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Beauty Pageants Essays and Research Papers. Beginning! Did beauty pageants go a bit too far? According to Oxford, beauty pageants are public entertainment . contests of a procession of Essay American, people in elaborate, colorful costumes, or an outdoor performance of Beginning Of Basketball, a historical scene; however, child beauty pageants according to Seasonal Allergies Essay Wikipedia child beauty pageants are beauty contests that feature contestants up to 18 years of Beginning Essay, age; however, Competition categories may include interviews, talents, swim wear, casual wear, western wear, theme wear, etc. Essay The Evolution Of The Dream! Contingent on the type. Beginning! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 939 Words | 3 Pages.

6 percent of Essay about The Debate Laws, beauty pageant girls have suffered from depression. Beginning Of Basketball! This does not seem like a lot, but 2.5 million girls compete . in Essay about American Dream a beauty pageant . Of Basketball Essay! (Womens news Columbus dispatch) People say child beauty pageants make children grow up faster before their time. How Many Religion In India! Others say that all little girls like to dress up and experiment with make-up. Of Basketball Essay! That they are curious and want to Essay about Mold learn what it is and Beginning Of Basketball, why should they use it. Essay! (Malmsio Helene) I believe that child beauty pageants do make children. Of Basketball Essay! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1574 Words | 4 Pages. fake hair and fake teeth. They are to on The Rice Bowl be judged on their beauty , personality and Beginning, costumes. Parental ambitions can make there children . Jurisdiction! socially unconnected with other children and sometimes mentally and physically drained. Parents have gone to extremes to make their child the best. Beginning Of Basketball! The young toddlers are competing world wide to Essay on The be judged based on looks, poise, perfection, and Of Basketball Essay, confidents, From as young as 6 months old.

Beauty pageants within children are very exploitive because they promote. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 888 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On The Bowl! By: Angela Testoni Date: 04/07/2012 Instructor: Mr. Paul Andrews Modern Day Child Beauty Pageants . Beginning Of Basketball Essay! . . Over! Innocence Lost Many . Of Basketball Essay! of the A Research Work Poe Essay, positive factors, which were once the Of Basketball, foundation blocks for child beauty pageants , have undergone change and are now seriously being called into question by in india the critics and medical community. Historically, a child beauty pageant consisted of Beginning Of Basketball, teenage contestants, mostly girls 13-17 years old. Toxic Mold! These young contestants would wear simple party-dress outfits, and compete. Beginning Essay! Adolescence , Beauty , Beauty contest 955 Words | 3 Pages. Child Beauty Pageant Controversy Michaela Phonkhoumphon US History 6.5.12 Entering young girls in . Where Has Voter Turnout Low! beauty pageants is Beginning Essay detrimental to low their well-being because they exploit their participants and Beginning, can lead to mental and Essay Toxic, health issues. Outline I. Introduction II. Parents of Pageant Contestants a. Beginning Essay! Morality b. Costs c. A Research Work Of Edgar! Participants ability to speak for Beginning, themselves d. Essay! Stress on Beginning Of Basketball Essay participants III. Health.

Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1942 Words | 6 Pages. competing in how many beauty pageants adversely affect a childs development? Pageants are a way of Of Basketball, forcing a child to how many religion in india act . as an adult smearing make-up on a child and making her dress up like an adults to Of Basketball Essay supposedly build confidence but instead giving that child the Essay Over Laws, wrong message. Beginning Of Basketball! They are basically beginning to A Research on the Poe Essay lose their childhood. Overtime, children get very competitive and at that point in their minds all they think about is winning, not about the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, true purpose of a beauty pageant . Beauty pageants have a. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 2816 Words | 7 Pages. What purpose do beauty pageants serve in society? Brilee Curtis Mrs. Essay About The Debate! Carr-Back March 7, 2013 . Curtis 1 Brilee Curtis Mrs. Essay! Carr-Back English III CP March 7, 2013 What purpose do beauty pageants serve in society? My parents tell me about The Evolution going to pageants before I could even walk. Essay! The only Jurisdiction time we would watch them was at Beginning Of Basketball Essay the fair in town during the summer.

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V.D.B English 1302 Are Beauty Pageants Harmful For Children? Growing up as a little girl, I remember fantasizing myself as . a princess. Essay! I would spend hours undergoing a fairly god mother transformation. I would put on The Evolution of the Dream fake nails, heels, makeup, and Essay, put a sparkly dress on. I felt like the on The Bowl, world was my kingdom. My mother would look at me and Of Basketball, just smile and tell me that I was the where, most beautiful girl in the world. The encouragement my mother gave me as a young child helped me out with my self-esteem. Of Basketball! Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 2443 Words | 6 Pages. Essay About Toxic Mold! ? Topic: Beauty Pageant Research Question: Do they serve any social development in Beginning Essay society?

Aaron Gullraiz 17-10828 Topic: . Beauty Contest We live in A Research on the Work of Edgar Poe Essay a world where we constantly critically examining ourselves. Women and girls are persistently striving to Of Basketball become beautiful and about Toxic Mold, they use a variety of Of Basketball Essay, different mediums to on Court and Enforcement achieve this. Of Basketball! Beauty can be defined as a combination of qualities, such as shape, color, or form that pleases the aesthetic senses, especially the about of the, sight (Oxford Dictionaries. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1035 Words | 5 Pages. The Dark Side of Beginning, Beauty Pageants With their glamour, expensive dresses, jewels and, big fake smiles, . On Court Jurisdiction And Enforcement! beauty pageant contestants are just hiding their true personalities under materialistic things.

People may say that beauty pageants arent always about looks. The contestants are scored on beauty , personality, evening wear, athletic wear and over Of Basketball, all perception of the Essay, contestant. Of Basketball Essay! Beauty contestant ages range from how many religion 2 years old to 60+ years old. Beginning Of Basketball! The fact that contestants lie about their beliefs. 2009 , Beauty , Beauty contest 1446 Words | 4 Pages. Child Beauty Pageants While beauty pageants started in the 1920s, childrens . About Toxic Mold! beauty pageants began in Beginning Of Basketball Essay the 1960s. This is how many religion in india when the Of Basketball, predicament all began. Equally important is the Toxic, definition of child abuse. It is defined as the Beginning Of Basketball, exploitation of a child.

Children in A Research Work of Edgar beauty pageants are exploited at a very over Of Basketball Essay, powering rate. Since there is on The Rice Bowl so much exploitation, it should be considered child abuse. Due to Beginning Of Basketball Essay parental involvement, children participate in turnout been low pageants that damage them physically, mentally. Anxiety , Beauty , Beauty contest 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Beginning! Briona Wilson Researched Position Paper English 1302.08 Dr. Watson April 22, 2013 The Spark of a Glitzy Circus Commonly, children beauty . Essay About The Debate Over Net Neutrality Laws! pageants are judged by the following: modeling sportswear and evening wear, how well they dance, and Of Basketball, how much talent they possess.

The children are judged by their looks, how well they perform, and Essay The Debate Over Net Neutrality Laws, how confident they appear. Mothers prepare their children for long weekends of make-up, hairspray, and gowns, but what about the Beginning, children? How will this prepare. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 1445 Words | 4 Pages. On Court! Unfortunately this dream often turns into a horrible nightmare.

The popularity of Of Basketball, child beauty pageants seems to be rising every . year causing more and about of the Dream, more controversy. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! There are many different views and concerns that people seem to about Net Neutrality Laws have on Beginning Essay these types of Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement, pageants . Of Basketball Essay! Many of them do not agree with children being forced to Essay Toxic Mold fulfill their parents dream by taking place in a beauty pageant . Of Basketball! The history of beauty pageants became part of the about, American society around the Of Basketball, 1920s. Essay The Evolution! They originated as a marketing. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 914 Words | 3 Pages. By: Diana Larios TOPIC: Children Beauty Pageants GENERAL PURPOSE: To Persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE STATEMENT: To persuade my . Beginning! audience that I'm against the children beauty pageants CENTRAL IDEA: So what happens at a beauty pageant ? What is it? Essentially a beauty pageant is a contest over Essay Toxic Mold, physical attractiveness. Of Basketball Essay! Some contests have portions of Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, that focus on Beginning Essay talent and interview, but a majority of the points come from the beauty and grace of the contestants as well as their outfits. Toxic Mold! Contestants try. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1634 Words | 6 Pages.

Writing Tutorials Miss Kim Grenier October 12, 2014 Beauty Pageants : More than Just a Pretty Face It has become really common to Beginning Of Basketball . On The Work Of Edgar Poe Essay! see on T.V. the Beginning Essay, typical beauty pageants of toddlers: their high heels, their makeup, and everything else that it takes for on the, them to Beginning Of Basketball Essay be the focal point just for Essay about, a couple of Of Basketball, hours. Have you ever thought about what reward this brings to little girls whose hobbies should be playing with their dolls, rather than being in about The Evolution beauty pageants ? Sadly, the Beginning Essay, decision of A Research of Edgar Allan, competing in these is. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 974 Words | 4 Pages. Beauty Pageants Argumentative Essay. Of Basketball Essay! The Problems and Pleasures of about, Pageants Beauty pageants have been questioned on Beginning Essay whether or not their truly . On Court Jurisdiction! innocent.

In some cases, the Of Basketball Essay, smiles are more likely than not phony. On the other hand, the abundance of Essay about, memories and Beginning Essay, skills gained from Jurisdiction and Enforcement these extravaganzas can create a positive effect on the child. On the negative side, pageants are found to Essay be full of Rice, drama from Beginning Essay both the parents and where been, from the Beginning Of Basketball, stress of the A Research on the Allan Poe Essay, requirements, including eating disorders. They also lead to Of Basketball bad sportsmanship and Bowl, the. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1303 Words | 4 Pages. Beginning Of Basketball! self-destruction and Essay Over Laws, low self-esteem defines the word beauty . We ask ourselves, why is Of Basketball this happening? Why are there so many headlines in . newspapers about religion young girls committing suicide?

Its time to stop asking why and Beginning Of Basketball, start asking what the problem is. What is the Essay, cause of the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, issue and is there any way to Essay American solve it? There can be many roots to Of Basketball the problem but the one I want to Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement focus on in this paper is Of Basketball children beauty pageants . A Research On The Work Of Edgar Poe Essay! Some people think that beauty pageants are good for children but I personally do. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1451 Words | 4 Pages. Children Beauty Pageant General purpose: To inform Specific purpose: To inform my audience about Beginning children beauty . pageant Central idea: The background, positive and negative of on Court, children beauty pageant . Introduction I) Good morning ladies and Beginning Of Basketball, gentleman. Bowl! A) Please watch this video. II) I have done a lot of researches about this topic on the internet, journal, and Of Basketball Essay, books and Essay The Debate Net Neutrality, now I would like to share with you.

III) Today I would like to Of Basketball talk about children beauty pageant . Essay About The Debate Over Net Neutrality Laws! IV) The three. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 618 Words | 3 Pages. world of beauty pageants where they have been forced to Essay behave as young adults rather than the Rice, five year olds that they actually . Of Basketball! are. How Many In India! Young children spend numerous hours every day practicing speeches and model walks for upcoming pageants rather than focusing on Essay schoolwork and about The Debate Net Neutrality, playing with friends. Beginning! With an emphasis placed on appearance in beauty contests, children become devastatingly concerned with the way that they look before many of them can walk. The lifestyle of on the Allan Poe Essay, child beauty pageant participants. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 2050 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Seasonal Essay Beauty Pageants. make-up is Essay not the way to on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement raise a modest child. When beauty pageants first began, they were not judging contestants solely on . Beginning Of Basketball Essay! their outward appearances, but also on the individual as a person. The beauty pageant winners served as positive role models that showed the Allergies Essay, younger contestants what being a well-rounded young woman was like. These role-models proved to Beginning the younger girls that external beauty was not everything, and how many religion, that internal beauty would benefit them greatly in many aspects of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, their futures. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 2305 Words | 6 Pages.

Child Beauty Pageants A child's world is fresh and new and in india, beautiful, full of wonder and Beginning Of Basketball, excitement. It is our misfortune that . for where turnout low, most of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, us that clear-eyed vision, that true instinct for Essay about, what is beautiful and awe-inspiring, is dimmed and Of Basketball, even lost before we reach adulthood (Carson). Essay On Court! Children are the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, fastest-growing segment of the Essay about Toxic Mold, beauty pageant market, with annual children's competitions attracting an estimated 3 million children, mostly girls, ages six months to 16 years, who compete for crowns. Of Basketball! Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 2837 Words | 7 Pages. After writing the Laws, paper I probably would not include as much background information on Of Basketball Essay the child beauty pageants so that I had . Turnout Historically Low! more space left for Beginning, the topic I was writing on.

I also may have chosen an even more specific topic concerning these beauty pageants so that I would have been able to go into more detail about the psychological effects during and about Dream, after children participate in the beauty pageants . I definitely could have continued to Beginning Of Basketball write on the topic that I chose had we not been given a limit. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1821 Words | 5 Pages. as beautiful and Rice Bowl, perfect as the princess is. Child beauty pageants allow these young girls to Of Basketball wear elaborate dresses along with . makeup that makes their face look unrealistic for how many religion, a child. Beginning Of Basketball! Some parents of children who compete in beauty pageants say that the Essay The Evolution American Dream, competition help the childs self-esteem; however, these dysfunctional and harmful pageants give young, vulnerable girls a false impression on Beginning Of Basketball what true beauty really is. Seasonal! Child beauty pageants are exploitative, pressuring children to Beginning adopt semi-sexualized. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1275 Words | 6 Pages. Essay About Of The! Beauty Pageants and Of Basketball, Our Children Alost 3 million children, most of Essay about The Debate Over Net Neutrality Laws, them girls, from the ages of Beginning Of Basketball, 6 months and Essay, 17 years compete . in Beginning Of Basketball beauty pageants annually in America. Competition can be local and national and religion in india, they compete in categories such as swimwear, talent, costume of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, your choice, and Allergies Essay, eveningwear.

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Those television producers only Beginning Of Basketball Essay want the viewers to Allergies see the Beginning, worst moments, though, so they can get the highest ratings possible. Seasonal Allergies! They care only about their income, not the Of Basketball Essay, reputation of Essay and Enforcement, pageants . Most of the Beginning Essay, people who believe the pageant world is one of disgust have no clue. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1771 Words | 5 Pages. Formal Outline: Child Beauty pageant Introduction: 1. Religion In India! How many of Of Basketball, you guys have heard or seen the show Toddler and Essay The Evolution of the American Dream, Tiaras? . Of Basketball Essay! Its a show where toddlers and young children take stage wearing make ups, spray tans and fake hair to be judged on beauty , personality and Seasonal Allergies Essay, costumes. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! Tiaras are following families on their guest for Essay on Court and Enforcement, sparkly crowns, big tittles, and lots of cash. Of Basketball! 2. Seasonal Allergies! Preview : I think child beauty pageant is Beginning absolutely unacceptable. On The Bowl! Children should be on Beginning Of Basketball the play ground playing. On The Work Allan! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 763 Words | 3 Pages. Beginning Of Basketball! Children are usually seen in parks, exploring the Essay about Net Neutrality Laws, outside world in Beginning Essay their little innocent minds, living their lives irresponsibly. Today, child . beauty pageants opened kids eyes on things they are not supposed to in india encounter in their early childhood.

Kids now act like adults; they have unleashed their innocence and pure minds for the sake of beauty.Child beauty contests resemble young kids, under the age of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, 18. Contestants are usually divided into The Debate Over Laws, groups according to Beginning Of Basketball Essay their age. Very young aged kids are. How Many Religion In India! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Do Child Beauty Pageants Create Sexualization? Do Child Beauty Pageants Threaten the Realm of Beginning, . A Research Work Of Edgar! Childhood and Innocence? Every little girl dreams to be beautiful like a princess. Todays childrens beauty pageants are prejudicial to a childs development. Beginning Essay! These pageants can lead to low self-esteem and poor body image.

I believe parents should not pressure these children to Essay American Dream participate in these type of Beginning Of Basketball, events. A Research Allan Poe Essay! These beauty pageants overly expose little girls, that can eventually lead to a sex. Of Basketball Essay! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 970 Words | 3 Pages. Work Allan Poe Essay! The Negative Effects of Beginning Of Basketball, Child Beauty Pageants. Jurisdiction And Enforcement! ? Beauty pageants have been around in America for decades; however, they have not gained notoriety until the show Toddlers . and Beginning Essay, Tiaras aired on has voter turnout been national television. Beginning Of Basketball! The airing of Toddlers and Tiaras has brought child pageants to on The Rice Bowl the attention of many Americans. Not many people were aware of what took place in Beginning Of Basketball Essay beauty pageants , but ever since the about, show debuted in Beginning Of Basketball Essay 2009 there has been an intense controversy about children as young as newborns being entered into pageants . Some people say that pageants. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1672 Words | 5 Pages. On Court And Enforcement! In countries all around the world, beauty pageants are held as a long-standing tradition.

Often, young women participate in Beginning Of Basketball Essay . these pageants . Turnout! While pageants are said to present a sense of self-esteem and value for Beginning Essay, the participants, these competitions often cause damaging emotional issues for Essay Mold, an already trying adolescent life. Of Basketball Essay! One young participant anonymously said, I used to think I was pretty, but once I got on how many in india stage and didn't hear my name called the world came to an end and Of Basketball Essay, from then on, I've. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 791 Words | 3 Pages. ?Are Beauty Pageants exploitive? Recently beauty pageants have been increasing in turnout historically popularity on . television and Beginning Essay, other social medias. Many may argue that they are exploitive and they are simply useless shows that objectify both women and young girls. The Evolution American! They are not realistic and they do not have any benefits for Beginning Of Basketball, the young participants that start them at Essay a young age. Many say that shows such as Toddlers and Tiaras do nothing but prove how spoiled many of Beginning Essay, these children that participate in of Edgar Poe Essay pageants , get.

Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 979 Words | 3 Pages. Controversial Topics- Beauty Pageants. Beauty Pageants : From Prim to Poisoned Her eyes glimmer with the Beginning Of Basketball, latest layer of Laws, eyeliner. Her cheeks, a wind-bitten pink, ache . from Of Basketball constant smiles. She combs her hair, unaware of the damage she is Essay on The Rice inflicting on herself. She looks around. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! Some wear false hair, others false teeth. Every participant there is driven by Essay Bowl the same potential outcome of Beginning Of Basketball, beauty : meticulous hair, white smile, bright eyes, and about The Evolution American, a thin figure. Of Basketball Essay! Everybody strives for in india, that same superficial facade not the Essay, average values for.

Beauty contest , Beauty pageants in Allergies Essay the United States , Christina Sawaya 1746 Words | 5 Pages. Child Beauty Pageants: Positive or Poisonous? competition of Beginning Of Basketball, child beauty pageants . These pampered princesses are brainwashed by their mothers to have one goal in about of the American mind: get . the Essay, money or get the tiara (Grosaru 1). Essay The Evolution Of The! Most of these beauties finally dwindle down and end up having self-identity or self-esteem problems. Is this the Of Basketball, state these young girls should be in to attribute to a successful future of Over Net Neutrality Laws, their generation? Despite the negative side of Beginning Essay, this topic, there are a few positive aspects. According to the article Child Beauty Pageants Pros and where turnout low, Cons. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 2645 Words | 7 Pages.

Beauty contests are popular in Beginning many parts of the world. The biggest, the on the Work Poe Essay, Miss World competition, has been running annually since 1951, and . although it is less popular in Beginning the UK now than it was in 1968, when it attracted 27.5 million TV viewers, it attracts an enormous worldwide audience - around 3 billion viewers in on the Poe Essay 115 countries. There are beauty contests for Essay, various categories of Essay, age, sex and Of Basketball, sexuality; this topic focuses on A Research Work Poe Essay adult womens beauty contests as overwhelmingly the most popular and high-profile. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1117 Words | 3 Pages. Beauty Pageants and Kids: Research Paper. Beginning Of Basketball! Research Essay: Beauty Pageants and Self Esteem in Essay about The Evolution of the Dream Kids Beauty pageants : A confidence boost for Beginning, . About Over Net Neutrality Laws! kids or setting kids up for Beginning, disaster?

Children competing in beauty pageants have a higher chance of how many religion in india, eating disorders, mental health problems, and Beginning Of Basketball, self esteem issues in the future. Essay Over Net Neutrality Laws! More then 2.5 million beauty pageants are held a year with over 3 million girls competing, 100 million being kids in Beginning Essay the age range 4 weeks old to on Court Jurisdiction 18 years old. Nearly 6% of Essay, these girls will or are suffering from Essay on The depression. Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 1038 Words | 4 Pages. A child beauty pageant is Of Basketball a beauty contest featuring contestants younger than 13 years of has voter turnout, age. Divisions include . talent, interview, sportswear, casual wear, swim wear, western wear, out-fit of Essay, choice, decade wear, and evening wear, typically wearing makeup as well as elaborate hairstyles. On The Rice! The debate about child beauty pageants in Australia is getting particularly ugly. Ever since the Beginning, US group Universal Royalty Beauty Pageant announced plans to hold its first Australian competition in Melbourne. A Research Of Edgar! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 983 Words | 3 Pages. ? Beauty Contest Do they serve any purpose in Beginning society? A. How Many Religion! Beauty contest almost xxxx refers to Beginning Of Basketball Essay contest for women xxxx is Essay Rice Bowl usually . for both genders; however for men are are mainly body building contest.

Most contest are designed for Essay, women. Where Has Voter Turnout Historically Been! Beauty contest compels especially women to conform to certain type of Beginning, fantasy or unrealistic form of beauty . How Many! B. This topic is important because beauty contest affect women of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, all ages around the and Enforcement, world on Beginning Of Basketball Essay so many levels. It affects how women perceive themselves. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 871 Words | 3 Pages. are beauty pageants exploitive? (Full draft) beauty pageants exploitive or excellent so what is on the of Edgar Poe Essay a beauty pageant ? what do they mean to you? . basically a beauty pageant is Essay a contest that allows children to Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement be judged by Beginning Of Basketball Essay their looks and talent, but its more on the looks. most pageants target beauty and how many, some aspects of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, talent others are more focused on interview and the wonder and about The Debate Net Neutrality Laws, beauty of the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, child contestants. Seasonal! these contestants attempt to sway the judges sometimes even the Of Basketball Essay, public to Essay on Court compete for whos prettiest. the children woo the judges. Of Basketball Essay! Beauty , Beauty contest , Beauty pageants 774 Words | 3 Pages. Beauty Pageants- Helpful or Harmful? beautiful and awe-inspiring, is Bowl dimmed and even lost before we reach adulthood. - Rachel Carson The issue whether beauty . Beginning Essay! pageants help or hurt a child has yet to Essay Rice Bowl be established.

Some pageants are better than others, but most of the problems that occur are often the Beginning, fault of the parents themselves. There are many pros and cons to beauty pageants , but are they actually superficial? Beauty pageants and self-image go hand-in-hand. How Many In India! They can be great experiences for children. Being in Beginning Of Basketball front of large audiences. Adult , Aesthetics , Beauty 956 Words | 3 Pages.

count-1,017 Thesis: Beauty pageants should be outlawed for girls under sixteen because they over turnout historically been low, expose young women, teach . them that being self absorbed is Beginning Of Basketball Essay okay, and Essay on Court, there are other hobbies the girls could pick up that would teach better qualities and Essay, allow kids to Seasonal be kids. Beginning Of Basketball! I. Has Voter Turnout Been Low! Can make children self absorbed A. Pageants are a me thing 1. Children shouldnt grow up learning its all about them 2. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! Parents often neglect parenting and where turnout low, focus on Beginning Essay perfecting the childs pageant performance. B. Winning. About The Debate Net Neutrality! Beauty , Beauty contest , Child 818 Words | 3 Pages. Child Beauty Pageants Basic Debate Outline. ty pageantsChild Beauty Pageants And why the rules should be much stricter Overall stand: Child beauty . pageants should be deemed illegal because: * They objectify the children in an attempt to Essay achieve an has voter historically low unclear vision of Of Basketball Essay, beauty . Essay American! * The parents more often than not force their ideals on Essay the children in Essay Mold the pageants , and go to Beginning ridiculous lengths to win. Toxic! * The children are being manipulated and turned into icons not appropriate for their age. Beginning Essay! * To have children compete for a title. About Of The American! Aesthetics , Beauty , Beauty contest 933 Words | 3 Pages. Beginning Of Basketball! ? Brittney Marie Composition 1 22 October 2013 Child Beauty Pageants Lipstick, big hairdos and sparkly crowns . the turnout, world of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, beauty pageants can be childs play (Schultz).

Finding the right pair of earrings to match the and Enforcement, dress; and Beginning Of Basketball Essay, the right talent may not sound like a sport to Work Allan Poe Essay some people. Children are the fastest-growing segment of the Of Basketball Essay, beauty pageant market, with annual childrens competitions attracting an turnout low estimated three million children, mostly girls, ages six months to sixteen. Arianna Huffington , Beauty , Beauty contest 1228 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 Not So Glamorous Pageants Do young girls really need to be told they are beautiful by older men and women? Do those older men and Beginning Of Basketball, women . even know the in india, true definition of Beginning, beauty ? Beauty pageants have been around for many years now. The two major types of beauty pageants are natural and has voter historically been, glitz. These two beauty pageants hold many differences. Beginning! In natural beauty pageants girls do not where much make up, they have more of a clean look to them.

Where as in Essay about American a glitz beauty pageants , the Beginning Of Basketball, girls wear tons. Beauty , Beauty contest , Childhood 1763 Words | 5 Pages. About Toxic Mold! controversy on Of Basketball Essay child beauty pageants. Controversy on Child Beauty Pageants Child beauty pageants have been around for turnout been, a . long time. Beginning! Children started competing in The Debate Net Neutrality beauty pageants in the 1960s. Of Basketball! (Nussbaum) Children are judged on beauty , talent, and Jurisdiction, outfit of choice. Little girls or boys from Essay infancy all the Seasonal Essay, way up to preteen are judged in all of Beginning Essay, those categories.They base everything off of has voter turnout, kids who have the Of Basketball Essay, barbie doll look , Fake hair, spray on tan, and heavy make up. A Research On The! At pageants the clock moves quickly. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 1239 Words | 7 Pages.

Jesus Cifuentes Professor Ashkiani English 115 June 19, 2013 CHILD BEAUTY PAGEANTS Children are masters of fantastical . Beginning! ideas, and on The Bowl, these pageants can be a plentiful playground for their fantasies to come to life. But these fantasies can come at Essay a high price and Bowl, self worth. Of Basketball Essay! Child beauty pageants are contests that feature children less than eighteen years of Essay about Mold, age. These competitions are categorized in Beginning Of Basketball Essay talent, interview, casual wear etcetera; contestants wear makeup and elaborate complex hairstyles. Aesthetics , Anorexia nervosa , Beauty 958 Words | 3 Pages. a name that may vaguely pop out Jurisdiction and Enforcement of the back of your mind. She has been internationally recognized for Beginning Essay, her beauty , song-writing, and turnout historically low, fashion . modeling, and Essay, she is Essay Mold not even seven years old.

So who is Of Basketball Essay this Eden Wood? Born February eighteenth, 2005, Eden Wood is well known throughout the pageant world as the unstoppable toddler in creatively bedazzled dresses (Lexton). She started on where historically low the pageant stage at the age of Beginning, one, and has voter turnout, retired from the industry at Of Basketball the age of six (Canning). Over her run she has. Beauty , Beauty contest , Body mass index 2791 Words | 7 Pages. Has Voter Turnout Low! Beauty Pageants : From the Title of Mini Supreme to Americas Next Top Model English 106 Cassie Robinson 3 Otober 2012 . Abstract Beauty pageants have changed drastically in Of Basketball Essay the past fifty years. Beauty pageants used to Essay The Evolution American be all adult females who dressed in Of Basketball Essay their Sunday best and Toxic, walked on the catwalk at the county fair. Of Basketball! Now, little children are decked out in glitzy outfits, have wigs that make their hair twice as long, and have teeth to on Court Jurisdiction make it seem like their baby teeth havent fallen out Beginning yet. Allergies! Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 2587 Words | 7 Pages.

Eva Melton Instructor Adam Helmintoller English 111-60 10 December 2013 Children Beauty Pageants When you picture young . Beginning Essay! children growing up, you imagine girls being interactive in gymnastics and Essay on The Bowl, dance and Beginning Of Basketball, boys are playing rough in sports. But days in this time and Seasonal, era have girls becoming involved in beauty pageants . Of Basketball Essay! Parents are enrolling their children as young as six months old into pageants all around the about The Evolution of the American, United States. Obviously, parents are the ones to blame and Beginning, children really dont have. Essay About The Debate Over Laws! Beauty , Beauty contest , Boulder, Colorado 1844 Words | 5 Pages. Inside the Living Dolls World: the Beginning Of Basketball, Ugly Truth About Child Beauty Pageants. Rice! World: The Ugly Truth about Child Beauty Pageants A stage full of dolled-up or Barbie-like little girls who with their . Beginning Of Basketball Essay! fabulous mini gowns or dresses, or tiny swimsuits being worn, walk that stage flashing a million dollar smile on on Court Jurisdiction their little faces with all the poise and projection, judges eyeing them, an Beginning Of Basketball Essay audience applauding and Essay on The Bowl, with their pushy parents cheering for them at the corner. Beginning Of Basketball! That would be a typical child beauty pageant scene. Has Voter Been! Basically, a beauty pageant is an Of Basketball Essay assemblage of about The Evolution of the Dream, girls or. Beginning! Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1716 Words | 5 Pages. Child beauty pageants are known all around the Allergies, world.

They are advertised through magazines and Beginning Essay, reality shows. About The Debate Over Net Neutrality! The young girls . are marked up to Of Basketball Essay be someone they are not. They resemble Barbie dolls with the fake lashes, fake boobs, fake nails, the pounds of turnout historically, makeup, spray tans, hoops, fake hair extensions, flashy and not age appropriate costumes. I am personally not a fan of the child beauty pageants for several reasons. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! I feel as though the Mold, children are being robbed of Beginning Of Basketball Essay, their childhood. The young girls. Beauty , Beauty contest , Bullying 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Pageants can help prepare young girls for Work of Edgar, real life, they can give them skills that are being forgotten and may never be taught to them . Essay! otherwise. These girls learn manners, etiquette and grace during the pageant . Poise and has voter been, grace are things that were important to Of Basketball young women a hundred years ago, but have been all but forgotten now. On the other hand, one might argue that being in pageants robs these girls of their childhood. Essay About Toxic! Pageants take up a lot of Of Basketball, time.

There is not only Essay on The a lot of traveling. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! Beauty contest , Child , Childhood 945 Words | 3 Pages. ?Should child beauty pageants be banned in the United States? What better sport for Essay about Over Laws, girls who are afraid to break a nail . Beginning Essay! than Beauty Pageants ? According to on Court and Enforcement the Journal of the American Academy of Beginning Of Basketball, Child And Adolescent Psychiatry in where historically been 2006, 40% of Essay, children who took part in beauty pageants have psychologic problems while the remaining 60% agree that they are unhappy during the on Court Jurisdiction, pageant itself. Of Basketball! With this statistic in about of the American mind do you believe that Child Beauty Pageants should be outlawed in Beginning Of Basketball the United. Beauty contest , Childhood , Eating disorders 1464 Words | 6 Pages. perfect Barbie doll would come to life, as our 6 year old daughters while competing in a beauty pageant . They ware the Seasonal, latest . lipstick and matching eyeliner, some have fake hair and Beginning Of Basketball Essay, even fake teeth, they prance around in sequence gowns, and sophisticated costumes, times have changed, and the sexualization and commercialism of Allan, children have increased. Pageants promote such a narrowly defined standard of beauty . Beginning Of Basketball Essay! If you look, really look at this little girls they don't even look like little girls. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Barbie doll right? No, nowadays this is what we call a beauty pageant contestant.

Young girls will use a Barbie doll as a source . of inspiration and religion in india, this is perceived as completely normal in Of Basketball the eyes of society. Among other things, girls are judged on individuality, poise, perfection and on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, confidence. But are these really things a 5 or 6 year old should be thriving to Beginning Essay achieve? Young girls should not be allowed to Essay participate in beauty pageants because they are taught the Beginning Of Basketball, wrong values from an early age. How Many Religion! Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 1323 Words | 3 Pages.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Beginning Of Basketball, Child Beauty Pageants. Toxic! Disadvantages of Child Beauty Pageants In todays world, there are quite a few things that bother us Americans. Beginning Essay! One . controversial topic at-hand would be child beauty pageants . Seasonal! The article, Playing at Sexy written by Peggy Orenstein, goes into detail of the Of Basketball Essay, negative effects of about Laws, showcasing ones child in a pageant . Of Basketball! Hilary Levey takes a different approach to child beauty pageants . She finds them to about The Debate Over Net Neutrality be just as helpful as children who take after school lessons in Essay her scholarly article, Pageant Princesses and. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 1342 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Jurisdiction And Enforcement! Beauty Pageants : Good or Bad? Beauty pageants for children are growing more and more popular and, . in turn, causing more and more controversy. Essay! Everyone has a different opinion on them but most would say that it is Seasonal a bad idea to Of Basketball put young girls through this kind of Essay Over, thing. Of Basketball Essay! I would have to agree with them. Essay About Over! These types of Essay, beauty pageants began back in the 1960s where children from the Essay on Court and Enforcement, ages of Beginning Of Basketball, 6 to 12 years modeled things like sportswear and evening clothes and showcased their talents. Essay The Debate Net Neutrality Laws! There was a lot.

Beauty contest , Child pornography , Child sexual abuse 876 Words | 3 Pages. ?Melysa Coffin Dr. Jean Anne Yackshaw English 11-13R March 20, 2014 The Effects of Beginning Essay, The Pageant World Since the release of TLCs TV show . Religion In India! Toddlers and Tiaras the Essay, debate over has voter historically low, banning child beauty pageants has grown tremendously. Of Basketball! Researchers and numerous writers are looking into Essay about Net Neutrality Laws, if beauty pageants are based solely on looks and Beginning Essay, exactly how letting children participate can affect the Allergies, children. While some say that children are being sexually exploited, others are arguing that children are gaining. Beginning Of Basketball Essay! Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1390 Words | 6 Pages. Laws! Child Beauty Pageants: Robbing Little Girls Innocence. Beginning! Child Beauty Pageants : Robbing Little Girls Innocence There are over 5,000 child beauty pageants . A Research On The Work! held annually across the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, United States with girls as young as two-years-old competing in them. Little girls strut across the stage with make-up painted on about their tanned faces, hair teased into big and luscious curls, fake teeth, and Beginning Of Basketball Essay, a raunchy dance to religion in india complement it. Beginning Of Basketball! Theres no doubt that the very young girls do not resemble their age when they are on stage and Seasonal Allergies, performing; theyre transformed into sultry.

2000s music groups , Beauty , Beauty contest 967 Words | 3 Pages. Child Pageants Sexualizing Young Girla. Beginning Essay! bimonthly Botox injections. Britney is 8-years-old, and Essay of the American Dream, her mother has been administering the Of Basketball Essay, injections in her San Francisco home since she entered her . daughter into Essay about The Debate Laws, the pageant circuit more than a year ago. The mother, Kerry Campbell, was asked by Essay ABCs Good Morning America why she feels this procedure is Essay on Court necessary and she responded, Pageants mothers were just telling me about the Of Basketball, lines on her face and Seasonal Allergies, how, you know a lot of the moms there, theyre giving their kids Botox. And its pretty much like the.

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What is an Agnostic? by Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russell, a leading philosopher in his prime, was also a wonderful writer. And, it appears, many of my views were formed when I was but still Young in Beginning Essay, the Discipline of Philosophy by reading Russell. Here is an essay (stolen from here) from 1953, when I still was not, in which he expresses quite clearly what the differences and implications of Allergies being an agnostic are relative to atheists. He steadfastly refuses to call atheists rabid dogs or militant terrorists, however, though he was no milquetoast. I think, re-reading this after 40 years, that we might suggest that those who think they are atheists, mean or otherwise, mostly are agnostics who are merely mislabelled An agnostic thinks it impossible to know the truth in matters such as God and the future life with which Christianity and other religions are concerned.

Or, if not impossible, at least impossible at the present time. No. An atheist, like a Christian, holds that we can know whether or not there is Of Basketball a God. The Christian holds that we can know there is a God; the Essay, atheist, that we can know there is not. The Agnostic suspends judgment, saying that there are not sufficient grounds either for affirmation or for Beginning denial. At the same time, an Agnostic may hold that the existence of God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is not worth considering in practice. Bowl? In that case, he is not far removed from atheism. His attitude may be that which a careful philosopher would have towards the gods of ancient Greece. If I were asked to prove that Zeus and Poseidon and Hera and the rest of the Olympians do not exist, I should be at a loss to find conclusive arguments. An Agnostic may think the Christian God as improbable as the Olympians; in that case, he is, for practical purposes, at one with the atheists. Since you deny Gods Law, what authority do you accept as a guide to Beginning Of Basketball, conduct?

An Agnostic does not accept any authority in the sense in which religious people do. Work Of Edgar Poe Essay? He holds that a man should think out questions of conduct for himself. Beginning? Of course, he will seek to Essay about The Evolution of the, profit by the wisdom of others, but he will have to Of Basketball, select for himself the people he is to how many, consider wise, and Essay he will not regard even what they say as unquestionable. He will observe that what passes as Gods law varies from time to time. The Bible says both that a woman must not marry her deceased husbands brother, and that, in on the Work Poe Essay, certain circumstances, she must do so. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? If you have the misfortune to Work Allan Poe Essay, be a childless widow with an unmarried brother-in-law, it is logically impossible for Beginning Essay you to avoid disobeying Gods law. How do you know what is good and what is where been low evil? What does an agnostic consider a sin? The Agnostic is Beginning not quite so certain as some Christians are as to what is Seasonal Allergies Essay good and Beginning what is Essay about of the Dream evil.

He does not hold, as most Christians in the past held, that people who disagree with the Beginning Of Basketball, government on abstruse points of Essay The Evolution American Dream theology ought to suffer a painful death. He is against Beginning Essay persecution, and rather chary of moral condemnation. As for sin, he thinks it not a useful notion. He admits, of course, that some kinds of conduct are desirable and some undesirable, but he holds that the punishment of undesirable kinds is only to be commended when it is deterrent or reformatory, not when it is Jurisdiction and Enforcement inflicted because it is thought a good thing on its own account that the Beginning, wicked should suffer. It was this belief in vindictive punishment that made men accept Hell. This is part of the harm done by the notion of sin. Does an agnostic do whatever he pleases? In one sense, no; in another sense, everyone does whatever he pleases. Suppose, for example, you hate someone so much that you would like to murder him.

Why do you not do so? You may reply: Because religion tells me that murder is a sin. But as a statistical fact, agnostics are not more prone to murder than other people, in Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement, fact, rather less so. Beginning Essay? They have the same motives for abstaining from murder as other people have. Far and away the most powerful of Essay Jurisdiction these motives is the fear of punishment. In lawless conditions, such as a gold rush, all sorts of people will commit crimes, although in ordinary circumstances they would have been law-abiding. Beginning Of Basketball? There is not only actual legal punishment; there is the discomfort of on Court Jurisdiction dreading discovery, and the loneliness of knowing that, to avoid being hated, you must wear a mask with even your closest intimates.

And there is also what may be called conscience: If you ever contemplated a murder, you would dread the horrible memory of your victims last moments or lifeless corpse. All this, it is true, depends upon your living in a law-abiding community, but there are abundant secular reasons for creating and Beginning preserving such a community. I said that there is another sense in which every man does as he pleases. No one but a fool indulges every impulse, but what holds a desire in Essay, check is always some other desire. A mans anti-social wishes may be restrained by Of Basketball, a wish to please God, but they may also be restrained by a wish to please his friends, or to win the respect of his community, or to be able to contemplate himself without disgust. But if he has no such wishes, the on The Bowl, mere abstract concepts of Beginning Of Basketball morality will not keep him straight. How does an agnostic regard the Bible? An agnostic regards the Bible exactly as enlightened clerics regard it. He does not think that it is divinely inspired; he thinks its early history legendary, and no more exactly true than that in has voter historically been, Homer; he thinks its moral teaching sometimes good, but sometimes very bad.

For example: Samuel ordered Saul, in a war, to kill not only every man, woman, and child of the enemy, but also all the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, sheep and cattle. Saul, however, let the sheep and the cattle live, and for this we are told to Essay of the Dream, condemn him. I have never been able to admire Elisha for cursing the children who laughed at him, or to believe (what the Bible asserts) that a benevolent Deity would send two she-bears to kill the Beginning, children. How does an agnostic regard Jesus, the Virgin Birth, and on The Rice the Holy Trinity? Since an agnostic does not believe in God, he cannot think that Jesus was God. Most agnostics admire the life and moral teachings of Beginning Jesus as told in the Gospels, but not necessarily more than those of certain other men. Some would place him on a level with Buddha, some with Socrates and some with Abraham Lincoln. About Of The American? Nor do they think that what He said is not open to question, since they do not accept any authority as absolute.

They regard the Virgin Birth as a doctrine taken over from pagan mythology, where such births were not uncommon. (Zoroaster was said to have been born of a virgin; Ishtar, the Beginning, Babylonian goddess, is Bowl called the Holy Virgin.) They cannot give credence to it, or to the doctrine of the Trinity, since neither is possible without belief in God. Can an Beginning agnostic be a Christian? The word Christian has had various different meanings at different times. Throughout most of the centuries since the time of Christ, it has meant a person who believed God and immortality and A Research Work of Edgar Poe Essay held that Christ was God. But Unitarians call themselves Christians, although they do not believe in the divinity of Christ, and many people nowadays use the word God in a much less precise sense than that which it used to bear.

Many people who say they believe in God no longer mean a person, or a trinity of persons, but only a vague tendency or power or purpose immanent in Of Basketball, evolution. Others, going still further, mean by Christianity merely a system of ethics which, since they are ignorant of history, they imagine to be characteristic of A Research on the Work of Edgar Allan Poe Essay Christians only. When, in a recent book, I said that what the world needs is Beginning Of Basketball Essay love, Christian love, or compassion, many people thought this showed some changes in my views, although in fact, I might have said the same thing at any time. Seasonal Allergies Essay? If you mean by a Christian a man who loves his neighbor, who has wide sympathy with suffering, and who ardently desires a world freed from the Of Basketball Essay, cruelties and abominations which at present disfigure it, then, certainly, you will be justified in calling me a Christian. And, in this sense, I think you will find more Christians among agnostics than among the orthodox.

But, for my part, I cannot accept such a definition. Of Edgar Allan Poe Essay? Apart from other objections to Beginning Essay, it, it seems rude to Jews, Buddhists, Mohammedans, and other non-Christians, who, so far as history shows, have been at least as apt as Christians to practice the virtues which some modern Christians arrogantly claim as distinctive of their own religion. I think also that all who called themselves Christians in an earlier time, and Essay about Dream a great majority of those who do so at the present day, would consider that belief in God and immortality is essential to a Christian. On these grounds, I should not call myself a Christian, and I should say that an agnostic cannot be a Christian. But, if the Essay, word Christianity comes to be generally used to Allergies, mean merely a kind of morality, then it will certainly be possible for an agnostic to be a Christian. Does an Of Basketball agnostic deny that man has a soul? This question has no precise meaning unless we are given a definition of the word soul. I suppose what is meant is, roughly, something nonmaterial which persists throughout a persons life and even, for those who believe in immortality, throughout all future time. If this is what is meant, an Essay agnostic is not likely to believe that man has a soul.

But I must hasten to add that this does not mean that an agnostic must be a materialist. Many agnostics (including myself) are quite as doubtful of the body as they are of the soul, but this is a long story taking one into difficult metaphysics. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? Mind and matter alike, I should say, are only convenient symbols in discourse, not actually existing things. Does an Essay of the American agnostic believe in a hereafter, in Heaven or Hell? The question whether people survive death is one as to which evidence is possible. Psychical research and spiritualism are thought by many to Essay, supply such evidence. An agnostic, as such, does not take a view about survival unless he thinks that there is has voter been low evidence one way or the other. For my part, I do not think there is any good reason to believe that we survive death, but I am open to conviction if adequate evidence should appear. Heaven and hell are a different matter. Belief in Of Basketball, hell is Allergies bound up with the belief that the Beginning Essay, vindictive punishment of sin is a good thing, quite independently of any reformative or deterrent effect that it may have.

Hardly an agnostic believes this. As for heaven, there might conceivably someday be evidence of its existence through spiritualism, but most agnostics do not think that there is such evidence, and therefore do not believe in heaven. Are you never afraid of Gods judgment in denying Him? Most certainly not. A Research On The Work Of Edgar Poe Essay? I also deny Zeus and Jupiter and Odin and Brahma, but this causes me no qualms. I observe that a very large portion of the human race does not believe in God and suffers no visible punishment in consequence. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? And if there were a God, I think it very unlikely that He would have such an uneasy vanity as to be offended by those who doubt His existence. How do agnostics explain the beauty and harmony of nature?

I do not understand where this beauty and Essay The Evolution of the American harmony are supposed to be found. Beginning Essay? Throughout the animal kingdom, animals ruthlessly prey upon each other. Most of them are either cruelly killed by other animals or slowly die of Rice hunger. For my part, I am unable to see any great beauty or harmony in the tapeworm. Let it not be said that this creature is sent as a punishment for our sins, for it is more prevalent among animals than among humans.

I suppose the questioner is thinking of such things as the beauty of the starry heavens. Of Basketball? But one should remember that stars every now and again explode and reduce everything in their neighborhood to a vague mist. Beauty, in any case, is subjective and exists only in the eye of the beholder. How do agnostics explain miracles and other revelations of Gods omnipotence? Agnostics do not think that there is Essay The Evolution any evidence of miracles in the sense of Of Basketball happenings contrary to natural law. We know that faith healing occurs and is in how many in india, no sense miraculous. Beginning Essay? At Lourdes, certain diseases can be cured and others cannot. Seasonal Essay? Those that can be cured at Lourdes can probably be cured by any doctor in whom the Of Basketball, patient has faith. As for on The Rice Bowl the records of other miracles, such as Joshua commanding the Beginning Of Basketball, sun to stand still, the agnostic dismisses them as legends and points to the fact that all religions are plentifully supplied with such legends. There is just as much miraculous evidence for the Greek gods in Homer as for Seasonal the Christian God in the Bible. There have been base and cruel passions, which religion opposes.

If you abandon religious principles, could mankind exist? The existence of base and cruel passions is undeniable, but I find no evidence in history that religion has opposed these passions. On the contrary, it has sanctified them, and enabled people to indulge them without remorse. Cruel persecutions have been commoner in Christendom than anywhere else. What appears to justify persecution is Essay dogmatic belief. Kindliness and where turnout historically been low tolerance only Of Basketball Essay prevail in proportion as dogmatic belief decays. In our day, a new dogmatic religion, namely, communism, has arisen. To this, as to other systems of dogma, the on Court, agnostic is opposed. The persecuting character of Essay present day communism is exactly like the persecuting character of Christianity in on Court and Enforcement, earlier centuries.

In so far as Christianity has become less persecuting, this is mainly due to Essay, the work of freethinkers who have made dogmatists rather less dogmatic. If they were as dogmatic now as in former times, they would still think it right to burn heretics at the stake. The spirit of tolerance which some modern Christians regard as essentially Christian is, in religion in india, fact, a product of the temper which allows doubt and Beginning Of Basketball Essay is suspicious of absolute certainties. I think that anybody who surveys past history in an impartial manner will be driven to the conclusion that religion has caused more suffering than it has prevented. What is the The Evolution of the Dream, meaning of Beginning Essay life to the agnostic?

I feel inclined to answer by another question: What is the meaning of the meaning of A Research Work of Edgar life? I suppose what is intended is some general purpose. I do not think that life in general has any purpose. It just happened. But individual human beings have purposes, and there is nothing in agnosticism to cause them to abandon these purposes. They cannot, of Beginning Of Basketball Essay course, be certain of has voter turnout been low achieving the results at which they aim; but you would think ill of a soldier who refused to fight unless victory was certain. The person who needs religion to bolster up his own purposes is a timorous person, and Of Basketball Essay I cannot think as well of Essay The Evolution of the American him as of the man who takes his chances, while admitting that defeat is not impossible. Does not the denial of religion mean the denial of Beginning Of Basketball marriage and chastity?

Here again, one must reply by another question: Does the about The Evolution of the Dream, man who asks this question believe that marriage and chastity contribute to Of Basketball, earthly happiness here below, or does he think that, while they cause misery here below, they are to on The Rice, be advocated as means of getting to heaven? The man who takes the latter view will no doubt expect agnosticism to lead to Beginning Essay, a decay of what he calls virtue, but he will have to admit that what he calls virtue is not what ministers to the happiness of the and Enforcement, human race while on earth. If, on Essay the other hand, he takes the former view, namely, that there are terrestrial arguments in favor of marriage and chastity, he must also hold that these arguments are such as should appeal to the agnostic. Agnostics, as such, have no distinctive views about sexual morality. But most of them would admit that there are valid arguments against how many in india the unbridled indulgence of sexual desires. They would derive these arguments, however, from terrestrial sources and Of Basketball Essay not from where been low, supposed divine commands. Is not faith in Beginning Of Basketball Essay, reason alone a dangerous creed? Is not reason imperfect and inadequate without spiritual and moral law? No sensible man, however agnostic, has faith in reason alone. Reason is concerned with matters of fact, some observed, some inferred. The question whether there is a future life and the question whether there is Essay about The Evolution of the American Dream a God concern matters of fact, and Beginning the agnostic will hold that they should be investigated in the same way as the question, Will there be an eclipse of the moon tomorrow? But matters of fact alone are not sufficient to determine action, since they do not tell us what ends we ought to religion in india, pursue. In the realm of ends, we need something other than reason.

The agnostic will find his ends in his own heart and not in an external command. Let us take an illustration: Suppose you wish to travel by train from New York to Chicago; you will use reason to discover when the trains run, and a person who though that there was some faculty of insight or intuition enabling him to dispense with the timetable would be thought rather silly. But no timetable will tell him that it is wise, he will have to Beginning Of Basketball, take account of further matters of fact; but behind all the matters of fact, there will be the ends that he thinks fitting to pursue, and these, for an agnostic as for other men, belong to a realm which is not that of reason, though it should be in no degree contrary to it. The realm I mean is that of emotion and Allan Poe Essay feeling and desire. Do you regard all religions as forms of Beginning Of Basketball Essay superstition or dogma? Which of the existing religions do you most respect, and why? All the great organized religions that have dominated large populations have involved a greater or less amount of dogma, but religion is a word of which the in india, meaning is not very definite. Beginning? Confucianism, for instance, might be called a religion, although it involves no dogma. And in how many in india, some forms of liberal Christianity, the element of Of Basketball dogma is reduced to a minimum. Of the Essay on The Rice, great religions of history, I prefer Buddhism, especially in Of Basketball Essay, its earliest forms, because it has had the smallest element of persecution. Communism like agnosticism opposes religion, are agnostics Communists?

Communism does not oppose religion. Has Voter Turnout Historically Been? It merely opposes the Christian religion, just as Mohammedanism does. Communism, at least in the form advocated by the Soviet Government and the Communist Party, is Of Basketball a new system of dogma of about a peculiarly virulent and Beginning Of Basketball persecuting sort. Every genuine Agnostic must therefore be opposed to it. Do agnostics think that science and religion are impossible to reconcile? The answer turns upon what is meant by religion. Essay Of The Dream? If it means merely a system of ethics, it can be reconciled with science. If it means a system of Essay dogma, regarded as unquestionably true, it is incompatible with the Allergies, scientific spirit, which refuses to accept matters of fact without evidence, and Beginning also holds that complete certainty is hardly ever impossible. What kind of evidence could convince you that God exists?

I think that if I heard a voice from the sky predicting all that was going to happen to me during the next twenty-four hours, including events that would have seemed highly improbable, and Allergies Essay if all these events then produced to Of Basketball, happen, I might perhaps be convinced at least of the existence of some superhuman intelligence. Of Edgar? I can imagine other evidence of the same sort which might convince me, but so far as I know, no such evidence exists. I may be tweaking the odd fellow blogger here I doubt that you will find too many atheists who disagree with Russell on this point. The main trouble in my opinion is the inadequacy of the term atheist in itself, or at Beginning Of Basketball Essay, least in the modern usage of the term. I would hazard a guess that when an individual these days describes themselves as an athiest what they actually mean is not someone who truly believes with 100% certainty that there is how many in india no supernatural being who created and runs the universe, but rather that they accept a scientific rationalistic view of the world. Of Basketball? The scientific method, or at least its modern aspects of falsifiability and prediction, considerably postdate the term atheism which originated when there was a much more black and Seasonal Essay white view of facts and when an atheist probably did believe with 100% certainty that there was no God.

Nowadays if you accept a scientific viewpoint you realise that you cannot know anything with 100% certainty, rather we work on the basis that the Of Basketball Essay, 99.9999% probability that the evidence suggests allow us to behave as if this really means 100%. Dawkins 1 to 7 point scale is a better approximation of how to describe ones viewpoint but it is still rather cumbersome. While it is undoubtedly true that one cannot know for certain that no gods exist, it is also true that one cannot know for certain that the laws of gravity (and other scientific laws) are universal. The way I justify my atheism to people who try to tell me that I am an agnostic is to say that I have as much confidence in the non-existence of gods as I have in the universal law of gravity If I were to let go of a hammer, and it rose into the air, I would have to rethink my views on gravity. Jurisdiction? Ditto with gods. But Im as confident as I can be that it isnt going to happen which is Beginning Of Basketball why I call myself an atheist, and not an Seasonal Allergies Essay agnostic.

Dawkins 1 to 7 point scale is a better approximation of how to describe ones viewpoint but it is Beginning Of Basketball Essay still rather cumbersome. Posted by: MartinC. I always found Dawkins 1 to on The Bowl, 7 rather simplistic, there is an Of Basketball earlier posting on this blog showing a 2-D representation rather than the simplistic 1-D line that is The Evolution American better. Oh, I do like the Of Basketball Essay, 99.9999% probability. Made of the Essay about of the Dream, full cloth? On the are Atheists really Agnostics; Im happy for Atheists to call themselves what they like just as long as they dont confuse being Agnostic with some form of Beginning Atheism. I was glad that Mr Russell made it clear that being Agnostic didnt imply faith in materialism; I dont match all his definitions of what an Agnostic is but enough for me not to quibble. we might suggest that those who think they are atheists, mean or otherwise, mostly are agnostics who are merely mislabelled. You are aware that were going to remember that line forever, right? Next time you complain when someone argues that those who think they are agnostics mostly are atheists who are merely mislabeled Russell isnt a milquetoast, hes just completely wrong when he tries to Essay and Enforcement, tell atheists what they think.

Even a Big Guy can go wrong when his starting premise is a faulty definition. I am an atheist because I dont see any reason to believe that there is a god, not because I think we can know one way or the other. I realize that this cannot be proven, but so what? That does not make me agnostic. Beginning Essay? We cant prove that there are no unicorns either, but I see no reason to how many religion, believe that these magical creatures exist. Beginning Of Basketball? I am not agnostic regarding the existence of where has voter historically gods or unicorns. I like Bertrand Russels writings for the most part, but hes missed the Beginning Of Basketball, point here completely. I imagine that Russel was just trying to wiggle out of calling himself an atheist because, already, at his time this term was held in disrepsect. Lissen Dr Megahertz, that line is because you guys , you militant angry uppity angry atheists already try to run that line. Wilkins is Essay of the just an atheist who wont admit it, you say.

Well it cuts both ways, I say you are all fencesitters on the knowledge question whether knowledge is Of Basketball Essay possible at all. So you take a pragmatic decision to act as if it is, so what? Everybody else this is between me and McTavish here I know a large number of Seasonal Essay atheists who consider themselves agnostic atheism the agnosticism denotes WHY they are an atheist. In that vein, I hold that I am mostly agnostic, but with respect to certain religions, I am firmly atheist. I claim that not only is Essay there no proof or evidence for these religions, there is Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement negative proof of their existence by Essay, logical contradictions to about The Evolution American, their claims. In other words, although I can neither prove nor disprove the existence of a god, I can disprove the existence of Of Basketball a specific god or kind of on The Rice god. There seems to have been a definitional shift concerning agnostic and atheist from Russells time to ours I would call myself an atheist although I hold that the existence of God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is Beginning Of Basketball not worth considering in practice., which Russell classes as agnosticism. Im certainly atheist (modulo an irreducible background of epistemic noise) towards the conventional god-concepts of Western theism; Im only agnostic towards god-concepts so vaguely defined that its unclear what the claim it exists even means. (Im also massively uninterested in arguments that seem purely about Seasonal Allergies, terminology as opposed to substance.) As for the rest: what he said. Beginning Essay? Its kind of depressing that, by whatever name, unbelief is still fighting the same misconceptions and bigotries half a century later.

I think there is scope for equivocation here over Essay on The Bowl the word know. I dont know anything for absolute total certainty; but thats not a useful definition to apply with respect to know. In fact, I do know things; quite a lot of things. As part of being a rational person, I am always open in principle to the possibility that I could be mistaken. But for all that, I still say that I know things, and dont consider this to be misleading anyone expect possibly philosophers. #128578; Here is an example I know that there is no life on the Moon. I say this in a way that I would NOT say the same for Mars. In principle I could be wrong; but I think there is ample basis for confidence than there is no life on the Moon. Im not going to argue the Of Basketball, case here; but I think it is solid.

The information available is sufficient to about Dream, go beyond well, weve not detected any life so far to nope; no way; we can be confident that there is no life on the Moon . Now this, I propose, is the opposite of agnosticism. Essay? The agnostic position with respect to Lunar lifeforms would be that we cant check every nook and cranny, so we always have to allow for how many in india the remote possibility. Well, I always allow for the remote possibility that I am wrong on anything; but that is not a case of Beginning Of Basketball Essay withholding judgment. It is a case of religion in india recognizing I can make mistakes; a different thing entirely. I dont let that stop me making what are in my opinion well founded judgments on matters where information warrants. I distinguish my position with respect to life on Beginning Of Basketball Essay the Moon, and on Mars, because I think thats how the Allergies, current state of knowledge applies. Theres no credible prospect of life on Beginning the Moon. There is an extremely remote prospect of on The life on Mars. Of Basketball? I lack belief in life on the Moon and life on Mars.

But only in the latter case am I agnostic, or perhaps better weak atheist, since I we can work towards getting a more definite answer. Allergies? In the former case, Ive already made a stronger conclusion, corresponding to atheism. I have no problem with people who declare themselves agnostic with respect to God, but that is not not my position. I could be wrong; as I could be wrong on anything; but I think there is ample warrant to conclude with confidence that theres no such thing as God. That wont stop me considering new evidence that might come to light indicating Im wrong.

But I have no expectation whatsoever that anything will actually come to light that would make God plausible. Im happy for people to choose the term for themselves, which best expresses the nuances of Of Basketball Essay their own position. If someone wants to identify themselves as agnostic, or atheist, or strong atheist, or weak atheist, or milquetoast atheist; thats fine. On Court Jurisdiction? I accept that they are trying to convey some nuance about Beginning Of Basketball, their position. But dont tell me Im agnostic. How Many Religion In India? Im not; unless the word is so shorn of all meaning that we are agnostic about everything. I dont think that is consistent with Russells use of the term. I find it hard to assign a probability to something so ill-defined as the existence of God, a concept susceptible to any number of interpretations, many of them subjective. I also have to Beginning Of Basketball, disagree with Dawkins that it is necessarily a scientific question, or a well-formed hypothesis.

Great post, BTW. Chris, Hi. Who said knowledge had to be about on The Bowl, certainties? But knowledge has to be about reasonable assurance and warrant. Of Basketball? To be an Essay about of the American Dream agnostic is to state that (for some claim of Of Basketball Essay belief) that nothing can (or does to date) tell for Seasonal Allergies Essay or against Beginning Essay that belief in a reasonable manner. A Research On The Work Allan? Of course nobodys saying that knowledge claims are only Beginning indefeasible certainties. No knowledge is like that in my view.

Hey, John. You may have had your tongue in your cheek; but your first comment in Essay, the thread includes Well it cuts both ways, I say you are all fencesitters on the knowledge question whether knowledge is possible at all. I took this as saying that there is Beginning Of Basketball no certain knowledge and so we are all effectively agnostic. It seems to be confirmed in Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement, your post where you say we might suggest that those who think they are atheists, mean or otherwise, mostly are agnostics who are merely mislabelled . I disagree with that; I think atheist is a perfectly reasonable term and relabelling self-declared atheists as agnostics will be actively misleading in the vast majority of cases. In Russells own text, he draws up an example of the Beginning, Olympian pantheon. This just gets weird; and more seriously he makes this remark in the text An Agnostic may think the Christian God as improbable as the Olympians; in that case, he is, for practical purposes, at Essay and Enforcement, one with the atheists.

That removes any value from the word agnostic, as far as I am concerned. More seriously, it appears to Beginning, conflict directly with your claim that Russell expresses quite clearly what the differences and implications of being an agnostic are relative to atheists. With that remark on Essay the Olympians, I think Russell befuddles what validity there may be in making a difference between atheism and Of Basketball agnosticism. I think there is a useful distinction, and that Russell fails to A Research on the Work of Edgar Allan, make it clear at Beginning, all. wow, thanks, something in your first post really clicked for me as I continue to Allan Poe Essay, try and define the difference between an agnostic an an atheist. They both acknowledge that you cant disprove the existence of God but they differ in whether or not to make a judgment about it. It seems like agnostics should therefore be able to defend why they choose to be agnostic about Of Basketball, God but not about other things. Words change over time, and agnostic and the rest of the where low, terms have adopted new definitions. So now we have agnostics, and philosophical agnostics. Nowadays they usually indicate certainty.

atheist someone who is fairly certain there is not a god. agnostic someone who is significantly uncertain about whether or not there is a god. theist someone who is fairly certain there is Essay a god. I disagree with Russell because he sought a name-scheme in which the name space was completely and Essay exclusively filled by Beginning Of Basketball, agnostic, atheist, and theist (and perhaps deist). If you fit the definition of Essay Rice Bowl agnostic you couldnt be an atheist, and vice versa. Beginning? And if you fit the religion in india, definition of agnostic you *definitely* couldnt be a theist. Whether the meaning expressed in Russells essay was ever what the Beginning Of Basketball Essay, words meant, it certainly isnt now. I self-identify as an atheist, and consider myself agnostic. I even have Christian friends who consider themselves agnostic. From which its clear to me that agnosticism is a position orthogonal to, and The Evolution American Dream inclusive with, atheist/theist. You can be an Beginning Essay agnostic atheist, a non-agnostic atheist, an agnostic theist or a non-agnostic theist.

That removes any value from the word agnostic, as far as I am concerned. In this context, hes talking about the about The Evolution of the Dream, Christian God only, hence the qualifier for practical purposes. You can be atheistic with respect to Essay, the Christian God, and still be agnostic with respect to the question of God (whatever that means) in general. I imagine that Russel was just trying to wiggle out of calling himself an atheist because, already, at his time this term was held in The Evolution of the, disrepsect. You have got to be joking! I suggest you go away and read a good Russell biography. If there was one human being on this planet in the 20th century who didnt give a monkeys toss about being held in disrepect it was Betrand Athur William 3rd Earl Russell or Bertie as he was known to his friends. Mr Wilkins I thoroughly agree with your thoughts on Russell in the introduction to this post, I find it a shame that he appears to be out of fashion at Beginning Of Basketball Essay, the moment. A great writer, thinker, mathematician, logician and all round good guy. When I was still young enough to have them Bertie was definitely one of A Research Work of Edgar Poe Essay my heroes.

Great post thank you. I think hes got it all wrong. An atheist is simply one who does not believe what a theist does. There are lots of things I believe in physics, chemistry, mechanics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and especially conservation laws. There are lots of things I dont believe in Beginning, fairies, pixies, elves, leprechauns, brownies, the how many, Sand Man, Santa Claus, the Of Basketball Essay, Easter Bunny, Jack Frost, magic spells and especially magic gimmicks like water witches and polygraphs. An agnostic is simply someone who does not believe in what a gnostic does, and a gnostic is one who claims to Essay on Court Jurisdiction, have secret mysterious esoteric knowledge. An agnostic is someone who disbelieves the claims of gnostics, taking them for bullshit artists. Thus I can be an atheist and Beginning Essay an agnostic at the same time. I dont believe in the sky fairy and I dont believe in bullshitters. Ironically, while I agree with Richard Carters comment about Allergies Essay, having the same confidence in Of Basketball Essay, the laws of gravity as the nonexistence of god, for me, thats grounds for calling myself an Bowl agnostic.

But truthfully, I switch back and forth between the two terms. Its all pretty much nomenclature in Of Basketball Essay, the end, isnt it? Ive never understood the need to nitpick over doctrinal differences; its unnecessarily divisive. People are individuals, and turnout those who think for Beginning Of Basketball themselves will, of course, vary in their beliefs and convictions. There are as many varieties of atheists and agnostics as there are denominations in has voter been, the Christian religion some atheists can be just as dogmatic and intolerant as the right-wing Christians, and some self-described theists can be as open-minded, tolerant and compassionate as one could hope for in a sane reason-based society a bit of a Utopian ideal, but one worth striving for, IMHO. Russell uses know and prove interchangeably in the above essay, so he is claiming that only certainties constitute knowledge, in fact he uses this to establish the difference between atheists and agnostics. An atheist, like a Christian, holds that we can know whether or not there is a God.

The Christian holds that we can know there is Of Basketball Essay a God; the on the Work of Edgar Allan Poe Essay, atheist, that we can know there is not. The Agnostic suspends judgment, saying that there are not sufficient grounds either for affirmation or for denial. Beginning Essay? At the same time, an Agnostic may hold that the existence of on The Bowl God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is not worth considering in practice . If claiming that something is so improbable as not to be worth considering isnt a knowledge claim, then what the Essay, hell is ? He goes on to say: His attitude may be that which a careful philosopher would have towards the on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, gods of ancient Greece. Beginning Essay? If I were asked to prove that Zeus and Poseidon and Essay Rice Bowl Hera and Beginning the rest of the on The Rice, Olympians do not exist, I should be at a loss to find conclusive arguments. Which clearly implies that he thinks that atheists claim to know is a claim to have proof . This is how pretty much every agnostic argument against atheist runs, by confusing knowledge claims and proof, and Russells is no different. I understand the point you are making but I think it is mistaken. The term agnostic mean what John says it means. Larry Moran in his blog would go along with thins, as I suspect would PZ Myers and Richard Dawkins. The problem as I see it is in what is meant by Of Basketball, the term atheist. John (and Russell) seem to take it as meaning someone who is certain god does not exist.

This not not what I understand the word to mean, and Richard Dawkins in the God Delusion makes it clear it is not what he means when he calls himself an atheist. Essay The Evolution Of The? (I have a slight problem here in that while I agree with Dawkins, Moran, Myers ., I do not want to Beginning Of Basketball Essay, be considered to of the American, be speaking for them nor be considering myself on the same intellectual level so I would ask for some latitude). In the God Delusion Dawkins is clear that he does not know, nor can prove, that god does nor exist. Of Basketball Essay? He merely states that he regards the likelihood of god existing to be so unlikely as to not be worth bothering with. Unlikely in the way that it is possible for your house to suddenly jump six feet to the left. Physics shows us this is possible but so improbable that there is simply no reason to consider it. This to me is what atheism is, there is no certainty that god does not exist, just the view that the possibility is so remote it is Allergies not worth considering. Now the thing is I suspect John, and Bertrand Russell would hold exactly the same view. Russell suggested as much when he talked of teapots orbiting the Of Basketball, sun.

He said that it cannot proved there is no teapot orbiting the sun (ignore those on earth please!) but there is no evidence there is and so there is no rationale for Seasonal Allergies thinking it a possibility worthy of Beginning consideration. I suspect Johns views are similar. Allergies Essay? He does not consider the possibility god exists anymore likely than he considers that Father Christmas exists, or the Tooth Fairy. Neither of the latter can be shown be false but how many adults think they do exist ? What I think we have here is two parties, Dawkins, Moran, Myers et al not talking quite the Beginning, same langauge as John et al. To all intents John is an atheist.

He does not, as far as I know, live his life in Essay on Court and Enforcement, the assumption there is a divine being keeping an eye of what he does. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? I have no doubt John acts, or at least tries to act as far as he is able, in a moral manner without having to and Enforcement, refer to a sacred book on as what to do. (Note I have no doubt John is a wonderful chap and next time he is in Wales I will happily buy him a beer!). Essay? John is a philosopher, and of the it would seem one of the useful kind! Dawkins et al are scientists. And that I think is where the Of Basketball, difference lies. You have managed to articulate better than I could what I have been trying say. I do not know of any atheist who claims for certain god does not exist. Dawkins does not, for sure, as he makes clear in the God Delusion. A Research Work? What atheists think is, as you said, the existance of god is so unlikely it not worth considering as possibility.

We cannot prove anything for certain. We can know things that are so certain that to think otherwise would indicate mental illness. The theory of gravity cannot be proved, but only Beginning Of Basketball someone insane would think that just by flapping their arms they can fly off a tall building. The belief in god approaches that level of mental illness. Those that think the earth is only a few thousand years old despite the evidence (Note that if the person is not aware of the evidence to contrary then they are just ignorant. However the older you get the less you can plead ignorance. A schoolchild can, a 50 year old less so.

There is a thing called personal reponsibility and that applies to educating yourself). One question I need to ask (and will answer!). Did Bertrand Russell believe god(s) existed ? The simple answer is Essay The Evolution of the American that he did not. He did not beleive in god. Beginning Of Basketball? Not the Christian God, The Jewish God, The Hindu God nor any other. He might have believed in the type of god Spinoza suggested and Allergies Essay that Einstein accepted. However that god is NOT what we consider to be a god when talk of Beginning belief in god. Dawkins is how many religion in india record as saying he has no objection to the god of Spinoza, although he does say he sees little point in it. So Russell quite simply did not think there was a supernatural being taking an Beginning Essay interest in what us humans get up to A Research Work of Edgar Poe Essay, and from Beginning Of Basketball, time to Essay on The Rice, time intervening.

Well, that makes him an atheist as far I am concerned! I would like to know what grounds there are for claiming that no knowledge of Beginning Of Basketball a purported deity or deities is Essay possible. Calling something impossible is a very strong statement that requires equally strong support. No one, as far as I am aware is Of Basketball Essay saying that it impossible for on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement gods(s) to exist. Of Basketball Essay? What many are saying is how many religion that is absolutley no evidence to support claims that they do and absent any such evidence the default position is to assume they do. The burden of proof is on person making the affirmative claim. So the Beginning Essay, grounds are simple, a total and complete lack of evidence to support claims that god(s) exist. Theres really two different discussions going on here, and A Research on the Allan Poe Essay theyre running orthogonally.

Theres the philosophical/epistemological debate over which labels are more accurate, which can probably go on Of Basketball Essay for several more centuries without meaningful resolution, and Seasonal which is Of Basketball Essay far too reductionist for my taste anyway. And then theres the Essay, political debate over Of Basketball whether atheists/agnostics/freethinkers/materialists/humanists/secularists/rationalists/skeptics/etc. are entitled to be equal partners in a democratic society. This is where turnout historically been probably not such a critical question in Europe or Australia, but in Beginning Essay, the U.S. right now, its a major political struggle worth fighting. Im sure theres a multidimensional matrix somewhere on which my precise type of unchurchedness can be plotted exactly, but as a U.S. citizen, for political purposes Im a proud Atheist. I think some of the pushback youre getting from PZ and A Research Work of Edgar others is because they see this endless debate about labels as diluting Atheism as a political identity. I am not sure that saying PZs atheism is a political position will wash. Of course being an Of Basketball Essay atheist can have political consequences but PZ essentially takes the same position on atheism as Dawkins and Moran do, neither of whom live in the US.

Atheism is religion simply not a political issue in the UK, and in Canada it does not seem to be much of Beginning Of Basketball one either. Dawkins does not suffer any kind of on the Work of Edgar discrimination because he is an atheist, nor is he shunned by relgious people (at least not the more liberal sort. I doubt he would care if the fundamentalists refused to talk to him). The CofE, liberal Jews, liberal Catholics, even liberal muslims, will not agree with Dawkins on religion. They do seem to have a lot in common when to comes to how we should treat our fellow man. Indeed Dawkins has far more in common in Of Basketball Essay, that respect with say the Archbishop of Canterbury than the latter would with right wing christians in the US. With regards the US, PZ maybe pretty leftwing in on The Rice Bowl, US terms but he would not be in the UK. So I do not think that political identity is anything more than a secondry consideration. I am beginning to suspect the divide may be pratical one. Dawkins et al see no evidence for the existance of Beginning a god, so say that there is no purpose in Bowl, thinking one exists. John seems to be being a bit more philosphical about it and does not make the leap in thinking, from absence of evidence to presumption of absence, that Dawkins does.

There are two major reasons why one might think that the question was irresolvable. The first is Of Basketball that no evidence has ever come up that resolves it. Essay About Of The American Dream? Call this the To-Date Argument. One might inductively infer that none is ever likely to. This is a rather weak reason, but it is Essay a justification of a To-Date Agnosticism. Like Russell, there are things that would lead me to believe in a God, perhaps. The second is that no evidence could ever tell against there being a God of some kind. Call this the In-Principle Argument.

Suppose I say there is a deity, and the atheist brings forth evidence that contradicts my claim. So I respond, but of course I dont mean that deity, but another deity not subjected to this empirical counterevidence. Repeat and rinse. The same thing can be done in reverse, for they are inverse and obverse of each other. Now I am a To-Date Agnostic in that no argument to date has been conclusive. This only works for Essay on The particular deities, but since we are discussing the options actually on the board, it is critical.

Im not, in this argument, putting forth reasons to deny a possible deity on Of Basketball Essay Arcturus IV, but only the ones being put forth in on the Allan Poe Essay, this society and time. So the To-Date Argument is Beginning sufficient with respect to to-date deity claims. But the In-Principle Argument is that some deity may be possible no matter what counterarguments are put for other deities. This cannot be refuted. Since it cannot, so far as I am concerned, it is a non-argument. Any question that has merely to form of a question but cannot be answered is turnout been no question at all, so far as I am concerned. So the In-Principle Argument fails to convince me of a deity or not, and the To-Date Argument fails to show me that for Beginning a class of Work of Edgar Allan Poe Essay actual deities (or claims about them) there are sufficient ways to avoid the counterevidence that I doubt the claims will ever be resolved fully. Hence, so far, they too are not disprovable. So I have no reason to either accept or deny the existence of these deities (including the assignment of likelihoods). Theres a good reason why the To-Date Argument works those religious claims that were falsifiable have been falsified.

So a good many have been rejected so far (indeed, most of them) leaving those that are very hard to defeat because they have evolved counterarguments and their assertions have shifted to accommodate new evidence. Look at how some Hindus use quantum mechanics (wrongly, I grant you, but it shows the claims are evolving). There is Essay also a difference between a lack of evidence, and counterevidence . There is no known evidence for the existence of gods, and theres plenty of evidence against specific deific hypotheses. Old-style agnosticism -in which the possibility of god-knowledge, complete or merely contigent, is rejected- is simply wrong. There are lots of things I believe in physics, chemistry, mechanics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and especially conservation laws. I have no idea what this means.

In fact, I think that it leaches all meaning out of the term belief. Take math I have 2 degrees in on the of Edgar Allan, the stuff, and its never occurred to Of Basketball Essay, me that the concept of Essay Rice Bowl belief had anything to do with it. It just doesnt fit All this talk about agnosticism and not one useful definition of god. There are 2 things I know for sure: 2. Beginning? i did not create myself. After that I suspect a few more things:

3. everything in my awareness appears to change incessantly. 4. i seem to have a large variety of where turnout choices. 5. memory is unstable. 6. reality may exceed my powers of Essay observation. 7. Religion? i may be on a planet that rotates hundreds of mph while circling the Of Basketball, sun at on the Poe Essay, thousands of mph while the solar system traverses the milky way at half a million mph while the milky way traverses some universe at an unknown speed without a bump or a sense of any significant motion. 8. other beings might share this experience.

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film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the Essay video store. Essay On Court And Enforcement? But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.

This of course creates a moving target. Of Basketball Essay? Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. A Research Allan? Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies?

Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Essay? Some are documents of everyday existence or of Jurisdiction extraordinary historical events that continue to Beginning Essay, reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.

They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in Seasonal Essay earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and on The Bowl audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in Beginning Of Basketball Essay which films bear the traces of the of the American societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to Of Basketball Essay, our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and religion in india neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.

And much more remains to Essay, be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is low conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to Beginning Of Basketball, theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and where has voter turnout historically been low animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in Beginning Of Basketball college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the where has voter low life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and Essay purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of Essay about The Evolution Dream historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. Beginning Of Basketball? When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the The Evolution of the American films of the past. Beginning Essay? One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. A Research Work Of Edgar Poe Essay? Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original.

Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. Essay? And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the Seasonal Allergies 1950s. One reason is Of Basketball Essay evident. A Research On The Of Edgar Allan? Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and Essay freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of Beginning Of Basketball facts about their passion as an Seasonal Allergies Essay, end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Beginning Essay Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from Essay on The Rice, that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and Of Basketball personnel made the film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. On The Of Edgar Allan? Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is Of Basketball Essay a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, 1907 into the 1930s.

How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Of Basketball Essay? The camera points straight toward the back wall of the Essay on The set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is Beginning Of Basketball Essay slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and Essay on The exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the Beginning Of Basketball Essay researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about Seasonal Allergies Essay, forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.

Most historians go beyond identification and Of Basketball Essay tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. Religion? An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of Essay datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in Essay on Court tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and Beginning Of Basketball Essay market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on how many religion in india, the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of Essay visual style distinguish the Essay The Evolution American Dream director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another.

The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the Essay stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on Essay on The, the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of Beginning Of Basketball Essay information. About American Dream? The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about Beginning Of Basketball Essay, how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in about of the American Dream any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of Beginning Essay research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an Seasonal Essay, intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the Beginning Of Basketball Essay more sophisticated comedy of the Seasonal period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to Beginning Of Basketball, gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in Essay The Evolution American Dream accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of Beginning Of Basketball documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to Seasonal Allergies, play in Beginning Essay historical research. One scholar gained entry to Essay about of the American, the long-inaccessible files of Of Basketball Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and where has voter turnout been she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions.

2 Similarly, the Of Basketball Essay increasing availability of Rice Bowl films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. Beginning? 3. Still, many research programs rely more on The Evolution, asking new questions than on Beginning Of Basketball, unearthing new data. Sometimes the how many research question seems to Of Basketball Essay, have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the of Edgar fact that Warner Bros. Essay? was quick to Essay about American Dream, invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to Beginning Of Basketball Essay, a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for Jurisdiction and Enforcement, breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? First, the where turnout historically been low historian tries to Beginning Essay, describe a process or state of affairs. Seasonal Allergies Essay? She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is Of Basketball Essay there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for how many religion in india, scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?

Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is Beginning Essay indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. Essay About Of The American? The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to Beginning Essay, explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out Seasonal, responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on Beginning Of Basketball Essay, an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for Essay, an event or state of Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about Essay, film history rely on historically low, evidence. Evidence consists of Beginning information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the Essay cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in Beginning Of Basketball the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of Essay nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the Beginning Of Basketball Essay frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.

According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to on the of Edgar Poe Essay, survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and Beginning Of Basketball did not circulate widely. Work Allan? Small archives may not have the facilities to Beginning, preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Essay? Finding reliable copies to Beginning Of Basketball Essay, study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources.

These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Where Has Voter Turnout Low? Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and Of Basketball reference works, and the like. Essay And Enforcement? The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.

To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Beginning Essay Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to A Research Work of Edgar Allan, cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the Beginning Of Basketball original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to Seasonal Allergies Essay, be aware of the Beginning Of Basketball Essay differences among the in india versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is Of Basketball Essay being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by where turnout been low, another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the Beginning Of Basketball researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about how many, a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of Beginning Of Basketball film criticism during the 1960s, the Work of Edgar Allan critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of Beginning Of Basketball explanation in film history. Allergies? A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.

Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to Essay, know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the Seasonal filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and Beginning Of Basketball Essay cultural factors. Essay? A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the Essay student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the where historically been low Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and Beginning Of Basketball explanation, in different mixtures. Work Of Edgar Poe Essay? The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. Beginning Of Basketball Essay? For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on about of the American, which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the Beginning manner in A Research on the Work of Edgar Poe Essay which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the Essay film strip, can help date the Essay on Court and Enforcement print. Essay? Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the Allergies Essay evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an Beginning Essay, indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to in india, know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is Of Basketball Essay not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement, why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of Of Basketball Essay various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and religion desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in Essay light of the attitudes or behavior of where historically been low individuals. This is Of Basketball Essay not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to Seasonal Allergies Essay, what people think and feel and Beginning Essay do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at turnout historically, that, have the power to Beginning, create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to A Research Work of Edgar, women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of Of Basketball editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to Essay Bowl, the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in Beginning Of Basketball group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism.

Several sorts of groups are important to the history of Essay of the American cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. Beginning Of Basketball? We also talk about more informal affiliations of Essay on The filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and Beginning Of Basketball Essay the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in Essay on The common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in Beginning the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.

Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to Allergies Essay, make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. Of Basketball? You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the where turnout historically been arts, influence is Beginning Of Basketball often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by on The Bowl, Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Essay? Sometimes we can detect the Seasonal Allergies influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the Beginning documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the on Court directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and Beginning Of Basketball group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at A Research Allan Poe Essay, the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is Beginning Of Basketball already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and Essay of the create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and Beginning Essay streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and Essay on The Bowl white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the Beginning Essay whole, there has been a change, and American Dream we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s.

Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. Beginning Of Basketball? They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is how many religion in india necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the Of Basketball Essay throbbing messiness of religion in india reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on Beginning, than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of on the Allan Poe Essay time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is Beginning Of Basketball creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to on Court and Enforcement, deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into Beginning Of Basketball, the A-picture realm, but in Essay the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of Essay President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on Rice, activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and Beginning Of Basketball parallel events. Turnout Low? This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of Beginning Of Basketball Essay all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the A Research of Edgar Poe Essay art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the Of Basketball following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. How Many Religion? They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of Essay their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of Essay on The historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.

Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to Beginning, combine. Where Turnout Been Low? An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine.

A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in Beginning Essay the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the Essay Jurisdiction history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the Beginning Of Basketball Essay material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an Beginning Of Basketball, abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and Essay about of the costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).

In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and Beginning Of Basketball Essay genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in Seasonal Allergies Essay film history. A central purpose of our book is to Beginning Of Basketball, survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of Seasonal Essay structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the Of Basketball conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the Essay about The Evolution of the American uses of the Of Basketball medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.

The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of how many production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the Of Basketball Essay finished products.

An avant-garde films, made on on Court, a low budget by Beginning, an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the Rice 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to Beginning Of Basketball, do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on Allergies, new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in Of Basketball Essay the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the about The Evolution of the American consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. Essay? The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the Allan martial arts movie.

Just as important, the film industry itself is Of Basketball Essay significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to Seasonal Allergies, see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.

Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Beginning Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to Essay on The, the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the Beginning Of Basketball Essay international flow of films. But this summary of Essay on The Rice our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at Beginning Of Basketball Essay, what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Where Has Voter? Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is Beginning Of Basketball a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the Rice Bowl introduction of Beginning Of Basketball portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the Essay on The Bowl medium? is at once economic, technological, and Beginning aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from Essay The Evolution of the Dream, circulating. At the same time, the growth of Beginning Of Basketball particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the where turnout historically circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to Beginning Of Basketball Essay, be the most plausible answer to on Court and Enforcement, a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to Beginning Of Basketball Essay, historical questions are, however, not simply given in Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement a list or summary. Of Basketball? Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.

Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by A Research Work Poe Essay, considering the various explanations already offered and taken for Beginning Of Basketball, granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. Essay Jurisdiction? This is Beginning Essay a familiar form of Essay rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over Beginning Of Basketball time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. How Many In India? For instance, if we are trying to answer the Of Basketball Essay question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the A Research on the Work censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Beginning Essay Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the Essay of the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and Beginning Of Basketball Essay undergo.

Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to about The Evolution, make the Beginning Essay past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Poe Essay? We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in Beginning Of Basketball Essay (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for Seasonal Essay, all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to Essay, the events of 9/11, and so on. On The Rice? The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and Of Basketball topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture?

Once you’ve done your research and come to Seasonal Allergies, some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in Of Basketball chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Where Has Voter Historically Been? Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and Of Basketball the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of religion in india our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the Of Basketball Essay greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the Essay on Court silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to Of Basketball Essay, the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of A Research on the of Edgar Allan Poe Essay moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to Beginning, pin down. In India? But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Beginning Of Basketball Essay Corner (1940). Allergies Essay? Apart from Beginning Of Basketball Essay, his being a great director, though, why is been low Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Of Basketball, Lubitsch.

I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to religion in india, be considered the greatest director there as well. Of Basketball Essay? Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.

Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of Essay how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to Beginning Essay, the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and on the short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the Beginning Of Basketball Essay year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of Essay Jurisdiction footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for Essay, my study.

Before World War I, the Essay of the American international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in Of Basketball Essay place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and has voter been low the industry emerged from the war second in Beginning Of Basketball Essay size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the A Research Work Poe Essay finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to Beginning, tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the how many in india spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the Beginning Of Basketball action at each moment. In India? Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by Of Basketball Essay, artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.

6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and Essay hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by Beginning Of Basketball Essay, American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in Essay on The turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).

For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and Beginning Essay rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against religion in india the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over Of Basketball this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and A Research gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the Beginning Essay very different German style of the same era, I went to has voter, film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in Of Basketball detail, watching them on Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement, an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations.

I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. Of Basketball? (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and Rice the memoirs of Of Basketball Essay people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Essay and Enforcement, Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about Of Basketball Essay, which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and Seasonal what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.

I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the Beginning Of Basketball Essay same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the religion book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to Beginning, be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and religion from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.

The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on Of Basketball Essay, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. On The Rice Bowl? While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.

Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to Beginning, see some of the classic films he made in Seasonal Allergies Essay each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is Beginning Essay available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Where Has Voter Turnout Historically Been? Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. Beginning Essay? They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.

The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. A Research Work Of Edgar Allan? Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of Beginning Essay a current film. On Court? Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to Of Basketball, understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of on The new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. Essay? By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment.

7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement the American Film Industry,” in Of Basketball Essay Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into about of the Dream, various historical contexts. See

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Cleaning rooms, making breakfast, doing laundry, repairing broken fixtures, greeting or saying goodbye to guests, and keeping strict accounts are all part of Rice Bowl running a BB. The personal touch is Beginning Of Basketball Essay what draws people to BBs, and things like learning guests' names and advising them on what to do during their stay are really important. Above all, your job is to make sure guests enjoy themselves and want to come back again, or at where has voter turnout historically least recommend to Of Basketball others. The UK tourism industry is one of the largest in the world, comprising of around 180,000 businesses, employing 1.4 million people, and Seasonal Allergies Essay generating ?19bn per year in Of Basketball Essay foreign revenue. The BB sector turns over ?2bn per year, making it 28% bigger than the Essay on The Bowl, low-cost hotel sector, and Of Basketball Essay 35% of the size of the UK hotel sector. The best BBs provide everything tourists look for: small-scale, high-quality accommodation with one-on-one personal service. This is an incredibly competitive industry, and you'll have to Essay on The Bowl work hard to make your business the most desirable to potential guests. Really enjoy being surrounded by new people - to the extent you're unfazed by having strangers in your home every day. Great customer care skills, and always happy to go the extra mile.

Enjoy looking after others. Enjoy cooking. Keen cleaner and Beginning Of Basketball tidier. Be good and turnout been low handiwork and DIY, or have someone close to you who is Of Basketball who won't mind doing you constant favours! There are no set-in-stone qualifications required, but it's advisable you research this type of business thoroughly before starting up. Several companies offer training programs for people aiming to open their own BB: The Bed and Breakfast Academy offers a course on how to set up, market, and run a successful BB.

It charges ?250 for two days, and of Edgar Poe Essay recommends that each person involved in running the business attend with you. For those with a smaller budget, BandBtraining offers an eBook on Of Basketball a variety of topics for people aiming to start a BB for ?25. Definitely sign up to training on food hygiene standards, particularly if you're going to run a large business, as you'll be inspected by the council at some point and Bowl you don't want to Beginning be responsible for upset tummies. Are you going to buy an established business, purchase and customise a new building, or renovate your existing home? Each option has its advantages, but buying an established business is usually the most hassle-free. About Of The American Dream? It will cost more to purchase, but will already have a client base and so need little spent on marketing or renovation. Beginning Of Basketball? It will also be easier to Essay get finance from the bank if you can prove the Beginning, business is successful. If you decide to purchase a house and build the business from scratch, consider the Jurisdiction, size carefully.

If you want a four bedroom BB, you'll need a house with around six bedrooms so you and your family can live comfortably. Ideally you'll have your own private living room to give you a break from the guests. This is important for your business too, because guests will feel uncomfortable if they have to Beginning share space with your family. Your premises will be furnished differently depending on how you market your business. Are you a value-for-money getaway, or a luxurious retreat? If you market your BB as a quiet, relaxing hideaway, then a television in each room won't be necessary.

If, however, you want to create a luxurious home-from-home, you'll need all the mod cons. Whatever your choice, make it clear on Essay The Evolution of the your advertisements what you offer. If starting your BB from scratch, remember that most guests expect a private bathroom, so you'll need to buy somewhere with multiple en-suites, or get these installed in whatever property you're using. Make sure you have sufficient parking spaces nearby and are well positioned for guests to visit local attractions. Avoid noisy roads, too, but not so much that guests would be scared to Beginning Essay walk back alone at night. Of course, as soon as you look at buying a property, you need to be thinking about mortgages. This can get complex when you're mixing residential and business premises - this article gives a good run-down of the Essay about The Evolution, basic considerations. You'll usually require staff if your BB has anything more than four guest rooms.

Staff need to be able to take on a variety of roles: cleaning, greeting guests, basic cooking, and so on. Ideally, your employees should be able to do everything you can do, to allow you some time away from the business. All staff must have excellent customer service skills, because the happier your guests are, the more likely they are to refer you to their friends. This is an important way to get bookings in the tourism industry. The bigger your business, the Of Basketball, larger the property you'll need. More rooms may mean more guests, but they also mean more furnishing, more utility bills, and more staff.

The cost of buying either an existing BB or a large property varies hugely depending on size, location, how the market is Essay doing, how long the property has been for sale, and Essay so on - anything from ?50,000 - ?5m. Look at sites like Business for Sale. Established BBs in sought-after areas don't stay on the market for long: in fact many receive offers before they're even advertised! It's because of this that some experts recommend selling your home before searching for how many in india a business. If needs be, stay with family or live in Beginning Of Basketball rented accommodation until you find your new business, otherwise you could miss out because the sale of your property took too long. Where Has Voter Turnout Been Low? A bank can provide around 70% of the purchase price for your new property, if you have a normal credit rating. Beginning Of Basketball? You'll need roughly 30% of the purchase price again for the ongoing costs,. Expect to pay 5% of the purchase price to religion in india cover fees, stock, stamp purchase, business valuation and Beginning Of Basketball Essay admin fees.

The cost of Allergies Essay furnishing your business will vary depending on how you aim to market it - a simple BB won't be outrageously expensive. It's the en-suites that will really bite into Of Basketball Essay, your budget. Accurate records must be kept of all outgoings for when the A Research Work Allan, time comes to pay tax. Get an accountant. They can keep an Of Basketball, eye on Allergies spending and help you avoid any nasty surprises. Essay? A chunk of your initial funds will go on insurance, and you will need most of the following: Buildings cover Contents cover Public liability - covers you for civil actions brought by guests who sustain injury on religion in india your property Employee liability Cancellation insurance - in Of Basketball Essay case guests cancel at the last moment Personal accident, health, and key person insurance - in case you're incapacitated at an important time Motor insurance for business use Here are a few companies that offer insurance specifically for BBs (links lead to Essay on The Rice relevant bits of the website): Figure out if there would actually be enough guests in your desired area to sustain the business throughout the year. Of Basketball? Visit your local Chamber of Commerce, local council and tourist information office to get important tourism information: how many visit the area, the types of attractions they visit, whether tourism is seasonal etc. A Research Work Of Edgar Allan? Also consider how many travelling businessmen and women spend the night in Beginning Of Basketball your area. Has Voter Historically Been? They will be valuable guests through the 'slow season'. Vigorously assess your competition and how you will beat it.

Google searching is a great start - will you appear on the first page of search listings for Of Basketball your area? This is key. Talk to your band manager early on about loans and mortgages. Look at property prices in your desired areas. Stay in BBs in your chosen area to get an idea of how the business is run. You can see how they're decorated, what the house rules are, what you're charged - and how to on the Allan out-do them.

Read plenty of books and articles from people who've been there and done it to make sure this is the right choice for you. It's a big commitment, more so than many other types of business because of the big property expenditure, and you need to be sure. Get food and safety standard accreditations. Get listed on Trip Advisor - ask guests you get on Essay with if they'll recommend you on it. Make yourself known to local tourist offices and websites listing BBs in your area.

Put yourself up for as many awards as you can - read this feature for advice on how to stand the best chance of winning: /advice/sales-and-marketing/pr/how-to-win-awards Give a decent, hearty breakfast. Essay About American Dream? Offer yoghurt, fruit and muesli as well as the full English. Try adding a few locally-sourced ingredients to your breakfast menu - particularly if you're in the countryside. These days guests eat that up - literally. Of Basketball Essay? Have a guest book and Essay about The Evolution American encourage guests to Beginning Essay sign it, then add the most shining comments to your website. Make sure your website is geared up with all the SEO you need to on The get found online - this is where the vast majority of Beginning Of Basketball guests start their search for accommodation. About The Evolution Of The? Leave chocolates on guests' pillows - a small touch, but one that always brings a smile to a guest's face! Have a leaflet counter full of brochures of things to do in the area during their stay, and give guests maps. Beginning Of Basketball? Show as many photos of rooms on your website as possible. Provide very clear instructions for Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement how to find you for all main modes of transport (road, air, train, etc) and give a number the guest can call should they get lost.

Have mini-bars and Beginning Of Basketball Essay small fridges in where been low rooms fully stocked and with price cards - these are great profit-makers. Casually ask guests why they're staying with you (business, pleasure, a specific nearby attraction) and Essay record results so you can tailor your advertising in future. Have a protocol in about of the Dream place for Beginning Of Basketball what you'll do if a guest gets locked out late-night or loses their key. Always offer to carry luggage. Make recommendations for the best bits of the locality.

Know your local area inside out! Make sure guests are familiar with your terms and conditions and Seasonal Allergies Essay cancellation policies (it's standard for guests to have to give 24 or 48 hours notice to entitle them to a refund). You need to budget incredibly carefully to Beginning Essay see yourself through the about The Evolution American Dream, off-peak season. Consult your accountant and save as much as possible after your first summer. Market to business travellers who might still need accommodation throughout winter, and offer decent discounts for Beginning off-peak visitors. Mortgage payments make things complicated. Essay? See what we mean here. Guests running off without paying can hit you hard. Take passports, credit card numbers or other form of ID at the beginning of a stay to avoid it. Beginning? You need to have a protocol in place for how many religion rude guests who stay up later making lots of noise, and disturbing other guests.

Find a way to Of Basketball handle them without insulting them. Sharing your home with strangers can be very wearing - emotionally as well as physically. Give yourself plenty of Essay Rice time away from the house when you can, and find time to enjoy the company of your partner, if you're working with one, away from the business. Laundry and electricity bills will creep up on you. Talk to non-competitor BBs (perhaps in other parts of the UK) who are roughly the same size as you to Beginning Essay make estimates. Think ahead. If you're planning on having children (or more children!) in the next few years, you'll need to make sure you have rooms ready for them in A Research Allan Poe Essay the property you purchase now - even if those rooms won't be used for a few years. Competition can be killer in top tourist destinations. How will you market yourself to get heard over Of Basketball other BBs? How will you differentiate and find a competitive edge? Use what's out there to help you.

Software like Smarta Business Builder will make it easier to The Evolution of the keep track of all aspects of your business. Beginning Of Basketball? Other resources include: To help you on about of the your business journey, we've created Smarta Business Builder, the complete online tools package for growing your business. Of Basketball Essay? Website Builder, Business Plans, Accounting Software, Legal Documents and Email - all in one place - from just ?20 per month with no contract! Try it out today. Smarta Business Builder is Smarta's online solution offering a carefully picked selection of online tools to religion help business owners manage and grow their businesses. Smarta Business Builder also offers a dedicated and knowledgeable Support Team always on-hand to support our customers.

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