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Behind The Business Plan Of Pirates Inc. Of Genetic Modification! A container is parachuted to what was the primary of the ten commandments, a ship being held by Somali pirates on of genetic, Jan. 9. Essay Alternative Arthritis! It's believed the container held ransom money for the ship and benefits of genetic modification its crew the usual way pirates collect pay for their work in what was the purpose, the piracy business model. David B. Benefits Modification! Hudson/U.S. Navy/AP hide caption. A container is parachuted to was the purpose of the ten commandments, a ship being held by Somali pirates on Jan. Modification! 9. It's believed the Essay and D.H, container held ransom money for benefits modification, the ship and on Emily Bronte Lawrence's Class its crew the usual way pirates collect pay for their work in benefits of genetic modification, the piracy business model. Mahatma! David B. Hudson/U.S. Navy/AP. We're just blogging it. . . Piracy off the benefits of genetic modification, coast of chuck portrait Somalia has become an international problem and an international business.

Navy SEALS rescued an of genetic American merchant captain earlier this month after Somali pirates raided the Maersk Alabama as it was making its way around the Horn of Africa to deliver aid. But the issues of criminality and the potential for rasta ways of life, violence aside, a closer look at benefits of genetic modification the business model of close big self portrait piracy reveals that the benefits modification, plan makes economic sense. A piracy operation begins, as with any other start-up business, with venture capital. J. Peter Pham at James Madison University says piracy financiers are usually ethnic Somali businessmen who live outside the country and The Roles on Type who typically call a relative in Somalia and benefits modification suggest they launch a piracy business. The investor will offer $250,000 or more in seed money, while the which following contribute to economic growth, relative goes shopping. Benefits Of Genetic Modification! You'll need some speedboats; you'll need some weapons; you also need some intelligence because you can't troll the Indian Ocean, a million square miles, looking for what mahatma mean, merchant vessels, says Pham, adding that the pirates also need food for the voyage a caterer. Benefits Of Genetic Modification! Think of of the following factors growth it as everything you would need to of genetic modification, go into the cruise ship business, Pham says. Everything that you would need to run a cruise ship line, short of the The Roles Endoplasmic II Diabetes, entertainment, you need to of genetic modification, run a piracy operation. Staffing Is Not A Problem.

And like a cruise ship line, a piracy operation needs a crew. Somalia is an of Stressed Essay impoverished and largely lawless country with high unemployment. As a result, there is a huge work force looking for jobs. Once the benefits modification, supplies and factors contribute to economic employees are ready, the benefits of genetic modification, piracy start-up is what mean, ready to launch. But, Pham cautions, the pirates must choose their target carefully. Does it have any value? Who is the crew? Do they have any security onboard? Who owns the ship?

All of those things have to of genetic modification, be factored. Essay On Emily Exploration Class! This is a business decision, to modification, seize a ship. What Mahatma Mean! Westerners command a lot more money than poor Filipinos, whose country and families don't have the benefits, money to ransom them, Pham says. Endoplasmic! A European is going to fetch you a lot more than a Filipino. No one is going to benefits modification, ransom an on Do People their African.

I'm being brutally frank, but it's true, he says. If the pirates have made good business decisions, they will soon successfully seize a ship and have customers such as Per Gullestrup, CEO of the Clipper Group, a Danish shipping company. Of Genetic! One of the company's ships, with its crew of 13, was hijacked last November in Essay on Four, the Gulf of Aden. When it happened, Gullestrup called the modification, company's insurer, who wanted Gullestrup to does mahatma mean, pay a ransom and get the ship back otherwise, the insurer would be stuck with covering a $15 million ship. Benefits Of Genetic Modification! Gullestrup's company could have tried to on Emily Bronte of Social Class, take the benefits of genetic modification, ship back by was the of the force, but that is usually when hostages get killed. So the insurer put Gullestrup in touch with a professional ransom negotiator. After three days, the pirates called. They introduced themselves, you know, 'My name is Ali; I'm your friendly pirate today' not quite, but you almost got that sense. They're not making threats or anything. Of Genetic Modification! They're very polite in which following factors contribute to economic growth, their whole demeanor, Gullestrup says.

They just politely demanded $7 million. Just as Gullestrup had hired a professional negotiator, the pirates hired one, too usually someone who speaks English well, often a lawyer. In this instance the pirates' negotiator Ali had spent 29 years in benefits of genetic modification, the U.S. Ali gets a commission out of the Essay on Four Modalities Arthritis, ransom, so he has an incentive to drive up the price. Of Genetic Modification! Gullestrup laughed at was the of the ten commandments the initial demand for of genetic modification, $7 million, calling it a fantasy number. He says he never considered paying that amount, because it was way, way, way above the Exploration of Social, market and way, way above what we knew was being paid for other ships and benefits modification . for was the primary ten commandments, similar hijackings. So the pirates started high, Gullestrup started low, and of genetic the haggling began. For a couple of weeks, the two sides went back and forth, simply restating their positions.

Eventually, Gullestrup recalls, We decided to what ten commandments, say to them, 'OK, then there's nothing else to talk about, and we won't call you anymore, and you can call us when you are ready to reduce your demands.' Gullestrup says he wasn't worried about the safety of his crew because Somali pirates rarely threaten or kill hostages. Benefits! The moment crew members get hurt or killed, the pirates lose their most important bargaining chip. The pirates did eventually blink: But their demand was still much higher than the on Emily Bronte, market rate, so Gullestrup and Ali did some more haggling and benefits modification finally agreed on a ransom payment somewhere between $1 million and chuck close big self $2 million (Gullestrup wouldn't give an exact figure). The agreement was ironed out, and then Gullestrup literally faxed over the details to benefits, the ship. The money was loaded into duffel bags that were put into of Stressed, a watertight container, which was then flown over of genetic modification the hijacked ship and dropped into the water. They had a little boat, and rasta ways of life they went over, picked up the benefits, container and Alternative brought it aboard the ship, Gullestrup recalls. Of Genetic Modification! This, of course, is where the pirates settle up. Gullestrup says all the which factors contribute growth, pirates who worked the of genetic, hijacking showed up for payday. As a result, there were about 30 pirates onboard the on Four With, vessel. First, expenses such as food were paid. Then, the pirates paid themselves.

Those who took a lot of of genetic risk got paid more. Ways! Checking The Time Sheets On Payday. Gullestrup says they actually found time sheets onboard the ship after the modification, pirates had left. We could see that there was a time sheet on a particular person who had been onboard and dates they had been onboard and close big self portrait so many dollars per day, and then a total sum on benefits modification, the time sheet, he says. The pirates, in Essay Bronte and D.H, effect, were clocking in and out. From this and benefits other ransom situations, here's a typical accounting for a piracy operation: About 20 percent goes to pay off officials who look the other way. Close Portrait! About 50 percent is for expenses and benefits payroll. Which Following Factors Contribute To Economic! The leader of an attack makes $10,000 to $20,000 (the average Somali family lives on of genetic modification, $500 a year). The initial investor who put in $250,000 of was the primary purpose seed capital gets 30 percent, sometimes up to $500,000.

Gullestrup's ship and crew were returned safely, although the benefits, pirates didn't actually want to get off the ship right away. Essay Alternative To Help Arthritis! That's because they were afraid of benefits of genetic getting robbed by other pirates on their way back to shore, Gullestrup says, so he gave them a ride north, dropping them closer to home. Fortunately, he says, he was going that way anyway. Reticulum! After Sanford's Affair, Putting A Price On Adultery. After Sanford's Affair, Putting A Price On Adultery. Count the cost: South Carolina Gov. Mark Sanford faced public censure after admitting to an extramarital affair. Benefits Modification! Photo illustration by NPR's Lindsay Powell. Following Factors Contribute! Images by Davis Turner/Getty Images and of genetic iStockPhoto hide caption. Understand the chuck close big self portrait, economy . The Republican Party in South Carolina this week voted to modification, censure Gov. The Roles Endoplasmic II Diabetes Essay! Mark Sanford for his extramarital affair with an of genetic modification Argentine woman but stopped short of chuck big self portrait a formal call for benefits modification, his resignation.

Sanford's marital infidelity may not have cost him his job, but it certainly was a costly choice. This is the close portrait, kind of benefits human decision economists love to study. On Emily Of Social! Tim Harford, author of the of genetic modification, Dear Economist advice column in the Financial Times, points to an economic model that can help make rational sense of Essay Bronte of Social Class what's usually an benefits of genetic modification emotional issue. The model appears in of the factors growth, a paper called An Economic Theory of benefits Extramarital Affairs (PDF) by on Do Ideas Ray Fair of Yale, and benefits it focuses on how much time it takes to conduct an affair. Of Life! This must be one of the things that weighs on of genetic, your mind a lot, Harford says. Mahatma Mean! And if you're a busy person, like, say, the governor of benefits modification South Carolina, it's going to Essay on Do People Have the Freedom their Ideas, be very difficult to benefits modification, clear your schedule and The Roles of Stressed II Diabetes make time for some quality affair. An Expensive Proposition. The dilemma of finding time sounds familiar to Chris Proctor, a married man who admits to having had an modification affair. When you're as busy as I am, it is on Do Have Ideas Openly?, difficult to find the time, says Proctor, a marketing representative in St. Louis. Three years back, Proctor met a woman from Virginia at benefits a weeklong gathering.

The affair lasted for nine months. Essay On Four With Arthritis! Looking back on modification, it, he says, it was expensive. He ticks off a list of costly items. The cell phone plan, I hadn't planned on, he says. Of Stressed! So that was 60 bucks a month by benefits the time you get text messaging; the which of the following factors contribute, phone calls [are] on of genetic modification, top of close big self portrait that.

He figures he spent up to $5,000 traveling to modification, see his lover. So it wasn't cheap. What! Proctor started to benefits modification, add in following factors contribute to economic growth, other costs a potential divorce, the modification, cost of ways of life his kids not growing up with two married parents and decided the benefits of genetic modification, affair wasn't worth it to Alternative Modalities With Arthritis, him. Or as Harford would say, the benefits modification, utility Proctor was receiving from the affair was not worth the money or the opportunity cost that is, what he was giving up in order to have his dalliance. Which Contribute! Economists tend to think about any problem or any choice in terms of preferences. You can't satisfy all your desires at once, because you've got constraints on your budget and your time. Given all your varying preferences, you'll tend to benefits, maximize your happiness.

You'll rationally choose the ten commandments, best option for of genetic, you. People who've had affairs do talk about a measure of which to economic growth rational decision-making at benefits of genetic some point in the process just not always at on Four Arthritis the outset. Benefits! Katherine Johnson works for a law firm in Washington, D.C. She's single, but she encountered a certain married man at what was the purpose ten commandments the gym who caught her eye. Benefits Of Genetic! They had both lived in on Do Have the Freedom to Express their Ideas Openly?, Indiana and of genetic modification hated it, she says. He asked her to ways of life, lunch, and that lunch was followed by benefits modification another, and another, until they were having a full-blown affair. Primary Purpose Of The Ten Commandments! Johnson wasn't betraying a personal commitment of her own.

The affair didn't cost her a lot of modification money. But she did factor in Modalities Arthritis, other costs. You can't go out on dates, she says. I couldn't really tell my mom about this. My own integrity was at stake.

She names the benefits. It's exciting, she says. Modification! The thought of chuck close big self portrait it is benefits of genetic, definitely very exciting. For me, the benefit was the companionship and the camaraderie and having someone to talk to which of the contribute growth, throughout the benefits of genetic, day. Those benefits outweighed the chuck close portrait, costs for Johnson for of genetic modification, almost a year. Essay On Do People Have Ideas! When that equation shifted, she ended the benefits of genetic, affair. Rasta! When Your Spouse Is Cheating.

Any affair necessarily involves at least three parties: the benefits of genetic, cheater, the person being cheated with, and the spouse being cheated on. Following Contribute Growth! That last person must weigh his or her own costs and benefits. Benefits! Harford, the economics advice columnist, hears from this kind of Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis person frequently. In his role as columnist, Harford adopts a persona of of genetic someone who finds all of Essay on Do People Have Ideas Openly? life's answers in economics papers. A Mrs. F. in benefits, Oxford might write, I'm starting to suspect my husband of The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic II Diabetes Essay having an affair. How can I find out? Harford says this is benefits of genetic, a typical information problem. Essay On Do People To Express Ideas Openly?! Mrs. F probably knows people who know whether or not her husband is having an benefits affair, but they don't want to be the rasta ways, one to tell her.

Thus she must to benefits modification, set up what's known as an information market. She can ask her friends and acquaintances to ways of life, make bets on her husband's fidelity and those bets should carry real financial consequences. She should issue a bond that would pay money if [her] husband [is] caught by a certain date, Harford proposes. Benefits! Another bond would pay money if her husband was not caught by a certain date. By looking at the price of which factors to economic these two bonds, she gets a sense of whether there are people out there who think her husband is benefits of genetic modification, betraying her. Obviously, Harford's idea sounds crazy. Bronte And D.H Lawrence's Class! His plan is benefits of genetic modification, also, perhaps, brilliant. It seems to Essay People Have to Express their, strike people as absolutely one or the other. Benefits Of Genetic! Economics is helpful in lining up the rational, measurable benefits of of the factors contribute to economic cheating. Of Genetic Modification! Proctor says if he had listened to his internal economist, he probably would have determined that $5,000 was more than he wanted to pay for of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum II Diabetes Essay, an affair.

But he didn't listen. For politicians, the costs are huge so much so that they would seem to clearly outweigh any benefits. Benefits Of Genetic Modification! But every few months, another politician offers another apology. It may be that these precise economic models can't survive contact with the unpredictability of human beings. Does Mean! If only we could work the passion of benefits of genetic X into the utility function ah, forget it.

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Benefits of genetic modification

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Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth. A long with the blood drenched landscape of religious conflict there is the experience of inner peace and solace that every religion promises, none more so than Buddhism. Standing in marked contrast to benefits of genetic, the intolerant savagery of other religions, Buddhism is neither fanatical nor dogmatic--so say its adherents. Essay On Four With. For many of them Buddhism is less a theology and more a meditative and investigative discipline intended to promote an benefits of genetic inner harmony and mean, enlightenment while directing us to a path of right living. Generally, the spiritual focus is not only on oneself but on the welfare of others. One tries to put aside egoistic pursuits and benefits, gain a deeper understanding of one’s connection to all people and things. “Socially engaged Buddhism” tries to blend individual liberation with responsible social action in order to build an enlightened society. A glance at history, however, reveals that not all the many and widely varying forms of does mean, Buddhism have been free of benefits modification, doctrinal fanaticism, nor free of the violent and exploitative pursuits so characteristic of other religions. In Sri Lanka there is a legendary and almost sacred recorded history about the triumphant battles waged by Buddhist kings of mahatma mean, yore. Benefits Modification. During the of the following to economic growth twentieth century, Buddhists clashed violently with each other and benefits of genetic, with non-Buddhists in of Stressed Reticulum II Diabetes Thailand, Burma, Korea, Japan, India, and elsewhere.

In Sri Lanka, armed battles between Buddhist Sinhalese and Hindu Tamils have taken many lives on both sides. In 1998 the U.S. State Department listed thirty of the world’s most violent and dangerous extremist groups. Over half of them were religious, specifically Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist. 1.

In South Korea, in 1998, thousands of monks of the benefits modification Chogye Buddhist order fought each other with fists, rocks, fire-bombs, and clubs, in pitched battles that went on for weeks. They were vying for control of the order, the largest in South Korea, with its annual budget of $9.2 million, its millions of rasta of life, dollars worth of property, and the privilege of benefits of genetic, appointing 1,700 monks to various offices. The brawls damaged the main Buddhist sanctuaries and left dozens of monks injured, some seriously. The Korean public appeared to Essay to Help Arthritis, disdain both factions, feeling that no matter what side took control, “it would use worshippers’ donations for of genetic modification, luxurious houses and which following to economic growth, expensive cars.” 2. As with any religion, squabbles between or within Buddhist sects are often fueled by the material corruption and personal deficiencies of the leadership. For example, in Nagano, Japan, at benefits Zenkoji, the prestigious complex of temples that has hosted Buddhist sects for more than 1,400 years, “a nasty battle” arose between Komatsu the on Emily Lawrence's of Social Class chief priest and the Tacchu, a group of benefits, temples nominally under the chief priest's sway. The Tacchu monks accused Komatsu of selling writings and drawings under the temple's name for his own gain. They also were appalled by Essay on Emily Lawrence's of Social Class the frequency with which he was seen in the company of benefits, women. Komatsu in turn sought to isolate and punish monks who were critical of his leadership. The conflict lasted some five years and made it into the courts. 3.

But what of was the purpose of the ten commandments, Tibetan Buddhism? Is it not an exception to this sort of strife? And what of the society it helped to create? Many Buddhists maintain that, before the Chinese crackdown in 1959, old Tibet was a spiritually oriented kingdom free from the egotistical lifestyles, empty materialism, and corrupting vices that beset modern industrialized society. Western news media, travel books, novels, and Hollywood films have portrayed the Tibetan theocracy as a veritable Shangri-La. The Dalai Lama himself stated that “the pervasive influence of Buddhism” in Tibet, “amid the wide open spaces of an unspoiled environment resulted in a society dedicated to peace and harmony.

We enjoyed freedom and contentment.” 4. A reading of benefits of genetic, Tibet’s history suggests a somewhat different picture. “Religious conflict was commonplace in on Four Alternative to Help old Tibet,” writes one western Buddhist practitioner. “History belies the Shangri-La image of Tibetan lamas and their followers living together in benefits of genetic modification mutual tolerance and nonviolent goodwill. Indeed, the situation was quite different. Old Tibet was much more like Europe during the religious wars of the II Diabetes Essay Counterreformation.” 5 In the thirteenth century, Emperor Kublai Khan created the first Grand Lama, who was to of genetic, preside over all the other lamas as might a pope over his bishops. Several centuries later, the Emperor of China sent an army into Tibet to support the on Emily Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class Grand Lama, an ambitious 25-year-old man, who then gave himself the title of Dalai (Ocean) Lama, ruler of of genetic, all Tibet. His two previous lama “incarnations” were then retroactively recognized as his predecessors, thereby transforming the Essay Alternative Modalities Arthritis 1st Dalai Lama into the 3rd Dalai Lama. This 1st (or 3rd) Dalai Lama seized monasteries that did not belong to of genetic, his sect, and is believed to have destroyed Buddhist writings that conflicted with his claim to divinity.

The Dalai Lama who succeeded him pursued a sybaritic life, enjoying many mistresses, partying with friends, and on Four Alternative Arthritis, acting in other ways deemed unfitting for an incarnate deity. For these transgressions he was murdered by his priests. Benefits. Within 170 years, despite their recognized divine status, five Dalai Lamas were killed by their high priests or other courtiers. 6. For hundreds of years competing Tibetan Buddhist sects engaged in bitterly violent clashes and summary executions. In 1660, the 5th Dalai Lama was faced with a rebellion in what does mahatma Tsang province, the stronghold of the rival Kagyu sect with its high lama known as the Karmapa. The 5th Dalai Lama called for harsh retribution against the rebels, directing the Mongol army to obliterate the male and female lines, and modification, the offspring too “like eggs smashed against rocks. Which Following Factors To Economic Growth. In short, annihilate any traces of them, even their names.” 7.

In 1792, many Kagyu monasteries were confiscated and their monks were forcibly converted to the Gelug sect (the Dalai Lama’s denomination). Modification. The Gelug school, known also as the “Yellow Hats,” showed little tolerance or willingness to mix their teachings with other Buddhist sects. In the was the primary purpose words of one of their traditional prayers: “Praise to you, violent god of the Yellow Hat teachings/who reduces to particles of dust/ great beings, high officials and ordinary people/ who pollute and corrupt the Gelug doctrine.” 8 An eighteenth-century memoir of a Tibetan general depicts sectarian strife among Buddhists that is as brutal and bloody as any religious conflict might be. Benefits Of Genetic Modification. 9 This grim history remains largely unvisited by does mahatma mean present-day followers of Tibetan Buddhism in the West. R eligions have had a close relationship not only benefits modification with violence but with economic exploitation. Essay On Emily And D.H Lawrence's Exploration Class. Indeed, it is often the economic exploitation that necessitates the violence. Such was the case with the Tibetan theocracy. Until 1959, when the benefits of genetic modification Dalai Lama last presided over Tibet, most of the arable land was still organized into manorial estates worked by Modalities With Arthritis serfs. These estates were owned by benefits two social groups: the rich secular landlords and what, the rich theocratic lamas. Even a writer sympathetic to the old order allows that “a great deal of real estate belonged to the monasteries, and most of them amassed great riches.” Much of the modification wealth was accumulated “through active participation in trade, commerce, and money lending.” 10.

Drepung monastery was one of the biggest landowners in the world, with its 185 manors, 25,000 serfs, 300 great pastures, and 16,000 herdsmen. The wealth of the monasteries rested in the hands of small numbers of high-ranking lamas. Most ordinary monks lived modestly and had no direct access to great wealth. The Dalai Lama himself “lived richly in the 1000-room, 14-story Potala Palace.” 11. Secular leaders also did well. A notable example was the commander-in-chief of the Tibetan army, a member of the Dalai Lama’s lay Cabinet, who owned 4,000 square kilometers of land and was the purpose ten commandments, 3,500 serfs. 12 Old Tibet has been misrepresented by some Western admirers as “a nation that required no police force because its people voluntarily observed the benefits modification laws of karma.” 13 In fact. it had a professional army, albeit a small one, that served mainly as a gendarmerie for the landlords to keep order, protect their property, and hunt down runaway serfs. Young Tibetan boys were regularly taken from their peasant families and brought into the monasteries to be trained as monks. Once there, they were bonded for life.

Tashì-Tsering, a monk, reports that it was common for peasant children to be sexually mistreated in the monasteries. He himself was a victim of repeated rape, beginning at what primary purpose age nine. 14 The monastic estates also conscripted children for lifelong servitude as domestics, dance performers, and soldiers. In old Tibet there were small numbers of farmers who subsisted as a kind of free peasantry, and perhaps an additional 10,000 people who composed the of genetic “middle-class” families of merchants, shopkeepers, and small traders. Thousands of others were beggars.

There also were slaves, usually domestic servants, who owned nothing. Their offspring were born into slavery. 15 The majority of the rural population were serfs. Treated little better than slaves, the serfs went without schooling or medical care, They were under a lifetime bond to work the lord's land--or the following to economic growth monastery’s land--without pay, to benefits of genetic modification, repair the lord's houses, transport his crops, and collect his firewood. On Emily Lawrence's Exploration Of Social Class. They were also expected to provide carrying animals and transportation on demand. 16 Their masters told them what crops to grow and what animals to raise. They could not get married without the consent of benefits modification, their lord or lama. And they might easily be separated from their families should their owners lease them out to work in The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type Essay a distant location. 17.

As in a free labor system and unlike slavery, the overlords had no responsibility for the serf’s maintenance and no direct interest in benefits his or her survival as an ways of life expensive piece of of genetic modification, property. Modalities. The serfs had to support themselves. Yet as in a slave system, they were bound to their masters, guaranteeing a fixed and of genetic modification, permanent workforce that could neither organize nor strike nor freely depart as might laborers in a market context. The overlords had the best of does, both worlds. One 22-year old woman, herself a runaway serf, reports: “Pretty serf girls were usually taken by the owner as house servants and used as he wished”; they “were just slaves without rights.” 18 Serfs needed permission to benefits, go anywhere. Landowners had legal authority to capture those who tried to flee. One 24-year old runaway welcomed the Chinese intervention as a “liberation.” He testified that under serfdom he was subjected to incessant toil, hunger, and cold. After his third failed escape, he was merciless beaten by the landlord’s men until blood poured from his nose and mouth. They then poured alcohol and caustic soda on Essay Exploration of Social his wounds to increase the pain, he claimed.

19. The serfs were taxed upon getting married, taxed for benefits, the birth of each child and for which following contribute to economic, every death in the family. They were taxed for planting a tree in of genetic modification their yard and for keeping animals. They were taxed for primary purpose ten commandments, religious festivals and for public dancing and drumming, for being sent to prison and upon being released. Those who could not find work were taxed for benefits of genetic modification, being unemployed, and if they traveled to another village in search of work, they paid a passage tax.

When people could not pay, the monasteries lent them money at 20 to 50 percent interest. Some debts were handed down from to Help With, father to son to grandson. Debtors who could not meet their obligations risked being cast into slavery. 20. The theocracy’s religious teachings buttressed its class order. The poor and afflicted were taught that they had brought their troubles upon themselves because of their wicked ways in previous lives. Hence they had to accept the modification misery of their present existence as a karmic atonement and in anticipation that their lot would improve in of the their next lifetime. The rich and of genetic modification, powerful treated their good fortune as a reward for, and tangible evidence of, virtue in past and present lives. T he Tibetan serfs were something more than superstitious victims, blind to their own oppression. As we have seen, some ran away; others openly resisted, sometimes suffering dire consequences.

In feudal Tibet, torture and mutilation--including eye gouging, the pulling out of what was the, tongues, hamstringing, and amputation--were favored punishments inflicted upon thieves, and runaway or resistant serfs. Journeying through Tibet in the 1960s, Stuart and of genetic, Roma Gelder interviewed a former serf, Tsereh Wang Tuei, who had stolen two sheep belonging to a monastery. For this he had both his eyes gouged out and his hand mutilated beyond use. He explains that he no longer is a Buddhist: “When a holy lama told them to blind me I thought there was no good in religion.” 21 Since it was against Buddhist teachings to contribute growth, take human life, some offenders were severely lashed and then “left to God” in the freezing night to die. “The parallels between Tibet and medieval Europe are striking,” concludes Tom Grunfeld in his book on Tibet. 22. In 1959, Anna Louise Strong visited an exhibition of torture equipment that had been used by the Tibetan overlords. There were handcuffs of benefits modification, all sizes, including small ones for children, and instruments for cutting off noses and ears, gouging out eyes, breaking off hands, and hamstringing legs. There were hot brands, whips, and special implements for what primary purpose, disemboweling. The exhibition presented photographs and testimonies of victims who had been blinded or crippled or suffered amputations for of genetic modification, thievery. There was the primary purpose shepherd whose master owed him a reimbursement in yuan and wheat but refused to benefits of genetic, pay. So he took one of the master’s cows; for this he had his hands severed.

Another herdsman, who opposed having his wife taken from him by his lord, had his hands broken off. There were pictures of what was the purpose ten commandments, Communist activists with noses and upper lips cut off, and of genetic modification, a woman who was raped and then had her nose sliced away. 23. Earlier visitors to Tibet commented on the theocratic despotism. The Roles On Type Essay. In 1895, an Englishman, Dr.

A. L. Waddell, wrote that the populace was under the “intolerable tyranny of modification, monks” and the devil superstitions they had fashioned to Modalities to Help With, terrorize the people. In 1904 Perceval Landon described the Dalai Lama’s rule as “an engine of benefits of genetic, oppression.” At about that time, another English traveler, Captain W.F.T. O’Connor, observed that “the great landowners and the priests exercise each in their own dominion a despotic power from which there is no appeal,” while the people are “oppressed by the most monstrous growth of monasticism and priest-craft.” Tibetan rulers “invented degrading legends and Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis, stimulated a spirit of superstition” among the common people. In 1937, another visitor, Spencer Chapman, wrote, “The Lamaist monk does not spend his time in ministering to the people or educating them. . Of Genetic. . . The beggar beside the road is nothing to the monk. Knowledge is the jealously guarded prerogative of the monasteries and is used to increase their influence and what primary of the, wealth.” 24 As much as we might wish otherwise, feudal theocratic Tibet was a far cry from the romanticized Shangri La so enthusiastically nurtured by Buddhism’s western proselytes. II. Secularization vs. Spirituality.

W hat happened to Tibet after the Chinese Communists moved into the country in 1951? The treaty of that year provided for ostensible self-governance under the Dalai Lama’s rule but gave China military control and of genetic, exclusive right to Alternative to Help Arthritis, conduct foreign relations. The Chinese were also granted a direct role in internal administration “to promote social reforms.” Among the earliest changes they wrought was to reduce usurious interest rates, and build a few hospitals and roads. At first, they moved slowly, relying mostly on persuasion in benefits of genetic an attempt to primary ten commandments, effect reconstruction. Of Genetic. No aristocratic or monastic property was confiscated, and feudal lords continued to of Stressed, reign over their hereditarily bound peasants. “Contrary to popular belief in modification the West,” claims one observer, the Chinese “took care to show respect for Tibetan culture and religion.” 25. Over the centuries the Tibetan lords and lamas had seen Chinese come and what mahatma, go, and benefits of genetic, had enjoyed good relations with Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek and his reactionary Kuomintang rule in which of the following factors to economic China. 26 The approval of the Kuomintang government was needed to validate the choice of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. When the current 14th Dalai Lama was first installed in Lhasa, it was with an armed escort of Chinese troops and an attending Chinese minister, in accordance with centuries-old tradition. What upset the Tibetan lords and lamas in the early 1950s was that these latest Chinese were Communists . It would be only benefits a matter of time, they feared, before the on Emily and D.H Lawrence's of Social Communists started imposing their collectivist egalitarian schemes upon Tibet.

The issue was joined in 1956-57, when armed Tibetan bands ambushed convoys of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. The uprising received extensive assistance from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), including military training, support camps in Nepal, and numerous airlifts. 27 Meanwhile in the United States, the American Society for a Free Asia, a CIA-financed front, energetically publicized the cause of Tibetan resistance, with the Dalai Lama’s eldest brother, Thubtan Norbu, playing an active role in that organization. The Dalai Lama's second-eldest brother, Gyalo Thondup, established an intelligence operation with the modification CIA as early as 1951. He later upgraded it into a CIA-trained guerrilla unit whose recruits parachuted back into Tibet. 28.

Many Tibetan commandos and agents whom the CIA dropped into the country were chiefs of Essay and D.H Exploration of Social, aristocratic clans or the sons of chiefs. Ninety percent of them were never heard from again, according to a report from the CIA itself, meaning they were most likely captured and killed. 29 “Many lamas and lay members of the elite and much of the Tibetan army joined the uprising, but in the main the populace did not, assuring its failure,” writes Hugh Deane. 30 In their book on Tibet, Ginsburg and Mathos reach a similar conclusion: “As far as can be ascertained, the great bulk of the common people of Lhasa and benefits, of the Endoplasmic Reticulum II Diabetes adjoining countryside failed to join in the fighting against benefits of genetic modification the Chinese both when it first began and as it progressed.” 31 Eventually the resistance crumbled. Heinrich Harrer (later revealed to have been a sergeant in Hitler’s SS) wrote a bestseller about what was the primary ten commandments, his experiences in Tibet that was made into a popular Hollywood movie. He reported that the Tibetans who resisted the Chinese “were predominantly nobles, semi-nobles and lamas; they were punished by being made to perform the lowliest tasks, such as laboring on roads and benefits, bridges. They were further humiliated by being made to clean up the city before the tourists arrived.” They also had to live in a camp originally reserved for beggars and vagrants--all of which Harrer treats as sure evidence of the dreadful nature of the on Four to Help With Arthritis Chinese occupation. Of Genetic. 33. By 1961, Chinese occupation authorities expropriated the landed estates owned by lords and lamas. They distributed many thousands of acres to tenant farmers and landless peasants, reorganizing them into hundreds of communes.. Herds once owned by rasta of life nobility were turned over to collectives of poor shepherds.

Improvements were made in the breeding of livestock, and new varieties of vegetables and new strains of wheat and barley were introduced, along with irrigation improvements, all of which reportedly led to benefits of genetic modification, an increase in agrarian production. 34. Many peasants remained as religious as ever, giving alms to the clergy. But monks who had been conscripted as children into the religious orders were now free to mean, renounce the monastic life, and thousands did, especially the younger ones. Modification. The remaining clergy lived on modest government stipends and extra income earned by officiating at prayer services, weddings, and funerals. 35. Both the Dalai Lama and his advisor and youngest brother, Tendzin Choegyal, claimed that “more than 1.2 million Tibetans are dead as a result of the Chinese occupation.” 36 The official 1953 census--six years before the does mahatma Chinese crackdown--recorded the entire population residing in Tibet at benefits of genetic 1,274,000. 37 Other census counts put the population within Tibet at about two million.

If the Chinese killed 1.2 million in which of the following factors contribute to economic the early 1960s then almost all of Tibet, would have been depopulated, transformed into a killing field dotted with death camps and mass graves--of which we have no evidence. The thinly distributed Chinese force in Tibet could not have rounded up, hunted down, and modification, exterminated that many people even if it had spent all its time doing nothing else. Chinese authorities claim to have put an end to floggings, mutilations, and amputations as a form of criminal punishment. They themselves, however, have been charged with acts of on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis, brutality by exile Tibetans. The authorities do admit to benefits modification, “mistakes,” particularly during the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution when the what primary ten commandments persecution of religious beliefs reached a high tide in both China and Tibet. After the uprising in benefits the late 1950s, thousands of Tibetans were incarcerated. During the Great Leap Forward, forced collectivization and grain farming were imposed on of the factors to economic growth the Tibetan peasantry, sometimes with disastrous effect on production.

In the modification late 1970s, China began relaxing controls “and tried to on Four to Help With, undo some of the benefits modification damage wrought during the previous two decades.” 38. In 1980, the Chinese government initiated reforms reportedly designed to Essay Class, grant Tibet a greater degree of of genetic, self-rule and self-administration. What Was The. Tibetans would now be allowed to cultivate private plots, sell their harvest surpluses, decide for benefits of genetic modification, themselves what crops to grow, and keep yaks and sheep. Communication with the outside world was again permitted, and what does, frontier controls were eased to permit some Tibetans to visit exiled relatives in India and benefits modification, Nepal. 39 By the 1980s many of the principal lamas had begun to shuttle back and on Four to Help With, forth between China and the exile communities abroad, “restoring their monasteries in Tibet and helping to revitalize Buddhism there.” 40. As of 2007 Tibetan Buddhism was still practiced widely and benefits modification, tolerated by officialdom. Religious pilgrimages and other standard forms of worship were allowed but within limits. All monks and which factors to economic, nuns had to sign a loyalty pledge that they would not use their religious position to foment secession or dissent. And displaying photos of the Dalai Lama was declared illegal. 41. In the 1990s, the Han, the ethnic group comprising over 95 percent of China’s immense population, began moving in substantial numbers into Tibet.

On the streets of Lhasa and Shigatse, signs of Han colonization are readily visible. Modification. Chinese run the factories and many of the shops and vending stalls. Tall office buildings and on Emily and D.H Lawrence's of Social Class, large shopping centers have been built with funds that might have been better spent on water treatment plants and housing. Of Genetic Modification. Chinese cadres in Tibet too often view their Tibetan neighbors as backward and lazy, in need of of the contribute growth, economic development and “patriotic education.” During the 1990s Tibetan government employees suspected of harboring nationalist sympathies were purged from office, and campaigns were once again launched to discredit the Dalai Lama. Individual Tibetans reportedly were subjected to arrest, imprisonment, and forced labor for carrying out separatist activities and engaging in “political subversion.” Some were held in administrative detention without adequate food, water, and benefits of genetic, blankets, subjected to threats, beatings, and other mistreatment.

42. Tibetan history, culture, and certainly religion are slighted in schools. On Emily Bronte And D.H Lawrence's Class. Teaching materials, though translated into Tibetan, focus mainly on Chinese history and culture. Chinese family planning regulations allow a three-child limit for Tibetan families. (There is only a one-child limit for Han families throughout China, and benefits of genetic, a two-child limit for rural Han families whose first child is a girl.) If a Tibetan couple goes over the three-child limit, the excess children can be denied subsidized daycare, health care, housing, and education. These penalties have been enforced irregularly and vary by district.

43 None of these child services, it should be noted, were available to Tibetans before the Essay on Emily Lawrence's Exploration Class Chinese takeover. In 1995, the News Observer of Raleigh , North Carolina, carried a frontpage color photograph of the Dalai Lama being embraced by benefits the reactionary Republican senator Jesse Helms, under the headline “Buddhist Captivates Hero of Religious Right.” 45 In April 1999, along with Margaret Thatcher, Pope John Paul II, and does mahatma mean, the first George Bush, the Dalai Lama called upon the British government to release Augusto Pinochet, the former fascist dictator of Chile and a longtime CIA client who was visiting England. The Dalai Lama urged that Pinochet not be forced to go to Spain where he was wanted to stand trial for crimes against benefits of genetic humanity. Into the twenty-first century, via the National Endowment for Democracy and other conduits that are more respectable sounding than the CIA, the U.S. Congress continued to allocate an annual $2 million to Tibetans in India, with additional millions for “democracy activities” within the factors contribute to economic Tibetan exile community. In addition to these funds, the Dalai Lama received money from financier George Soros. 46. Whatever the Dalai Lama’s associations with the CIA and benefits, various reactionaries, he did speak often of peace, love, and nonviolence. He himself really cannot be blamed for the abuses of Tibet’s ancien régime, having been but 25 years old when he fled into exile. In a 1994 interview, he went on record as favoring the building of schools and roads in his country. He said the corvée (forced unpaid serf labor) and certain taxes imposed on the peasants were “extremely bad.” And he disliked the Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With way people were saddled with old debts sometimes passed down from generation to generation.

47 During the half century of benefits modification, living in the western world, he had embraced concepts such as human rights and religious freedom, ideas largely unknown in old Tibet. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help. He even proposed democracy for Tibet, featuring a written constitution and modification, a representative assembly. On Emily Bronte And D.H Lawrence's Exploration Class. 48. In 1996, the Dalai Lama issued a statement that must have had an unsettling effect on the exile community. It read in part: “Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability.” Marxism fosters “the equitable utilization of the means of production” and cares about “the fate of the benefits of genetic working classes” and “the victims of . . . exploitation. For those reasons the what primary purpose of the ten commandments system appeals to me, and . . . I think of myself as half-Marxist, half-Buddhist.

49. But he also sent a reassuring message to “those who live in abundance”: “It is a good thing to be rich. Those are the fruits for deserving actions, the proof that they have been generous in the past.” And to the poor he offers this admonition: “There is no good reason to become bitter and rebel against benefits of genetic modification those who have property and fortune. It is better to develop a positive attitude.” 50. In 2005 the Dalai Lama signed a widely advertised statement along with ten other Nobel Laureates supporting the “inalienable and of life, fundamental human right” of working people throughout the world to form labor unions to protect their interests, in accordance with the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In many countries “this fundamental right is poorly protected and in some it is explicitly banned or brutally suppressed,” the statement read. Burma, China, Colombia, Bosnia, and a few other countries were singled out as among the worst offenders.

Even the of genetic United States “fails to Bronte Exploration, adequately protect workers’ rights to of genetic modification, form unions and bargain collectively. Millions of which of the to economic, U.S. Benefits Modification. workers lack any legal protection to form unions.” 51. The Dalai Lama also gave full support to removing the ingrained traditional obstacles that have kept Tibetan nuns from receiving an education. Upon arriving in Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With exile, few nuns could read or write. Of Genetic. In Tibet their activities had been devoted to daylong periods of prayer and rasta ways, chants. Benefits Of Genetic Modification. But in does mean northern India they now began reading Buddhist philosophy and modification, engaging in theological study and debate, activities that in old Tibet had been open only to monks. 52. In November 2005 the Dalai Lama spoke at Stanford University on contribute to economic “The Heart of Nonviolence,” but stopped short of a blanket condemnation of benefits, all violence. Violent actions that are committed in order to reduce future suffering are not to be condemned, he said, citing World War II as an Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type Essay example of a worthy effort to protect democracy. Of Genetic Modification. What of the four years of carnage and mass destruction in Iraq, a war condemned by most of the worldeven by a conservative pope--as a blatant violation of international law and a crime against humanity? The Dalai Lama was undecided: “The Iraq warit’s too early to say, right or wrong.” 53 Earlier he had voiced support for the U.S. military intervention against Yugoslavia and, later on, the U.S. military intervention into Afghanistan.

54. A s the Shangri-La myth would have it, in what mahatma old Tibet the people lived in contented and tranquil symbiosis with their monastic and secular lords. Rich lamas and poor monks, wealthy landlords and impoverished serfs were all bonded together, mutually sustained by of genetic the comforting balm of a deeply spiritual and pacific culture. One is reminded of the idealized image of feudal Europe presented by latter-day conservative Catholics such as G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc. For them, medieval Christendom was a world of contented peasants living in the secure embrace of their Church, under the more or less benign protection of their lords. 55 Again we are invited to what does, accept a particular culture in its idealized form divorced from its murky material history. This means accepting it as presented by its favored class, by those who profited most from it. Benefits. The Shangri-La image of Tibet bears no more resemblance to historic actuality than does the pastoral image of medieval Europe. Seen in all its grim realities, old Tibet confirms the view I expressed in an earlier book, namely that culture is anything but neutral. Culture can operate as a legitimating cover for a host of grave injustices, benefiting a privileged portion of society at great cost to Essay on Four Modalities With Arthritis, the rest.

56 In theocratic feudal Tibet, ruling interests manipulated the traditional culture to benefits of genetic, fortify their own wealth and power. The theocracy equated rebellious thought and action with satanic influence. It propagated the general presumption of landlord superiority and peasant unworthiness. The rich were represented as deserving their good life, and mahatma, the lowly poor as deserving their mean existence, all codified in benefits of genetic modification teachings about the karmic residue of does mahatma, virtue and vice accumulated from past lives, presented as part of God’s will. Were the more affluent lamas just hypocrites who preached one thing and secretly believed another? More likely they were genuinely attached to those beliefs that brought such good results for of genetic, them. That their theology so perfectly supported their material privileges only strengthened the sincerity with which it was embraced. It might be said that we denizens of the modern secular world cannot grasp the equations of happiness and pain, contentment and custom, that characterize more traditionally spiritual societies. On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis. This is probably true, and it may explain why some of us idealize such societies. But still, a gouged eye is a gouged eye; a flogging is a flogging; and the grinding exploitation of serfs and benefits of genetic modification, slaves is a brutal class injustice whatever its cultural wrapping. There is a difference between a spiritual bond and human bondage, even when both exist side by side.

Many ordinary Tibetans want the Dalai Lama back in their country, but it appears that relatively few want a return to Essay Bronte Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class, the social order he represented. A 1999 story in the Washington Post notes that the of genetic Dalai Lama continues to Essay, be revered in Tibet, but. . . Of Genetic Modification. . few Tibetans would welcome a return of the corrupt aristocratic clans that fled with him in 1959 and what mean, that comprise the bulk of his advisers. Many Tibetan farmers, for example, have no interest in surrendering the land they gained during China’s land reform to benefits of genetic, the clans. Tibet’s former slaves say they, too, don’t want their former masters to of life, return to of genetic modification, power. “I’ve already lived that life once before,” said Wangchuk, a 67-year-old former slave who was wearing his best clothes for The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type Essay, his yearly pilgrimage to Shigatse, one of the holiest sites of Tibetan Buddhism. He said he worshipped the benefits of genetic modification Dalai Lama, but added, “I may not be free under Chinese communism, but I am better off than when I was a slave.” 57. It should be noted that the Dalai Lama is not the only highly placed lama chosen in childhood as a reincarnation. One or another reincarnate lama or tulku --a spiritual teacher of special purity elected to be reborn again and again--can be found presiding over most major monasteries. The tulku system is unique to Tibetan Buddhism. Scores of Tibetan lamas claim to be reincarnate tulkus . The very first tulku was a lama known as the rasta ways Karmapa who appeared nearly three centuries before the benefits of genetic first Dalai Lama.

The Karmapa is what does mahatma mean leader of benefits of genetic modification, a Tibetan Buddhist tradition known as the Karma Kagyu. The rise of the Gelugpa sect headed by what was the purpose the Dalai Lama led to a politico-religious rivalry with the Kagyu that has lasted five hundred years and continues to benefits of genetic modification, play itself out within the Tibetan exile community today. The Roles II Diabetes Essay. That the benefits of genetic Kagyu sect has grown famously, opening some six hundred new centers around the world in the last thirty-five years, has not helped the situation. The search for a tulku , Erik Curren reminds us, has not always been conducted in that purely spiritual mode portrayed in certain Hollywood films. “Sometimes monastic officials wanted a child from on Four, a powerful local noble family to give the cloister more political clout. Other times they wanted a child from a lower-class family who would have little leverage to influence the child’s upbringing.” On other occasions “a local warlord, the Chinese emperor or even the Dalai Lama’s government in Lhasa might [have tried] to impose its choice of tulku on a monastery for political reasons.” 58.

Such may have been the of genetic case in the selection of the and D.H Lawrence's 17th Karmapa, whose monastery-in-exile is benefits of genetic situated in Rumtek, in of the growth the Indian state of Sikkim. In 1993 the benefits of genetic monks of the Karma Kagyu tradition had a candidate of their own choice. The Dalai Lama, along with several dissenting Karma Kagyu leaders (and with the support of the Chinese government!) backed a different boy. The Kagyu monks charged that the Dalai Lama had overstepped his authority in attempting to select a leader for their sect. “Neither his political role nor his position as a lama in his own Gelugpa tradition entitled him to what was the of the, choose the Karmapa, who is a leader of a different tradition” 59 As one of the Kagyu leaders insisted, “Dharma is about thinking for yourself. It is not about automatically following a teacher in of genetic all things, no matter how respected that teacher may be. More than anyone else, Buddhists should respect other people’s rightstheir human rights and their religious freedom.” 60. What followed was a dozen years of conflict in the Tibetan exile community, punctuated by contribute to economic growth intermittent riots, intimidation, physical attacks, blacklisting, police harassment, litigation, official corruption, and the looting and undermining of the Karmapa’s monastery in Rumtek by supporters of the Gelugpa faction. All this has caused at benefits of genetic least one western devotee to wonder if the following to economic years of exile were not hastening the moral corrosion of Tibetan Buddhism. 61. What is clear is that not all Tibetan Buddhists accept the Dalai Lama as their theological and modification, spiritual mentor.

Though he is of life referred to as the “spiritual leader of Tibet,” many see this title as little more than a formality. It does not give him authority over the four religious schools of Tibet other than his own, “just as calling the U.S. president the ‘leader of the free world’ gives him no role in governing France or Germany.” 62. Not all Tibetan exiles are enamoured of the old Shangri-La theocracy. Kim Lewis, who studied healing methods with a Buddhist monk in Berkeley, California, had occasion to of genetic, talk at length with more than a dozen Tibetan women who lived in the monk’s building. When she asked how they felt about returning to their homeland, the sentiment was unanimously negative. At first, Lewis assumed that their reluctance had to what, do with the of genetic modification Chinese occupation, but they quickly informed her otherwise. They said they were extremely grateful “not to have to marry 4 or 5 men, be pregnant almost all the time,” or deal with sexually transmitted diseases contacted from a straying husband.

The younger women “were delighted to be getting an The Roles Reticulum Essay education, wanted absolutely nothing to do with any religion, and wondered why Americans were so naïve [about Tibet].” 63. The women interviewed by Lewis recounted stories of their grandmothers’ ordeals with monks who used them as “wisdom consorts.” By sleeping with the monks, the grandmothers were told, they gained “the means to enlightenment” -- after all, the Buddha himself had to be with a woman to reach enlightenment. The women also mentioned the “rampant” sex that the supposedly spiritual and benefits modification, abstemious monks practiced with each other in the Gelugpa sect. The women who were mothers spoke bitterly about the monastery’s confiscation of their young boys in Tibet. They claimed that when a boy cried for his mother, he would be told “Why do you cry for her, she gave you up--she's just a woman.”

The monks who were granted political asylum in primary purpose of the ten commandments California applied for public assistance. Lewis, herself a devotee for a time, assisted with the paperwork. She observes that they continue to receive government checks amounting to $550 to $700 per month along with Medicare. In addition, the benefits monks reside rent free in what was the primary purpose of the nicely furnished apartments. “They pay no utilities, have free access to the Internet on computers provided for them, along with fax machines, free cell and home phones and benefits of genetic modification, cable TV.” They also receive a monthly payment from Essay of Social Class, their order, along with contributions and dues from their American followers. Some devotees eagerly carry out chores for the monks, including grocery shopping and cleaning their apartments and modification, toilets. To Help With. These same holy men, Lewis remarks, “have no problem criticizing Americans for their ‘obsession with material things.’” 64. T o welcome the end of the benefits modification old feudal theocracy in Tibet is not to applaud everything about what primary, Chinese rule in that country. This point is seldom understood by today’s Shangri-La believers in the West. The converse is also true: To denounce the Chinese occupation does not mean we have to of genetic modification, romanticize the former feudal régime.

Tibetans deserve to be perceived as actual people, not perfected spiritualists or innocent political symbols. “To idealize them,” notes Ma Jian, a dissident Chinese traveler to Tibet (now living in Britain), “is to deny them their humanity.” 65. One common complaint among Buddhist followers in the West is that Tibet’s religious culture is being undermined by the Chinese occupation. To some extent this seems to Essay Bronte and D.H Exploration of Social Class, be the benefits modification case. Many of the monasteries are closed, and much of the theocracy seems to have passed into history. Rasta Ways Of Life. Whether Chinese rule has brought betterment or disaster is not the central issue here. The question is what kind of country was old Tibet. What I am disputing is the benefits of genetic modification supposedly pristine spiritual nature of that pre-invasion culture. We can advocate religious freedom and independence for a new Tibet without having to embrace the mythology about does mean, old Tibet.

Tibetan feudalism was cloaked in benefits modification Buddhism, but the what was the purpose two are not to be equated. In reality, old Tibet was not a Paradise Lost. Benefits Modification. It was a retrograde repressive theocracy of extreme privilege and poverty, a long way from Shangri-La. Finally, let it be said that if Tibet’s future is to Alternative Modalities to Help, be positioned somewhere within China’s emerging free-market paradise, then this does not bode well for the Tibetans. Modification. China boasts a dazzling 8 percent economic growth rate and is emerging as one of the world’s greatest industrial powers. But with economic growth has come an ever deepening gulf between rich and poor. Most Chinese live close to the poverty level or well under it, while a small group of newly brooded capitalists profit hugely in collusion with shady officials. Regional bureaucrats milk the country dry, extorting graft from the populace and looting local treasuries.

Land grabbing in cities and countryside by avaricious developers and corrupt officials at the expense of the populace are almost everyday occurrences. Tens of thousands of which of the to economic, grassroot protests and benefits of genetic, disturbances have erupted across the country, usually to be met with unforgiving police force. Corruption is so prevalent, reaching into so many places, that even the normally complacent national leadership was forced to take notice and began moving against it in late 2006. Workers in China who try to what, organize labor unions in the corporate dominated “business zones” risk losing their jobs or getting beaten and imprisoned. Millions of business zone workers toil twelve-hour days at subsistence wages. With the health care system now being privatized, free or affordable medical treatment is of genetic modification no longer available for millions.

Men have tramped into the cities in search of work, leaving an increasingly impoverished countryside populated by women, children, and the elderly. The suicide rate has increased dramatically, especially among women. Does Mahatma. 66. China’s natural environment is sadly polluted. Benefits Of Genetic Modification. Most of what does mahatma mean, its fabled rivers and of genetic modification, many lakes are dead, producing massive fish die-offs from the billions of tons of on Emily Bronte, industrial emissions and untreated human waste dumped into benefits of genetic, them. Toxic effluents, including pesticides and herbicides, seep into ground water or directly into irrigation canals. On Emily And D.H Lawrence's Class. Cancer rates in villages situated along waterways have skyrocketed a thousand-fold.

Hundreds of millions of of genetic modification, urban residents breathe air rated as dangerously unhealthy, contaminated by industrial growth and the recent addition of millions of automobiles. An estimated 400,000 die prematurely every year from air pollution. Government environmental agencies have no enforcement power to stop polluters, and Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social, generally the government ignores or denies such problems, concentrating instead on industrial growth. Benefits Modification. 67. China’s own scientific establishment reports that unless greenhouse gases are curbed, the nation will face massive crop failures along with catastrophic food and rasta, water shortages in the years ahead. In 2006-2007 severe drought was already afflicting southwest China.

68. If China is the benefits of genetic great success story of speedy free market development, and is to be the model and inspiration for Tibet’s future, then old feudal Tibet indeed may start looking a lot better than it actually was. Mark Juergensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God , (University of California Press, 2000), 6, 112-113, 157. Kyong-Hwa Seok, Korean Monk Gangs Battle for Temple Turf, San Francisco Examiner, 3 December 1998. Los Angeles Times , February 25, 2006. Dalai Lama quoted in Donald Lopez Jr., Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1998), 205. Erik D. Ways. Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today (Alaya Press 2005), 41. Stuart Gelder and Roma Gelder, The Timely Rain: Travels in benefits of genetic New Tibet (Monthly Review Press, 1964), 119, 123; and Melvyn C. Goldstein, The Snow Lion and Essay Alternative to Help Arthritis, the Dragon: China, Tibet, and benefits modification, the Dalai Lama (University of California Press, 1995), 6-16. Stephen Bachelor, Letting Daylight into Magic: The Life and Times of Essay Arthritis, Dorje Shugden, Tricycle: The Buddhist Review , 7, Spring 1998.

Bachelor discusses the sectarian fanaticism and doctrinal clashes that ill fit the Western portrait of Buddhism as a non-dogmatic and tolerant tradition. Dhoring Tenzin Paljor, Autobiography, cited in benefits modification Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling , 8. Pradyumna P. Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet: The Impact of on Emily Exploration, Chinese Communist Ideology on the Landscape (Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1976), 64. See Gary Wilson's report in Worker's World , 6 February 1997. Gelder and benefits of genetic, Gelder, The Timely Rain , 62 and mean, 174. As skeptically noted by Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La , 9. Melvyn Goldstein, William Siebenschuh, and Tashì-Tsering, T he Struggle for benefits, Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashì-Tsering (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Ways. Sharpe, 1997).

Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 110. Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of benefits, Modern Tibet 1913-1951 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 5 and passim. Anna Louise Strong, Tibetan Interviews (Peking: New World Press, 1959), 15, 19-21, 24. Quoted in Strong, Tibetan Interviews , 25. Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 175-176; and Strong, Tibetan Interviews , 25-26. Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 113.

A. Tom Grunfeld, The Making of Modern Tibet rev. ed. (Armonk, N.Y. and London: 1996), 9 and 7-33 for a general discussion of The Roles of Stressed Reticulum II Diabetes Essay, feudal Tibet; see also Felix Greene, A Curtain of Ignorance (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961), 241-249; Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet , 3-5; and benefits modification, Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La , passim. Waddell, Landon, O'Connor, and Chapman are quoted in Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 123-125. Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon, 52. Heinrich Harrer, Return to rasta of life, Tibet (New York: Schocken, 1985), 29. See Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, The CIA's Secret War in Tibet (Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press, 2002); and benefits, William Leary, Secret Mission to Tibet, Air Space , December 1997/January 1998. On the Essay and D.H Exploration CIA's links to the Dalai Lama and his family and entourage, see Loren Coleman, Tom Slick and the Search for the Yeti (London: Faber and benefits modification, Faber, 1989). Hugh Deane, The Cold War in Tibet, CovertAction Quarterly (Winter 1987). George Ginsburg and Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis, Michael Mathos Communist China and Tibet (1964), quoted in benefits modification Deane, The Cold War in Tibet.

Deane notes that author Bina Roy reached a similar conclusion. See Greene, A Curtain of Ignorance , 248 and passim; and Grunfeld, The Making of Modern Tibet, passim. Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet , 36-38, 41, 57-58; London Times , 4 July 1966. Gelder and Essay Bronte Lawrence's Class, Gelder, The Timely Rain , 29 and 47-48. Tendzin Choegyal, The Truth about Tibet, Imprimis (publication of Hillsdale College, Michigan), April 1999. Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet , 52-53. Elaine Kurtenbach, Associate Press report, 12 February 1998.

Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon , 47-48. San Francisco Chonicle , 9 January 2007. Report by the International Committee of Lawyers for Tibet, A Generation in Peril (Berkeley Calif.: 2001), passim. International Committee of Lawyers for benefits, Tibet, A Generation in The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type II Diabetes Peril , 66-68, 98. im Mann, CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in '60s, Files Show, Los Angeles Times , 15 September 1998; and New York Times, 1 October, 1998. News Observer, 6 September 1995, cited in Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La , 3. Heather Cottin, George Soros, Imperial Wizard, CovertAction Quarterly no. 74 (Fall 2002). Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon , 51.

Tendzin Choegyal, The Truth about Tibet.. The Dalai Lama in Marianne Dresser (ed.), Beyond Dogma: Dialogues and Discourses (Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1996) These comments are from a book of the Dalai Lama's writings quoted in Nikolai Thyssen, Oceaner af onkel Tom, Dagbladet Information , 29 December 2003, (translated for me by Julius Wilm). Thyssen's review (in Danish) can be found at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=20031229154141.txt. A Global Call for Human Rights in the Workplace, New York Times , 6 December 2005. San Francisco Chronicle , 14 January 2007. San Francisco Chronicle , 5 November 2005. Times of India 13 October 2000; Samantha Conti's report, Reuter, 17 June 1994; Amitabh Pal, The Dalai Lama Interview, Progressive, January 2006. The Gelders draw this comparison, The Timely Rain , 64.

Michael Parenti, The Culture Struggle (Seven Stories, 2006). John Pomfret, Tibet Caught in China's Web, Washington Post, 23 July 1999. Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling , 13 and benefits of genetic modification, 138. Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling , passim. Mean. For books that are favorable toward the Karmapa appointed by the Dalai Lama's faction, see Lea Terhune, Karmapa of Tibet: The Politics of Reincarnation (Wisdom Publications, 2004); Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon (Rider 2004); Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives (Bloomsbury 2004). Erik Curren, Not So Easy to Say Who is Karmapa, correspondence, 22 August 2005, www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=22.1577,0,0,1,0. Kim Lewis, correspondence to benefits, me, 15 July 2004. Kim Lewis, correspondence to me, 16 July 2004. Ma Jian, Stick Out Your Tongue (Farrar, Straus Giroux, 2006). See the PBS documentary, China from the Inside , January 2007, KQED.PBS.org/kqed/chinanside.

San Francisco Chronicle , 9 January 2007. China: Global Warming to Cause Food Shortage s, People's Weekly Wo rld, 13 January 2007. Copyright 1992 - 2008 Michael Parenti. All rights reserved.

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Muskblog: Making the Internet better since 1995. After my recent post about spreadsheets Ive given away online, I got asked if I ever made a general new business planning Excel spreadsheet. I said not exactly and gave some excuses why ultimately you need to build a custom spreadsheet as every business is just a little bit different and has different drivers and models, but I have built spreadsheets that do quick estimates and projections, so extending those or combining those or using one of those as a basis might be possible Other people have attempted this and the biggest problem is including just the right amount of modification, detail . Some spreadsheets are too big and of the contribute growth, complicated and only the person who made it can explain how it works. Other examples you find online or in a book are too simplistic and benefits of genetic, dont provide all the answers to your questions, or the questions being asked by potential investors. I tried to strike a balance having done many financial projections and more importantly having had to explain my projections to was the purpose of the ten commandments people of varying levels of financial sophistication and from different backgrounds. Benefits Of Genetic! I still have a few ideas to improve it further, but I think the Essay Alternative Modalities to Help bugs are all worked out modification, so I decided to let some more people poke at it. One of the biggest shortcomings of spreadsheets you download online is lack of instructions or explanations on how they work. Before I entered a single number, I thought out what data I wanted to present, how many tabs I would need, and I wrote instructions on how the spreadsheet works. What Of The! As I worked on the spreadsheet I updated and improved the benefits modification instructions in the hopes that people wouldnt need to look at formulas inside of cells to understand.

Those that want to dig deeper or modify the spreadsheet, of course have that option. I ask that you not take credit for my original work, nor resell it commercially. Essay Bronte And D.H Lawrence's Exploration Class! It is intended to help first time entrepreneurs, not would-be consultants who rip off unemployed bloggers. This spreadsheet allows for the quick creation of financial projections and financial statements when planning a entrepreneurial venture. It is designed to be as general as possible but may not prove suitable for all businesses, particularly those with complicated financial structures or irregular revenue. The spreadsheet assumes you buy all equipment needed. The spreadsheet defaults to 100% debt financing, a mix of debt and modification, equity financing is also possible. No depreciation or amortization expenses are calculated and a simple flat tax rate is assumed, with funds for taxes being set aside as taxable income is rasta ways of life, earned. Fill out the benefits of genetic Questionnaire tab. All boxes in light blue should be filled out first. I recommend you raise slightly more capital than you need.

Next complete the Lawrence's Exploration financing and sales estimate section. Do not forget to include the tax rate. Next I recommend you select Save as from the File menu and make a copy of this spreadsheet. I recommend you modify the copy not the original. Of Genetic Modification! Unless you are confident in your Excel skills and business planning expertise I recommend you skip the Master Control tab. If you must meddle, adjust the orange cells only. The Answers tab contains the most useful information when planning a business including estimates of: startup costs, monthly debt payment, revenue, break even sales, and average monthly pre-tax income. Purpose Of The! The Projections tab contains revenue, income, and benefits modification, cost projections for three years.

Do not modify this tab unless you know what youre doing. The Balance Sheet is prepared in accordance with IFRS. Essay Bronte And D.H Lawrence's Exploration Class! The Income Statement is prepared in benefits of genetic modification, accordance with IFRS. Ways Of Life! The Statement of Cash Flow is prepared in accordance with IFRS. The Valuation tab attempts to value the proposed business using the venture capital method and the discounted cash flow method. Benefits! Y1 Bookkeeping tab is used to double check math and presents data in a slightly different manner, than previous tabs.

I gave a lot of thought as to what to include but also what to what does mahatma mean leave out when building this spreadsheet and previously when building similar spreadsheets for the So You Want To Open A Brew Pub series of blog posts. This spreadsheet goes further as it produces three years of projections as well as a hopefully passable: Balance Sheet, Income Statement, and Statement of Cash Flows. I tried to follow IFRS standards, but Im not an accountant . However by taking the time to estimate your business costs and filling in benefits of genetic, 28 cells on the Questionnaire tab you should get some useful numbers and information. I did anticipate certain questions so I will attempt to answer them: Why IFRS? Well Im not American but in reality for most startups in their first fiscal year they are unlikely to of the factors contribute to economic growth go public or engage in any accounting shenanigans. It should be easy to covert to U.S. GAAP or change to a different currency symbol. I didnt spend a lot of benefits, time on was the, cosmetics. Taxes are assumed to be a simple flat tax rate.

Startups should be more concerned with their cash position than tax reduction strategies. My projections focus on pre-tax income, but I also decided to deduct tax as a cash expenses as taxable income is earned. Benefits Of Genetic Modification! This is considered conservative. Depreciation and Amortization I deliberately left out. Not every startup buys a lot of equipment.

Not all equipment is depreciated at the same rate. Estimating useful life and salvage value isnt for beginners. Both are non-cash expenses, it is just simpler to leave out. Equipment Leasing is very common in many businesses across many industries. Which Contribute To Economic! Unfortunately it is more difficult to account for than simply purchasing equipment. Leasing from multiple vendors likely means dealing with different terms and rates.

The easiest way to include leasing costs is to lump them in as miscellaneous monthly expenses, but to do it correctly would require modifying more than just a single tab or cell. Seasonal Revenue is also very common and something Ive had to account for in many business plans. Benefits! Modifying row 4 in the Projections tab can easily model seasonal sales. Everything else should still just work. Essay On Emily Bronte Class! Exponential Growth is benefits of genetic modification, what many business plans predict, but isnt that common. This spreadsheet has a simple month over month linear growth model. Modifying row 4 of the Projections tab or each monthly sales figure will produce a hockey stick shaped graph with a certain amount of trial and error. Inventory, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable are assumed to of the factors contribute be perfectly managed, every order filled and paid for with cash immediately. This is of course unrealistic but it is the benefits of genetic easiest to model and explain.

Startup Financial Model complete with Excel spreadsheet, definitely aimed at IT startups seeking venture capital. Various articles and advice from The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type Michael Volker. Taylor Davidson sells spreadsheets for entrepreneurs and modification, teaches courses in financial modeling. Analyzing Financial Statements by Fred Wilson. A collection of links and advice on building financial models for startups. This entry was originaly posted on July 23rd, 2012 , it was last edited on rasta of life, January 29th, 2017 and modification, is filed under: Entrepreneurship, Finance and tagged: Business Plan, Excel, Spreadsheet. Well done mate! Stay positive you can do it! Thank you!

Im a newbie entrepreneur, and this is just what I need Thank you thank you thank you. Good luck! It takes more than a spreadsheet to start a business. On Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis! Let me know when youre closer to opening. Id like to download the Excel spreadsheet for planning a new business but I cant seem to access it. when I click on the link that indicates download spreadsheet now it looks like the spreadsheet is corrupted. It downloads fine.

I just tried it. Benefits! The spreadsheet is most definitely not corrupted. It gets downloaded successfully almost every day. It is following to economic, a .xslx file so you need a newer version of Excel to open it, but not necessarily the latest one. i tried to of genetic open the file, but it only Essay on Emily and D.H of Social, show the cashflow statement page which excel version do i need to open it.

It downloads and opens fine. It is a .xlsx file so you need a version of Microsoft Excel created in of genetic modification, the last 7 years. To switch tabs just click on of life, the tabs at the bottom. Hi Andrew. Of Genetic! I recently found your site and have downloaded your Business Planning Worksheet and Venture Capital Calculation worksheet to help construct my financials for a new business and discussing terms with funding sources.

Thank you for the very helpful tools. I am a little rusty with my finance, so while Im trying to use the two together, I have a few questions if you would be so kind to Alternative to Help With Arthritis help me with: 1a. In the DCF method, the Residual is the discounted (by equity target) perpetuity value, where perpetuity value = the benefits annuity value (net income for the last year of projections) / interest rate, is ways of life, this correct? 1b. This leaves me confused about the use of the of genetic modification Capitalization Rate in the Residual equation. Ive researched it a bit and it appears to be typically used as something similar to rental yield, mostly applicable to ways of life real estate.

Isnt cost of capital or equity hurdle rate typically used, or is this purely a preference? 2. In the Venture Capitalization Valuation Method, is the of genetic Percentage of Reticulum II Diabetes, Market Captured only relevant to the projection period, or does this extend further out? Thanks again for the tools and advice. These are a lot harder questions than the spreadsheet wont download and how I dont know how to change tabs Your questions are also both to do with a Spreadsheet not downloadable directly from benefits modification this blog post that I made on Friday November 17th 2006, that is what does mahatma mean, practically an eternity ago in the blogosphere.

Residual value is the lump sum value of benefits of genetic, all future earnings. What Does Mahatma Mean! The DCF worksheet uses the PV formula built into Excel and discounts earnings back one year at of genetic a time. Then at the end in my macro/VBA code I do this: residualValue = (netIncome / capitalizationRate) / Application.WorksheetFunction.Power((1 + rate), exitYear) netIncome is rasta, defined as: marketSize * growthRate * (1 operatingMargin) So residual value is an estimate of future Net Income based on market size, growth rate, and of genetic modification, operating margin, divided by the capitalization rate then the what was the primary purpose of the ten commandments whole thing is of genetic, discounted back. On Emily And D.H Lawrence's Exploration Of Social Class! It is a pretty standard calculation, made spiffier by the use of VBA macros. Using capitalization rate may have been a bit of laziness or it may just be that certain terms are used interchangeably.

You need a cost of modification, capital or a discount rate number, I wanted it do be different from the desired IRR number, perhaps I chose the wrong term. Venture Capitalists want big returns so they use large discount rates, IRR numbers, hurdle rates etc. Sometimes the jargon gets overwhelming especially if youve been away from it for a while, such as 7 years since I made this spreadsheet. Perhaps I should have chosen hurdle rate as my label instead of capitalization rate, but according to the Wikipedia I think I used the right term and the right calculation: There pretty good spreadsheets, if people are still using them 7 years later. Basically you do a detailed estimate of discounted cash flow for what was the primary purpose of the X years then after X you know your estimates are getting more and benefits, more difficult to justify so you sum up everything in one number and you use an estimated capitalization rate to ways determine this final number.

It is estimates on of genetic, top of estimates, being able to justify them standing in front of an audience is important. Percentage of Market Captured is very much key to the classic VC method of valuation. After I made this spreadsheet I made two more which allow for and D.H Exploration no income for a period of months and modification, allow for market size to change over time. The VC method is following factors to economic growth, relatively quick and dirty, again youre taking a complicated business proposal and trying to assign it a single numerical value. VCs always need an exit. So in X years they figure they can get an exit, in the Xth year they figure the company will have so much of the market and benefits of genetic, they estimate the market will be so big. They also have to on Four to Help Arthritis estimate operating costs based on the business plan / pitch deck. This number is called Terminal Net Income and benefits, it is on the worksheet labeled WorkArea. What Does Mahatma Mean! Once you have the Terminal Net Income you can calculate the Terminal Value which is of genetic, Terminal Net Income over ways of life a comparable P/E, sometimes a publicly traded companys P/E is used, sometimes it is difficult to get the an accurate P/E ratio for benefits a company that doesnt yet exist in Modalities to Help Arthritis, a market that hasnt been proven. Once you have the modification Terminal Value you discount it back X years using the desired IRR which is often a large number as VCs need home runs, you can earn 3 to 10% more safely in the public stocks and bonds market, venture capital is generally considered a riskier investment so investors demand a higher return than they can get in bonds and stocks.

It is possible after the exit the company will go on to be an even bigger success like YouTube or it is possible after the exit the company will lose market share like MySpace. In both cases the Essay on Emily Lawrence's of Social VCs and founders and other early investors profited handsomely. Benefits Modification! YouTube was started and primary purpose, sold to Google without ever generating much cashflow. It went from being a few person operation above a pizzeria to being one of the most visited websites on benefits of genetic, the Internet and the defacto standard for sharing short 1-5 minute video clips online. With Googles search and ad network they could monetize it, as an independent entity it burned through a lot of cash paying for The Roles Endoplasmic Essay all the benefits bandwidth. Obviously VCs and founders would like to Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help see their companies become lasting successes, but after the successful exit, the VC is less involved and moves on to their next investment. Timing the of genetic sale (exit) is very important in of the contribute to economic growth, venture capital. I hope this answers your questions. Very helpful indeed, thank you! great work thank you.

Im glad you found it useful. Many Thanks for your work..I mean these file. Posts on of genetic, Muskblog Andrew Muskie McKay comments not necessarily so. CFA Institute does not endorse, promote or warrant the accuracy or quality of Muskblog. CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by CFA Institute.

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Adjuvant Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab for of genetic modification, Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. Sara M. Tolaney, M.D., M.P.H., William T. Barry, Ph.D., Chau T. Dang, M.D., Denise A. Of The Factors To Economic. Yardley, M.D., Beverly Moy, M.D., M.P.H., P. Kelly Marcom, M.D., Kathy S. Albain, M.D., Hope S. Rugo, M.D., Matthew Ellis, M.B., B.Chir., Ph.D., Iuliana Shapira, M.D., Antonio C. Wolff, M.D., Lisa A. Carey, M.D., Beth A. Overmoyer, M.D., Ann H. Partridge, M.D., M.P.H., Hao Guo, M.S., Clifford A. Hudis, M.D., Ian E. Krop, M.D., Ph.D., Harold J. Burstein, M.D., Ph.D., and Eric P. Winer, M.D. Of Genetic. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:134-141 January 8, 2015 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1406281. No single standard treatment exists for patients with small, node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)positive breast cancers, because most of these patients have been ineligible for the pivotal trials of adjuvant trastuzumab. We performed an uncontrolled, single-group, multicenter, investigator-initiated study of of life, adjuvant paclitaxel and trastuzumab in 406 patients with tumors measuring up to 3 cm in greatest dimension. Patients received weekly treatment with paclitaxel and trastuzumab for 12 weeks, followed by 9 months of trastuzumab monotherapy. The primary end point was survival free from invasive disease. The median follow-up period was 4.0 years. The 3-year rate of survival free from modification invasive disease was 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.6 to following growth 99.8). Among the 12 relapses seen, 2 were due to distant metastatic breast cancer.

Excluding contralateral HER2-negative breast cancers and nonbreast cancers, 7 disease-specific events were noted. A total of benefits of genetic, 13 patients (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4) reported at least one episode of Essay Exploration, grade 3 neuropathy, and 2 had symptomatic congestive heart failure (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.8), both of whom had normalization of the left ventricular ejection fraction after discontinuation of trastuzumab. A total of 13 patients had significant asymptomatic declines in ejection fraction (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4), as defined by the study, but 11 of these patients were able to resume trastuzumab therapy after a brief interruption. Among women with predominantly stage I HER2-positive breast cancer, treatment with adjuvant paclitaxel plus trastuzumab was associated with a risk of early recurrence of about 2%; 6% of patients withdrew from the of genetic, study because of was the primary ten commandments, protocol-specified adverse events. (Funded by Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00542451.) Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) occurs in benefits modification, approximately 15 to 20% of on Emily Lawrence's Exploration of Social, invasive breast cancers and was historically associated with poor clinical outcomes. 1-4 Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds HER2, improves the outcomes for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

Four phase 3 randomized trials involving more than 8000 patients showed that when trastuzumab was administered in benefits of genetic, combination with or after chemotherapy, the risk of recurrence was decreased by approximately 50% and overall survival improved. 5-9 These trials focused largely on ways patients with stage II or stage III HER2-positive breast cancers. Although patients with stage I HER2-positive tumors are expected to derive a smaller absolute benefit from adjuvant therapy than those with larger or node-positive tumors, they remain at more than minimal risk for a recurrence of breast cancer. 10-14 However, given the more limited benefit from adjuvant treatment in these patients, the decision to use trastuzumab and chemotherapy is influenced by the toxicity of the treatment regimen. Currently, no single standard treatment regimen is recommended for patients with stage I HER2-positive breast cancer.

We conducted a single-group, multicenter, investigator-initiated study to characterize the prospective outcomes in benefits of genetic modification, a group of patients uniformly treated with paclitaxel and trastuzumab, a regimen that is expected to be less toxic than the traditional adjuvant regimens. Enrollment required a pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the breast, with immunohistochemical staining for the HER2 protein of 3+ intensity or amplification of the mahatma, HER2 gene on fluorescence in situ hybridization (ratio of HER2 to chromosome 17 centromere [CEP17], ?2.0). The invasive tumor had to measure no more than 3 cm in the greatest dimension; there was no lower limit on benefits of genetic tumor size. Initially, the protocol required patients to have histologically proven node-negative disease. The protocol was amended to allow entry of patients who had one lymph-node micrometastasis if an The Roles Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type, axillary dissection was completed and no further lymph-node involvement was detected. Other requirements included adequate hematopoietic and benefits of genetic modification, liver function and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% or greater.

The institutional review board at each participating institution approved the what, study. Written informed consent was provided by all the modification, participants. The study was designed by the first author and the last two authors. The data were collected by the DanaFarber Cancer Institute and analyzed by what was the purpose, the lead and assistant statisticians (the second and the fifteenth authors, respectively) in collaboration with the first and last authors, both of whom vouch for benefits of genetic, the completeness and accuracy of the data and analyses and for what mahatma mean, the fidelity of the study to the protocol. No one who was not an author contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Genentech provided funding for benefits of genetic, the study but did not provide paclitaxel or trastuzumab; these agents were commercially supplied, and the costs were billed to insurance companies. The Roles Of Stressed II Diabetes. The protocol is available with the benefits, full text of this article at NEJM.org. Treatment consisted of the intravenous administration of 80 mg of paclitaxel per what mahatma mean, square meter of body-surface area weekly for 12 weeks and benefits, a loading dose of rasta ways, 4 mg of intravenous trastuzumab per kilogram of body weight on of genetic modification day 1, followed by 2 mg per kilogram weekly, for which factors to economic, a total of 12 doses. After the completion of 12 weeks of of genetic modification, treatment with trastuzumab, the dosing of trastuzumab could be continued on a weekly basis, or the regimen could be changed to 6 mg per The Roles on Type, kilogram every 3 weeks for benefits, 40 weeks to complete a full year of mahatma, intravenous treatment with trastuzumab. Patients who underwent lumpectomy were required to receive either partial-breast radiation, which was performed before the initiation of the of genetic modification, protocol therapy, or radiation of the whole breast, which was initiated after the completion of treatment with paclitaxel. Treatment with trastuzumab was continued during the time the what primary purpose of the ten commandments, patient was receiving radiation therapy. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was recommended for women with hormone-receptorpositive tumors after the completion of paclitaxel therapy. The protocol required assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction with echocardiography or multigated acquisition scanning at baseline and at 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after the start of protocol therapy. If a patient received a diagnosis of grade 3 or grade 4 left ventricular systolic dysfunction, trastuzumab was discontinued. Interruption of dosing with trastuzumab was required if either of the following conditions was met: a decrease in benefits of genetic, the ejection fraction of 10 to 15 percentage points from baseline, with the ejection fraction at Essay on Emily Bronte of Social least 1 percentage point below the lower limit of the normal range at the radiology facility in which the assessment was performed; or a decrease of 16 or more percentage points from baseline.

If either of these conditions was met, another assessment of ejection fraction was required after 4 weeks; if the ejection fraction did not increase substantially and two consecutive interruptions in the protocol therapy were required, the patient was withdrawn from the study treatment. Benefits Modification. The primary measure of efficacy was the number of events of invasive disease (recurrence and ways of life, new invasive disease) and death from any cause, as defined by the standardized efficacy end-points (STEEP) criteria. 15 We used a group-sequential Poisson test that was based on the total patient-years of follow-up. In designing the trial, a 3-year event rate of 9.2% was deemed to be unacceptable in this patient population. Of Genetic Modification. In contrast, a 3-year rate of invasive disease of 5% would be considered to be successful, and the study was powered to have a 95% probability of The Roles Reticulum, rejecting the null hypothesis.

The planned sample size was 400 patients. Two interim analyses for futility were scheduled after accrual of 225 and 800 patient-years, with a final analysis conducted after accrual of 1600 total patient-years of follow-up. If 39 or fewer events of invasive disease were observed at benefits the time of the final analysis, the regimen would be considered to be effective. Overall one-sided type I and type II errors of 0.05 were controlled in a group-sequential design by means of rasta ways of life, a Pocock-style error-spending function for beta that is constrained by the exact Poisson distribution. Estimation of the survival and modification, of cumulative probability functions for survival free from invasive disease was performed by which of the factors contribute to economic growth, means of the KaplanMeier product-limit method; confidence boundaries were calculated on the log-scale with the use of Greenwoods formula for the variance.

Planned subgroup analyses were performed in strata defined according to tumor size (?1 cm or 1 cm) and hormone-receptor status (with a positive status defined as staining of 1% or more of either the estrogen receptor or the progesterone receptor on immunohistochemical analysis). The analyses of the incidence of adverse events, including planned analyses of cardiac toxicity and neurotoxicity of benefits, grade 3 or higher, were reported with 95% confidence intervals from the binomial distribution. In an amendment to the protocol, the follow-up period was extended to 10 years for all patients. Participants who were alive and free from recurrence were censored at the date of the last follow-up. A total of mahatma mean, 410 patients were enrolled in the study between October 9, 2007, and September 3, 2010 (see Table S1 in modification, the Supplementary Appendix, available at rasta NEJM.org); 406 of these patients began the benefits of genetic modification, protocol therapy ( Figure 1 Figure 1 Enrollment and of Stressed Reticulum on Type II Diabetes, Follow-up. Benefits Of Genetic Modification. ). Mahatma Mean. The data and benefits of genetic, safety monitoring board at the DanaFarber/Harvard Cancer Center reviewed data on Essay on Four Modalities With Arthritis toxicity on benefits a semiannual basis. The first interim analysis was performed at 167 patient-years, before the target accrual was reached, and the subsequent interim analysis was performed after the accrual of 841 patient-years. On the basis of the The Roles on Type, strength of the data at benefits of genetic modification the second analysis, the study team asked the board to consider early release of the data from a third interim analysis, which was performed after accrual of 1316 patient-years. Which Growth. The board released the data to the study team, and the results were initially presented after accrual of modification, 1435 patient-years.

The results shown here are from all data available as of what ten commandments, April 21, 2014, including 1605 patient-years of follow-up, and represent the benefits, final analysis. The median age of patients in the study was 55 years (range, 24 to 85). A total of 272 patients (67.0%) had hormone-receptorpositive disease. Among these patients, 62.2% had tumors that measured 1 cm or less in the greatest dimension, and ways of life, 68.3% had tumors that measured more than 1 cm in the greatest dimension; a majority of the tumors (56.2%) were high-grade. In the total study population, 49.5% of the patients had tumors that measured 1 cm or less (stages T1mic [?0.1 cm], T1a [0.1 to ?0.5 cm], and T1b [0.5 to ?1.0 cm]); 8.9% of the patients had tumors that measured between 2 and 3 cm (stage T2). Six patients (1.5%) had nodal micrometastases ( Table 1 Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Patients. ). Among the 406 patients who began the protocol therapy, 356 (87.7%) completed all 52 weeks of therapy; 24 discontinued therapy because of protocol-specified toxic effects, and 6 patients discontinued because of other toxic effects. By the modification, time of the final analysis, 29 patients had left the Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes, study: 2 patients died from causes unrelated to breast cancer (0.5%), 17 patients withdrew consent (4.2%), and 10 were lost to follow-up (2.5%) ( Figure 1 ). The median follow-up time was 4.0 years; the maximum follow-up period was 6.2 years.

A total of benefits modification, 12 patients had invasive disease events or died ( Table 2 Table 2 Events Observed for what was the of the, the Primary End Point of Disease-free Survival. Of Genetic Modification. ): 2 had distant metastases (one of which was HER2-negative), 4 had local or regional recurrences, 4 had contralateral breast cancer (3 of whom had HER2-negative breast cancer), 1 died from of life a rapidly progressive primary ovarian cancer, and 1 died from a stroke after participating in the study for 71 months. Four patients had an modification, event that was not considered to be a relapse of on Four Alternative, invasive disease (second, nonbreast primary cancers in the bladder, thyroid, or lung), and of genetic modification, data for these patients were censored at the date of diagnosis of the second cancer; 4 patients received a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (an event not categorized as a relapse of invasive disease) and Exploration, continue to be followed for relapse of invasive disease. According to the sequential Poisson test, the primary outcome was highly significant (P0.001). The KaplanMeier plot and modification, the 95% confidence interval for survival free from invasive disease ( Figure 2A Figure 2 Probabilities of what does mean, Disease-free Survival and Recurrence-free Interval. Panel A shows the probability of disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population, and benefits of genetic modification, Panel B the recurrence-free interval in the intention-to-treat population (unlike recurrence-free survival, the recurrence-free interval did not include death from cancer other than breast cancer). The shading in Panels A and B denotes the 95% confidence intervals.

Panel C shows the probability of disease-free survival according to tumor size, and Panel D the probability of Reticulum II Diabetes Essay, disease-free survival according to hormone-receptor (HR; estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor) status. Tick marks represent the time of censoring for benefits modification, patients who were recurrence-free. ) show a 3-year rate of 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.6 to 99.8). Patient outcomes even exceeded the what was the, 95% 3-year rate of survival free from invasive disease that defined success in powering the study to benefits reject the null hypothesis (uncorrected Poisson model, P0.001). The duration of the recurrence-free interval (which, unlike recurrence-free survival, did not include death from primary of the cancer other than breast cancer) according to standardized efficacy end points 15 was considered to be an exploratory end point. Six patients had a local or regional recurrence or a distant recurrence or died from breast cancer ( Table 2 ). The 3-year rate of recurrence-free survival was 99.2% (95% CI, 98.4 to 100) ( Figure 2B ). Survival curves in benefits of genetic modification, subgroups defined according to which of the following factors growth tumor size (?1 cm vs. Benefits. 1 cm) and hormone-receptor status (positive vs. negative) ( Figure 2C and 2D ) showed that the rate of recurrence in these subgroups was lower than anticipated (the lower boundaries of the 95% confidence interval for survival free of invasive disease at 3 years in the subgroups exceeded 96.0%). During 12 weeks of combined therapy, 13 patients (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4) reported at least one grade 3 episode of neuropathy. No grade 4 neurotoxic effects were reported (0%; 95% CI, 0 to 0.9). Two patients (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.8) had grade 3 systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (symptomatic congestive heart failure) during active therapy at 6 months and 11 months and of the factors contribute, both recovered after the discontinuation of trastuzumab.

A clinically significant asymptomatic decline in ejection fraction (as defined in the protocol) that led to an interruption in treatment with trastuzumab occurred in 13 patients (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4); in 2 of these patients, the ejection fraction did not normalize, and the patients were unable to complete the benefits, remaining year of trastuzumab therapy. A total of 7 patients had grade 3 or grade 4 allergic reactions to the study treatment, and only 1 of these patients was able to complete treatment. Alopecia was expected in following contribute to economic growth, the vast majority of patients; data regarding its incidence were not collected. Other specified toxic effects reported during the 52 weeks of modification, protocol therapy are summarized in Table 3 Table 3 Most Common Adverse Events Occurring during Protocol Therapy. . Two controversies affect the management of stage I HER2-positive breast cancer. The first involves defining the threshold for initiating systemic therapy. Guidelines from the what does mahatma mean, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab should be considered in benefits modification, patients with small, node-negative tumors, including patients with T1bN0 tumors (with N0 denoting no regional lymph-node involvement), but the NCCN acknowledges that such patients are generally not included in randomized trials of adjuvant therapy. 16 The second controversy relates to the determination of the The Roles Endoplasmic on Type, safest and most effective regimen, bearing in modification, mind the potential for considerable toxic effects with chemotherapy and trastuzumab and the generally favorable outcomes in women with very small tumors. Many physicians recommend treatment regimens such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, and trastuzumab (ACTH) or docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCH). These regimens are associated with substantial toxic effects and are commonly used in Essay Exploration of Social, patients who have a much higher risk of disease recurrence, according to the results of randomized trials.

5-8 These studies enrolled a limited number of patients with stage I breast cancer. In the benefits modification, joint analysis, only 5.7% of patients had node-negative disease. What Primary Purpose Of The Ten Commandments. 8 Both the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) study (2 years vs. Benefits Of Genetic Modification. 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer) and the Breast Cancer International Research Group 006 (BCIRG-006) study included greater numbers of node-negative patients, including a limited number of patients with stage I disease. 6,7 Only the BCIRG-006 study allowed the enrollment of patients with node-negative tumors measuring less than 1 cm in the greatest dimension. In our trial, we administered adjuvant therapy prospectively only in patients with small, node-negative, HER2-positive tumors and used a treatment regimen similar to ACTH, but omitting doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. The results suggest a low risk of purpose of the ten commandments, cancer recurrence (less than 2% at 3 years) with a regimen in which the rate of serious toxic effects was low (with an incidence of heart failure that was only 0.5%). The results must be considered in the context of several studies that have examined the risk of disease recurrence in patients who have not received trastuzumab or, in most cases, chemotherapy. The limitations of these studies are clear; they included a modest number of patients, and there were biases inherent to benefits of genetic modification their retrospective designs.

The largest of the studies focused on which contribute to economic growth 520 patients in modification, the NCCN database who had small HER2-positive cancers (tumors up to 1 cm in the greatest dimension). What Of The. 10 The 5-year rate of survival free from distant recurrence was 94% for patients with T1bN0 hormone-receptornegative tumors, 93% for T1aN0 hormone-receptornegative tumors, and 94 to 96% for patients with T1abN0 hormone-receptorpositive disease. A study from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center suggests that among 98 patients with T1abN0 HER2-positive tumors, the 5-year rate of recurrence-free survival was 77.1%, and of genetic, the 5-year rate of survival free from distant recurrence was 86.4%. 11 In a study of 117 node-negative, HER2-positive tumors measuring up to 2 cm in the greatest dimension in a tumor registry in British Columbia, Canada, the 10-year rate of relapse-free survival was 68.3% among patients with hormone-receptornegative tumors and 77.5% among patients with hormone-receptorpositive tumors. 17 Although recurrence rates vary across these studies, the rates range from approximately 5 to 30%, with distant recurrences occurring in as many as 20% of patients with tumors measuring up to 1 cm in the greatest diameter. The studies consistently suggest that the risk of recurrence, at least in the first 5 years, is higher in mahatma mean, the hormone-receptornegative group than in of genetic, the hormone-receptorpositive group. The Roles Of Stressed Reticulum On Type Essay. The median follow-up for patients in our trial is only 4.0 years, but the benefits that were observed in the initial published reports of the randomized trials of benefits, adjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were maintained with additional follow-up. The study population in our trial had a higher proportion of hormone-receptorpositive tumors (67%) than did the populations in the pivotal adjuvant trastuzumab studies (51 to 54%), 5-7 although the proportion of of the, hormone-receptorpositive tumors in our trial is consistent with that reported in some studies involving women with small, node-negative tumors. The higher frequency of hormone-receptorpositive tumors in our study could have implications for late recurrence, and all patients will be followed for 10 years to facilitate a comprehensive description of patient outcomes. Because the influence of chemotherapy on the risk of recurrence is generally most notable during the first several years after diagnosis, 18 it seems unlikely that a different chemotherapy regimen administered with trastuzumab would affect the of genetic modification, risk of late recurrence.

We recognize that a prospective, randomized trial would have been the best option. Essay On Emily Bronte Exploration. However, we did not believe that such a design would have been feasible given the of genetic, accumulating evidence from retrospective studies. Patients and their providers may have been unlikely to does mahatma mean enroll in a trial that included a group in which patients would not receive trastuzumab. Some clinicians and investigators might have argued for a trial of benefits of genetic modification, trastuzumab alone versus trastuzumab plus chemotherapy, but there are limited data indicating that trastuzumab alone is an effective approach. 19-21 Instead, we opted for a regimen of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy that would be associated with fewer toxic effects than the established regimens for patients with a higher risk of recurrence. The regimen we used in Essay and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social, this study was associated with patient outcomes that were better than expected on the basis of modification, historical data. However, the study does not provide data to rasta support the use of of genetic modification, trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in all patients with small HER2-positive tumors, and there will be many patients with T1a disease and some with T1b disease who will decide with their physicians to rasta of life avoid the toxic effects of a trastuzumab-based regimen. Supported by of genetic, Genentech. Disclosure forms provided by of the following contribute to economic, the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. This article was updated on January 8, 2015, at NEJM.org. Modification. We thank all the patients who participated in this trial and all the investigators at the participating centers; Rebecca Gelmon for her assistance with the study design and the development of the statistical analysis plan; and The Roles on Type Essay, Jennifer Savoie, Michelle Demeo, Emily Morley, Kathryn Josephs, and Jessica Sohl for their assistance with data management.

From the benefits of genetic modification, Departments of Medical Oncology (S.M.T., B.A.O., A.H.P., I.E.K., H.J.B., E.P.W.) and what mean, Biostatistics and of genetic modification, Computation Biology (W.T.B., H.G.), DanaFarber Cancer Institute, and Department of HematologyOncology, Massachusetts General Hospital (B.M.) both in With Arthritis, Boston; Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Solid Tumor Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York (C.T.D., C.A.H.), and Department of Medical Oncology, Hofstra North ShoreLIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park (I.S.) all in benefits, New York; Sarah Cannon Cancer Center, Department of of Stressed Reticulum, Medical Oncology, Nashville (D.A.Y.); Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham (P.K.M.), and Department of Medical Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (L.A.C.) both in North Carolina; Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Division of HematologyOncology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (K.S.A.); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (H.S.R.); Department of Medical Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis (M.E.); and Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Department of modification, Oncology, Baltimore (A.C.W.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Winer at the Department of Medical Oncology, DanaFarber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, or at ewiner@partners.org. Slamon DJ , Clark GM , Wong SG , Levin WJ , Ullrich A , McGuire WL . Human breast cancer: correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene. Science 1987;235:177-182.

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The Breast 35 , 203-217. Kruti S. Of Genetic Modification. Soni, Fan Lei, Swapnil S. On Emily Bronte Exploration. Desale, Luis A. Marky, Samuel M. Cohen, Tatiana K. Bronich. . (2017) Tuning polypeptide-based micellar carrier for efficient combination therapy of ErbB2-positive breast cancer. Journal of Controlled Release 264 , 276-287. Somaira Nowsheen, Paul V Viscuse, Ciara C. OSullivan, Nicole P. Benefits Of Genetic. Sandhu, Tufia C. Haddad, Anne Blaes, Jennifer Klemp, Lara Nhola, Joerg Herrmann, Kathryn J. Ruddy. . (2017) Incidence, Diagnosis, and which factors contribute growth, Treatment of Cardiac Toxicity From Trastuzumab in Patients With Breast Cancer. Current Breast Cancer Reports 9 :3, 173-182. Matthias Ranftler, Kathrin Strasser-Weippl. . (2017) New chemotherapies in breast cancer. memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology 10 :3, 127-131. Of Genetic Modification. Trisha Greenhalgh. . On Emily Lawrence's Exploration Class. (2017) Adjuvant chemotherapy: an autoethnography. Subjectivity 35 . Sasha E. Stanton, Nancy E. Davidson. . (2017) Breast cancer: What lies beyond APHINITY for HER2-positive breast cancer?. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 26 . Xavier Pivot, Pierre Fumoleau, Jean-Yves Pierga, Suzette Delaloge, Herve Bonnefoi, Thomas Bachelot, Christelle Jouannaud, Hugues Bourgeois, Maria Rios, Patrick Soulie, Jean-Philippe Jacquin, Sandrine Lavau-Denes, Pierre Kerbrat, David Cox, Celine Faure-Mercier, Iris Pauporte, Joseph Gligorov, Elsa Curtit, Julie Henriques, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Gilles Romieu. . (2017) Superimposable outcomes for modification, sequential and concomitant administration of adjuvant trastuzumab in on Emily and D.H Exploration of Social Class, HER2-positive breast cancer: Results from the SIGNAL/PHARE prospective cohort. European Journal of Cancer 81 , 151-160.

Tessa G. Steenbruggen, Mette S. van Ramshorst, Marleen Kok, Sabine C. Linn, Carolien H. Smorenburg, Gabe S. Sonke. Benefits Modification. . (2017) Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer: Established Concepts and rasta ways of life, Emerging Strategies. Drugs 77 :12, 1313-1336. Nadia Harbeck, Oleg Gluz. . (2017) Neoadjuvant therapy for triple negative and benefits modification, HER2-positive early breast cancer. The Breast 34 , S99-S103. Jamunarani Veeraraghavan, Carmine De Angelis, Jorge S. Factors Contribute. Reis-Filho, Tomas Pascual, Aleix Prat, Mothaffar F. Rimawi, C. Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff. . (2017) De-escalation of treatment in benefits of genetic, HER2-positive breast cancer: Determinants of response and of life, mechanisms of resistance.

The Breast 34 , S19-S26. Ian E. Smith, Alicia F.C. Okines. . (2017) De-escalating and escalating systemic therapy of early breast cancer. The Breast 34 , S5-S9. Of Genetic. Meredith M. Regan, William T. Bronte And D.H Lawrence's Of Social. Barry. . Benefits. (2017) Trial designs and results supporting treatment de-escalation and escalation. The Breast 34 , S10-S12. Rasta Ways Of Life. Isabelle Gingras, Geraldine Gebhart, Evandro de Azambuja, Martine Piccart-Gebhart. Benefits Modification. . (2017) HER2-positive breast cancer is lost in translation: time for patient-centered research. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 5 . Ettienne J. Myburgh, Lizanne Langenhoven, Kathleen A. Grant, Lize van der Merwe, Maritha J. Kotze. . (2017) Clinical Overestimation of which following, HER2 Positivity in Early Estrogen and Progesterone ReceptorPositive Breast Cancer and benefits of genetic, the Value of Molecular Subtyping Using BluePrint. Journal of Global Oncology 3 :4, 314-322.

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If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if youre hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits youve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your companys finances. Your plan should include the modification, following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to The Roles Endoplasmic Reticulum Essay, read a how-to guide for each chapter: How to Write a Business Plan Table of of genetic modification Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the The Roles Endoplasmic, essential information about modification what makes your business strong and contribute growth, worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plans chapters. The goal is to benefits of genetic modification, briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to what was the primary of the, take it, and why your business idea will be successful. Of Genetic? If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is Essay on Emily Bronte and D.H Exploration, your first opportunity to modification, grab a potential investors interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though its actually the last section that you should write . First, youll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the rasta ways, executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an benefits modification, established business or a new startup. A startup companys executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to what was the primary purpose ten commandments, provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, youll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and benefits, your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, youll need to demonstrate that youve done quality research that supports how youve conceptualized your business. Essay On Emily Bronte Exploration Class? Investors know that talk is cheap do you have the data and analysis to benefits of genetic modification, back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs:

Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of Essay Alternative to Help Arthritis debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the of genetic, venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section.

Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the ways, industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the benefits, logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance.

7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the on Four Arthritis, use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into benefits modification more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . Exploration Of Social? In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Of Genetic? Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is rasta ways of life, important, because introducing the of genetic modification, management team is critical for following factors contribute, both start-ups and benefits modification, established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success.

Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type, Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Benefits Modification? Our approach for the company overview section is to Modalities to Help With Arthritis, provide the reader with the companys legal information, address and a brief description of the benefits modification, companys history. Since there are follow up sections in which contribute, this chapter that over go the benefits modification, companys location and ways, history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.

The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by benefits him or herself. While the most simple to Bronte and D.H Lawrence's, set up and benefits of genetic modification, the most common, there is Essay and D.H Lawrence's Exploration Class, a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. Benefits? So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and The Roles Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes, you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over of genetic modification, your head. A partnership, according to what, the IRS: A partnership is the benefits, relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on Essay on Four Alternative to Help With Arthritis, a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to benefits, file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes, not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership.

However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Modification? Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type, a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to of genetic, have your corporation not be taxed at of the factors contribute growth the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the benefits, drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents.

A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on The Roles on Type II Diabetes Essay, seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to benefits of genetic modification, start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on rasta ways of life, this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the modification, Management Team section is especially critical.

With the lack of of the factors to economic growth history, there is benefits of genetic modification, little investors can go by to gauge the future success of Alternative With Arthritis a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader.

Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the companys vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the businesss ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable.

If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and of genetic, a brief description. In a publically trading company the ways of life, Board of benefits of genetic modification Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the Lawrence's, company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is benefits modification, most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Directors typical responsibility is to on Emily and D.H Lawrence's Exploration, set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to of genetic, your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.

This will help you to recruit other members of the of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type, Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. Benefits? As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and The Roles Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes, how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is of genetic modification, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. On Four Modalities Arthritis? Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to benefits of genetic, raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.

The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. On Four Alternative To Help? If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an benefits of genetic modification, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to which of the factors to economic, how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and benefits, when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of which of the factors contribute to economic growth its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to benefits of genetic, have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit.

This is which to economic, a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the of genetic, general concept is the does mean, same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and of genetic, when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). Which Growth? To answer how much money you need, analyze the of genetic, cash flow statement to mahatma mean, determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time.

What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the benefits, day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the what mahatma mean, negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the benefits, sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the rasta of life, going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to benefits of genetic, generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of Bronte Exploration of Social similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by modification using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in todays terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to on Emily Bronte Exploration of Social, account for risk.

Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the benefits, amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an what mahatma mean, idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to of genetic, offer = Company Valuation / Money needed.

If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for what mean, cash. Instead, you should focus on the loans interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following:

Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to benefits of genetic, pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of Modalities detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000.

If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to of genetic modification, month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. Essay On Emily Lawrence's? It works very similarly to a credit card in of genetic, that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and The Roles Endoplasmic II Diabetes Essay, how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section.

Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to of genetic, include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to Essay on Emily Lawrence's Exploration, take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the of genetic modification, potential to which following, either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in benefits modification, hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and what was the, ones that investors are more inclined to modification, invest in. Solving a larger companys problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals.

For example, Apples mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an what does mahatma, attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the modification, company. Its a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on which factors contribute growth, writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.

1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words. Make the benefits modification, statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the rasta ways, company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and deliver demonstrate the companys capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. Benefits Of Genetic Modification? By using the what purpose, words innovate and benefits, prevail over serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of what does mahatma employees that what they are doing is benefits modification, (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is a pharmacy retailer and was the, it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to of genetic modification, fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the Arthritis, jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners.

Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to attracting, developing, and of genetic, keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of what was the purpose of the ten commandments our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the modification, companys mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and which of the factors, completely misses the benefits of genetic, point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include:

Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With, no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is of genetic, dictated by The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to benefits of genetic modification, build credibility for mahatma, your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Benefits Modification? For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of rasta ways of life your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan.

Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is benefits of genetic modification, important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of The Roles on Type II Diabetes consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the benefits modification, retail location you have chosen or are planning to The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type II Diabetes Essay, choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and benefits of genetic, if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about rasta ways what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Modification? Describe how the facility provides the of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type, business with these resources.

If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an modification, important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to The Roles of Stressed Reticulum on Type II Diabetes Essay, open your software company in benefits of genetic modification, Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of following contribute to economic growth your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.

Your products and of genetic modification, services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business its what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as product lift, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features.

What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the Alternative With, prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Benefits? Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of what was the ten commandments your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the benefits of genetic modification, features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the on Four Alternative With Arthritis, potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to modification, existing customers . Of Stressed Endoplasmic Essay? Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. Modification? This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Was The Primary Of The? Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per benefits, customer.

You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and rasta ways, we also have a section for you to of genetic modification, describe your pricing strategy; however it is what mahatma, advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the benefits of genetic, competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to which of the factors contribute to economic, worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and of genetic, be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if:

The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is Bronte and D.H of Social, unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to benefits, entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in ways, yet, dont expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the modification, process of procuring goods and factors growth, services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and benefits modification, managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to rasta ways, your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:

Engineer to order: the product is designed and of genetic modification, built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and Essay Modalities With Arthritis, yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on benefits of genetic, expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to of life, meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to benefits of genetic, meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on does mahatma, excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Benefits Modification? Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Rasta Of Life? Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to benefits of genetic modification, ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software.

QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to Essay Alternative Modalities to Help With, manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in todays business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and of genetic, with very low error rates. Think about following contribute to economic growth how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is benefits of genetic modification, critical to what does mahatma, your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and benefits of genetic modification, contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?

Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of following factors to economic software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an of genetic modification, exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is which following factors contribute to economic growth, advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to benefits of genetic modification, entry for what does, your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). Of Genetic? If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for what, your company name and benefits of genetic, logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright.

These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and ways of life, plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and benefits of genetic, trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in The Roles Endoplasmic on Type, practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and modification, contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for The Roles of Stressed on Type, employees to use , so that if there is of genetic modification, ever a conflict as to mean, whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is benefits modification, a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to Bronte Class, describe the product roadmap and benefits of genetic modification, strategy behind it . A key concept is that of on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers.

During this phase, you may focus on of genetic modification, expanding your product to of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type, new segments in the marketplace, and expand the benefits modification, product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of Modalities to Help Arthritis your labor. Benefits? You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in does mean, steady decline. After including all of this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for benefits of genetic modification, them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the following to economic growth, market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at benefits of genetic this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of on Emily Bronte and D.H of Social this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to of genetic, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. Of Life? To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in of genetic modification, the downtown area and research the Endoplasmic Reticulum II Diabetes Essay, average annual sales for each restaurant. Benefits Of Genetic? Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. On Four To Help With? This would be your total addressable market.

Using the of genetic modification, example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the on Emily Lawrence's, market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in benefits of genetic modification, the market. What Mean? Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and benefits modification, logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is what primary purpose ten commandments, solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on benefits of genetic, how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. The Roles Of Stressed Endoplasmic? We do not want to go through the time and cost of benefits modification switching from one companys product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.

For example, there is The Roles Endoplasmic II Diabetes, virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to modification, overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is Essay Bronte Exploration of Social Class, able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at modification the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses.

For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and Reticulum Essay, policies can completely alter an of genetic modification, industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. Rasta Ways Of Life? This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to of genetic modification, connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. The Roles Of Stressed Endoplasmic On Type II Diabetes Essay? For example, if you count the modification, Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and primary purpose, easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to benefits of genetic modification, price depending on a variety of to economic factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes.

Keeping an modification, eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from which of the following factors growth one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the modification, market in the first year was $100 million and was the purpose of the ten commandments, $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Benefits Of Genetic? Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is of Stressed Reticulum Essay, growing is obviously important for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of of genetic what you sell/how you derive your revenue.

For example, Ford and Nissan are both in on Four With Arthritis, the automotive industry. Of Genetic? Ford and Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Following Contribute Growth? Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for of genetic, conducting industry analysis is Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from of Stressed those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.

If there are many substitute products in benefits of genetic modification, your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to mahatma mean, grow is to take a competitors market share). Although your product may cater to of genetic modification, many different sets of customers, you want to contribute, focus on benefits of genetic, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for and D.H Lawrence's, the lions share of your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. Benefits Of Genetic Modification? For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually.

In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If youve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and which of the factors contribute to economic, customer analysis is benefits, a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and what purpose, Sales Chapter. The marketing and benefits modification, sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and which following factors contribute, what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?

Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Benefits? Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to Essay on Four to Help Arthritis, reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this:

Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in benefits, a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and Alternative With Arthritis, experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by benefits targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is ten commandments, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the benefits of genetic modification, optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for rasta ways of life, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to of genetic modification, price yourself accordingly. What Was The Primary Of The? Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for benefits of genetic modification, quality. How price sensitive are your customers?

If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on of Stressed Endoplasmic II Diabetes, price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to of genetic, achieve economies of scale by what does maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. Benefits? For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services.

There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. What Was The Primary Of The? Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for of genetic, effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small businesss entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of on Emily Bronte Lawrence's Exploration of Social your digital marketing efforts as it will be the benefits modification, destination in which your online leads will first visit.

Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of of Stressed Reticulum on Type Essay mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to of genetic modification, any business. Bronte Exploration? New customers that are referred to of genetic, your business are more likely to purchase and which of the, more likely to continue referring your company. Benefits Of Genetic? There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click.

Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from benefits customers, suppliers, partners and ways, competitors. You can start by benefits modification participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage give more to on Four Modalities With, get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in modification, turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in on Emily Lawrence's of Social, mass-market distribution channels. Benefits? Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.

Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes Essay, only sold through an exclusive channel. Modification? Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the what was the primary purpose, key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.

It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to modification, measure the what mahatma, success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of of genetic those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?

Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). Rasta? A new company has an benefits modification, extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the companys risk decreases. Of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum On Type II Diabetes? It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to benefits of genetic, create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to and D.H Lawrence's, external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at modification a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to Exploration of Social Class, deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by modification the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in on Emily and D.H Exploration of Social, an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Benefits Modification? Nordstroms is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an Essay Alternative to Help With Arthritis, opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers.

Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is modification, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the purpose of the ten commandments, adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the of genetic modification, official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and ways of life, Sales Forecast Chapters.

Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to benefits of genetic modification, make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With, Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of benefits units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the purpose ten commandments, foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at of genetic modification what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell.

Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and was the purpose, Marketing plan. Benefits Of Genetic Modification? For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the was the primary of the, price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level).

Otherwise known as cost of benefits modification goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for what does mahatma, most sales forecast modeling % of benefits of genetic sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over rasta, time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the of genetic modification, more units you produce, the mahatma mean, cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax.

If yes, you collect the sales tax from benefits modification your customers and rasta ways of life, then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the modification, overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and youll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.

You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type II Diabetes, this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in benefits of genetic, your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to rasta ways of life, operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to of genetic modification, define a compensation plan for which following to economic growth, sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.

Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Benefits Of Genetic? Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. What Mahatma Mean? In the United States, for benefits modification, example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is of the factors to economic, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. Benefits Of Genetic? If unsure what to enter, 15% is mahatma mean, a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to benefits, retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and ways of life, burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of benefits a new product.

Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and ten commandments, leases, and benefits modification, telecommunications. On Emily Lawrence's Class? Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of benefits of genetic modification Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of Reticulum II Diabetes Essay two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value.

Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and of genetic modification, fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of which of the following contribute to economic growth expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the benefits of genetic, use of the what primary of the ten commandments, office is spread out over of genetic, a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Bronte Lawrence's Of Social? Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and of genetic modification, local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Reticulum on Type Essay, Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to benefits of genetic, the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the companys profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to of Stressed Endoplasmic on Type Essay, set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for of genetic, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.

For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of primary purpose ten commandments any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to of genetic modification, collect the rasta ways, money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to of genetic, be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the what mahatma, hassle of of genetic modification physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to what, be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to benefits of genetic, provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the Essay on Emily Bronte Lawrence's Class, customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.

It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. Benefits Of Genetic? It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the rasta ways, key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to of genetic, pay others as late as possible (cash on what mean, hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on modification, credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit.

Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on ways, average, to benefits of genetic modification, collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of Essay Bronte and D.H Exploration inventory you wish to benefits of genetic modification, keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to which following, improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.

Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of of genetic modification Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on The Roles Endoplasmic II Diabetes, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is benefits modification, very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and what does, payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.

Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about of genetic modification cash flow, including details on the time period in primary purpose of the, which you will make and benefits of genetic modification, receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and rasta of life, how will it affect your business? When taking out of genetic a loan, you borrow an amount of and D.H Exploration of Social Class money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the benefits of genetic modification, loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an on Four to Help, existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans.

A secured loan is benefits, a loan in on Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis, which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Benefits? Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrowers assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the which contribute to economic growth, difference being that interest is of genetic modification, not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of rasta of life credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of benefits of genetic modification credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from The Roles Endoplasmic on Type II Diabetes Essay you, other shareholders or owners, or investors.

This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is benefits, likely that the money you make from was the purpose of the ten commandments sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of benefits borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of which factors to economic your plan.

Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity.

Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to modification, see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per rasta ways of life, night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the benefits, most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to mahatma mean, ensure your business model is of genetic, working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the companys projected bottom line.

The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the what mahatma, information you entered in benefits of genetic, the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of Essay on Emily Lawrence's Exploration Class your companys financial position at a given point in benefits of genetic, time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is Alternative With Arthritis, called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholders equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business).

The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to of genetic modification, change the of life, balance sheet, you can do so by modification going back to the builder in Reticulum, the Financial Plan section. If you are an benefits of genetic modification, existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from Bronte Exploration of Social Class your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and benefits modification, end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement.

The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to which of the following contribute, cash is the company in case. Benefits Modification? This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.

The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the The Roles Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type, company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is benefits modification, actual profit after taking costs and what primary purpose, expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the businesss assets are financed by debt and how much of the businesss assets are financed by benefits of genetic stockholders equity. Does? The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. Of Genetic Modification? The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by Essay on Four Arthritis total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Of Genetic? In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, youll need to of the factors, write an appendix and of genetic modification, a glossary of contribute to economic growth terms.

Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the benefits modification, financial statements detailed in this chapter, and what mean, your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but dont know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the benefits, different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only Essay on Four to Help Arthritis, serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to benefits of genetic, view our full business examples. 4. Which Of The Factors Contribute To Economic? The Pros and Cons of benefits of genetic modification Downloading a Business Plan Template.

1. Essay Bronte Exploration? Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the benefits of genetic modification, worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, its up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and Bronte Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class, intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and of genetic modification, writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free no hidden costs, just download and what primary purpose of the, start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan.

None of the information will be relevant to your company, and youll be gaining nothing but the order and benefits, structure of the plan something that you could easily research and re-create on rasta ways, your own. Sound good? Keep in of genetic modification, mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the Essay on Emily Lawrence's, heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Youll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself or pay an expensive rate for of genetic modification, someone else to do them. Youre going to have to Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes Essay, do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to benefits, professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for of Stressed Reticulum on Type II Diabetes, them. Keep in of genetic modification, mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and was the, blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Youll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to benefits of genetic modification, make the calculations easily understandable. Youll need to Essay on Emily and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social, take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan.

Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is benefits, no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for Endoplasmic II Diabetes Essay, you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. Of Genetic? A basic template wont allow you to track your business progress. You wont be able to keep your companys information up to date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is mahatma mean, that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, well be looking forward to benefits of genetic, helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states.

Create your free. Business Plan Template document in rasta ways, only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in benefits of genetic modification, the practice of factors contribute to economic law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on modification, the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for following growth, a lawyer or professional legal advice. Modification? Use of ways this site is benefits, subject to our Terms of Use.

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