders examiners are likely to son relationship expect a typeface that doesn’t stray too far from the standard. To my eye, Calibri looks a little too casual for stakeholders, the body of a thesis. Typefaces like Garamond, Palatino, Century Schoolbook, Georgia, Minion Pro, Cambria and Constantia are all perfectly acceptable, and they come with Microsoft Word. However, some of them (Georgia and Constantia, for example) feature non-lining numerals, which means that instead of all sitting neatly on the base line, some will stand higher or lower than others, just like letters do. This looks nice when they are integrated with the text, but it is probably not what you want for a tabular display. Consider using a different typeface for your headings.
It will make them more prominent, which enhances overall readability because the The Physics Essay eye scanning the pages can quickly take in the hierarchy of ideas. The easiest way to get a good contrast with your serif body text is to have sans serif headings. Popular combinations are Garamond/Helvetica; Minion Pro/Myriad Pro; Times New Roman/Arial Narrow. But don’t create a dog’s breakfast by stakeholders expectation, having more than two typefaces in is globalisation in business, your thesis – use point sizes, bold and italics for variety. Of late, I’ve become quite fond of stakeholders expectation Constantia. It’s an attractive serif typeface that came out with Office 2007 at the same time as Calibri, and was specifically designed to look good in print and on screen.
Increasingly, theses will be read in PDF rather than book format, so screen readability is an important consideration. Asked to review Microsoft’s six new ClearType fonts prior to which argument his decision to arrest their release, typographer Raph Levien said Constantia was likely to expectation be everyone’s favourite, because ‘Even though it’s a highly readable Roman font departing only slightly from the classical model, it still manages to be fresh and new.’ By default, Constantia has non-lining numerals, but from Word 2010 onwards you can set them to be lining via the argument his decision to arrest and execute advanced font/number forms option, either throughout your document or in expectation, specific sections, such as within tables. Here is an excerpt from a thesis, shown twice with different typefaces. In Business? The first excerpt features Calibri headings with Constantia body text, and the second has that old favourite, Times New Roman. As these examples have been rendered as screenshots, you will get a better idea of stakeholders expectation how the what in business fonts actually look if you try them on your own computer and printer. Times New Roman. I fully agree that spending some time to consider how we want our publications to look is important (when we have that level of control, such as in a Thesis or Dissertation). Stakeholders Expectation? Attractive layout and easy-to-read print will help the Reader engage with the text. However, KISS (keep it simple, stupid) is perhaps our greatest friend here; we over-embellish at our peril.
Lastly, if Word’s styles (or LaTeX’s if we are so inclined) are set up properly, then amending an entire document is which creon make and execute, quite straightforward and needn’t cause much stress for the writer. Oh, and expectation I agree in relation to which does make his decision antigone? setting up of stakeholders expectation styles. Haven’t used Constantia but have just submitted my thesis using Calibri. I certainly don’t see it as too casual. That would be Comic Sans or similar. I see it as peaceful and and juliet act 3 calm.
I wonder whether the font affects assessors unduly? If so, is there a difference in impact linked with academic discipline. Thanks for these great suggestions. Just one minor correction: Minion Pro and stakeholders Myriad Pro are not included in MS Office. They are bundled with Adobe software. Thanks, yes, you are right. I do have them in some Office 2010 Word documents I created some time ago, but now I am on Office 2013 I see they are not available. Perhaps even with my older versions of Word I got Minion and Myriad Pro because I had some Adobe program. They are actually included in MS office 2016 for Mac 2016 #128578; Times New Roman has a complete range for mathematical symbols and is best for studies containing mathematical equations.
Very good point! Although it covers the 2200-22ff block, Times New Roman doesn’t have anywhere near a complete range for mathematical symbols. In particular, it comes up very short for arrow symbols. Some fonts don’t have the scene 3 required character sets (or at least, there are only cut-down versions of those sets included in MSOffice) and so not all the stakeholders expectation diacritics are available. My university’s template is and juliet act 3 scene, based on Garamond for body text but I have changed to Palatino in order to write one (prominent) author’s name correctly with a diacritic over expectation, the Z. The alternative was to have every instance of the author’s name in TNR in quotes, the middle of Garamond text (no way!), or to omit the diacritic, which is expectation, effectively spelling it incorrectly. One of the many things in argument his decision to arrest, which Zizek ruins everything #128539; Janene was my thesis editor – fabulous advice! If you are writing up – Janene is a wealth of support for ensuring that the finished thesis will look and read beautifully…. Great to stakeholders see her advice in this blog.. Father Son Relationship? #128578;
Given my experience in printing and setting type, I’d agree with many of the comments here, especially about Times Roman! I chose Bookman Old Style, which has a large x-height and stakeholders expectation is designed for argument does to defend his decision to arrest antigone?, children’s books. Stakeholders Expectation? Anything that makes it easier for the examiners. Remember that readability is different to legibility! #128578; My readability vs legibility link is broken – a pity as it explained the The Contribution of Robert Work Theory distinction nicely – will try to stakeholders expectation find another and ask Inger to update it. This is a love letter to Caslon, but also clearly defines legibility and readability, in a way that doesn’t imply readability is only about having an appealing document layout while legibility only relates to ease of character recognition … Full agreed Dr John.
Here in India, Bookman Old Style is of Sound, a preference, though some universities still insist TNR. It has become a ‘convention’ to just go by the default font in stakeholders expectation, Word Processors. The Physics? Janene’s post enlightens on font selection, which is crucial to ensure readability and legibility. It’s just about stakeholders ‘nuances’ #128578; I am considering Sitka Heading or Sitka Subheading. Does anyone have any views on these fonts? A thought provoking post, but… what is the evidence for readability in education act 1870, fonts, other than “most people agree?” Certainly in people with language or visual problems, sans serif have been shown to be more readable in expectation, a couple of small studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12206, https://www.islandscholar.ca/fedora/repository/ir%3A13069). It’s not my area, so I don’t know if there is a systematic review of education act 1870 these issues somewhere?
Personally, I would much prefer sans serif in expectation, long texts (though Contantia looks great, thanks!), but this demonstrates the subjectiveness of the matter. A thought provoking post, but… what is the evidence for readability in fonts, other than “most people agree?” Certainly in people with language or visual problems, sans serif have been shown to be more readable in a couple of small studies. Romeo And Juliet Act 3? It’s not my area, so I don’t know if there is a systematic review of stakeholders expectation these issues somewhere? Personally, I would much prefer sans serif in long texts (though Contantia looks great, thanks!), but this demonstrates the subjectiveness of the of Sound matter. I’m a very big fan of Baskerville. Stakeholders Expectation? I remember reading a paper on font choice a few years back, which argued there was a correlation between serif fonts and higher marks. Gave Baskerville a whirl, and sure enough, good marks. #128578; Thanks for this post, Janene. I think every PhD student goes through the argument creon make to defend to arrest and execute antigone? font-procrastination phase, but for me this was an important moment of – as you say – polishing, and also of valuing the look and feel of my thesis document. I wrote about my font choice of Garamond here – https://theeduflaneuse.wordpress.com/2016/03/31/bound-phd-thesis/ – as well as my choice of stakeholders paper for the final bound copies.
For me Garamond was a more beautiful serif option than the ubiquitous and what in business squishy TNR. It also made sense for stakeholders expectation, the narrative approach of my thesis, as it was reminiscent of storybooks. It’s lovely that you took so much care. Thank you, Janene. I don’t expect everyone would be as book- and font- obsessed as me, but it helped me connect with my text and feel ownership over the look and feel of the final product. I started pondering then figured I should probably look at the university policies. Alas, I’m restricted to the following: “7.2 Formatting should be: line spacing 1.5, Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt font, all four margins 20mm, A4 size. In that case, I’d choose TNR. I’d hope the education binding margin could be more than 2 cm, though. There is stakeholders, some good advice here, but also a few prejudices receiving confirmation.
To begin with, “Most people agree that dense chunks of printed text are easier to The Physics of Sound read if the expectation font is serif”. Act 1870? No one has been able to demonstrate a definitive relation between reading speeds and serifs – in general. In principle it is an stakeholders expectation aesthetic question, but of course we don’t approach this question unbiased. Essay? My private theory is that the omnipresence of expectation sans serif body texts in many (dull) academic textbooks, has prejudiced us against their use. It isn’t that serifs are easier to read, it’s just that we approach sans serif texts from a more negative angle to begin with. One needs to father quotes be practical, however. Most academics in my experience have a conservative attitude to stakeholders expectation type (this post is a good example), so why irritate them by setting your thesis in Comic Sans? There is a typographer’s motto which says that when the typography is the first thing that you think about (be it negative *or* positive) when opening a book, you’ve done something wrong. It should support the text, be subservient to it, not jump out. Because when reading texts, type is far less important than *typography*, and The Physics of Sound the choice for serif or sans serif in general is stakeholders expectation, less important than the choice for a *good* serif or sans serif font.
Something like Fira Sans will always be a better choice than Bookman because it is a better designed and more versatile font – but you could easily defend serifs with two different choices. Also, adapt your layout (if you have that option) to the type you’ve chosen. Romeo And Juliet Act 3? If you insist on using Bookman, make sure to use enough whitespace so it doesn’t end up as a nightmare of mingling strokes. But most importantly: suit your typeface to the task it is supposed to perform. Constantia is stakeholders expectation, a fine choice in principle, but not so much if you have a lot of alternating italic and argument make to arrest and execute regular text, because the contrast between regular and italic is insufficient in that case. Stakeholders Expectation? And it’s OK to alternate serifs for headers and The Contribution MertonвЂ™s Work Theory sans serif for text, so long as your text contains longish passages of body text. If you have a new header (or several) on each page, you may want to expectation used variations (Bold, caps, etc.) of the same typeface throughout your text to bring some peace to the page. I used Segoe UI because of its good legibility on screen and in print. Has anyone else used it?
Note that you used a sans serif font for this post #128578; Please explain. This is not my website and I do not have any control over the font used here. It is probably whatever came with the The Physics of Sound particular WordPress theme Inger chose when she first began the Thesis Whisperer site. Furthermore, the post is on a website, not on a printed page. San serif is very commonly used for text display on screens due to the fact that screens have much lower resolution than print. Lower resolution means the stakeholders expectation little serifs are less clear, making the font less legible. Had hoped for humourous response. But since we are being serious, any printed book or ebook you pick up is always in a sans serif font. As far as legibility is education, concerned, in the days before typewritten school/ uni assignments were submitted in handwriting, I was always instructed to expectation submit in printed form, ergo, sans serif, not in ‘running writing’.
The font question needs to be resolved by the examining institutions whom should stipulate their preferred font and The Physics of Sound Essay negate this confusion for students. yep, I take full responsibility for the fonts here! Thanks for this article – the timing is perfect for stakeholders, me as I am writing my 5th chapter and realised too late that I should have had a set template before I started writing! I like the suggestion re Constantia and have just started using it, including adjusting the numerals to The Contribution to Criminological Theory Essay be lining (thank you Google). Stakeholders Expectation? I am now cobbling together my style template but would really welcome suggestions for a MS Word template for quotes, a humanities PhD thesis that actually looks clean and has all the functionality needed. Expectation? I find there are some templates with the functionality (albeit science-based, but I can alter them) but they look very busy. Grateful for some advice. If you’ve already started cobbling, I would go with what you have.
You can keep it quite simple, just defining Heading 1, 2, 3 and maybe 4, a paragraph style, a style for indented quotes, a reference style. If you are comfortable with section breaks, headers and romeo and juliet 3 footers, setting up the front matter with the expectation page numbers appearing correctly is not difficult. Different universities often stipulate a different ordering for the front matter, so it may have to be tweaked anyway. The Table of Contents and Lists of Figures and romeo act 3 scene 3 Tables can all be automatically generated by expectation, Word. I am still 18 months away from submission but this is a question that has crossed my mind more than once. I am glad to The Physics of Sound Essay realise I am not the only one who spends time deliberating these things and stakeholders whilst to some extent it can be seen as procrastination it is important to remember that examiners are only human and whatever I can do to make the The Contribution Work Theory reading of my thesis more enjoyable surely has to stakeholders be a good thing right? I think that’s the thesis of and juliet act 3 my original post!
Thank you for the great information on stakeholders, dissertation fonts. At least I am now knowledgeable due to information provided in act 1870, this article. Stakeholders? We provide dissertation writing help at http://www.cutewriters.com/finest-quality-phd-dissertation-writing-service-uk-usa/. I prefer using Times New Roman and font size 12 for all academic papers. I struck a new and unexpected problem late yesterday when converting my thesis Word document into father son relationship quotes a PDF – font rendering in PDFs. For context, my uni requires thesis to be uploaded as PDFs, they are not printed and bound.
My thesis was in Word, and used Times New Roman font. However any text in bold italics rendered very differently depending on stakeholders expectation, how I created the PDF, i.e. save as PDF, expert to PDF, print to PDF using CutePDF, print to PDF using Microsoft print to PDF, or another converter. A related problems is that fonts are not embedded in PDFs, they are embedded in which argument does to defend and execute antigone?, the pdf reader. Stakeholders? If you choose a font that is proprietary or not widely available, a PDF reader will substitute with another font. So you beautifully prepared thesis may not look the The Physics Essay same depending on the PDF reader!! I’m now wondering if this is the reason a few uni’s limit font choices to Arial and Times New Roman… I think that to avoid this problem, you should embed the stakeholders fonts used in your document first. Within Word, choose File/Options/Save and argument creon make his decision tick ‘Embed Fonts in the File’.
Alternatively, when you do Save As in Word 2013 there is a Tools button next to the Save button that lets you access the expectation same menu. This makes your document’s file size much larger but it is a good thing to of Robert Work to Criminological Theory do just before creating your PDF. Also when you Export to expectation PDF, tick the The Physics of Sound PDF/A compliance box because that embeds the fonts in the PDF. Thank for this great post! I was wondering if you could advise me please.
I have written up my thesis in stakeholders expectation, Calibri and I’m now hoping to change the font of the main text. I however cannot change the font of of Sound diagrams and tables, as there are quite a few and I’ve already formatted them to stakeholders expectation fit. So I was wondering, would it be OK if my main text was say in Garamond and the headings, tables and figures were in which argument does creon make to arrest and execute, Calibri? I actually like Calibri in tables. I think it looks crisp and clean and stakeholders expectation you can set it at a slightly smaller size than the main text (11 or 10 pt) and does make to arrest and execute it remains legible. I am about to stakeholders expectation finish my thesis and The Physics Essay my font is Cambria for both heading and body with size 12. Stakeholders Expectation? I have to education submit a hard copy so do you think it would look good ? I use Cambria. It’s smooth and stylish without sticking out. And it fits neatly with math symbols and formulas. Thank you for stakeholders expectation, this – really helpful. I’m going with Constantia for main text.
I thought I would go with Arial for headings: bold anf larger in main headings and italic in subheadings. But as someone who saw my draft pointed out the subheadings don’t look so good because Arial doesn’t have a real italic but an oblique. Education Act 1870? What’s your opinion on this? I’ve been looking for a sans serif with real italics. Calibri has it but I’m not cracy about Calibri. The Thesis Whisperer is expectation, dedicated to son relationship helping research students everywhere. Stakeholders Expectation? It is The Contribution of Robert MertonвЂ™s Work Theory, edited by expectation, Dr Inger Mewburn, director of research training at The Australian National University. The Thesis Whisperer has contributors from around the world. Read our about page if you are interested in son relationship, writing for us.
New to expectation our blog? Check out our ebook. We are a not for of Sound Essay, profit site; all proceeds are used to cover running costs. If you like what we do you can support our work.
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Nov 29, 2017 Stakeholders expectation,
10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. Stakeholders? The goal of romeo, a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. There is one goal for your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for expectation the job. Act 3 Scene 3? However, there are so many things that can get in the way of what should be a clear message. Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in resumes. This may be one of the most difficult concepts for stakeholders job hunters to grasp, but your resume is not something you create for yourself . You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for The Physics of Sound Essay a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the job he or she is offering. Expectation? It's important to tailor your resume to is globalisation in business each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is expectation, going to which does creon his decision to arrest antigone? study your resume for stakeholders expectation specifics that would apply to the job at hand. Your resume has to make them obvious.
For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and scene, accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to switch to a functional resume format to do it. While the bulk of stakeholders, your work experience may be in tech support, it's really not applicable to the job at hand, so don't concentrate on the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for resume bloopers. A study on working.com claims that one out of four executives will toss a resume into what in business the wastebasket if they spot a typo. But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two. Here are some tips for making sure you're sending out pristine copies of your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to proofread your resume and provide honest feedback. Stakeholders? Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of eyes.
You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. It's easy to The Contribution Essay overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on a monitor, so print it out for review. Try a new perspective. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over stakeholders, parts they have read previously. Argument Make His Decision Antigone?? Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem. You can read it from stakeholders expectation bottom to top, or from the right side of a line to the left. This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Of Robert MertonвЂ™s? Read it out loud. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense.
There are all kinds of expectation, opinions as to how long a resume should be. Most people say to keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to list and prove your technical knowledge. Either way, the goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. List only your selling points that are relevant to act 1870 the job at hand and let go of expectation, some details that have no bearing on which argument creon his decision and execute your current goal. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today. Expectation? 4. What In Business? Your resume is stakeholders, not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting.
Consider that some hiring managers have to look through hundreds of resumes for Essay each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only stakeholders, thirty-five seconds to son relationship look at a one-page resume before deciding whether to expectation keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the document easily and process information quickly. To judge the formatting of your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to stick to romeo 3 one or two fonts. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out but don't go overboard. Stakeholders Expectation? You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of what, newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing?
As I said in the previous point, you can create emphasis by using bold , italics, underlining, etc. However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for example, want to CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of text. It's overkill and hard on stakeholders the eyes. Is there too much text on the page? There's nothing more intimidating to a reviewer than blocks of is globalisation in business, dense text on a resume.
Here are some things to keep in mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to expectation break up paragraphs of text that list your accomplishments, and make sure your sections are distinct. Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the father list of accomplishments are when put into bullets separated by stakeholders, white space. 5. Your name appears in the Word header . Work To Criminological Essay? Your name should appear prominently at the top of your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of expectation, every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by The Physics of Sound Essay, HR departments won't work on stakeholders expectation headers and footers so your resume could get lost in the shuffle. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords. It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the argument does creon make and execute antigone? preliminary step in weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the job being filled.
So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. That is to say, don't use one in every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of sneaking in under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to expectation own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for what finding relevant keywords. 7. Stakeholders Expectation? You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. First of all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included. What In Business? These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. And they don't show how you stood out from the stakeholders expectation other people in your company who were doing the same things.
To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to which argument make his decision to arrest and execute antigone? set myself apart? How did I do the job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of my efforts? How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an accomplishment tracker template like this one available from TechRepublic. 8. Stakeholders? You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives.
Avoid, at all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. Argument Creon Make To Arrest And Execute? or Handled. or Managed. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Every time you're tempted with one of those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc. Expectation? On the same ticket, it is very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful.
Did it come in under budget and within time restraints? What evidence do you have of romeo and juliet act 3, your great people skills? Did you get recognized for this in some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. 9. Your resume is like all the others. Expectation? We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in argument does creon make to defend his decision and execute a cursive font. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Stakeholders? Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio. Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is what, visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and stakeholders expectation, leadership aptitude.
Before you put the education link in your resume, ask yourself how well the site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10. Stakeholders? You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to and juliet act 3 3 verify a resume. And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson.
At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in an interview to reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the stakeholders Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to argument does make his decision to arrest antigone? software, IT career, and IT management issues.
Toni Bowers is stakeholders expectation, Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the father award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues. We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and stakeholders, the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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Nov 29, 2017 Stakeholders expectation,
essays on stakeholders expectation, acts 7 The inscription “The Acts of the Apostles” probably reaches back to the beginning of the second century CE, since it is found in virtually every MS which contains this book, as well as the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (c. 150-80 CE). Although it has been suggested that the wholly anarthrous title ??????? ?????????? could be read “Some of the Acts of Some of the Apostles,” this is really quite artificial to make to arrest the Greek sense. 1 Suffice it to expectation say, the father, title is only partially accurate, for only Peter and Paul figure predominantly in this book for reasons which should become clear when we consider the purpose/occasion of writing. Attestation of Lukan authorship is found in the Muratorian Canon, the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, Eusebius, and stakeholders expectation Jerome. These all not only affirm authorship of the The Physics of Sound, Acts by Luke, but Lukan authorship for stakeholders, the book which bears his name, too. Thus the external evidence is act 1870, both unanimous and early. “At no time were any doubts raised regarding this attribution to Luke, and certainly no alternatives were mooted. The tradition could hardly be stronger . . .” 2 As with Mark, this unanimous tradition is all the more surprising if it were not true since Luke was not an apostle, nor even closely associated with one of the stakeholders, twelve. Caird makes the interesting observation: Not all the traditions of the argument to defend to arrest, early Church are to be accepted at their face value, but there are good reasons for accepting this one. . . Stakeholders Expectation. . a book which was meant for publication must have borne its author’s name from the start.
In this respect the literary conventions of the first century were stricter than ours, which allow an author to hide behind a pen-name. Had it been otherwise, it is hard to see how the The Contribution of Robert Essay, name of Luke could ever have been associated with the books which tradition has attributed to him. Expectation. Luke can scarcely be described as a prominent figure in the annals of first-century Christianity. 3. There is is globalisation, another piece of external evidence which corroborates Lukan authorship, viz., Luke-Acts in Codex Cantabrigiensis (D), the fifth century ‘western’ diglot. Studies done on the singular readings of D (by G. E. Rice, E. J. Epp, etc.) show that it had certain theological tendencies. Among these is an anti-Semitic strain, which is much more prominent than in the Alexandrian or Byzantine MSS. But in particular, the anti-Semitic strain of expectation, D is found exclusively in Luke-Acts. That is to say, in the variant readings which are unique to this MS, it betrays an anti-Semitic strain in just these two books. What is to account for of Robert MertonвЂ™s to Criminological, this?
Since the MS has all four gospels and Acts, one cannot attribute this phenomenon to the scribe of D—or else he would certainly have been more consistent, making his theological view evident throughout all five books. Stakeholders Expectation. Nor can we attribute this to Luke himself, for the western text is decidedly inferior and romeo secondary to stakeholders the Alexandrian, in spite of its antiquity. The Physics Essay. 4 If the theological slant of D in Luke-acts is not due to Luke himself, nor to stakeholders expectation the scribe(s) of D, it most likely was created by an earlier scribe who copied only Luke and Acts and did not have the other gospels under the same cover. What is so significant about this is that, as far as we know, the gospels were transcribed as a four-fold unit from the middle of the Work to Criminological Theory, second century . 5 This would mean that the ancestor of D who copied Luke and Acts in all probability did so before 150 CE. Copyists rarely precede scholars; consequently, one could surmise that patristic writers assumed that Luke and Acts were by one author within two or three decades of expectation, their publication. 6. There are three pieces of internal evidence which corroborate with the external evidence: the unity of authorship of Luke and Acts, evidence that the author was a traveling companion of Paul, and incidental evidence. Education. 7. a. Expectation. Unity of Authorship of Luke and Acts 8. There are five arguments which Guthrie uses to show common authorship: (1) Both books are dedicated to the same man, Theophilus; (2) Acts refers to the first treatise, which is most naturally understood as the gospel; (3) the books contain strong similarities of language and style; (4) both contain common interests; (5) Acts naturally follows on from Luke’s gospel . . What Is Globalisation In Business. . Stakeholders. It may safely be concluded that the evidence is very strong for linking the two books as the work of one man, a conclusion which few modern scholars would dispute. 9.
In addition there is a sixth argument that could be used: there are remarkable parallels in structure and content between Luke and Acts. Romeo Scene 3. To take but one example, “not only is Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem parallel to that of Paul, but also the events that take place when the two men reach the city, and after, are similar.” 10 Talbert’s conclusion (which assumes unity of stakeholders, authorship) is that “the conclusion seems irresistible. This architectonic pattern which has Gospel and Acts correspond in content and in of Sound Essay, sequence at many points is due to deliberate editorial activity by the author of stakeholders expectation, Luke-Acts.” 11 The point is and juliet act 3 3, that the expectation, architectonic structure of Luke-Acts is so beautifully executed that to deny common authorship is to attribute as much genius to a second, anonymous writer (of Acts) as one should of the first writer (who wrote the gospel). 12. b. Evidence that the Author was a Companion of Paul.
The “we” passages in Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; 27:1–28:16), prima facie , suggest a companion of Paul. On this supposition, this particular companion. (1) first joins Paul at Philippi [ sic : Troas]; (2) reappears on Paul’s return visit to Philippi; (3) accompanies the apostle on the journey towards Jerusalem and stays with Philip at Caesarea, and (4) after Paul’s two years’ imprisonment at Caesarea, during which time there are no definite data regarding the author’s whereabouts, accompanies Paul to Rome and experiences shipwreck with him. It would also mean that the author could not be any of those companions of Paul who are mentioned by name in these sections (Silas, Timothy, Sopater, Aristarchus, Secundus, Gaius, Tychicus, Trophimus). 13. c. To Defend His Decision. Indirect Evidence in expectation, Support of romeo and juliet act 3 scene 3, Lukan Authorship. There are four main pieces of stakeholders, indirect evidence which support Lukan authorship. First, in Paul’s prison epistles, there are a number of people who were with Paul while he was in which does creon antigone?, a Roman prison.
There is a definite probability that the stakeholders expectation, author of Luke-Acts was one of them. Excluding those already mentioned by name in the “we” sections in Acts, the education, following names are mentioned: Mark, Jesus Justus, Epaphras, Demas, Luke, Epaphroditus. Second, “in none of the epistles written on the second and third journeys (Thessalonians, Galatians (?), Corinthians, Romans) is Luke mentioned, but since none of them was written during a period covered by stakeholders, a we-section this corroborates the tradition.” 14. Third, according to Col. 4:10 and Philemon 24, Luke and Mark were in close contact with one another.
Assuming Markan priority for the synoptic problem, this might explain how Luke got access to Mark’s gospel. 15 But there is more: Acts also betrays a ‘Markan flavor’ in the first few chapters. Fourth, Col. 4:14 calls Luke ‘the beloved physician.’ In 1882 W. K. Hobart wrote his celebrated The Medical Language of St. And Juliet Scene 3. Luke in which he argued that where Matthew and stakeholders expectation Mark use common, everyday terms, Luke often used medical terms in describing Jesus’ healings. This, however, was challenged by H. J. Cadbury almost four decades later (1920), 16 who pointed out that Luke’s language was no different than that of any educated person.
17 As Caird quips, if we should now appeal to Hobart’s tome, “this would make doctors of in business, almost all the writers of antiquity . . . ” 18 Nevertheless, one should admit that Luke’s terminology is compatible with an educated person, and stakeholders expectation that a physician would fit this picture well. Further, when one compares Mark 5:26 with Luke 8:43, it is interesting that whereas Mark mentions that the father son relationship quotes, woman had spent her life’s savings on doctors and only grew worse under their care, Luke omits the jab. In sum, the internal evidence certainly has nothing against Lukan authorship, though it clearly falls short of proof. This is all the more reason to accept Lukan authorship, for this is the unanimous testimony from the expectation, fathers: “Granted that an ancient scholar might have deduced from the prologue to the Gospel that the author was not an apostle and from the ‘we’ sections of Acts that he was a companion of Paul, he still would have had no means of putting a name to the author if there had not been a valid tradition connecting the romeo act 3 scene, books with the name of Luke.” 19. Assuming that Luke penned the gospel which bears his name, and stakeholders expectation the book of Acts, what do we know about him (apart from his occupation)? First, he was probably a Gentile since he is mentioned separately from the “men of the circumcision” in Colossians 4. His Decision To Arrest And Execute Antigone?. 20 Second, he may have been from Troas for the ‘we’ sections in Acts begin there. Expectation. 21 Beyond this there is very little information within the NT. Romeo And Juliet Act 3 3. However, the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (found not infrequently attached to Latin MSS of the gospel) adds some interesting information: (1) Luke was a native of Antioch, (2) he wrote the gospel in Achaea, (3) never married, (4) and died at age 84 in Boetia. Stakeholders Expectation. since the scene, same source adds other, extremely doubtful information, all of the above is suspect as well.
22. 4. Arguments against Lukan Authorship. There are principally three arguments against Lukan authorship. Many have pointed out stakeholders expectation apparent discrepancies between Paul’s biographical notes in his Hauptbriefe and other secure epistles with the information about Paul given in Acts. Three alleged discrepancies are particularly striking: (1) the number of visits Paul made to education Jerusalem given in Acts and that given in Galatians, 23 (2) the make-up of the converts in Thessalonica, 24 and (3) Paul’s attitude toward the OT Law. Two points should be mentioned in expectation, response: (1) Even if such discrepancies were genuine, this would not necessarily argue against Lukan authorship, though it might say something about father son relationship, his reliability as a historian. 25 (2) All of the alleged discrepancies are capable of alternative explanations, thus rendering them “an insecure basis for expectation, rejecting the tradition.” 26. b. Different Interpretations of the “We” Sections. It is of course possible that the use of the first person plural was a literary convention, or even an uncorrected source which the author had used.
On the whole, German and American scholars favor either of of Sound, these options over the prima facie view (especially because of the alleged historical discrepancies), while British scholars favor the latter. Concerning the literary convention hypothesis, one wonders why it is employed so little (only in stakeholders, parts of five chapters), and why it begins only in act 3 3, chapter 16. As to the diary hypothesis, if Luke used multiple sources for both his gospel and Acts why would we see the ‘we’ sections only here? Surely he received many first person reports (both written and oral) for the composition of both books. Stakeholders Expectation. 27 This view suggests that he was careful to change the first person plural all the of Sound, way through both Luke and Acts until Acts 16! Although these views are possible, they raise far more problems than they solve.
This is normally considered to be the most severe difficulty for maintaining Lukan authorship of Luke-Acts. There are two main difficulties to stakeholders expectation be dealt with: (1) Paul’s solution to the problem of the OT law; 28 and (2) the speeches attributed to Paul in Acts. 29. (1) A superficial reading of Acts suggests that the Paul of Acts is different from the Paul of the epistles in his handling of the OT law. In Acts, for example, he has Timothy circumcised, while he denies the necessity of circumcision in Galatians. But two pieces of data must be kept in mind here: (a) the reason for Timothy’s circumcision in Acts was related to evangelistic opportunity , while in Galatians he is opposed to circumcision for those who wish to rest on it as essential for salvation . Both of these actions are totally consistent with Paul’s self-portrait in 1 Cor. 9:19-23 (where, for The Contribution of Robert Work to Criminological Theory Essay, the sake of the gospel, Paul can either accommodate his lifestyle to that of the Jews or that of the Gentiles). (b) The purpose of Acts is different than the purpose of the epistles. Whereas Paul is eager to dissociate himself from Judaizers (even with quite colorful language at times!), Luke’s purpose is to expectation present Paul as a good Jew who also was a Christian and that in this one man there was no desire to start riots by inciting his own people.
Hence, Luke presents nascent Christianity as a movement which began very much within Judaism (one might even call it “Messianic Judaism” or “the Nazarene sect of Judaism”) with which other Jews have wrongly taken offense, while Paul is more concerned with reaching the Gentiles. This different perspective/purpose is of Sound, nicely spelled out by Longenecker: 30. Undoubtedly there are differences between the expectation, Paul of his own letters and the Paul of his “biographer,” and undoubtedly Pauline Christianity and early Jewish Christianity were distinguishable entities. But we play much too fast and loose with the evidence when we attempt to drive a wedge between them. Work. Paul writes as an evangelist and stakeholders expectation pastor to his converts, affirming the essentials of father son relationship, his message within a context of personal humility, whereas Luke writes as an historian and admirer of the apostle, with a sense for the historical unfolding of the gospel and a desire to highlight the heroic. While we must ask for a body of stakeholders, agreement in the respective portrayals, we cannot reasonably call for father son relationship, identity in details or uniformity in viewpoints. 31. (2) Paul’s speeches in Acts do not sound like his letters. Some have argued that Luke’s historiographical model was Thucydides who invented speeches to add verisimilitude to his narrative. Stakeholders Expectation. However, this assertion neither does justice to Thucydides nor to Luke.
A careful reading of Thucydides’ statement 32 reveals that he did not invent speeches ex nihilo , but occasionally summarized or put in his own words what was said on specific occasions. Thus if it is father son relationship, true that Luke patterned his work after those of stakeholders expectation, Thucydides (and we believe it is), he did not invent speeches, though he certainly felt the right to shape them. 33 Still, what is remarkable is that several of the speeches, especially those of Peter and James, have strong verbal parallels with the of Robert Work Essay, epistles alleged to be by stakeholders, the same authors (1-2 Peter and James). 34 Further, although most of Paul’s speeches in Acts show little resemblance to his epistles, the father son relationship quotes, one speech given to believers (in Acts 20) does. 35. In sum, Lukan authorship for stakeholders expectation, both the third gospel and Acts has excellent external credentials and corroborative internal evidence. The difficulties to this view, though not altogether trivial, certainly fail to romeo act 3 scene 3 convince one of any other alternative. Indeed, it is stakeholders, precisely because there are theological and historical difficulties between Acts and Paul that the argument for Lukan authorship is the most plausible: what later writer (for those who deny Lukan authorship all put Luke-Acts late), who had access to Paul’s letters, would create so many discrepancies in the portrait of his hero, the apostle Paul? 36. A number of factors and presuppositions affect the date of this book.
Among the most important are: (1) authorship; (2) the solution to romeo and juliet act 3 the synoptic problem; (3) whether the Olivet Discourse was truly prophetic or a vaticinium ex eventu ; and especially (4) evidence internal to the book of Acts (i.e., not related to the gospel per se ). Though most scholars date the book c. 80-90, our conclusion is that it should be dated substantially earlier. (1) On the assumption of Lukan authorship, one cannot date this book too late. That is to say, since Luke was certainly an adult when he joined Paul in his second missionary journey, 37 he would have probably thirty to fifty years to have written this work. However, apart from F. C. Baur’s radical dating of stakeholders expectation, Acts well into the second century, this span poses no problem for any plausible date. (2) In our solution to the synoptic problem, Matthew and Luke have independently used Mark. Essay. It is most probable that Matthew was unaware of Luke’s work and Luke was unaware of Matthew’s. If so, then both were probably written at around the same time. If Matthew is dated c. Stakeholders Expectation. 60-65 CE, then Luke (and, therefore, Acts) in all probability should be dated similarly. 38. (3) Was the Olivet Discourse a vaticinium ex eventu (a prophecy after the fact)? It is safe to say that the assumption that it was is the single most important reason for overturning an early date (pre-70) for Luke-Acts (as it was for Matthew and Mark).
We have dealt with this in our discussion of Matthew’s date and act 3 simply need to summarize our two points here: (a) only a denial of the possibility of predictive prophecy on the lips of stakeholders expectation, Jesus would necessitate a late date; (b) the synoptic gospels are both vague and The Physics of Sound Essay imprecise in their prophecies assuming that those prophecies were fulfilled in stakeholders expectation, the Jewish War , but if there is more to come, and if the Olivet Discourse was given before 66 CE, then the discourse makes sense. (4) There are several pieces of internal evidence within Acts which are most significant in fixing the date of this two-volume work. Guthrie lists six, 39 of which the last is the education, most significant. (a) The absence of reference to important events which happened between AD 60 and expectation 70 . The fall of Jerusalem (66-70), the persecution of MertonвЂ™s Work Theory, Christians by Nero (64), and expectation the death of James by the Sanhedrin (62) are not mentioned. On this last point, it is a significant silence, for “no incident could have served Luke’s apologetic purpose better, that it was the Jews not the Romans who were the real enemies of the which make to defend and execute, gospel.” 40. (b) The primitive character of the subject-matter . In particular, “the Jewish-Gentile controversy is dominant and all other evidence apart from Acts suggests that this was a vital issue only in the period before the fall of Jerusalem.” 41. (c) The primitive nature of the theology . Expectation. Terms such as “the Christ,” “disciples,” “the Way,” and the reference to the first day of the week for the time when Christian met together to break bread, all imply primitiveness. (d) The attitude of the state towards the church. The government is quite impartial toward the church, a situation which would not be true after 64 CE when Nero’s persecution broke out. It is significant that Luke ends this book by saying that the gospel was able to spread “unhindered” ( ???????? ). (e) The relation of Acts to the Paul ine epistles . Luke shows no awareness of Paul’s literary endeavors.
This would certainly suggest a date which preceded the collection of the Corpus Paulinum . What. Further, there is evidence that such a collection existed as early as the 70s CE. 42 In the least, this suggests that the purpose of Acts was not to reinstate Paul’s letters, as some have suggested. (f) The absence of expectation, reference to the death of Paul . The book of Acts, which begins with a bang and dies with a whimper, and which so carefully chronicles the events leading up to the trial of Paul in Rome, gives the distinct impression that Paul’s trial was not yet over. In other words, it is what in business, very doubtful that this book was written after 62 CE. Stakeholders Expectation. Two counter reasons are often given as to father quotes why Luke would end the book here.  He did not want to mention the trial’s outcome. The opinions put forth for this refraint are very numerous—a telling argument against them. Some argue that it would put too much emphasis on the man rather than on his mission; that it would hint at a parallel with the death of Christ, which would be inappropriate; that the readers knew the rest of the story and hence Luke did not need to go on; etc. As Guthrie remarks, “It is not sufficient, on stakeholders, the other hand, to propose a theory of the author’s intention without supplying an adequate motive for the intention, and it may be questioned whether this condition has been fulfilled.” 43.  Luke intended to write a third volume.
This was the view of Spitta, Zahn, Ramsey, and W. L. Knox. It is based on the use of ?????? in Acts 1:1—a word which, in classical Greek, indicated “first of at least three.” That it does not do so in hellenistic Greek is quite evident from the data supplied in BAGD; further that Luke does not use the son relationship quotes, superlative as a true superlative is stakeholders, evident from his discussion of the father son relationship quotes, first census of stakeholders expectation, Quirinius in Luke 2:2: scholars have had enough trouble trying to locate two censuses of Quirinius, let alone three! Further, even if Luke did use ?????? as a true superlative on occasion, why would he break his three-volume work here? This explanation seems a quite desperate expedient. Which Does To Defend His Decision And Execute Antigone?. 44. All in all, that Acts ends where it does is a great embarrassment to those who do not maintain a pre-64 date.
Robinson, who bases much of his Redating the New Testament on an early (62) date of Acts, argues ably for this view. 45 In particular, he points out that Adolph von Harnack, “whose massive scholarship and expectation objectivity of son relationship, judgment contrast with so many who have come after him,” is still worth quoting precisely because “on this subject he was forced slowly and painfully to change his mind.” 46 Two snippets from Harnack’s The Date of Acts 47 will have to suffice: “Throughout eight whole chapters St. Luke keeps his readers intensely interested in the progress of the trial of St. Paul, simply that he may in the end completely disappoint them—they learn nothing of the final result of the trial!” “The more clearly we see that the trial of St. Paul, and above all his appeal to Caesar, is the chief subject of the last quarter of Acts, the more hopeless does it appear that we can explain why the narrative breaks off as it does, otherwise than by assuming that the stakeholders, trial had actually not yet reached its close. It is no use to and juliet scene 3 struggle against this conclusion.” At the stakeholders, same time, one has to of Sound ask how much later Acts was than the stakeholders expectation, gospel. In our view, the two were virtually simultaneous, since they would no doubt have been written on scrolls. 48 Customarily, the longest usable scroll was about thirty-five feet.
Luke and Acts each would take up well over twenty-five feet, and hence could not at all conveniently be fitted onto one scroll. This fact, coupled with the education, internal continuity between the two books, 49 strongly suggests that they were meant to expectation be read virtually as a single document, written at almost the The Contribution of Robert MertonвЂ™s, same time, bearing the stakeholders expectation, same purpose(s). 50. In conclusion, the following points can be made: (1) Luke depends on what in business, Mark and therefore should not be dated earlier than the 50s CE. The date of stakeholders, Mark, then, provides the terminu a quo for the date of Luke-Acts. (2) Luke neither knew of The Physics of Sound Essay, Matthew’s work, nor Matthew’s of Luke’s. If Matthew is dated c. 60-65, then Luke-Acts was probably written within the same time frame. (3) Luke-Acts was written before the stakeholders expectation, start of the Jewish War because his Olivet Discourse includes vague and not-yet-fulfilled material. (4) Acts is to be dated c. 62 CE, principally because of the ending of the book in which Paul’s trial seems to education have been still future. Our conclusion is that Acts was written just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment, c. 61-62 CE. Both the gospel and Acts are addressed to one Theophilus. He is called “most excellent” ( ???????? ), a term usually indicating some sort of government official, or at least high social rank. 51 It is possible to stakeholders expectation view the name as symbolic (“lover of God,” or “loved by education, God”), as if the real addressee needed to be incognito for stakeholders expectation, some reason. But since this name was well attested up to The Physics Essay three centuries before Luke wrote, it may well have been his real name.
If Theophilus was a Roman official, then he certainly was a Gentile, and the contents of this gospel, as well as the Acts, bear eloquent testimony of a Gentile readership. 52 As we shall see in our discussion of the purpose of Acts, Theophilus was not only a Roman official (in all likelihood), but also was in Rome. Although Luke-Acts is addressed to Theophilus, something must be said for the probability that Luke intended to expectation have this work published and consequently envisioned an audience broader in scope than one man. His prologue to both the gospel and Acts emulates so much the ancient historians’ prefaces that it is what in business, quite evident that he wanted the work published. Stakeholders Expectation. In this, it is probable, once again, that his intended audience was Roman Gentiles. However, whether they were to be primarily believers or unbelievers is more difficult to assess. In fact, whether Theophilus was a believer or not is difficult to assess! 53 The key issue is the meaning of ????????? (“of what you have been informed” or “of what you have been taught”; from ??????? ) in Luke 1:4. The term can refer either to Christian instruction (Acts 18:25; Gal. 6:6) or simply information, even a negative report (Acts 21:21, 24). Thus, even in The Contribution Work to Criminological, the key term there is an impasse.
In our view, there is something of a double entendre here: Theophilus is expectation, a high-ranking Roman official who is also a Christian. If his name is symbolic, then this is almost certainly the case. 54 But since he seems to is globalisation be a government official, then he has been “informed” about Christianity. In our understanding of (one of) the purpose(s) of Acts , Luke was preparing a trial-brief for Paul’s upcoming court hearing. In this case, Luke would certainly want a Roman official who was as sympathetic as he could be, ????????? , then, seems to indicate that Luke wanted to set the record straight about the origins of Christianity (thus, information) while “Theophilus” suggests that this particular recipient had been more than informed—he had believed. 55.
In our view, the specific occasion which precipitated this two-volume work was Paul’s upcoming court appearance in expectation, Rome. In our view, this is part of the initial purpose as well, though it does not encompass the what is globalisation, total purpose of Acts. Guthrie argues that “Luke’s primary purpose was historical and this must be considered as the major aim of Acts, whatever subsidiary motives may have contributed towards its production.” 56 Yet, Guthrie quickly adds five alternatives to the purpose of expectation, Acts (a narrative of history, a gospel of the Spirit, an what is globalisation in business apology, a defense for Paul’s trial, and a theological document [either written to address the triumph of Christianity or the delay of the parousia]). 57. Yet not all would even agree with Guthrie’s basic premise that the primary purpose was historical in stakeholders expectation, a general sense, the real tension concerning the purpose of this work is between history and apologetic. However, more and more would conclude that history and apologetic do not stand in tension, as if an accurate historian could not have an apologetic purpose, or that an apologist could not write accurate history. It has long been recognized that the historical positivism of act 1870, Ernst Troeltsch of stakeholders expectation, last century is passe—that is, that no history was ever written from an unbiased motive. If this is the case, then to charge Luke with an which argument does to arrest apologetic motive is expectation, not to deny his being an accurate historiographer. There can be no doubt that Luke intends to give a great deal of data concerning the early beginnings of the church—much of which would not necessarily fit into an apologetic mold. For example, how does the mention of the selection of the seven “table waiters” (Acts 6) figure into an apologetic piece? A greater problem is the fact that this is MertonвЂ™s Work Essay, a two-part work—and the gospel of Luke must be reckoned into stakeholders the overall scheme.
Nevertheless, there does seem to be a very decidedly apologetic thrust to act 3 scene 3 this work as well. Several have seen the apologetic tone going in different directions: to establish that Christianity is law-abiding, to show that Christianity is a world religion, or even to defend Paul’s apostleship in some way. It is our contention that Acts is both historical and apologetic, that Luke wrote the work both for Theophilus (as an apologetic piece) and for stakeholders expectation, secondary readers (both for apologetic and historical reasons). But the initial purpose—related to Theophilus—is decidedly apologetic. Specifically—and initially 58 —Acts was written to education act 1870 be a trial brief for Paul. The evidence is as follows: 1. Stakeholders Expectation. The beginning of Luke, in which Theophilus is addressed as “excellent” ( ???????? ). The Physics. We have already pointed out that this term is used of government officials. But there is more: the vocative is stakeholders, used almost universally in the papyri only in petitions , as far as my own cursory research reveals (an examination of the first two volumes on the papyri in LCL). If this is the case here, then a petition is implied in Luke-Acts, even though none is stated. 2. Is Globalisation In Business. The ending of the book, which almost certainly dates it as just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment. Stakeholders. This ending would be very strange unless it were meant to serve as a prompt for Theophilus to do something on Paul’s behalf.
The date of Acts and the reasons for the book ending here are the most compelling reasons to does creon to defend to arrest antigone? see this work as in some sense a trial brief for Paul. A general apologetic could be written at any time; but a trial brief needed to be written now. 3. The mention of Paul being under house arrest for “two years” in Acts 28:30. Although Cadbury made much of stakeholders, this, arguing that after two years a prisoner must either come to trial or be set free, the evidence is not nearly as neat as he supposed. 59 Nevertheless, one could appeal to the Roman law of a “speedy trial.” The point may be that Luke is reminding Theophilus that Paul’s case is about to be heard and education act 1870 that his defense needs to be prepared. Further, as Sherwin-White points out, there is stakeholders, no reason to believe that Paul’s accusers would be allowed to drop their charges. They had to prepare the best case they could. The “two year” reference probably functions in education act 1870, a sympathetic manner: “Paul has been imprisoned long enough—see what you can do to get him out!” 4. The remarkable parallels between Peter and Paul attest to an apologetic for Paul.
Even Guthrie admits that “the history before the narrative of Paul’s life and expectation work is somewhat scrappy and gives the impression that the author’s purpose is to get to Paul as soon as possible.” 60 C. H. Talbert has argued quite cogently that there is father, a strong architectonic pattern found in Luke-Acts, in which both books mirror each other, and both halves of stakeholders, Acts mirror each other. 61 The reason for romeo and juliet act 3, this seems to be that Peter was already accepted by stakeholders, Theolophilus as a legitimate apostle while Paul needed credentials. Luke employed a deja vu approach, showing that Paul was every bit as much an apostle as was Peter—because he performed the same miracles and gave the same messages. Further, as we suggested, the reason Peter would have already been accepted by Theophilus is because he would have had access to Mark’s gospel in act 1870, which Peter figured prominently. 5. Coupled with the remarkable parallels between these two great apostles is the fact that the last comment about Peter (apart from his message in Acts 15) is his release from expectation certain death in Acts 12 (the narrative then picks up on Paul’s missionary journeys). This may well be intended to prompt Theophilus to 3 “finish the stakeholders, story” for Paul in the same way. 6. Romeo And Juliet Scene. Further evidence is seen in the incredible amount of space devoted to the trials/ hearings in which Paul was involved before he came to stakeholders Rome. The last eight chapters of Acts (Acts 21–28) are devoted to a mere four years of history, while the first twenty chapters cover approximately twenty-four years of history.
The material is father son relationship, more than twice as compact because it now focuses on Paul’s trials and material which would be useful in proving his innocence. 7. Stakeholders Expectation. The use of ?????? in Acts 1:1 might be a literary device similar to the ending of Mark (at 16:8), making the work open-ended. The suggestion of many older commentators was that this superlative was used as a true superlative—thus, “first of at least three.” If so, then Acts might have ended where it did simply because Luke intended to romeo act 3 scene 3 write a third volume. We have already discussed this view and found it wanting. However, a modification of it has some attractiveness to expectation it: Could it be that Luke intended Theophilus to “write the third volume”—that is, do what he could to see that Paul’s ministry continued? Not much can be made of this possibility, however, because it suffers from the same linguistic fate that the older view suffers from, viz., Luke has already shown that he uses this superlative as a comparative, in accord with other Koine writers.
8. Finally, although Acts 27 ostensibly does not fit in with the trial-brief idea, recent scholars have pointed out that there was a widespread “pagan belief that survival at a shipwreck proved a man’s innocence.” 62. Taken together, these eight (or at least seven) reasons form a compelling argument that Acts was indeed intended to father quotes be a trial brief for Paul. At the expectation, same time, one criticism should be mentioned here: If Acts is father son relationship, really intended (in part) to stakeholders expectation be a trial brief for Paul, then how does Luke fit into this picture? Since both works really belong together, the purpose of Acts is seemingly the purpose of Luke-Acts. In response, it need only be mentioned that one of the purposes of Acts is the trial brief for Paul. It is true that Luke does not neatly fit into this purpose, though it does fit into the broader picture of apologetic of Christianity before the Roman government. The occasion for Acts necessitated the publication of Luke, but it did not thereby dictate the purpose of Luke. The theme of Acts is intrinsically bound up with its purpose. Of Robert. In a nutshell, the theme is “The Beginnings of the Church and the Expansion of the Gentile Mission.”
In volume two of Luke’s work, he picks up where he left off in stakeholders expectation, the first volume, namely, with the is globalisation in business, ascension of the Lord (1:9-11). But he begins with a prologue (1:1-2) similar to that in stakeholders, the first volume. The ascension—recorded only by Luke—becomes a crucial motif for it is necessary if the disciples are to continue the ministry which Jesus began. That is why Luke refers to scene volume one as detailing what “Jesus began to do and to stakeholders expectation teach until the day he was taken up into heaven” (1:1-2a). After this brief prologue, the body of the work commences.
It is possible to organize Luke’s thought in several different ways, all of which have a certain legitimacy. It could be organized personally —that is, centering on Peter and argument creon make his decision and execute antigone? Paul (thus having two halves). Expectation. It could be organized geographically , from Jerusalem, to Judea and The Physics Essay Samaria, and expectation the ends of the earth (cf. 1:8) (thus having three sections). Or it could be organized according to Luke’s progress reports (thus having seven portions). The Physics Of Sound. The reason for this variety has to do with Luke’s varied purposes. His work is both historical and apologetic.
And in stakeholders, his apologetics he deals with the legitimacy of Paul, as well as with his mission. We will look at the book according to the progressive scheme, though recognizing the Luke’s organizational scheme is more multifaceted than that. In the progressive approach, there are seven units of thought, or “books.” In Book One, Luke touches on the birth of the Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47). Immediately, he gives us a glimpse of what, one of his organizational schemes, for stakeholders, the birth of the Church parallels the birth of Christ. This can further be seen in that at Jesus’ baptism, while he is praying, the Spirit descends in a physical form and while the disciples are praying, the Spirit again descends in a physical form.
Scores of other parallels can be detected between these two volumes, each of which carries different levels of conviction. 63 although these are significant sub-motifs, in The Contribution of Robert Work Theory Essay, our view they are not the overarching control. Stakeholders. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to organize Luke and Acts (in terms of macro-structure) along the same lines. Nevertheless, there is something to the architectonic approach to Luke-Acts and we will occasionally interact with it in our argument. This first Book, as we have said, continues the narrative from Jesus’ resurrection until the time of his ascension (1:3-11), a period of forty days. Is Globalisation In Business. During this time he commissions the apostles to be his witnesses in ever-expanding circles (1:8). After his ascension, there is a ten-day wait—until the day of Pentecost (1:12-26). And during this waiting period the apostles likewise commission Matthias to join them as a replacement for Judas (1:15-26). When the day of Pentecost came the apostles were all together (2:1). The Spirit descends on them (2:1-13) like individual flames of fire (2:2-3).
The significance of this may be related to the “already, not yet” of the kingdom. When the Spirit descended on Jesus at his baptism, coupled with the heavenly voice declaring him to be God’s Son, this seemed to be an enthronement of sorts (similar to the use of the stakeholders, enthronement Psalms in the OT [cf. especially Psalm 2:7!] and the motif of the Spirit abiding on the king [cf. Psalm 51]), thus inaugurating the kingdom. Before Jesus’ ascent into heaven, the question heaviest on the apostles’ minds was, “Lord, are you at does creon make to defend to arrest antigone?, this time going to stakeholders expectation restore the kingdom to Israel?” (1:6). Jesus’ response was “already, not yet”: when the Spirit comes they would be imbued with the power of the king, though the act 1870, consummation of the kingdom was yet future.
God was surely doing a new work on the day of Pentecost. The apostles spoke in foreign tongues (2:4), though the crowd of pilgrims and stakeholders residents wondered what this meant (2:5-13). Peter’s sermon explained what had happened and he seized the moment to son relationship gain converts to Jesus of Nazareth (2:14-39). In this message there is an emphasis on the resurrection of Christ (2:23-32), and on the crowd’s guilt in the crucifixion (2:36-37), as well as the promise of the Spirit to those who would repent and believe (2:33-39). It is evident that the Spirit had indeed descended on Peter, for about three thousand people believed his message (2:40-41). Book One concludes with the first progress report, after summarizing the expectation, unity and growth of the nascent Church (2:42-47a): “And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved” (2:47b). Book Two now deals with the expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7). Luke arranges the material in which argument to defend to arrest and execute antigone?, an A B A B pattern. First, Peter heals a crippled man and this act has reverberations (3:1–4:31): he preaches to the crowd (3:11-26), gets arrested along with John (4:1-4), defends himself before the Sanhedrin and is released (4:5-22).
All this finds a parallel in the third part of Book Two (5:12-42): the apostles heal people, get arrested and escape (5:17-24), appear before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40), and are released (5:40). Clearly Luke shapes the two episodes to expectation show that though Theophilus had accepted Peter as a messenger from God, the other apostles, deserved the same respect. Coming right after each of these episodes is a vignette on the community of the nascent Church, the first dealing with harsh discipline when wealth distribution was handled deceptively (4:32–5:11), the second dealing with correction when food distribution was handled poorly (6:1-6). In both pericopae, the authority and priorities of the apostles are clearly displayed. Book Two concludes with the summary statement, “So the word of God spread.
The number of act 1870, disciples in Jerusalem increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the faith” (6:7). With this addendum on the priests’ conversions, it is as if Luke is saying that the apostles had now done all they could in Jerusalem. This is seen in the next section, Book Three, where it is evident that the religious leaders who had not obeyed were not about to. In Book Three we see the extension of the church beyond the walls of Jerusalem, spreading out all the way to Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31). This book focuses on three non-apostles: Stephen, Philip, and Saul. What is significant is that these three—more than all of the stakeholders expectation, apostles combined—were instrumental in fulfilling the commission to Essay be witnesses in Judea and Samaria (Acts 1:8). Just as the other apostles were seen to have all the “power” that Peter had (cf. Stakeholders Expectation. Acts 1:8a), so these non-apostles were seen to of Sound be “witnesses” (cf. Acts 1:8b) every bit as much as the twelve. What is more, Saul is viewed as unwittingly helping to expectation fulfill the Great Commission even before his conversion, for the Church first spread to and juliet 3 Samaria and Judea because of his persecutions (8:1)! This Book’s purpose, then, is to foreshadow both the stakeholders expectation, full apostolic status of of Sound Essay, Paul and his superiority over all the rest of the original apostles in carrying out the mandate of Acts 1:8.
The first cameo of Book Three is of Stephen, the first martyr of the Church (6:8–8:1a). Like the apostles before him, he is arrested because of stakeholders, his miracles and argument make to defend and execute proclamation (6:8-15). But unlike the apostles, his appearance before the Sanhedrin results in his death, not his release. In his defense (7:2-53) he outlines the expectation, nation’s history (with a focus on the patriarchs, Moses and David) up until their murder of “the Righteous One” (7:52), thus paralleling Peter’s sermon on the day of Pentecost. Is Globalisation In Business. Although Stephen was thus every bit as much a witness as was Peter, 64 the response to him was different. With the death of Stephen, Luke is indicating that fruitful ministry in Jerusalem had come to an end. The transition to the second cameo, that of Philip (8:1b-40), is via Saul (8:1): because of his role in Stephen’s death and subsequent role in persecuting the Church, Philip and others “were scattered throughout Judea and Samaria” (8:1). Philip, like Stephen, performed miracles and proclaimed Christ (8:4-8). But, unlike Stephen, there was a very positive response to his ministry in Samaria (8:7-8, 12).
But not every response was positive. Expectation. Even though Philip was very powerful in his preaching, a certain sorcerer named Simon “believed” only to gain the power which he saw in Philip (8:13). The apostles Peter and John came down from Jerusalem to Samaria to investigate the phenomenal response of the people (8:14). They laid hands on them, causing them to receive the Spirit (8:15-17). Through this event Simon’s wickedness was exposed (8:18-24), and Peter’s and John’s perspective was enlarged (8:25). Luke then gives two other vignettes about Philip’s ministry, showing how the gospel was spreading (8:26-40).
Saul’s conversion concludes this third Book (9:1-30). Luke spends much time telling his audience about Saul’s conversion (it is rehearsed three times in son relationship quotes, the book of Acts), with a special emphasis on the revelation of the risen Lord to expectation Saul (9:4-5) as well as the Lord’s disclosure to Ananias that Saul had truly converted and would be the “chosen instrument to scene 3 carry my name before the expectation, Gentiles” (9:10-15). Thus Saul is seen not only to have a remarkable conversion experience, but also from the first to be the one who would exemplify the mandate of Acts 1:8. Book Three, which began with an expanding church because of persecution now concludes with the words, “Then the church throughout Judea, Galilee and Samaria enjoyed a time of son relationship quotes, peace. It was strengthened and stakeholders expectation encouraged by the Holy spirit and it grew in numbers, living in the fear of the Lord” (9:31). To make sure that Theophilus would not be forced to choose between Peter and Paul Luke now demonstrates, in Book Four, that Peter too promoted the Gentile mission (9:32–12:24). But it was not just Peter who promoted this; it was the Lord himself. Luke begins by affirming Peter’s apostleship in that he healed Aeneas (9:32-35) and even raised Dorcas from the dead (9:36-43). While in Joppa (where Dorcas had been raised), Peter saw a vision of unclean animals descending from heaven accompanied by a voice which bid him to to Criminological Theory Essay kill and eat (10:8-23a). The message was clear: the “unclean” Gentiles should not be shut out of the kingdom (10:15, 28).
Peter subsequently went to the house of a Roman centurion named Cornelius and proclaimed the gospel to stakeholders expectation him and The Contribution of Robert Work Essay his friends (10:23b-48). The response of the Gentiles was the same as that of the expectation, first hearers on The Contribution MertonвЂ™s to Criminological Theory Essay, the day of expectation, Pentecost (10:44-48); the Gentiles even received the gift of the The Physics of Sound, Spirit. Peter was thus convinced that the Gentile mission was from God. Not only stakeholders did Peter have to be prepared for the Gentile mission; the which creon make to defend and execute, Jerusalem church did, too (11:1-18). Since Peter was recognized by all as a legitimate spokesman for God, his recounting of what happened at Cornelius’ house was enough to convince the Jewish believers. Chapter 11 concludes with the account of the stakeholders expectation, birth of the church at The Contribution to Criminological, Antioch (11:19-30)—a birth which paralleled the birth of the Jerusalem church. To show that there was no animosity between the stakeholders, two churches, the Antiochian Christians sent financial aid to the Jerusalem church via Saul and Barnabas (11:27-30). Book Four, which began with peace in Judea and Samaria, now reaches an education act 1870 ironic climax with persecution in Jerusalem (12:1-23). This time, rather than Saul, Herod is the one persecuting the church.
First, he executes James (12:1-2), then arrests Peter (12:3-19). But Peter miraculously escapes (12:6-11) and Herod dies (12:20-23). This is the last we see of Peter in his evangelistic efforts. Expectation. 65 The stage is education, thus set for the comparison and stakeholders contrast with Paul, the man with whom the rest of Acts is concerned. What may be of significance is which does creon make his decision to arrest antigone?, that there is no parallel with Paul—within the pages of Acts—with Peter’s final arrest and release . It is stakeholders, our conviction that Luke has written his book in such a way to beckon Theophilus to “write the final chapter.” Book Four concludes with the words, “But the word of what in business, God continued to stakeholders expectation increase and romeo and juliet 3 spread” (12:24). The Fifth Book addresses the extension of the stakeholders, Church to Asia Minor, but might just as properly be called “The Book of the Establishment of Paul’s Apostleship” (12:25–16:5). Here we begin to see the deja vu pattern emerge once again. But rather than between Luke and Acts, or Peter and the other apostles, this Book now compares Peter and romeo scene 3 Paul.
The Fifth Book opens with the commission of Barnabas and Saul by stakeholders, the Spirit to take their first missionary journey (12:25–13:3). Saul, who was also called Paul (13:9), has his apostleship authenticated on Cyprus and in Pisidian Antioch. On Cyprus (13:4-12), he is seen to be just as much a “witness” as was Philip—and to have the same power of discernment as Peter, for in Paul’s confrontation with a sorcerer (13:6-12 cf. 8:9-13), he, like Peter, pronounces judgment on the man—accompanied by The Contribution Work to Criminological Theory Essay, a miraculous blinding. In Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) Paul is seen to be just as much an orator as Stephen and Peter (13:14b-41). Stakeholders. In fact, his message is an amalgamation of both Stephen’s speech and Peter’s sermons. In these first two stories we see that Paul, by himself was equal to both Philip and Peter, and then Stephen and Peter. When Paul travels to South Galatia (13:51–14:21a), to the city of Lystra (14:8-18), he is seen to have the same miraculous powers as Peter (cf.
3:1–4:31). The parallels are hard to miss: (1) both Peter and Paul healed a man crippled from birth (3:1-8/14:8-10); (2) there was a positive response from the crowd (3:9-10/14:11-14); (3) both addressed the crowd (3:11-26/14:15-18); (4) both were accompanied by another apostle (John, Barnabas); and education act 1870 (5) both suffered at the hands of the Jews, though Paul’s suffering was far worse (4:1-4/14:19). Clearly, Paul was just as much an apostle as was Peter. 66. After a brief return to Antioch (14:21b-28) where the issue of the Gentile mission came to a head (15:1-5), Paul goes up to Jerusalem to where the apostles and elders met to consider the matter. Expectation. Here Paul’s mission is rat i fied by the Jerusalem Council (15:6-21)—a council in education, which Peter plays a part (15:7b-11).
Paul and Barnabas are selected as letter-bearers (15:22), and expectation are to bring the good news of the Council’s decision back to Antioch and elsewhere. This stands in bold relief against the last time Paul carried a letter for a Council (9:2)! The second missionary journey (15:36–18:22) begins after a brief rest in education act 1870, Antioch, but Paul took Silas instead of Barnabas and Mark because of Mark’s earlier desertion in Pamphylia (15:36-41). Stakeholders. On this journey Paul takes the northern route, allowing Barnabas and Mark to retrace their steps by going to Cyprus once again (15:39b). Education. The journey begins with a confirmation of the stakeholders expectation, churches in South Galatia (16:1-4). On this positive note, Book Five concludes: “So the churches were strengthened in the faith and The Contribution Work to Criminological Theory grew daily in the numbers” (16:5). On Paul’s second missionary journey, his own widening net now extended as far as the Aegean region, the topic with which Book Six (16:6–19:20) is occupied. Having established that Paul was an authentic apostle and that his message was ratified by Peter himself, Luke now concentrates especially on expectation, the historical side to his tome.
There is which argument to defend his decision to arrest and execute, no dichotomy between the stakeholders, history and apologetic of Luke, but the emphasis now is on the former, while through Book Five it was on the latter. Still, there are parallels to be seen between Paul and Peter even here (cf. e.g., Paul’s vision to come to Macedonia [16:8b-10] with Peter’s vision of accepting “unclean” Gentiles [10:8-23]; the twelve disciples of John in Ephesus speaking in tongues when they receive the Spirit [19:1-7] with the does make his decision and execute, twelve apostles speaking in tongues on the day of Pentecost when they receive the Spirit [2:1-4]; etc.). Paul’s missionary travels take him to Philippi (16:6-40) in stakeholders expectation, Macedonia, where a small church is planted. Luke then records that Paul and Silas bypass Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a) because there was no synagogue there. This becomes a motif throughout the rest of Acts: Paul consistently went to the Jews first and then the Gentiles, even till the very end (28:17-28). Education Act 1870. Yet, equal to this motif, is Jewish hostility wherever the stakeholders expectation, apostle went.
The next stop was the thriving metropolis of Thessalonica (17:1-9), where Paul preached for three Sabbaths before being driven from the city. A short stay at Berea (17:10-14)—again due to persecution initiated by which argument creon make his decision to arrest antigone?, the Jews—resulted in his trek to Athens (17:15-34). After a relatively unsuccessful ministry with the stakeholders expectation, philosophers there, he traveled to Corinth (18:1-18a), where he was able to settle down for the first time because of God’s protection of of Robert MertonвЂ™s Work Theory, his ministry (18:5-11). Expectation. After a court appearance before the proconsul Gallio, in which the case was dismissed (18:12-18a), Paul returned to romeo and juliet act 3 scene 3 Antioch, his home base (18:18b-22). After a very brief stay in Antioch, Paul began his third missionary journey (18:23–21:16). He had left Priscilla and Aquila, two of his co-workers, in Ephesus on stakeholders, his return trip to Antioch. Now he returned to Ephesus, by education, way of the South Galatian region (18:23). Expectation. Altogether he would stay there almost three years and Ephesus would effectively become what Antioch had been: a base of operations for his missionary endeavors.
Book Six ends with Paul having a successful ministry in Ephesus, though not one lacking in conflict (cf. 19:8-9a, 11-19). but because of a final victory over one opponent, namely, the occult, “the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power” (19:20). After disclosing some of the missionary endeavors of Paul in the Sixth Book, primarily with a historical purpose in mind, Luke now returns to his apologetic emphasis. But rather than further comparison of Paul with Peter, his primary thrust is to prepare a trial brief for MertonвЂ™s to Criminological Theory Essay, Paul. Stakeholders Expectation. Since Theophilus was apparently an influential Roman official, and one who had had at act 1870, least a sympathetic ear toward Christianity, especially in its Petrine forms, 67 he needed to have as much information at his disposal which would be helpful in court. Book Seven (19:21–28:31) provides just such information. The Book begins with Paul’s announcement to go to stakeholders expectation Rome (19:21-22) and ends with him getting there. But there is irony seen here, for Acts began with the growth of the church being stimulated by the persecutions of Saul the Jew; it closes with the Church reaching all the way to Rome because of the imprisonment of Paul the Christian. A riot at The Physics, Ephesus over stakeholders the adverse impact Paul’s gospel was having on idolatry (19:22-41) provides the catalyst for Paul to move on. But before he could go to Rome, the capital of the Gentile world, he felt it necessary to go to Jerusalem, the capital of the Jewish world. Surely this was in The Contribution of Robert Theory Essay, keeping with his own missionary principle, “To the Jew first, and then to the Greek.”
The journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) involves a circuitous route in which Paul comforted his converts along the expectation, way. He went through Macedonia and The Physics Greece (20:1-6) and came to Troas, where he raised Eutychus from the dead (20:7-12; cf. Stakeholders. 9:36-43). From there he sailed for Miletus and met the Ephesian elders for education, the last time (20:13-38). Stakeholders Expectation. From Miletus Paul traveled to Tyre (21:1-6) and then to Caesarea (21:7-14). At Caesarea Agabus predicted that Paul would be imprisoned if he went on to Jerusalem (21:10-14). Agabus’ prophecy came true.
When Paul arrived in Jerusalem he was arrested in the temple on trumped up charges of The Physics of Sound Essay, violating the temple by bringing in a Gentile (21:27-36). Expectation. The recounting of his conversion (22:1-21) only angered the Jewish crowd more (22:22), which prompted him to seek protection on of Robert, the basis of his Roman citizenship (22:23-29). There follows a series of expectation, trials, all properly documented to reveal Paul’s innocence. First, Paul was brought before the Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) who almost broke out in which argument does creon make his decision to arrest and execute antigone?, a riot themselves (22:30–23:10). A Jewish plot to kill him (23:12-22) led to more protection by the Romans (23:23-30) as they escorted him to Caesarea to be tried before the Roman governor, Felix. Paul was then successively tried before Felix (24:1-26), Festus (24:27–25:12) and Agrippa II (25:23–26:32) over a period of two years.
Ironically, he would have been found innocent but because he had appealed to Caesar (26:22-23), he would have to go to Rome (26:30-32). Most likely, Paul made such an appeal because he believed he would get fairer treatment from the Roman government than from his fellow countrymen. Throughout Acts, in fact, Luke seems to expectation embrace the same position. The voyage to Rome (27:1–28:10) commences with a shipwreck (27:1-44) in which Paul is seen both as survivor and act 3 scene savior. The pagans of the day believed that those who survived shipwrecks must be innocent. 68 Whether or not Theophilus held to stakeholders expectation this superstition, it could certainly come in handy in the trial.
The book of education, Acts then concludes with Paul meeting his final destination, Rome (28:11-31). Once there, although in chains, he first proclaims Christ to expectation the Jews (28:16-24), then to the Gentiles (28:25-28). Book Seven ends with Paul imprisoned for two years (28:30), though “Boldly and which argument does creon to arrest and execute antigone? without hindrance he preached the kingdom of God and taught about the stakeholders, Lord Jesus Christ” (28:31). That the outcome of the trial is not mentioned is no accident: it had not happened yet. But like Peter’s angel in chapter 12, Luke wants Theophilus to father son relationship quotes do what he can to get Paul out of prison that the gospel might continue to spread.
After all, the Gentiles “will listen” (28:28). Thus in a masterful series of Seven Books, Luke has not only shown how the stakeholders expectation, Church grew from its humble beginnings, but he has also vindicated both Paul’s apostleship and his innocence. Argument Does Make His Decision And Execute. His literary labors to stakeholders expectation get Paul free were successful: the act 1870, apostle to the Gentiles was released; he ministered for stakeholders expectation, three more years and wrote three more epistles before his beheading by Nero in the summer of 64 CE. I. Book One: The Birth of the of Sound Essay, Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47) B. Anticipation: From Resurrection to stakeholders Pentecost (1:3-26) 1. Which Argument Creon To Defend His Decision. From Resurrection to expectation ascension: Christ’s Forty Day Ministry (1:3-11) a. Of Sound Essay. The Apostles’ Commission (1:3-8) b. The Ascension (1:9-11) 2. From Ascension to Pentecost: The Apostles’ Ten Day Wait (1:12-26) a. Praying in the Upper Room (1:12-14) b. Selecting a Replacement for Judas (1:15-26) C. Realization: The Day of stakeholders expectation, Pentecost (2:1-41) 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1-13) a. The Response of the Apostles: Speaking in Tongues (2:1-4) b. The Reaction of the Crowd (2:5-13)
2. The Proclamation of Peter (2:14-39) a. Introduction: Fulfillment of Prophecy (2:14-21) b. Body: Jesus Is the Messiah (2:22-39) 1) Proof: Miracles (2:22-32) a) During His Life (2:22) b) After His Death: Resurrection (2:23-32) 2) Promise: Holy Spirit (2:33-39) 3. The Response of the Crowd (2:40-41) D. Creon Make His Decision. Conclusion of Book One (2:42-47) II.
Book Two: The Expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7) A. A Healing by stakeholders, Peter and Its Consequences (3:1–4:31) 1. The Healing of a Man Crippled from The Physics Essay Birth (3:1-8) 2. The Response of the Crowd (3:9-10) 3. The Message of Peter (3:11-26)
4. The Arrest of Peter and John (4:1-4) 5. Peter and John before the Sanhedrin (4:5-22) a. Peter’s Defense (4:5-12) b. Stakeholders Expectation. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (4:13-17) c. The Release of and juliet 3, Peter and John (4:18-22) 6. Stakeholders. The Thanksgiving of the of Sound, Saints (4:23-31) B. Community and Discipline (4:32–5:11) 1. The Sharing of All Possessions (4:32-37)
2. The Deception of Ananias and Sapphira (5:1-11) C. Healings by the Apostles and their Consequences (5:12-42) 1. Expectation. Healings of the Apostles, Responses of the Crowds (5:12-16) 2. The Arrest and Escape (5:17-24) 3. The Apostles before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40) a. The Sanhedrin’s Rebuke (5:25-28) b. The Apostles’ Defense (5:29-32) c. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (5:33-39) d. The Release of the Apostles (5:40) 4. The Rejoicing of the Apostles (5:41-42) D. Community: Distribution and Administration (6:1-6) E. Act 1870. Conclusion of Book Two (6:7) III. Book Three: The Extension of the Church to stakeholders expectation Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31)
A. Stephen’s Martyrdom (6:8–8:1a) 1. His Arrest (6:8-15) 2. His Defense (7:1-53) a. The High Priest’s Question (7:1) b. Stephen’s Response (7:2-53) 1) The Patriarchal Age (7:2-8) 2) The Nation in Egypt (7:9-19)
3) The Rejection of and juliet scene, Moses by the Nation (7:20-39) a) Moses’ Early Years (7:20-29) b) Moses’ Call by God (7:30-34) c) The Nation’s Rejection in expectation, the Wilderness (7:35-39) 4) The Rejection of the Nation by God (7:40-43) 5) The Tabernacle and the Temple (7:44-50) 6) The Rejection of Christ by the Nation (7:51-53) 3. His Death (7:54–8:1a) B. Philip’s Ministry (8:1b-40) 1. Setting: the Persecution by Saul (8:1b-3)
2. Philip in to Criminological, Samaria (8:4-25) a. The Activities of Philip (8:4-8) b. The Response of expectation, Simon (8:9-13) c. The Coming of Peter and John (8:14-25) 1) The Reception of the Spirit by the Crowd (8:14-17) 2) The Wickedness of Simon the of Robert MertonвЂ™s Essay, Sorcerer Revealed (8:18-24) 3) The Return of the stakeholders, Apostles to Jerusalem (8:25) 3. Philip and the Ethiopian on the Road to Gaza (8:26-39) 4. Philip on the Coast of Palestine (8:40) C. Saul’s Conversion (9:1-30) 1. What Is Globalisation. Setting: On the Road to Damascus (9:1-2) 2. The Conversion of Saul on the Road (9:1-9) 3. The Coming of Ananias in Damascus (9:10-19) 4. The Confrontations with the Jews in Damascus (9:20-25)
5. The Coming of Saul to Jerusalem (9:26-30) D. Conclusion of Book Three (9:31) IV. Stakeholders Expectation. Book Four: The Extension of the Church to Antioch (9:32–12:24) A. The Preparation of The Contribution of Robert Work Theory Essay, Peter for the Gentile Mission (9:32–10:48) 1. Peter in Western Judea: With Aeneas and Dorcas (9:32-43) a. In Lydda: The Healing of Aeneas (9:32-35) b. Expectation. In Joppa: The Raising of Dorcas (9:36-43) 2. Peter in Caesarea: With Cornelius (10:1-48) a. Cornelius’ Vision: Send for Peter (10:1-7) b. Peter’s Vision: Receive the Gentiles (10:8-23a) c. Peter at Cornelius’ House (10:23b-48)
1) Setting (10:23b-27) 2) Recounting of Peter’s Vision (10:28-29a) 3) Recounting of Cornelius’ Vision (10:29b-33) 4) Peter’s Message (10:34-43) 5) The Gentiles’ Response (10:44-48) a) Gift of the Spirit (10:44-46) b) Water Baptism (10:47-48a) c) Fellowship (10:48b) B. The Preparation of the Leaders of the Jerusalem Church for the Gentile Mission (11:1-18) 1. The Accusation of the Jewish Believers (11:1-3) 2. The Explanation of Peter (11:4-17) a. Work To Criminological Theory. Recounting of Peter’s Vision in stakeholders, Joppa (11:4-10) b. Recounting of Peter’s Visit to Cornelius in Caesarea (11:11-16) c. Recognition of the Legitimacy of the Gentile Mission by Peter (11:17) d. Response of the Jewish Believers (11:18) C. The Preparation of the Church at Antioch for the Gentile Mission (11:19-30) 1. The Birth of the Church in Antioch (11:19-21) 2. The Response of Jerusalem to Antioch: The Sending of Barnabas (11:22-24)
3. Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (11:25-26) 4. The Response of romeo and juliet 3, Antioch to Jerusalem: The Sending of expectation, Barnabas and education Saul (11:27-30) a. The prophecy of Agabus: Worldwide Famine (11:27-28) b. The Poverty of the Judean Churches: A Collection Taken (11:29-30) D. Herod’s Persecution of the Church at Jerusalem (12:1-23) 1. The Martyrdom of James by Herod (12:1-2) 2. Expectation. The Arrest of Peter by Herod (12:3-19) a. The Arrest and Imprisonment (12:3-5) b. The Physics Essay. The Angel and Escape (12:6-11) c. The Response of the Church (12:12-16) d. The Withdrawal of stakeholders expectation, Peter (12:17) e. The Reaction of Herod (12:18-19) 3. The Death of Herod (12:20-23) E. Conclusion of Book Four (12:24)
V. MertonвЂ™s Theory. Book Five: The Extension of the stakeholders, Church to Asia Minor (12:25–16:5) A. The Commission of is globalisation in business, Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (12:25–13:3) [Paul’s First Missionary Journey (13:4–14:28)] B. The Mission of Barnabas and Paul In Asia Minor (13:4–14:28) a. Expectation. From Antioch to Seleucia to Cyprus (13:4) b. Romeo Act 3 Scene 3. On the Island of expectation, Cyprus (13:5-12) 1) At the Synagogue in Salamis (13:5) 2) At Paphos: Confrontation with Bar-Jesus the Sorcerer (13:6-12) 2. Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) a. From Paphos to Perga in Pamphylia: John Mark’s Departure (13:13) b. From Perga to Pisidian Antioch (13:14a) c. In Pisidian Antioch (13:14b-52) 1) Paul’s Message on the Sabbath (13:14b-41) a) Setting (13:14b-15) b) Introduction (13:16) 1] Preparation for Christ in the OT (13:17-22) 2] Proclamation of Christ to the Hearers (13:23-37) d) Application (13:38-41) 2) Initial Jewish Response to Paul’s Message (13:42-43) 3) Later Gentile Response and Jewish Opposition to Paul’s Gospel (13:44-50)
3. South Galatia: Iconium, Lystra, Derbe (13:51–14:21a) a. In Iconium: Jewish and Gentile Response (13:51–14:5) b. In Lystra and Derbe (14:6-21a) 1) From Iconium to Lystra and Derbe (14:6-7) 2) A Healing in The Contribution of Robert Work to Criminological, Lystra (14:6-18) a) The Healing of a Man Crippled from Birth (14:8-10) b) The Response of the Crowd (14:11-14) c) The Message of Paul and expectation Barnabas (14:15-18) d) The Stoning of Paul (14:19) 3) Escape to Derbe (14:20-21a) 4. Return to Antioch (14:21b-28) C. The Council at Jerusalem Concerning the Gentile Mission (15:1-35) 1. The Occasion: Judaizers in Antioch (15:1-5) 2. The Meeting of the Apostles and Elders at The Physics of Sound Essay, Jerusalem (15:6-21) a. The Setting (15:6-7a) b. Expectation. Peter’s Message (15:7b-11) c. Barnabas’ and Paul’s Testimony (15:12) d. James’ Concluding Thoughts (15:13-21) 3. The Council’s Letter to Gentile Believers (15:22-35) a. Which Does Creon Make To Defend Antigone?. The Selection of Barnabas and Paul as Letter-Bearers (15:22) b. The Contents of the Letter (15:23-29) c. The Response in Antioch (15:30-35)
D. Stakeholders Expectation. The Confirmation of the The Physics Essay, Churches in Asia Minor (15:36–16:4) [Paul’s Second Missionary Journey [15:36–18:22] 1. The Dispute between Paul and Barnabas over John Mark (15:36-41) a. The Desire to Return (15:36) b. The Discussion over John Mark (15:37-39a) c. Expectation. Barnabas and Mark Depart for Cyprus (15:39b) d. Paul and Silas Depart for Tarsus (15:40-41) 2. In South Galatia (Derbe, Lystra): Timothy Joins Paul and Silas (16:1-4) E. Conclusion of father son relationship, Book Five (16:5) VI. Stakeholders Expectation. Book Six: The Extension of the Church to the Aegean Area (16:6–19:20) A. Philippi (16:6-40) 1. Throughout the Phrygian-Galatian Region (16:6) 2. To Troas in father son relationship quotes, Mysia (16:7-8a) 3. Paul’s Vision: Come to Macedonia (16:8b-10) 4. Troas to Samothrace to Neapolis to Philippi (16:11)
5. In Philippi (16:12-40) a. The Conversion of stakeholders, Lydia (16:12-15) b. The Exorcism of a Slave Girl (16:16-18) c. The Conversion of a Philippian Jailer (16:19-34) 1) Paul and Silas Arrested (16:19-24) 2) An Earthquake: Shackles Released (16:25-28) 3) The Response of the Jailer (16:29-34) d. The Release of Paul and The Physics Silas (16:35-40) B. Thessalonica (17:1-9) 1. Through Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a)
2. In Thessalonica (17:1b-9) a. Expectation. Paul’s Proclamation in of Sound Essay, the Synagogue (17:1b-3) b. Expectation. The Conversion of of Robert MertonвЂ™s Work to Criminological Theory Essay, Some Jews and Greeks (17:4) c. The Hostility of expectation, other Jews (17:5-9) D. Athens (17:15-34) 1. Discussion in the Agora (17:15-18) 2. Dispute on MertonвЂ™s Essay, the Areopagus (17:19-34) a. Paul’s Message (17:19-31) b. The Athenians’ Reaction (17:32-34) E. Corinth (18:1-18a) 1. With Aquila and Priscilla: Tentmaking and Preaching (18:1-4) 2. With Silas and Timothy: Eighteen Months of stakeholders, Ministry (18:5-11) 3. Before Gallio (18:12-18a) F. Return to Antioch (18:18b-22) 1. Father Son Relationship Quotes. From Cenchrea to Ephesus to Caesarea (18:18b-22a) 2. Arrival in stakeholders expectation, Antioch (18:22b)
G. Ephesus (18:23–19:19) [Paul’s Third Missionary Journey (18:23–21:16)] 1. Return to education the Galatian-Phrygian Region (18:23) 2. Apollos in Ephesus: Forerunner to Paul (18:24-28) a. Apollos’ Arrival in Ephesus (18:24) b. Apollos’ Instruction by Aquila and Priscilla (18:25-26) c. Apollos’ Departure for Corinth (18:27-28) 3. In Ephesus (19:1-19) a. With Twelve Disciples of John (19:1-7) b. In the expectation, Synagogue of the Jews (19:8-9a) c. In the Lecture Hall of Tyrannus (19:9b-10) d. In Conflict with the Occult (19:11-19) H. Conclusion of Book Six (19:20) VII. Of Sound. Book Seven: The Extension of the Church to Rome (19:21–28:31)
A. Stakeholders. The Plan Announced (19:21-22) B. The Physics. The Riot in Ephesus (19:22-41) 1. Stakeholders. The Accusations by The Contribution MertonвЂ™s Work, the Silversmiths (19:22-27) 2. The Demonstration in the Theater (19:28-34) 3. The Quieting of the Mob by the Town Clerk (19:35-41) C. Expectation. The Journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) 1. Through Macedonia and Greece (20:1-6)
2. In Troas: The Raising of Eutychus (20:7-12) 3. From Troas to Miletus (20:13-17) 4. Romeo And Juliet Act 3 Scene. In Miletus: Farewell Message to the Ephesian Elders (20:18-38) a. Paul’s Message (20:18-35) b. The Elders’ Response (20:36-38) 5. From Miletus to Tyre (21:1-6) 6. From Tyre to stakeholders Caesarea (21:7-14) a. Staying with Philip (21:7-9) b. The Prediction of Agabus (21:10-14) 7. Arrival at Jerusalem (21:15-16) D. Paul In Jerusalem (21:17–23:30) 1. The Meeting with James and the Elders (21:17-26) 2. The Arrest of Paul in the Temple (21:27-36) 3. The Address of Paul to the Crowd (21:37–22:21) a. The Request to education act 1870 Speak (21:37-40) b. Recounting His Conversion (22:1-11) c. Recounting His Call (22:12-21) 4. The Disclosure of Paul’s Roman Citizenship (22:22-29)
5. Paul before the stakeholders, Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) a. Confrontation with the argument does creon to defend his decision to arrest antigone?, High Priest (22:30–23:5) b. Dispute over the Resurrection (23:6-10) 6. Night Vision of the Lord (23:11) 7. The Plot to stakeholders expectation Kill Paul (23:12-22) a. The Plot by the Jews (23:12-15) b. The Revelation to the Romans (23:16-22) 8. The Protection of the Romans (23:23-30) a. Protection provided (23:23-24) b. And Juliet Act 3 Scene 3. Cover-Letter Written (23:25-30) E. Paul in Caesarea (23:31–26:32) 1. A Roman Escort to Caesarea (23:31-35)
2. The Trial before Felix (24:1-26) a. Accusations of the stakeholders expectation, Jews (24:1-9) b. Defense of Paul (24:10-21) c. Adjournment by son relationship quotes, Felix (24:22-23) d. Intermittent Interviews by stakeholders expectation, Felix (24:24-26) 3. The Trial before Festus (24:27–25:12) a. Felix Replaced by The Physics of Sound Essay, Festus (24:27) b. Arrival of Festus in Jerusalem (25:1-5) c. Expectation. Paul before Festus: Appeal to Caesar (25:6-12) 4. Consultation of education, Festus with Agrippa II (25:13-22) 5. Stakeholders. Paul before Agrippa (25:23–26:32) a. The Briefing by Festus (25:23-27) b. The Defense by Paul (26:1-23) 1) Introduction (26:1-3) 2) The Jewish Hope of Resurrection (26:4-8) 3) Paul’s Persecution of The Physics Essay, Christians (26:9-11) 4) Paul’s Conversion (26:12-18) 5) Paul’s Commission to the Gentiles (26:19-20) 6) Paul’s Arrest in Jerusalem (26:21) 7) Concluding Appeal (26:22-23) c. Interchange between Festus, Paul and Agrippa (26:24-29) d. Paul’s Innocence and expectation the Irony of his Appeal to Caesar (26:30-32)
F. The Voyage to Rome (27:1–28:10) 1. The Shipwreck (27:1-44) a. Setting (27:1-12) 1) From Caesarea to Myra (27:1-5) 2) From Myra to father Fair Havens in Crete (27:6-8) b. Warnings of Imminent Shipwreck (27:9-26) 1) The Season: After the Day of Atonement (27:9a) 2) Paul’s Warning (27:9b-12) 3) The Storm (27:13-20) 4) Paul’s Vision (27:21-26) c. Expectation. The Shipwreck on father quotes, Malta (27:27-44) 1) A Foiled Escape by the Sailors (27:27-32) 2) A Last Meal on stakeholders expectation, Board (27:33-38)
3) The Ship Runs Aground (27:39-41) 4) All Safe Ashore (27:42-44) 2. On Malta (28:1-10) a. Paul’s Snake Bite (28:1-6) b. Paul’s Miracles (28:7-10) G. Paul In Rome (28:11-31) 1. Father Son Relationship. Arrival at Rome (28:11-16) 2. Paul’s Proclamation to stakeholders expectation the Jews (28:16-24) 3. Paul’s Proclamation to the Gentiles (28:25-28) H. Conclusion of Book Seven (28:30-31) 1 In particular, Apollonius’ Canon and its corollary suggest that (1) in Greek, normally both the is globalisation in business, nomen regens and the nomen rectum either have the stakeholders, article or lack it; and (2) when both lack it, the sense is still usually definite for both (hence, “ The Acts of the Apostles”).
2 Guthrie, 114. For more arguments on Theory, Lukan authorship based on external evidence, cf. our discussion of Luke. 3 G. B. Caird, Saint Luke , 16-17. 4 Cf. the various studies by Hort, Metzger, Aland, Snodgrass, Holmes, and especially Thomas Geer. 5 So B. M. Metzger, personal conversation (March 1989); cf. Stakeholders. also his The Canon of the act 1870, New Testament and The Text of the New Testament . 6 Although ancillary to expectation this paper, this conclusion also helps to son relationship establish the Western text as very early—going back deep into the second century ( contra Aland-Aland, Text of the New Testament ). 7 See Guthrie for an expanded treatment, 115-19. This section is stakeholders, merely a distillation of Guthrie’s arguments.
8 For an additional piece of (external) evidence for common authorship, cf. the last paragraph in our discussion of external evidence. 10 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts , 17. Talbert notices, for example, that both Jesus and Paul are well received by the populace; they both enter the temple in a friendly manner; the Sadducees do not believe in the resurrection, but the scribes support Jesus/Paul; they both “take bread, and after giving thanks, break it”; a mob seizes Jesus/Paul; Jesus/Paul is slapped by the priest’s assistant; each undergoes four trials. 11 Ibid., 23. Although we would affirm this statement of Talbert, there is one caveat : Talbert goes on to suggest that Luke created much of his material, while we would argue instead that he selected and The Contribution of Robert Work arranged it. The purpose for this will be seen when we look at Acts, but suffice it to say here that it would certainly create in Theophilus a sympathy for Paul. 12 This can be further seen in that the gospel itself displays an incredible internal structure, as does Acts. Thus the supposition that two different authors wrote these books means that the mimic is even more brilliant than the expectation, original author! 15 This is doubtful, however, since only in c. Education Act 1870. 60 would Luke have met Mark, if Mark had been in Rome since the mid-50s. Nevertheless, upon stakeholders expectation meeting him after having employed his gospel to write his own, Luke would have certainly become his friend. Luke’s favorable attitude toward Mark—not just personally but as a reliable source on the life of Jesus—might be implied in his calling Mark an “assistant” ( ???????? ) in Acts 13:5. “Luke’s term frequently designates a man who handles documents and delivers their content to men . . .” (Lane, Mark , 22).
Lane goes on to mention Acts 26:16 where Paul is appointed as a ???????? and witness to the truth, and Luke 1:1-2 where “the evangelist links the servants [ ???????? ] of the act 1870, word with those who were the eyewitnesses and guarantors of apostolic tradition.” The connection of ???????? with both Mark and Luke’s sources suggests that Mark’s Gospel may well have been one of those sources which Luke used to compile his gospel—and one which he himself deeply appreciated. 16 Style and Literary Method of Luke. 17 It has been frequently quipped that Cadbury earned his doctorate by taking away Luke’s! 20 There is another subtle indicator of Luke’s race. Stakeholders. In Acts 16, after the beginning of the The Physics, first “we” section (16:11-17), Luke mentions that he was with Paul in Philippi up to the time that Paul cast out the evil spirit from the servant girl (v. 17—“she followed Paul and us”). Stakeholders. Then, in 16:19, the education act 1870, person changes from stakeholders first to third (“her owners . . . seized Paul and Silas”). In vv.
20-21, the reason why Paul and Silas were singled out becomes clear: “These men are Jews and quotes they are disturbing the city. They advocate customs which it is not lawful for stakeholders, us Romans to accept or practice.” On the assumption that the “we” sections should be taken at face value, and that Luke was a Gentile, the The Physics Essay, fact that Luke was not seized makes perfect sense—for the point of vv. Stakeholders. 20-21 has its sting in the fact that Paul and The Contribution MertonвЂ™s to Criminological Theory Silas are Jews . (What may further confirm this is that Timothy is not mentioned here [though he might not have been with the stakeholders, missionaries in Philippi] And Timothy was a half-Jew.) In the least, if one wants to education act 1870 deny that Luke was a Gentile, he must explain why the first person plural is used in stakeholders expectation, 16:17, but is immediately switched to third person when the Philippians make their accusation against the missionaries on the basis of their race. 21 Guthrie mistakenly says that Luke was possibly from Philippi, supposing that the ‘we’ sections start there (118-19). 22 However, more than one church father thought that Luke came from Antioch. Even codex D suggests this, for it begins the ‘we’ material at Acts 11:28! 23 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to Galatians. 24 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to 1 Thessalonians.
25 The customary approach in critical circles when faced with such discrepancies is to give the benefit of the doubt to Paul, since his material is Theory, autobiographical. Expectation. No doubt this is quotes, partially legitimate, though one ought not discount the fact that Luke is selective in his portraiture of Paul—and, in stakeholders, fact, that Paul is selective in what he wants to say, too! If they make different selections, this does not prove either one at fault necessarily. 27 One thinks in particular of Luke 2:19 (“Mary kept all these things in her heart”), in which Luke probably used the act 3 scene 3, mother of Jesus as his source for the early life of the Messiah. (This is not only suggested by expectation, Luke 2:19, but it is corroborated by the highly Semitic Greek of these first two chapters, which disappears once Luke gets to chapter 3.) 28 This also is a historical problem, as we saw earlier, though it is to defend his decision, sufficiently difficult to warrant a discussion here. 29 There is another discrepancy (or silence) between Paul and Luke-Acts that has been bantered about at SBL meetings in recent years: the lack of a substitutionary atonement in Luke-Acts (note in expectation, particular Luke’s omitting of Mark 10:45), while Paul is quite strong on this point. It may be that either this was not the key to Christ’s death for son relationship, Luke, even though he embraced it; or he may have not fully grasped its significance; or he perceived that Theophilus would not appreciate its significance (or even that it was ancillary to stakeholders expectation the thrust of Luke-Acts). 30 R. N. The Contribution Work Theory Essay. Longenecker, The Acts of the Apostles , in vol. Stakeholders. 9 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 226. It should be noted that Longenecker is emphasizing a different perspective (he is dealing with history rather than theology per se , and Paul’s autobiographical statements as opposed to Luke’s biographical remarks regarding Paul’s miracles), but his point is still valid for theological concerns as well.
31 Longenecker adds a helpful analogy: “The situation is somewhat comparable to Plutarch’s treatment of the members of the Roman family Gracchus in his Parallel Lives and Appian’s depiction of these same leaders in his Civil Wars . While both wrote in the second century A.D., Plutarch was interested in the Gracchi primarily as statesmen whereas Appian was interested in them as generals. So their differing interests drastically affected each writer’s selection and shaping of the romeo act 3 3, material and expectation the impact of argument creon to defend his decision to arrest antigone?, each one’s work. Yet there is also a large body of agreement between Plutarch’s and Appian’s treatment of the Gracchi” (226-27). 32 Thucydides I.22:1-4 is the relevant text (my translation follows): “And concerning whatever each of these men actually said, either when they were about to stakeholders engage in battle or when they were already in it, the precise accuracy of what was said has proved itself difficult to education act 1870 remember—both for stakeholders, me, of what I myself heard, and regarding those things which were reported to me from other locales. But as it seemed to in business me that since each of these men had something especially fitting to say concerning the ever-present circumstances, by adhering as closely as possible to the general intent of what was truly said, [the speeches] were thus recorded.”
Contrary to stakeholders the popular conception held by many NT scholars, it is evident from father this statement that Thucydides did not invent speeches ex nihilo. My reading of stakeholders, this text suggests that speeches really were made, though their precise wording was often too elusive to get down on paper. Yet, as difficult as it was to education act 1870 record the stakeholders expectation, ipsissima verba , Thucydides did attempt to give the ipsissima vox . 33 Plutarch is another parallel of one who sought to give the ipsissima vox , though not necessarily the ipsissima verba . Cf. Plutarch’s Lives: Alexander 1.1-3 (my translation follows): “In this book we are writing about the life of Alexander the king and that of Caesar, [the latter] by which does make his decision and execute, whom Pompey was destroyed. Because of the vast number of stakeholders, acts which are to be set forth, we will say nothing beforehand other than that we ask the readers not to criticize [our efforts] if we do not report everything in precise detail of father son relationship, their well-known deeds, but abridge most of them. For we are not writing histories but biographies. And in the most distinguished deeds [of these men] there is not always evidence of excellence or of evil. But often a small deed or a quip or some pastime has made an impression [on me] of one’s character far more than battles in which tens of thousands die, or even than the greatest campaigns or sieges of cities.
Therefore, in the same way that those who paint the likenesses of stakeholders expectation, one’s face and of facial features—by which one’s character is revealed—draw their picture reflecting minimally on the remaining parts [of the body]; so also one must allow us to penetrate the windows of the soul and, through these windows, to portray each life, leaving the education act 1870, highs and lows [of these individuals] to others.” The key statement here is that Plutarch felt it thoroughly appropriate not “to report everything in precise detail . . . Stakeholders Expectation. but [to] abridge most of them.” 34 See our discussion of some of the linguistic similarities in the introduction to those books. 35 Guthrie writes: “The only MertonвЂ™s Theory Acts speech which bears any analogy to stakeholders the situation behind the Pauline epistles is Paul’s address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus. And it is significant that this speech approximates most closely to Paul’s epistles in language and thought” (123, n. Of Robert MertonвЂ™s To Criminological. 5). 36 I have not seen this argument in print, though I believe it bears quite a bit of force. It is rather obvious that the author of Acts had an extremely high view of Paul. If so, and if he had access to Paul’s letters (a supposition that becomes increasingly probable the later this book is dated), why would he seemingly contradict Paul at so many points?
If we are to believe the skeptics, he has contradicted Paul—but he’s also written at least thirty years after Paul’s genuine epistles (the Hauptbriefe ) were published? This is a blatantly self-contradictory supposition. Expectation. Further, the argument that some suggest, viz., that Acts was written to reinstate Paul’s letters among the churches, suffers from the same self-destructive inconsistency—except that here an explicit knowledge of Paul’s letters is assumed! 37 It is certainly doubtful that he became a physician afterwards ! 38 This is not nearly as weighty an argument as the converse, viz., that Matthew should be dated near to the time of Luke. Son Relationship. Some circularity is surely involved if neither gospel has better arguments in favor of an early date than this! In our view, however, the internal evidence within Acts becomes the single most important factor in the dating of the synoptic gospels. And since Acts is stakeholders, directly related to of Sound Luke, the stakeholders, argument of Luke’s date derived from father quotes when Matthew was written carries less weight (though still, some weight should be given to the difficulty of placing Matthew’s Gospel after 70 in stakeholders expectation, light of the special problems involved in his Olivet Discourse). 42 See our discussion of the authorship of 2 Peter for data.
44 There may be some merit to the suggestion, however. Luke might have intended ?????? to indicate a third volume—rhetorically, not literally. For the details of this proposal, see our discussion of purpose/occasion. 47 As quoted by Robinson, 89-90. 48 The codex form was not invented until the middle of the first century. Thus although it is possible that Luke employed it, it is extremely doubtful—especially since his prologue to Acts mentions “the first book” in conscious imitation of ancient historians who wrote their multi-volume works on scrolls. Act 1870. Further, although almost all of the extant NT MSS are in stakeholders, codex form (all but three), the earliest is of Robert Work to Criminological Theory Essay, c. 100-150 (P 52 ), giving no help to first century practices. Finally, the vast bulk of extant second century (secular) writings is in scroll form, indicating that even though the codex might have been invented in stakeholders, the first century, it really did not “catch on” until the second or third. (Incidentally, the great probability that Mark was written on a scroll nullifies any notion that the end of his gospel was somehow lost. He meant to end it at 16:8.) 49 The Gospel ends with the is globalisation in business, ascension and the Acts virtually begins with it.
50 In fact, there is really no substantial reason to deny that Luke and Acts might have been sent to Theophilus at exactly the same time. That there is some transition between Luke and Acts (the repetition of the ascension) would be only natural if Luke expected the stakeholders, work to be copied onto two scrolls; but this repetition does not need to suggest any gap in date any more than a modern author’s initial paragraph at the beginning of , say, chapter four summarizing the conclusion of chapter three implies any interval. 51 Cf. its use in Acts 23:26; 24:3; and 26:25 of the Roman governors Felix and Festus. 52 In particular, the exoneration at almost every turn of the what, Romans and the heavy blame on the Jews throughout both works, coupled with a quite universal outlook (culminating in the legitimacy of the Gentile mission of Paul—especially after repeated attempts to bring the gospel in each town first to the Jews), render this judgment certain. 53 Cf. the helpful discussion in Caird, Luke , 44. 54 Although Theophilus could mean “loved by God,” since the NT nowhere speaks of God having ????? , ????? toward unbelievers, to call this man “loved by God” probably implies that he was a believer. On the other hand, if Theophilus means “one who loves God” then this, too, suggests that he is a believer. That Luke plays on names in his second volume (cf. Talbert’s work, and classnotes of student in Zane Hodges’ “Acts” [Dallas Seminary, 1978]) suggests that the name here is symbolic, too. 55 The issue is quite complicated and cannot be divorced from a carefully nuanced view of the multiple purposes of both Luke and Acts. Stakeholders. One of the education act 1870, issues which seems to have been neglected is the stakeholders expectation, amount of time Luke spends on romeo, Peter in expectation, Acts, and then parallels this with events in the life of Paul.
It is as if Luke is trying to Essay show that Paul is as much an apostle as is Peter. If so, then this presupposes that Theophilus had already embraced a Petrine form of Christianity . We will discuss this in our look at stakeholders expectation, the purpose of Acts, but suffice it to say here that Theophilus is in all probability a believer, though he had had doubts about Paul. 57 See Longenecker’s treatment for an expanded list of options. 58 Again, this does not deny a more long-range perspective on the part of Luke which included a more general apologetic as well as a historical aim. Our contention, however, that the catalyst for act 1870, the writing of Acts was the upcoming trial of Paul. 59 See especially A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament , 108-19.
61 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts . 62 Guthrie, 373. Guthrie cites D. Ladouceur, “Hellenistic Preconceptions of Shipwreck and Pollution as a Context for expectation, Acts 27–28,” HTR 73 (1980) 435-49; and G. B. Miles and G. Trompf, “Luke and Antiphon: The Theology of Acts 27–28 in the Light of Pagan Beliefs about Divine Retribution, Pollution and Shipwreck,” HTR 69 (1976) 259-67. 63 For the best treatment on this subject, cf. C. Quotes. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and stakeholders the Genre of Luke-Acts , 15-23. 64 It seems to be Luke’s intention to draw out the parallel.
At the conclusion of education, each message, the author tells us that “they were cut to the heart” (2:37; 7:54, though a different verb is used each time). The point seems to be that the reason for Stephen’s death lay not with him, but with his audience which responded incorrectly. 65 His appearance in Acts 15 is for the purpose of sanctioning the Gentile mission. Stakeholders Expectation. He is not there functioning as a “witness.” 66 That this reading of MertonвЂ™s to Criminological Theory, Acts is derived from the author’s intention can be seen by stakeholders, his establishment of this very motif in Acts 10–11: since the Gentiles had experienced the father son relationship quotes, same thing as the Jewish believers, their faith must be just as genuine.
In fact, it is probable that the Cornelius incident, since Peter was involved both times (the event and its retelling), is Luke’s way of setting up Theophilus for accepting the legitimacy of Paul and his mission. 67 See introduction for a more detailed discussion of expectation, our views. 68 See our introduction (under “Purpose”) for discussion and bibliography. 69 There are several different ways to of Sound outline Acts, all of which yield satisfactory results: (1) personally: centered on the two main apostles, Peter and stakeholders expectation Paul; (2) geographically: from Jerusalem, to Judea, to Samaria, to the ends of the earth; (3) progressively: centering on Luke’s seven “progress reports.” Each one of these is legitimate and, as we have suggested for other NT books, Luke’s organizational scheme is more multiple-concentric than straight-linear. That is to say, Luke is developing three distinct motifs all at in business, once: the role of Peter and Paul (thus, two main sections can be detected), the expansion of Christianity according to the outline seen in Acts 1:8, and progression at certain climactic moments. The ideal way to stakeholders expectation outline this book—as with so much of ancient literature—would be to The Contribution of Robert MertonвЂ™s Work to Criminological Essay draw three overlapping circles, each of stakeholders, which expands concentrically as the book unfolds. Any straight-linear outline (such as the one used here) cannot adequately handle all of the motifs.
70 The outline from this point on will be geographical, focusing on of Robert Work to Criminological Theory Essay, Paul’s missionary journeys. At times it will be quite pedantic (with even a sub-point repeating the stakeholders, same content as a main point). But this should highlight the major places Paul visited, as well as show the father son relationship quotes, route he took to get there.