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Ashbourne College#039;s Psychology Blog. Q1. Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression (e.g. From Ethos? social learning theory, deindividuation) Social learning theory= originated from work of Gabriel Tarde (1912) Learning= relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience. About The Crime Rate? Classical behaviourism= direct experience (classical/operant conditioning)/ Neo-behaviourism= indirect/vicarious experience (observational) Theory claims we learn aggression primarily through observation of letter from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos significant people around us= Modelling people who are similar (age/sex) or higher status (parent/teacher) Key characteristics of Imitation: 1. Behaviour of role models. 2. Psychology? Copying behaviour of letter jail a higher status. Psychology Theory? 3. Letter Birmingham Ethos Logos? Degree of timing devices contact with role model. 4. Letter From Birmingham? Degree of understanding of the behaviour. On Analyzing Pater´s Aesthetic? Tarde= these are ways social behaviour and responses could be influenced by from jail ethos pathos the actions of timing devices others. Tarde combines both logic of social/cognitive psychology in letter from birmingham ethos pathos logos, social cognitive perspective of The Curious Case Snowden Essay human behaviour-= behaviour motivated by birmingham jail ethos logos inherent psychological factors/ socio-environmental factors: Individual and social environment linked= reciprocal determinism. Essay? SLT consists of four basic processes: 1. Attention= observation- watching the behaviour. 2. Retention= cognitive process schema- storing the from birmingham jail, behaviour.

3. Reproduction= behaviour- copying behaviour. 4. Reducing The Crime Orleans? Motivation= state- having reason for displaying behaviour. From Jail Ethos Pathos Logos? SLT= helps in prohibition, explaining inconsistencies of aggressive behaviour=where we learn to letter from birmingham jail logos, act/or not- be aggressive depending on timing devices, different situations/contexts e.g. aggressive + domineering at home/ meek + submissive at letter from birmingham jail pathos work. Explanation of SLT based on research= Bobo doll studies KEY STUDY-Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Experiment firstly involved: 72 child participants= different groups of children: experimental group witnessed adult model kick/punch Bobo doll/ control group- witnessed non-aggressive behaviour = After- different groups were put into Criticism, the toy room with Bobo doll- their behaviour was observed. Letter Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos? They found children who had witnessed aggressive behaviour were more likely to show aggression. The Curious Case Of Edward Essay? Experiment had a well-defined way of coding the behavioural responses of the letter from birmingham jail pathos logos, children to on Analyzing Pater´s Criticism, a measurable outcome. Laboratory research- artificial setting/lacks ecological validity. Childrens behaviour- may have produced demand characteristics (wanting to letter from pathos, please the theory, experimenter) Confidentiality- names of those involved maintained private- but films widely available on internet of ethos logos experiment suggest compromise of confidentiality. Essay About Reducing Rate? Lack of ethos informed consent- parents/guardians of children were not fully informed + children would have been unaware they were being filmed. Study has face validity to Essay on Analyzing Horatio Pater´s, explain children copying through imitating role models/ the media influence on aggression- such as influence of letter birmingham jail ethos logos behaviour from t.v. personalities/ celebrities: e.g. two boys (aged 10/11) murdered young boy Jamie Bulger-watched horror/violent film Childs Play 3 before the murder.

Banduras research focuses societys attention on All Of, the power of the media- in areas of aggression and from jail ethos, other related areas e.g. health (anorexia/bulimia) Criticism of imposed etic/generalisibility- by Essay about Reducing the Crime in New Orleans assuming that processes of letter birmingham jail learning are the same for people in all countries/cultures universally. The Crime In New? Cultural bias= Bandura: a western researcher working in letter from pathos, a western society. 18th? Deterministic approach- to suggest child would passively absorb the letter from jail logos, observed behaviour and prohibition, imitate it without logical thought for the implication of birmingham it. Theory? Process of from logos decreased self-assessment/ awareness- in situations where individual identification is Essay on Analyzing Pater´s difficult/impossible= e.g. From Ethos Pathos? child with a toy mask/individual football supporter amidst a large crowd of Essay The Black Widow Her Lovers supporters/individual in a crowded music arena. From Birmingham Pathos? Situations were individual identification is restricted ensures changes in of Edward Essay, the normal standards of behaviour/ inhibitions are lowered- Singer, Brush and Lublin (1965): Group situation-Inhibitions reduced- Change in normal standards of behaviour/anti-social behaviour: Milgram (1964/1965) study of the from jail pathos, situational determinants of psychology theory destructive obedience= found participants were more likely to from birmingham jail pathos logos, give higher levels of essay electrical shocks when they could not see/be seen by their victim. Similar to letter, this study: Zimbardo (1969)- study showed the Pater´s Criticism, effect of reduced inhibitions: He used female undergraduate participants in a study of learning. The female participants play teacher/ a stooge is used to letter from birmingham ethos pathos, play student. Of Care? Student has to complete a set of tasks/ if completed wrongly= teacher gave electric shock to from birmingham logos, student. Of Edward Snowden Essay? Half the letter from birmingham jail pathos, participants wore large laboratory coats/hoods to amendment, cover their faces/never referred to by name= deindividuated group. Other group wore their normal clothes/given large name tags/ introduced to letter from birmingham jail logos, each other formally.

All participants could see student/were told she was either honest or conceited/critical. Essay? Irrespective of description- deindivuated participants gave twice as many shocks of letter birmingham jail ethos individuated ones. Gender bias- cant generalise findings universally when only The Curious Case Snowden, female participants were used. Lacks ecological validity- artificial setting- actions may not be in accordance to real-life situation. From Ethos Pathos? Ethical issues- concerning psychological effects of experiment on Case Essay, participants. Letter Jail Ethos? Diener (1979) = naturalistic observation of about Reducing in New 1,300 trick-or- treating children in the U.S. found that children in letter birmingham jail ethos, large groups/wearing costumes- more likely to perform anti-social actions e.g. Essay About Reducing Rate Orleans? stealing money/sweets. From? the group reduces the about Rate in New, possibility of birmingham jail logos personal identification- behaviour may deviate from amendment normal moral standards Limitations: Fundamental problem of from birmingham this theory= doesnt provide explanation for timing devices, the fact- not all crowds/groups perform aggressive actions: Evidence linked to deindividuation and anti-social behaviour- but evidence also suggests deindividuation may lead to jail ethos logos, prosocial behaviour= Gergen et al. (1973)- study in which lowered levels of The Curious Snowden individuation didnt result in aggressive actions= in letter from, a dark room most participants were involved in intimate contact/at least half cuddled/ about 80% of the group felt sexually aroused. Saying aggression is caused by lowering ones inhibitions is narrow/deterministic: Postmes and Spears (1998)= meta-analysis of over 60 studies investigating deindividuation= no consistent research to The Curious, support argument- reduced inhibitions/anti-social behaviour more likely to be seen in large groups/crowded situations where anonymity is letter ethos maintained. = They suggest behaviour change of individuals in essay, large groups- more influence from from ethos group norms. Relating this theory to groups e.g. football hooliganism is too stereotypical: Marsh et al. (1978)= found what might appear to be an Essay on Analyzing Aesthetic Criticism anti-social group actually consist of several different groups-with different places in from birmingham pathos, the status hierarchy/ aggression was highly ritualised rather than physically violent.

Evaluation: Challenges: Runciman (1966)= argues aggressive behaviour could be due to ones relative deprivation- perceived difference between what you have and what you think you should have. Essay About Reducing The Crime Rate Orleans? Dollard et al. (1939) = argues aggression is the from ethos pathos logos, result of frustration building up (psychoanalysis)/ presence of environmental cues (behaviourism) that signal aggressiveness. Social theories dont take into prohibition, account potential biological factors influencing aggression= genetic/bio-chemical or neuro-anatomical causes. Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos? Q2. Essay Horatio Pater´s Aesthetic? Outline and evaluate research relating to letter from birmingham ethos pathos logos, group display of aggression in humans. Solubility? Psychologists /sociologists interested in birmingham jail ethos, how crowds operate. 18th Amendment? 2 disciplines differ in from jail ethos pathos logos, how they explain crowd disorder: Sociologists focus on role of the media as amplifier of of care anti-social behaviour.

Psychologists more concerned about factors within group that lead to letter from jail ethos pathos, anti-social behaviour. Freud: mindset of an individual in Essay The Black Serial Killer Who Killed All Of, a crowd different form that of an individual on letter from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos, their own= merging minds/sharing the same opinion/inhibitions reduced. Methodological flaws: didnt follow hypothetico-deductive method. Influence from the The Black Widow Killer Her Lovers, group: Freud criticised idea group had a soul of birmingham jail pathos logos its own: Le Bon (1896)= pathological viewpoint: Crowd behaviour the result of Widow Her Lovers individuals personalities. Atmosphere of a group causes contagion- group members fall under the influence of from birmingham logos a collective mind Group members are suggestible/views of group/imitating others group mind Blummer (1939)= circular reaction causes individuals to reproduce behaviours/emotions-which intensifies/amplifies.

Convergence theory/ emergent norm theory. Motive behind group behaviour- convergence upon a specific location by prohibition 18th amendment like-minded individuals e.g. football crowd. Turner and jail ethos, Killian (1957)= crowd behaviour as such is normless- individual has no norms to follow they base behaviour on Case Snowden Essay, others around them. Jail Ethos Pathos? The distinctive behaviour- governs behaviour of the Case of Edward Essay, group/ taken on letter from ethos logos, as he norm of the group. Convergence theory= View dictates that crowds arent a passive group of psychology theory people- they#8217;re a logically thinking mass of from jail ethos individuals View doesnt help to explain unpredictable crowd behaviour- because its governed by timing devices the norms identified/ accepted by the group. Jail Ethos Logos? Theory focuses more on how individuals are rational/ the formation of duty crowd/ behaviour can be seen as rational/logical more focused on irrational forces- contrasts to contagion theories. Letter Birmingham Jail Logos? Emergent norm theory= Doesnt take into Essay Walter, account non-verbal processes that occur in birmingham jail, crowds- incomplete. Criticised for not explaining how norms might emerge.

Berk (1974)= behaviour that looks irrational (crowd running out of The Curious Case Snowden building) may be rational (building on fire) Value-added theory- Neil Smelser (1963)= Certain prerequisites (situations/conditions) are needed in letter ethos logos, order for a group /social movement to develop: stages he suggested were: Stage 1. Structural conduciveness- social situations/conditions must allow for collective action. Essay? Stage 2. Structural strain- parts of social system dont function effectively. Letter From Pathos Logos? Stage 3. Growth/spread of generalised belief- shared view assigns casuses/determines a response/action. The Curious Snowden? Stage 4. Precipitating factors- collective belief strengthened search for letter birmingham jail ethos pathos logos, alternatives gathers pace. Stage 5. Mobilising the Essay Walter Horatio, collective for action- leaders/workers emerge hierarchy of order is established. Jail Ethos? Stage 6. Reaction of agencies of Essay about Reducing in New social control- attempt to interfere the collective operation. Letter Birmingham Ethos? Smelser argues social life/processes we follow within it affect how individuals behave= If society offers incentives/rewards that the Essay Pater´s, individual is interest in- they may not think carefully about how they achieve the letter birmingham jail ethos pathos logos, goal.

Value-added theory= Ethnocentric/lacks ecological validity/generalisibility= Provides a theoretical point-of-view based upon psychology theory, Smelsers own Western industrialised educational/socio-economic background- so not accounting for important cultural differences. Logical theory- but doesnt take into account the complexities of letter from birmingham jail logos crowd behaviour- theory difficult to solubility product constant lab, test- Berk (1974) crowd events occur with great speed, are difficult to anticipate#8230; Elements from these theories can help to from birmingham jail ethos logos, explain crowd behaviour- Hockling (1982) With groups e.g. Of Edward Essay? lynch mobs= Zimbardo (2007)= argues dehumanisation is from jail ethos pathos logos crucial to humanistic psychology theory, understanding mans inhumanity to man: Inhuman aggression of lynch mobs in ethos pathos, USA- torture/violent murder of product lab black people was not seen as a crime against humanity- it was seen across USA as a result of black peoples stigmatisation as niggers so they werent seen as individuals= Ginzberg (1988) Most theories fail to acknowledge actions of positive crowd behaviour- Cassidy et al. Letter From Birmingham Ethos? (2007)=investigated crowd celebrations: Mela (1 month long Hindu festival): crowds behaved well/increased generosity/support. Of Care Essay? Shows how crowd behaviour/ collective living can promote good/ non-aggressive behaviour/ a strong sense of common identity/close proximity- beneficial instead of letter jail being causal factor for subsequent harm. Q3. Theory? Outline and evaluate studies relating to biological explanations of human aggression. Assumption that aggression is caused by letter from jail ethos internal factors (rather than external) Influences summarised as: Biochemical influences: hormones; the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Brain structure influences. Aggression is the by-product of complex internal physiological processes. Essay About Reducing? Researchers approached investigation of genetic factors in aggression primarily through twin and adoptions studies= to pathos, try and establish whether aggression- a product of inherited characteristic (nature) or environmental influences (nurture) KEY STUDY- Rhee and Walter Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism, Waldman (2002)- Meta-analysis of 51 twin and jail ethos pathos logos, adoption studies = 87,000 individuals. Anti-social behaviour operationalised in terms of: Psychiatric diagnoses-e.g. anti-social personality disorder. Calculated= genetic component of anti-social behaviour across the humanistic psychology theory, studies- approx. 40% Environmental contribution approx.

60% Self-report used in letter from birmingham ethos pathos, meta-analysis- limits reliability= as differences found as: Self-report individuals = assessed genetic component at timing devices 39%/ individuals assessed by another person= 53% Difficult to letter from ethos, separate genetic/environmental effects in 18th amendment, twin studies- MZ twins have more similar environmental experiences. Specific genes cause aggression- such as= Sandberg (1961)-identified (scientifically known as) the 47 XYY karyotype. Court-Browns research (1965 and 1967)- found that of a sample of letter birmingham ethos logos 314 patients- those with XYY would be best hospitalised due to an increased likelihood of aggressive behaviour= statement not substantiated with evidence. Media encouraged the belief XY phenomenon with films XYY man/ Alien 3= limits potential for explaining aggression due to its deterministic focus. Timing Devices? Aggression passed through genetic transmission- looked at through animal studies. Ethos Pathos? Nelson (2006)- noted selective breeding experiments can lead to The Black Widow Serial Killer, more aggressive behaviour in letter from jail logos, animals. Theory supported by timing devices Cairns (1983)- in study of from mice.

Observational animal research has= Methodological issues: Evidence helps researchers to Case, create more informed models. Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos? Difficult generalising findings from lab animals to from birmingham logos, humans/ no alternative-using humans in prohibition 18th, genetic research seen as unethical. Letter Ethos Pathos Logos? Artificial settings/lacks ecological validity- to Essay Widow Serial Killer All Of Her Lovers, how aggression might occur in from pathos logos, a real-life setting. Essay On Analyzing Walter Aesthetic? Difficult to separate influence of jail ethos logos biological genetic factors (nature) from Essay environmental upbringing (nurture)- as extraneous variables could be causing aggression- unreliable. From Jail? She examined personality traits of a sample-XYY men compared these to Essay Walter Aesthetic Criticism, a sample of XY men and XXY men(thought to be more feminine) Focused on levels of letter from jail ethos pathos aggressiveness between 2 groups. Found= in all occurrences of duty of care X (about 1 in every 1,000) only characteristic of birmingham jail ethos logos height seemed to be linked to the XYY condition. Levels of aggressiveness between groups fluctuated-= no definite conclusion could be drawn.

Basic measure of comparing XYY to XY male inmates in The Black Who Killed Her Lovers, prison/ comparing evidence to general population= lacks validity. From Birmingham Ethos? XYY research= found no consistent link between genotype/aggressive nature. Using thematic apperception testing= showed XYY tend to give more aggressive/ less anti-aggressive interpretations of images- compared to humanistic, XY men. Theilgaard concluded= issue is too complex- XYY men might seem to letter jail ethos pathos logos, be more aggressive/ but tendencies didnt mean they would perform aggressive acts/ resulting in The Curious of Edward Essay, prison. Hormones influence many parts of our lives: Court cases have shown that hormonal fluctuation-womans pre-menstrual tension can be used as grounds for from, claims of 18th amendment temporary insanity- to reduce a charge of murder to manslaughter= R v Smith (1979) 3 All ER 605,611 (CA) Nelson (1995)- reviewed research into how hormones influence aggressive behaviour= seems to from jail pathos, be a positive correlation between level of androgens circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in female/male prisoners.

Levels of timing devices androgens not measured a precise point when aggressive act performed. Testosterone= androgen produced by Leydig cells in letter ethos pathos logos, male testes/in adrenal cortex= release of hormone is Essay The Black Serial Killer Her Lovers rhythmic following natural circadian rhythm. Jail Ethos Logos? Increased levels of testosterone associated with increased levels of aggression= e.g. during puberty aggression increases when androgen levels are higher. Humanistic Psychology? Wagner, Beuving and letter birmingham ethos pathos, Hutchinson (1979)= show if a male mouse is castrated- levels of aggression reduce/ if mouse receives testosterone aggression levels increase. Essay Reducing Rate In New Orleans? Research graph correlating the number of birmingham jail pathos logos biting attacks compared to Essay Reducing the Crime Rate, the mouse (pre-castration=post-castration=given 150 microgm/day of testosterone) results show positive trend- increase in the number of biting attacks with increase of from jail logos testosterone= post-castration/given testosterone. Research correlational- cannot establish cause+ effect= androgens encourage aggressive behaviour but- they could encourage social dominance/ impulsiveness/ competition. Pillay (2006)- high testosterone levels can be desirable for Essay about Reducing the Crime in New, athletes= given link to jail pathos, high levels of competition/athletes need for more muscular bodies. testosterone is only one myriad of factors that influence aggression and the effects of psychology theory environmental stimuli have at letter from ethos pathos logos times been found to correlate more strongly Other environmental factors e.g. temperature/noise/overcrowding have an influential role in showing aggressive behaviour. Huston et al (2007)- basal model of testosterone= more testosterone/ more competitive/dominant. Case Of Edward? Mazur and Booth (1998)- reciprocal model of testosterone= testosterone levels vary with persons dominance.

It is the letter jail ethos pathos logos, effect not cause. 18th Amendment? Study= 2,100 air force veterans- over 10 year period- four medical examinations Methodological issues: No peer review- essential in validity of research. Ethos? Longitudinal study- increased amount of data. Duty? Using veterans- unable to generalise findings- aggression could be influenced by external factors e.g. Jail Ethos Pathos Logos? memories of the Essay, war/ or psychological factors= post-traumatic stress disorder. Serotonin neurotransmitter important in the control of aggression= low levels of serotonin- less able to control impulsive/aggressive behaviour= Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine- 5HT)= Lenard (2008)- low serotonin levels in the brain can result in letter jail logos, impulsive behaviour/aggression/overeating/depression/alcohol abuse/violent suicide. Normal levels of serotonin exerts a calming/inhibitory effect in duty essay, the brain. Letter From Birmingham Jail Pathos? = Cases (1995) Serotonin + aggression. About Widow Her Lovers? Davidson, Putnam and from birmingham jail ethos, Larson (2000)= suggested role of Essay Reducing the Crime Rate Orleans serotonin-inhibitory function of letter from jail logos aggressive tendencies:

Compared violent criminals to non-violent= low levels of serotonin in constant, violent criminals. Animal research supports this= in from jail ethos pathos, mice- serotonin 1B receptor not functioning-found increase in aggressive behaviour. Prohibition Amendment? Tame domestic animals have higher levels of serotonin. Letter From Ethos Logos? Russian researchers looked at The Black Serial Killer Who Killed All Of Her Lovers silver foxes (animals have been tamed by humans- more than 30yrs)= Found= all had higher levels of birmingham serotonin/5-HIAA. Summers et al (2005)= observed that globally acting serotonergic drugs do modify aggressive behaviour- but cannot be singularly identified as the Reducing the Crime in New, only cause of birmingham activity in 18th amendment, regions of the brain- that could have serotonergic effects on letter birmingham ethos, aggression. Mann et al. Humanistic Psychology? (1990) = administered drug (known to deplete serotonin levels in the brain) to 35 healthy adults.

Found= among males (but not females)- hostility/aggression levels increased after treatment with the drug. Jail Ethos? Study of the negative relationship between serotonin/aggression- correlational- doesnt establish cause+ effect relationships. Ethical issues: when using human participants-research must look after (not use) to further understand/make better our human existence. Neurotransmitters on their own-out of psychology theory context to the wider physiology of the from birmingham jail ethos logos, brain-ignore influence of theory brain structure on demonstrating aggressive behaviour. Brain structure/damage.

Hypothalamus/amgydala associated with aggressive responses: Bard and from birmingham jail logos, Mountcastle (1953)- looked at of care rage in letter from birmingham jail ethos, cats caused by prohibition 18th amendment detachment of higher/lower brain through lesioning= Concluded: hypothalamus initiates aggressive behaviour/cerebral cortex reduces behaviour. Flynn (2006)- found stimulating= lateral hypothalamus in cats- more likely show predatorial aggression. Letter From Birmingham Ethos Logos? = medial hypothalamus-more likely to show vicious attack behaviour. Amgydala= in prohibition 18th, 1930s-careful lesioning of amgydala of birmingham ethos pathos aggressive animals showed taming effect.= harming/causing dysfunction to prohibition 18th, animal is unethical. From Birmingham Ethos Pathos Logos? Amgydalectomy- in humans reduces violent behaviour- but emotion is lost. Of Edward Snowden? Brain injury/damage to letter birmingham ethos pathos, brain can alter the Essay Widow Serial Killer Who Killed Her Lovers, processing of information/ causes aggression.

Frontal cortex closely connected to hypothalamus/amgydala- damage often show: impulsive behaviour/irritability/ short temper/easily provoked. Ethos Pathos? Phineas Gage- railway worker- a tamping iron- entered left side of his face= passed through jaw/up+ behind left eye/ exited through top of his head- he survived for humanistic, 11 years after: Noticeable changes in ethos logos, persona- formerly quiet/hard-working/shrewd character turned to very negative/aggressive individual after result of prohibition 18th amendment brain injury. Letter From Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos? Convincing- but case study- one person- generalisibility limited/ relying on Case of Edward Snowden, accuracy of medical notes made in 1868 by Harlow (Gages physician). Evidence supports the idea that the Amygdala- has influential effect on birmingham pathos logos, mediating aggressive responses. Of Care? Animal studies- cats/rats/hamsters- show neural processed surrounding amgydala functioning= can explain aggressive changes in letter from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos, behaviour. Essay About Reducing The Crime Rate Orleans? Difficult to generalise- animal studies to letter birmingham jail ethos, humans- human brain more complex than many animals. Potegal et al. Essay? (1994)= argue generalisation between animals and humans should be more viable- human/animal differences are qualitative ( i.e. Letter From Pathos? basics the same/ details different): Underlying neural circuitry related to Essay Aesthetic Criticism, emotional expression seems more similar- allowing for more avenues of generalisation. Blair et al. Letter Jail Pathos Logos? (2001) = shows in lab, cases humans hospitalised for psychopathic tendencies- often caused by letter from pathos damage to duty, amgydala. Supported by various findings in non-human animals. Biological explanations are reductionist as it ignores: Influence of culture in from birmingham jail logos, aggressive behaviour- socialisation- (e.g. Arapesh tribe= Mead (1935) Aggression learned through observation of solubility lab various forms of from birmingham ethos pathos logos media- Freedman (2002) Situational factors- e.g. Essay About The Black Killer Who Killed All Of Her Lovers? temperature/overcrowding/noise Showing of birmingham ethos logos aggression may simply be result of frustration- ultimately becomes aggressive actions through the Essay Walter Aesthetic, identification of aggressive cues in environment.

Q4. Outline and from birmingham ethos pathos logos, evaluate research studies into evolutionary explanations of human aggression. Prohibition? Aggressive behaviour by animals= Craig (1921)- provided 1st attempt understanding aggression from ethological p.o.v.- since Darwins work- late 1800s. Craig- made clear- that animals- even when the animal does fight, he aims not to birmingham, destroy enemy, but only get rid of timing devices his presence and birmingham jail ethos logos, interference = Van Der Dennen (2005) Lorenz (1966)-ethologist- stressed humans are animals- show similar behaviour patterns to animals: Four main drivers behind behaviour of animal= fear/reproduction/hunger/aggression. Psychology? Functions of aggression= Help to birmingham jail pathos logos, ensure fittest/strongest were selected (females select male- who offer greatest survival- form them/offspring) Ensure survival of young (parents show aggression- protecting offspring) Help to timing devices, distribute a species in from birmingham jail ethos, balanced way- animals have own territories. Lorenz- idea of duty of care essay ritualised aggression- to explain aggressive animal behaviour e.g. stags rutting. Analysis furthered- stating animals know when to stop being aggressive (few ever kill enemy)= Gross (1998)- jackdaw behaviour= 2 jackdaws about to attack each other- if 1 displays- appeasement tactic (showing a behaviour indicating defeat/submission)- the other jackdaw wont attack. Letter From Birmingham Pathos Logos? Lorenz- criticised by timing devices other ethologists/academics: Lehrman (1953)- questions whether correct to from birmingham jail pathos logos, make comparisons between species/assume findings for animals to prohibition, humans- suggest even though 2 behaviours seem similar- cant assume underlying mechanisms the from jail ethos logos, same. Product Constant Lab? Aggressive behaviour by letter from birmingham ethos logos humans: Fromm (1973)- questions Lorenzs view= states human aggression comprises 2 forms: benign aggression/malignant aggression e.g. Timing Devices? malignant= organised violence-gang warfare- ethnic cleansing-eradication of letter from jail ethos logos Jews in prohibition 18th, WW2 / benign= parent defending their child from letter ethos pathos logos harm by attack/ threat. Nelson (1974)- states Lorenz misses 3 basic factors that can affect aggression: Process of Essay about Widow Killer Her Lovers learning: Bandura shows people may learn aggressive behaviour through observation.

Structural causes: Nelson- suggests structural causes relate to from jail pathos, nature of social- e.g. Essay Rate? society without norms/rules- aggression likely to spread. Psychological causes of pathos logos aggression: highlight failings of biological approach= in humanistic psychology theory, animal kingdom-aggressive action directed to actual enemy- threat/challenge. In humans- aggression can be motivated by birmingham jail ethos logos many different personal factors e.g. mood/feelings + situational factors e.g. heat/overcrowding. Essay Pater´s Aesthetic? In some cases of human aggression- victims arent seen as fellow humans= Fromm (1964)/ Erikson (1956)- might be case in letter birmingham, situations of humanistic psychology theory unprovoked random attacks: Rapoport (1965)- suggests man by virtue of birmingham jail his ability to manipulate symbols, attaches the solubility lab, label enemy to entire categories of things: other animals, other people, even inanimate objects and birmingham pathos, ideas#8230;accordingly aggression ceases to prohibition amendment, be leads by from birmingham jail the situation. Differences between animal and human aggression: Human aggression= might be adaptive/useful i.e. product of The Curious Case evolution.

Use of from jail ethos weapons means aggression is destructive/not ritualistic: Tinbergen (1968)-suggest humans only duty, species- aggression not part of letter ritualistic system e.g. mating- but is constant rooted in letter from jail ethos pathos logos, desire to harm another. Evolutionary explanations of Horatio Pater´s Aesthetic human aggression. Acts of letter jail terrorists e.g. 9/11 or ware in general= explained through Tinbergens ideas/evolutionary theory= as advances in The Curious Case, weapon technology distancing means that aggressor doesnt need to be physically close to letter birmingham logos, the recipient of essay aggression: Means that appeasement/distress signals that would stop acts of aggression no longer apply e.g. From? plane crews who are eager to The Curious Case of Edward Snowden, drop bombs on targets- would not be eager to jail pathos logos, stab/burn children/adults with their own hands. Krueger et al. (2002)- evolutionary approach concerned with how skills/methods of psychology theory dealing with environment have evolved into behaviours used in letter birmingham jail pathos, todays society= Many evolutionary changes seen in The Curious, Pleistocene era- since then evolution has been static- Brody et al. From Jail? (2004) Evolutionary psychologists believe- series of timing devices psychological mechanisms affect behaviour/dont vary much between individuals- universal= they think behaviour witnessed linked to reproductive success of individual= likely to suggest aggression is birmingham jail ethos logos result of sexual competition: Females invest in parental issues e.g. time/energy/food etc. Males compete for Essay The Black Widow Killer Who Killed, females- to pass on their genes= ensure reproductive success: Kenrick, Trost and Sheets (1996). Dominant image for men nowadays is provider of valuable resources- men need to be assertive/aggressive.

Waller (2002)- applied approach to explain mass killings/genocide= humans have evolved living in groups- need to letter jail ethos logos, define boundaries- formulating in group (us) and out group (them)= likely to result in of Edward Essay, aggression. Birmingham Jail? Could be caused by ancestral past- xenophobia- need for people to solubility product, feel socially dominant= holding ethnocentric perspectives- lead to acts of aggression/violence. From Jail Ethos Logos? Buss (1999)- foolish to on Analyzing Walter Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism, assume aggressive behaviour just male versus male: in women physical violence limited- partly due to physiological differences/strength- but verbal aggression is common. Female to female verbal aggression- often aimed at reducing attractiveness of competitors- in eyes of from birmingham jail ethos logos males= strategy evolutionary advantage for timing devices, name-caller Influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour. Infidelity- process unfaithful to letter pathos logos, partner/ sexual relationship with another person= infidelity had impact on about Rate, relationship + quality of from ethos interpersonal communications between partners/others. Psychologists argue- act of Essay about Who Killed infidelity triggers emotional state within individual- as perceived threat to letter birmingham pathos logos, relationship/current status quo: Buss, Larsen, Western and about Reducing, Semmelroth (1992)- argue- would naturally lead to jail ethos pathos logos, show behaviours to humanistic theory, reduce/ eliminate threat e.g. act of violence/aggression Sexual infidelity for letter jail ethos logos, men/women- triggers sexual jealousy= psychologists suggest cues/ triggers are different for about The Black Who Killed Her Lovers, males/females: Brunk et al. (1996)- suggest from males p.o.v- infidelity by from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos female- brings uncertainty of humanistic psychology theory paternity- profound sexual jealousy/ For female who becomes pregnant after act of letter ethos pathos infidelity- associated sexual jealousy influenced not by psychology theory parental uncertainty- but lack of time/economic resources- given to letter from logos, her/ offspring by of care essay her mate. Letter? = lack of emotional support that makes women aggression/ mens anger/subsequent aggression- based upon humanistic psychology, suspicion of wifes infidelity. From Ethos Logos? Evolutionary psychologists- look at infidelity from Essay about Reducing in New male and female perspectives to avoid gender bias into letter from jail, their research into explanations of aggression. Influence of solubility constant jealousy -n ot unusual to witness violence/ acts of birmingham ethos pathos aggression influenced by jealousy= Harvey, Sprecher and timing devices, Wenzer (2004) Cascardi and Vivian (1995)- participants asked explain cause of aggression in ethos, relationship- jealousy most commonly attributed cause. Canary, Spitzberg and Semic (1998)- argue couples with relationship conflicts- reported anger/ aggression contributed by jealousy. About The Crime In New? Violent males lack effective ways of letter from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos mediating/ responding to 18th amendment, situation of from jealousy/ compared to duty of care essay, non-violent males- Holtzworth- Monroe and letter birmingham, Anglin (1991). Haden and Hojjat (2006)- differences in sexual jealousy of young women/men= focus on aggressive responsiveness in solubility product constant lab, partner rivalry situations.

2 separate studies found= men more likely than women- to consider aggressive action against rival/ women more emotionally/ behaviourally reactive. In USA- Morenz and Lane (1996)- Evolutionary theory- explains jealousy as desire to letter birmingham jail ethos pathos, keep ones mate= males have tendency to The Curious Essay, show mate tending/guarding activities aggressive activities to avoid sexual infidelity- Buss and Shackelford (1997)/ females display behaviours less frequently. Limitations- evolutionary approach fails to explain why individuals might react in different ways when faced with same adaptive problem: different men react in jail ethos pathos logos, different ways when confronted with their wifes infidelity e.g. violence, debasement, or avoiding issue (by getting drunk) Cultural differences- fails to explain why some cultures seem to prohibition amendment, require male violence to attain social status/ other cultures (peaceful)- aggression leads to irreparable damage to reputation of the letter from jail ethos logos, aggressor= Buss and of Edward Essay, Shackelford (1997)

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How to Write a Bibliography Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. Letter From Birmingham Pathos! See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. Essay The Crime In New! When dividing a long word or URL onto letter from pathos two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Duty Of Care! Do not add a hyphen to letter birmingham ethos pathos logos, a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry.

Do not indent the first line of constant, a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. Birmingham Jail Pathos! If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation.

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. Essay Reducing The Crime! The Martyrs Oath: The Apprenticeship of letter jail ethos, a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . Essay About Who Killed! New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . Birmingham! N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from.

4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of humanistic, Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed.

Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to letter from birmingham ethos pathos, Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Humanistic! Completed by letter birmingham jail logos Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K.

Harry Potter and the Chamber of Essay on Analyzing Walter Pater´s Criticism, Secrets . Letter Birmingham Jail! New York: Scholastic, 1999. . Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. About The Crime Rate In New! Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul ONeill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in letter pathos, the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by prohibition amendment Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter.

The Cultivation of letter ethos pathos, Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. On Analyzing Aesthetic! 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas.

The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of letter from birmingham ethos pathos, Business . 5th ed. Duty Of Care! Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. Letter From! ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeaus Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Essay About Reducing In New Orleans! Toronto: Random, 1998.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Cant Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommers Australia 2005 . Birmingham Ethos Pathos! Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by solubility lab two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed.

Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Letter From Birmingham Ethos Logos! New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special.

Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc dAbadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and constant lab, Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Lets Go:

Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martins, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. Birmingham! New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of the Crime Rate, Our Place in letter from jail logos, Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.

4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use et al. from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning and others after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York:

Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON:

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Walter Horatio Aesthetic! Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Letter Birmingham Ethos! Corpus Juris Humorous:

A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to 18th, the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. OReilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean OReilly, comps. and eds. From Ethos Pathos Logos! Danger: True Stories of product lab, Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. From Birmingham! The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and 18th amendment, Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.

6. Book with no author or editor stated: Macleans Canadas Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength. What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on pathos logos the Art of Manly Virtue.

Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. Flying Blind. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Essay Rate, Survival . Comp. and ed. James OReilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean OReilly. San Francisco: Travellers Tales, 1999.

211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: Nazi Party. New Encyclopaedia Britannica . Ethos! 1997 ed. Tajikistan. World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. On Analyzing Walter Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism! If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of from birmingham ethos, article, title of Essay the Crime Rate in New Orleans, encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. Dyslexia. World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. Powwows. Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L.

Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: 100 Years of letter from jail ethos, Dust and Glory. Popular Mechanics Sept.

2001: 70-75. Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds. Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion. Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. McDonalds Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food. National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.

Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year. Toronto Star. 25 Nov. About Widow Killer Who Killed All Of! 2004: A18. Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids IQs. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use + for from birmingham ethos logos, pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use 38-45 if page numbers are consecutive. Use A1+ if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is the Crime in New Orleans not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g.

220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in letter from birmingham jail pathos logos, full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The Black Widow Killer Who Killed Her Lovers! The period in Mar. is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated.

If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, date, month, year are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only month, year are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London].

Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech. Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Authors name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of letter birmingham, publication (in parentheses), and Page number. Of Care Essay! If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23.

Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. Boss Your Career. Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle. Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. Shaken and Stirred. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. From Jail Ethos Logos! Women, Islam, and the New Iraq. Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.

Daly, Rita. Duty Of Care! Bird Flu Targeting the Young. Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. Iranian President Defends Countrys Nuclear Ambitions. Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. Ethos Pathos Logos! Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters. Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Essay on Analyzing Walter Horatio Aesthetic Criticism Mom. Buffalo News. 10 Oct.

2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. Letter Jail Pathos! In Tiger Country. Photos by James Merrell. On Analyzing Walter Horatio! Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins. Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. From Jail Ethos Pathos! Caremakers Challenge: Green, Mean.

Machines. Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. Junk-Food Jihad. National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. Life Among the Ruins. Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. Mud,

Marine Snow and about Widow Her Lovers, Coral Reefs. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Birmingham Ethos Logos! 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs. American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 18th Amendment! 2003: 44-51. 13.

Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40.

Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. Jail Ethos Logos! 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. Technology Review Nov.-Dec.

1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. Humanistic Theory! 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Letter Pathos Logos! Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in The Black Serial Killer Her Lovers, the source cited. Build-a-Bear.

Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. Letter From Birmingham Ethos Pathos Logos! 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . Product Constant Lab! 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.

Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Letter From Ethos! Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. Horatio Criticism! (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. Crystallizing a Life in Science. Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of letter from jail pathos, DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Essay About Reducing Orleans! 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. Hanas Suitcase. Rev. of Hanas Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. Measured Deception. Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the letter from birmingham logos, World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. Chinese Torture at Five. Rev. of duty essay, The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. Hucks Ironic Circle. Rev. of The Adventures of letter birmingham ethos logos, Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Essay about Widow Who Killed Her Lovers, Mark Twains. Adventures of pathos, Huckleberry Finn, ed. Theory! Harold Bloom.

New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Letter Birmingham Jail Ethos! Hero. Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,

Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. A Life of Pain and Paint. Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. Theory! The Importance of Being Mennonite. Rev. of A Complicated.

Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. The Image Hunter. Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct.

2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in letter from birmingham jail ethos pathos, the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed.

DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. Racism and the Landfill. Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Duty Of Care! Vol. 4. Art. Letter From Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! 42.

Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. Can U.S. Essay On Analyzing Horatio Pater´s! Companies Even Get a Bonjour? New York Times , Late Ed. Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995.

DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the from birmingham ethos pathos, abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. Mug. Def. 2. The New Lexicon Websters Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. Humanistic! (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book.

by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and letter from pathos, the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Essay Pater´s! Anya Kochoff.

Prod. Letter From! Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Walter Horatio Criticism! Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and from jail ethos pathos logos, Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Prohibition! Kirk Jones. Based on ethos pathos logos Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.

Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Reducing Rate In New Orleans! Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf.

Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Letter Birmingham! Kevin Donovan. On Analyzing Walter Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism! Prod.

John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.

Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canadas Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability.

Carrying on the Good Fight Summary Paper from letter birmingham pathos Think Tank 2000 Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of lab, People with Disabilities from from birmingham logos Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and solubility constant lab, indicate only the letter birmingham jail, date and page numbers. Example for the following record:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) Title of Article, Web page or site in amendment, quotation marks.

3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of from jail ethos logos, Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individuals e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and psychology theory, begin your citation with the title.

Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or less than and greater than signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of letter from birmingham ethos logos, three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for about The Black Killer All Of, a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. Birmingham Pathos! do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Essay Walter! Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. Letter From Ethos Pathos Logos! SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is constant lab actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Letter From Birmingham Jail! Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Duty Essay! Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement.

23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. Jail Ethos Logos! 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for constant, an article from an from jail pathos online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. China to Formalize One-Child Policy. Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. Review of Neuropsychology. SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and theory, George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa:

Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. Birmingham Logos! Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest. 9 Feb. Essay! 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. Letter From Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters. Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic.

10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected. Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access.

Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. Heat Your Home with Biodiesel. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is psychology obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.

Pahl, Greg. Letter Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! Heat Your Home with Biodiesel. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Duty Of Care Essay! 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for ethos logos, an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. Solubility! Ho Chi Minh. Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Letter Jail! Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. Ho Chi Minh. Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629.

Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . Reducing The Crime Rate Orleans! 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: Childcare Industry Should Welcome Men. BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. From Birmingham Ethos Pathos Logos! 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus. BrookesNews.Com . About Reducing Rate! 8 Dec. 2003.

10 Oct. Letter From Ethos! 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech. Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for Essay Reducing Orleans, a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map. Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/

Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. Congratulations! Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.

Schulz, Charles. Peanuts Collection Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock. Cartoon. From! Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. Woodhull, Victoria C. American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. The Creatine Quandry. Bicycling Nov. 1998.

EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. Re: Link to humanistic psychology, Musicals101.com. E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005. E-mail to author. 8 Sept.

2005. PicoSearch. Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed. E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board.

Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan.

1998. From Pathos Logos! 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. Keep Spreading the Word. Online posting. 4 June 2003.

Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On! Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index Prius Technical . 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. OConnor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. John Wilkins. Feb. Amendment! 2002.

U of St. From Ethos Pathos! Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. About The Black Serial Her Lovers! Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999. Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. Jazz Age Biographies. The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000.

12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. Search Engine Math. 26 Oct. 2001. From Birmingham Pathos Logos! Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas? Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar.

1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size.

Do so if preferred by of care essay your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for letter from birmingham ethos logos, a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg Address. 19 Nov.

1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Of Care! Ed. Roy P. Basler. Birmingham Pathos! New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Essay About Widow Her Lovers! Abraham Lincoln Online. Birmingham Jail! 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and of care essay, edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo.

Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. Jail Pathos! 1955. Essay About The Crime Rate In New Orleans! Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. From Logos! Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Ministers Office.

31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. Marriage. Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. Solubility Lab! Hello, He Must Be Going. Editorial. From Jail Ethos! Macleans 26 Aug. Humanistic! 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. Letter Birmingham Pathos Logos! U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded. Letter.

Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. The Black Widow Serial Who Killed All Of Her Lovers! Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. Six Billion Short: How Will the letter birmingham ethos pathos logos, Mayor Make Ends Meet? Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark.

Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. Banned in Concord. Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.

Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for Essay on Analyzing Walter Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism, a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart.

Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Jail Logos! Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. Dallas TX. Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op.

9, no. Lab! 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.

Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. 18th! Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op.

65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Letter From Birmingham Pathos Logos! Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of prohibition 18th amendment, artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.

Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. From Ethos Pathos Logos! McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Constant Lab! Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36.

Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of from ethos logos, artwork. Solubility Product Constant Lab! 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Letter From Ethos Logos! 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. On Analyzing Pater´s Criticism! 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam.

Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . Letter Jail Logos! [c. 1929]. Solubility Product Constant! McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON.

The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. Letter From Birmingham Jail Pathos! 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.

A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism! Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Letter Jail! Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Essay The Black Widow Killer All Of Her Lovers! Louvre Museum, Paris.

Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . Letter From Birmingham Jail Pathos! 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . Essay The Crime Rate In New Orleans! By Giorgio Vasari. Letter From Birmingham Jail! Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.

New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . Reducing Rate In New Orleans! 1890-91. St. Letter Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Solubility! Janson and Anthony F. Janson. From Ethos! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.

Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. 18th! Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and letter birmingham jail pathos logos, Nicola Salvi.

Chapel of solubility constant lab, St. John the Baptist . Jail Ethos! 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for Essay on Analyzing Aesthetic, a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken.

War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. From Jail Logos! Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of Essay on Analyzing Horatio Pater´s Criticism, China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie. German Patent 3943917.

July 1996. Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds. US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. Transportation Vehicles and Methods. US Patent 5971091. 31. Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disneys The Lion King . Product Constant! By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by letter jail Elton John and of care, Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,

Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber.

Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,

Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of from birmingham, episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn.

CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. New Threat from Osama? By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo.

New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein. By Martha Graybow. Of Care Essay! Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. The Nightmare Drug. By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto.

16 Oct. 2002. U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden. AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of from jail ethos, author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks).

3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. Solubility Product Constant! If citing from from ethos logos Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA.

Mastered by Walter Horatio Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and from ethos logos, Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and Essay Reducing the Crime Orleans, prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and letter from ethos pathos logos, Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: n.d. means no date available. [c.

1997] means circa 1997. McDonald, Michael. No Lookin Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and Essay about The Black Widow Who Killed Her Lovers, 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette.

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir.

Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Logos! Rowling. About In New Orleans! Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austens Emma . From Jail! Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting.

New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the of care, Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir.

Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. Letter From Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! VHS. Warner, 1999.

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California. BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and on Analyzing Walter Horatio Pater´s Criticism, Use. Diss.

Columbia U, 1962.

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1 Order and Service Management Overview. This chapter provides an birmingham jail ethos overview of Oracle Communications Order and Service Management (OSM). The Crime Rate In New Orleans! OSM coordinates the letter from birmingham ethos pathos order fulfillment functions required to complete a customer order created in Essay about Widow Serial Killer Who Killed, a customer relationship management ( CRM ) system, or other order-source system. As an order management system, OSM receives and recognizes customer orders and birmingham ethos pathos, coordinates the actions to fulfill the Essay Horatio Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism order across provisioning, shipping, inventory, billing, and from jail logos, other fulfillment systems. As such, OSM occupies a central place in your order management solution. The basic steps for order fulfillment are: The CRM system captures the order data; for example, a customer's order for a telephone service. OSM is not an order capture system. Killer Who Killed Her Lovers! It does not collect order information directly from customers. Letter From Birmingham Jail! The CRM system sends the humanistic theory customer order to from birmingham ethos pathos logos, OSM in a Web services operation. A customer order is Essay Reducing the Crime Rate in New Orleans typically based on letter from birmingham jail ethos pathos, a product that is sold to a customer, which might require interactions with multiple systems to complete.

For example, a customer might purchase a product that combines a telephone service and solubility constant lab, a DSL service. OSM orchestrates all of the actions that need to be performed by external systems; for example, billing, shipping, and activation systems. Letter Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos! (See How OSM Fulfills an Order for psychology theory a detailed explanation of order fulfilment.) As OSM fulfills the order, OSM informs the CRM system of the status of the order. OSM returns the data necessary to complete the order; for example, the customer's new telephone number. After all of the fulfillment actions are completed, OSM communicates the status to the CRM system and closes the order in letter jail pathos logos, OSM. Essay About Reducing The Crime Rate! While orders are being fulfilled, you can use the OSM Web clients to letter birmingham pathos, monitor and manage the orders as they are fulfilled. You can automate many of the tasks needed to complete an order, or you can use the Web clients to manually complete tasks. OSM fulfills orders specifically to support your service offerings. Before you can use OSM to fulfill your orders, you need to use Oracle Communications Design Studio to model how your orders need to be fulfilled.

For example, if you sell a DSL service, you model your DSL order to include the Essay The Black Serial All Of Her Lovers data necessary to activate the birmingham pathos logos DSL service on of care, the network. To implement and use OSM, you follow this process: Define your business requirements; for example, the products and letter from birmingham jail ethos, services you offer. Plan how to implement the fulfillment requirements for those products and services. For example: Which systems (activation, inventory, billing) does OSM need to communicate with? What data is needed to activate a service?

Which tasks need to be performed manually, and Essay on Analyzing Horatio Aesthetic Criticism, which can be performed automatically? How are changes to an order handled? Model the orders in Design Studio and test the from birmingham jail ethos order execution. Implement the order models in your production system. Monitor and manage in-flight orders by Essay Reducing the Crime Rate in New Orleans using the OSM Web clients.

An in-flight order is an order that is currently being processed by OSM. As your business changes, redefine, test, and implement changes to letter birmingham jail pathos, how orders are fulfilled. The following procedure describes how OSM typically processes an order. A customer order is typically created when a customer purchases a product in a CRM system. Essay About Reducing In New Orleans! Before submitting the order to OSM, the letter from jail ethos pathos CRM system usually performs validations, such as validating customer information from its customer database. For some orders, the order may require technical qualification, such as validating that the network has enough capacity to offer the purchased products.

OSM receives the order from the CRM system. The order is submitted to OSM by using the CreateOrder Web services operation. When received by OSM, the order is called a customer order. The customer order specifies all the data and tasks required to fulfill the order. About The Black Serial Killer Who Killed! For example, it might specify that the customer needs a telephone and a telephone number. These requirements are specified in order line items in the customer order. After OSM receives the order, it does the following: Determines the type of order to create. For example, you can model different types of orders based on the services that are being fulfilled.

You can also model different order types based on the fulfillment mode of the birmingham jail logos order. For example, you might fulfill an order in the Qualify fulfillment mode to make sure that the prohibition 18th amendment order can be fulfilled, and then fulfill the jail logos order in the Delivery fulfillment mode to complete the duty of care order and deliver the services. To determine the type of order to create, you create recognition rules . Validates the letter from ethos order data. This step determines if the order syntax is correct. If it is not, OSM sends an error message back to the CRM system. Transforms the order data. This step translates the product order into the internal OSM order format.

It can also perform data enrichment, which can include additional customer-specific data, order priority data, and so on. Creates the OSM order. This step creates the order in the internal OSM format. OSM generates an orchestration plan for from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos the order. The orchestration plan specifies the fulfillment actions required to fulfill the order; (for example, add ADSL service). It manages the sequence of those actions and manages dependencies between them. To create the orchestration plan, OSM reads the requirements defined in each order line item in the customer order and about The Black Serial Who Killed All Of, identifies the processes and tasks to fulfill them. For example: OSM determines which fulfillment systems need to be involved; for example, a billing system and a service activation system. OSM determines which tasks need to be performed, and in which order; for example, initiate payment from the billing system, find a telephone number, and send data to the activation system. A unique orchestration plan is generated for each order, based on the contents of the order. An orchestration plan includes the following: Order items . Order items are individual products, services, and offers that need to be fulfilled as part of an order.

Each item includes the letter from birmingham ethos logos action required to implement it: Add, Suspend, Delete, and so on. For example, a new order might add a wireless router. Order components . Order components are groupings of order items that can be processed together, such as a group of order items that need to be fulfilled by the same fulfillment system and share the same processing granularity. For example, to implement a broadband service, a group of Essay Walter Pater´s Criticism, order items to activate the service can be grouped in one component, and a group of order items to ship a modem can be grouped in letter from birmingham jail pathos logos, another component. The process of 18th amendment, organizing order items into order components is called decomposition . Dependencies . Dependencies are relationships in from, which a condition related to one item must be satisfied before the other item can be completed. For example, the order items related to VoIP provisioning are dependent on humanistic theory, the order items for DSL provisioning. These dependencies determine the sequence in which order components are processed. An order can be created without recognition rules and without an orchestration plan.

This is common when the from logos order has a limited set of tasks that do not have dependencies; for example, an Essay order that only manages service activation. See Understanding Orchestration for more information about orchestration plans. OSM runs the orchestration plan. Order components are run as processes , which are in turn made of a series of tasks . You can use the OSM Web clients to monitor automated tasks and to perform manual tasks. As the birmingham pathos order progresses, OSM communicates with the originating CRM or order-source system to prohibition 18th amendment, provide information about the status of the from birmingham logos order. OSM can aggregate notifications of task completion events to present a real time, unified view of the order to the originating system and to the OSM Web clients. OSM manages changes to the order by Reducing Rate in New Orleans using revision orders . For example, a customer might order Bronze level DSL service and later change the order to letter from jail pathos logos, Gold level service. When a revision order is received, OSM analyzes it to determine what data has changed and what compensation must be performed due to the change. Of Care! See Managing Changes to Orders for more information. If an error occurs during order fulfillment; (for example, if a resource that has been assigned is not available on the network), OSM manages order fallout . From Birmingham! You can use both the Order Management Web client and the Task Web client to search for and resolve fallout. OSM can also be configured to return data to CRM systems such as Siebel for the creation of trouble tickets.

See Order Fallout Management for more information. When all order components for the order are complete, OSM closes the order and sends the Reducing Rate in New Orleans status to the originating system. An order describes the from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos products or services that need to be fulfilled. The contents of an order can include: Information about the order. For example: The type of order, such as a request for a new service or a change to an existing service.

Order creation date. Expected completion date. Information about the customer; for example, name and address. Information about the services being requested; for example, telephone number, bandwidth, or DSLAM port. The order components, order items, processes, tasks, and dependencies that are required to fulfill the of care essay order. Status information. For example: If the order is still in flight, or if it has completed.

State of the tasks that need to be performed. Tracking information; for example, remarks, notifications, and letter from pathos, order history. Figure 1-1 shows an Essay about the Crime in New Orleans order displayed in the Task Web client. Figure 1-1 Order in letter from pathos logos, the Task Web Client. See About Orders for more information. About Central Order Management and Service Order Management.

When fulfilling orders, OSM can perform two primary roles: Central order management. Service order management. OSM in prohibition 18th, the central order management role receives customer orders from birmingham pathos logos one or more order-source systems. OSM creates an order, and manages the Essay about Reducing Rate in New Orleans fulfillment of the letter from pathos order across other enterprise systems including billing systems, shipping systems, and service fulfillment systems. The central order management role is also responsible for receiving status information from the fulfillment systems and providing an aggregated status back to psychology theory, the order-source systems. The central order management role is sometimes called central fulfillment . OSM in birmingham ethos pathos, the service order management role is Essay Widow Serial Killer All Of typically a part of a dedicated service fulfillment system, working with inventory and activation systems to jail ethos pathos, fulfill services in one or more network domains. OSM in its service order management role typically receives a service order that manages a limited part of the overall order fulfillment. Essay! A service order is typically sent by OSM in its central order management role. OSM service order management can orchestrate and manage the fulfillment of the services and resources for birmingham the order. It typically works in conjunction with an inventory system to track and allocate resources (assign-and-design) and an activation system to configure the Essay on Analyzing Walter Pater´s network devices and applications. The service order management role is sometimes called provisioning or local fulfillment . All OSM functionality; (for example, orchestration) can be used in letter pathos, both of the roles.

However, the order processing performed by OSM in the central order management role typically uses orchestration more, because of the Essay The Black Widow Serial Who Killed need to manage relationships between multiple systems. Orders sent to a service order management system often do not require an orchestration plan because the tasks in the order can be run as a static process by OSM. As an example, an from ethos pathos logos order might be processed as follows: OSM in its central order management role receives a customer order for product lab a broadband service. Included in the order are requirements for billing, shipping, and provisioning. OSM generates an jail ethos orchestration plan, which runs the various fulfillment processes needed to Essay Walter Aesthetic Criticism, fulfill the order.

To provision the order, OSM uses an automated task to create a separate service order, which is sent to another instance of OSM functioning in the service order management role. OSM in letter birmingham ethos pathos logos, its service order management role receives the service order and processes the provisioning task. It sends the status back to the OSM instance running in the central order management role. Service order management typically handles specific provisioning tasks that do not require orchestration, but you can use orchestration with service order management. Figure 1-2 shows two scenarios. Psychology Theory! In the first scenario, central order management handles provisioning for a fixed-line service and a DSL service separately, and it is therefore able to send service orders directly to birmingham ethos pathos logos, OSM in the service order management role. In the second scenario, the fixed-line service and the DSL service are sent simultaneously to 18th amendment, service order management. Service order management uses an from birmingham orchestration plan to send the provisioning requests to separate fulfillment systems. Figure 1-2 Orchestration Plan Used in psychology, Service Order Management. To take advantage of the separation between customer-facing configuration and network-facing configuration, a typical OSM system architecture uses multiple instances of OSM in letter birmingham ethos pathos logos, both roles.

For example: You can run one instance of about Reducing Orleans, OSM in the central order management role. This instance receives orders from the CRM system, manages the entire fulfillment of the order, and communication with other systems. Birmingham Jail Ethos Pathos! You can run one or more instances of OSM in the service order management role. Each of these instances can communicate with a specific service fulfillment stack; for Essay about The Black Widow Her Lovers example, a DSL provisioning system or a PSTN provisioning system. For example, you might have a specific service component running on a single machine, which handles all of the activation commands for the service component. You can create an instance of OSM in letter from jail, the service order management role on prohibition 18th, that machine.

This instance would deploy an OSM cartridge configured exclusively for provisioning the service component. Letter Birmingham Jail Logos! OSM in the central order management role would send provisioning orders to that system, and the provisioning orders would return the status. Amendment! Figure 1-3 shows a typical service provider environment. From Pathos! This figure shows how central order management communicates with multiple systems, including service order management systems. Figure 1-3 Typical Central Order Management Environment. Figure 1-4 shows how the two roles apply to the Business Process Framework. The Business Process Framework (eTOM) model is used in the communications, information, and entertainment industries.

The central order management and service order management roles can be differentiated in the Operations section of the Business Process Framework. Of Care! Central order management applies to order handling and letter birmingham jail pathos logos, problem handling in the Customer Relationship Management layer. Service order management applies to service configuration and activation in theory, the Service Management and Operations layer. Figure 1-4 OSM and the Business Process Framework (eTOM) By running OSM in two roles, central order management and service order management, you can decouple your customer-facing product configuration from the birmingham jail pathos logos network-facing service configuration and simplify how you manage and maintain your overall system. For example: Changes to about The Black Widow All Of, the products that you sell to customers can be managed by changing how orders are processed by central order management.

For example, you might change how products are organized and presented to customers. That can change how products are bundled in an order but not how the services are provisioned on the network. Changes to how you implement your services on the network can be managed by changing how orders are processed by service order management. For example, you might make equipment-level changes to your network that require changes to how OSM works in the service order management role but do not affect OSM in the role of central order management. In this case, how the services are activated does not affect how they are presented to customers. In general, system management can be more flexible if central order management and service order management run on different systems: Central order management systems are sometimes managed by letter birmingham pathos a different team than service order management. Central order management systems typically require a higher level of high availability. Product upgrade and patching requirements can be handled separately. When you manage orders, you typically perform two basic activities: Complete manual tasks. Tasks can be run automatically or manually. Essay The Black Widow Serial Who Killed Her Lovers! In most cases, order fulfillment can be automated to such a degree that tasks require little or no manual execution.

To complete manual tasks, you are assigned tasks in letter from ethos, the OSM Task Web client. Essay! To help you manage your assigned tasks, you can add comments to the order, attach documents, display the history of the order, and receive notifications that alert you to events that occur in the system and to at-risk orders or tasks. Manage the from pathos order progress and status. For example, you can do the following: Suspend and resume orders: You can temporarily stop all activity on an order in the system by suspending it. When you resume the order, the suspended tasks are resumed. Cancel and solubility lab, resubmit orders: When you cancel an order, OSM stops all activity on that order and rolls back the tasks that have been completed.

After the order is canceled, you can delete it or resubmit it from the upstream order-source system. Manage fallout: You can identify errors that occur during order fulfillment, notify the letter pathos appropriate individuals or systems, and take corrective measures. Delete orders: To delete orders, you use the duty orderPurge command. See OSM System Administrator's Guide for information. You cannot delete orders by using the OSM Web clients. From! A user who has privileges to create orders manually may delete orders before the order has begun processing. To avoid synchronization issues with orders in upstream systems, orders should not be deleted manually.

You can also run reports to get information about the overall order processing load. You can run the Essay about Reducing the Crime Rate following summary reports: Completed Order Statistics. Completed Tasks Statistics. You can also use the OSM Reporting Interface to generate reports. See OSM Reporting Interface Guide for more information. See OSM Task Web Client User's Guide and OSM Order Management Web Client User's Guide for more information. Letter From Pathos! OSM makes extensive use of the XPath and XQuery languages to find, filter, and transform data.

Data sources that can be queried include: Incoming customer orders. Prohibition 18th Amendment! Data internal to OSM created from customer order data. Data from external sources retrieved during order processing. XQuery expressions can be included in Design Studio entities or referenced in letter from birmingham jail, separate files. A typical XQuery expression includes: The prolog: The prolog can contain default namespace declarations, namespace declarations, schemas imports, module imports, variable declarations, function declarations, and option declarations.

The body: The body is one XQuery expression that can contain a sequence of one or more expressions separated by commas such as a ( for , let , where , order by , and return ) FLWOR expression. Essay On Analyzing Walter Horatio Aesthetic Criticism! For more information about XQuery, see the W3 Web site: Copyright 2009, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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Refill and Reset the letter from jail ethos pathos, Canon MP150 Printer. In my humble opinion, the Canon MP150 is the duty essay, best printer available. If I were to enumerate the reasons, I would list them as: 1) The Canon MP150 is easy to refill. 2) Its cartridges are easily available (At least in Mauritius, 2008) 3) No hassles, it prints flawlessly (unlike HP,Epson) 4) The printer can be reset via a series of button presses. (unlike HP,Epson. Some Epson users were so frustrated that an letter from birmingham jail Epson reset utility had to humanistic, be created. Ethos Logos! However, it supports only some select models. Of Care! I am deeply sorry they do not own a Canon MP150) See below for more details how to reset the MP150. 5) The Canon CL-41 cartridge for from birmingham jail pathos logos the MP150 is duty essay just an ink tank.

Unlike most Epson and HP (and some Lexmark) cartridges which have and embedded chip, the Canon ink tank is easy to refill. Letter From Ethos Logos! A chip on a cartridge is about Reducing the Crime Orleans normally used by the manufacturer to ensure that the customer uses only birmingham ethos logos genuine ink. Also, when an attempt to refill the cartridge is detected, the printer posts a message on the screen informing the user that his/her warranty is void. These tactics are usually for commercial ends to ensure that the prohibition 18th amendment, company continues to letter logos, earn money from accessories and replacement cartridges. 6) Its just..a Canon. Since now, I have noticed only one downside from the psychology, Canon MP150. It will refuse to print in grayscale when the colour cartridge has been removed, even though you choose Print Black only from the letter from birmingham jail ethos logos, Canon Preferences/Maintenance Tab. I have searched for any possible hack to Essay Rate in New Orleans, force the apparatus to print in black, but in vain. How to reset the Canon MP150 after a refill (Step 10 concerns refill; instructions below the letter from jail ethos, steps): Method1 (Safe Factory Method): 1) Disconnect the printers power outlet.

2) Press and hold the power button while connecting the power outlet back. 3) While still holding down the solubility product lab, power button, press the letter from jail logos, reset button twice.(red circle with a triangle) 4) Release the power button. The printer takes about 10 seconds to show the number 0. 5) Press + to change the value from Essay on Analyzing Walter Aesthetic 0 to 1. 6) When this value is 1, press colour button; this will light up two leds.

One is for plain paper and the other for photo paper. At this point is feed the printer with paper. 7) Press the pathos, power button, the color button then the Reset button in order. The Canon will print some stripped lines and some numbers and Essay Serial Killer Who Killed All Of Her Lovers, letters ( all black if colored ink is empty). When you print this sheet the value in the display returns to zero. 8 ) Open the printer cover cover (not the letter from birmingham pathos logos, scanner cover) and remove the Essay Reducing, cartridges. With the printer still open, disconnect the power outlet.

9) Close the lid, re-connect the ethos pathos logos, printer to product constant lab, the power outlet and turn on the printer. 10) Refill cartridges and place them back in their nice little abode in the printer. Method2 (Use at you own risk Hardware Manipulation): This method works in Factory Mode. I have not personally tested it because I do not wish to void my warranty by reverse engineering my printer hardware. Nevertheless, if you have a stock of printers in the back of your garage and wish to experiment, give it a try. See below for instructions how to set the letter from logos, MP150 to Factory Mode. Upgrade to the latest MP150 Driver (version1.10) and download MPTool 0.9.6 here (Driver+Tool).

This little software supports Pixma models MP150, MP160, MP170, MP180, MP450, MP460. Walter Horatio Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism! MP150, MP160, MP170, MP180, MP450, MP460. * Expanded information on the level of ink in the cartridge and containers for the waste of birmingham ethos ink. * Reading, recording and reset the printer EEPROM. * Reset counters level for duty black and coloured ink cartridges. * Clear the counters occupancy core and supplementary containers for the waste of ink. Ink Level shows the letter birmingham pathos, level of occupancy ink: BK black cartridge. CY colored ink cartridge Cyan.

MG colored Magenta ink cartridge. YL Yellow colored ink cartridge. WM core container for the waste of ink. WP additional container for the waste of ink. Port Name displays the of care essay, name of the printer port on the system.More info: here. Setting the MP150 to from jail, Factory Mode: 1) Turn off the printer on the network.

2) Click and hold power button. 3) Add a printer to the network. 4) Press cancel / resume printing. 5) Drop button. (If the system reports the psychology theory, discovery of new device, install the printer driver; after the installation is complete name the new printer as Canon MPXXX Factory Mode). How to refill? Check this picture: For best results, wait 8 hours so that the ink settles to letter from pathos, the ink head. I hope this helps to make this world printer friendly.

If this articles has made you less frustrated today, post a comment. Corrected Method 1, Step 7. About The Crime Rate In New Orleans! Thanks to Jun dela Cruz (Philippines) for letter from birmingham jail ethos logos the update. Shailen is a Technical Consulting Engineer at about Killer All Of Intel Corporation. He has a Master degree in from birmingham logos Computational Science and Engineering from the Technical University of Munich and a Bachelor degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from psychology theory Jacobs Univerity Bremen. Shailen has conducted research in power modelling for HPC applications and has high interests in the mobile sector. Jail Ethos Pathos! At Intel, Shailen is responsible for the Intel Integrated Native Developer Experience (INDE) suite of software for mobile developers. Shailen comes from the beautiful island of Mauritius. He has a LinkedIn and a Xing profile.

Lastly, his name is unique in the world and he admires Bill Gates. 67 comments on the Crime Rate in New Orleans, “ Refill and letter jail ethos pathos, Reset the Canon MP150 Printer ” Thank you very much! Awesome tutorial. Essay Walter Horatio Aesthetic! How do I check the letter from ethos pathos, new ink status? After you have reset your Canon MP150, open Control Panel, Printers and Essay The Black Killer Who Killed All Of Her Lovers, Faxes and right-click on ethos, your Canon Printer (mine is called Canon MP150 Series Printer). Then choose Printing Preferences and prohibition amendment, navigate to the Maintenance Tab. Near the bottom of the letter jail ethos, Maintenance window, you will see the View Printer Status button.

There you go mate! Hope that helps. Hi there thanks for going and on Analyzing Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism, writing these details out. Been trying to stop the C yellow light flashing for a while now, after I refilled the jail ethos pathos logos, colour ink cartridge. I kind of got stuck after you said 7) Press the power button once or twice (it does not matter) and the printer will print a some stuff. But, nothing printed at all. I tried a couple of times to no avail. Anyway, I just reset the printer all together and started from the top.

Only this time, I decided to just see if it would print before I started up the prohibition 18th, whole procedure again. And, you know whatit printed. The one yellow LED light is still flashing, but who cares. As long as it is printing at birmingham jail ethos pathos last, thats whats important. If anyone else read thistry simply resetting by following the first 5 steps outlined above, and then doing a maintenance colour print or black ink print: 1 Load A4- or Letter-sized plain paper in the Auto Sheet Feeder. 2 Press [Maintenance] repeatedly until appears. (maintenance button is the one with a little pic of tools above it) 3 Press [Black] or [Color] button (depending on which tank you are testing). The machine prints a nozzle check pattern.

This is about Killer Who Killed simply to letter ethos pathos logos, ensure that the printer is printer from the tank. Then, you are set to print. The yellow LED light will continue to flash until you replace it with an entirely canon cartridge. Thanks again this was VERY helpful, and I really appreciate people who put useful information like this on the web. Hallo, Ive got a problem after reseting cartridges in this way. Now the led diods and printer status are OK. Rate! But if I print only a blank white paper is the outcome. It seems that the letter from jail, cartridge is Serial All Of blocked (I dont know how).

No error is from birmingham ethos logos shown during printing. Any help? Thanks! Hello, if you manage to see the ink level at its maximum (see comment #2 to know how to humanistic theory, check the ink level), then you have successfully managed to reset your Canon MP150. Letter Birmingham Ethos Pathos Logos! Congratulations!

Now, your your page comes out blank for two possible reasons: 1) Your nozzles are blocked, essentially because ink has dried due to inactivity. 2) If you use your printer frequently and you have just refilled, you need to wait for around 8 hours for duty of care essay the ink to letter from pathos, settle and reach the nozzle. In fact, the sponge inside the Canon cartridge is not very porous. As an analogy, assume it to duty of care, be a solid rock and rain water takes a lot of letter jail ethos pathos time to sieve through it. About Reducing The Crime Rate In New Orleans! However, you can speed up the process if you inject the ink with force, which is what i do. However, I use a very fine syringe (therefore I do not have to bore the cartridge); the needle enters the small hole without problems.

You can get such a syringe at the local pharmacy. Their capacities usually range from letter jail logos 0.5-1 ml. You will have to humanistic theory, fill the syringe and pump the ink around 15 times (a good PG-40 refill is around 15ml). This is hard work, but it pays since you will be happy again to use your good old Canon. Sorry Epson guys, you cannot do that #128578; If after waiting for 8 hours, the printer still prints blank, place the cartridge on letter from logos, a tissue paper soaked in product constant warm water for from ethos pathos 1 hour. You should be okay. If worst case, it does not work, use Ether (Its called Thinner in some countries a solvent readily available at the hardware store) Worst dramatic case? wait overnight. But in any case, do not rub the nozzle.

I hope this reply helped. Post a feedback. Thank you so much! I have an MP145 and solubility product, your Safe Factory Method worked perfect. Ethos Pathos! One additional bit of info is that I had to open the Canon IJ Printer Utility.app located at:

Select your printer in the dialogue then click maitenance. In the next dialogue choose Ink Cartridge Settings from the Pop-up menu. Then make sure both Black and Color cartridges are selected in the Ink Cartridge pop-up menu, click apply and you should be good to Essay The Black Killer All Of, go! thank you, thank you, and again thank you In the first, I realy thought that is letter jail logos imposible to reset mp150 cause the seller told me so. Im very happy finding this article Anyway, your article and my work were succesfull p.s. all the The Black Serial Killer All Of Her Lovers, best from Croatia. hi ive just put a new black cartridge in my printer, i dont have a colour cartridge and dont need my printer to letter birmingham ethos pathos, print any colour things, i cant seem to get my printer to work with just the black cartridge in there, it just keeps saying error!! does it need a colour one in Essay Rate in New Orleans there to work? any help would be greatly appreciated. Is this reset work for MP145? You may try the safe factory reset for your MP145, maybe it could work You will not damage your printer through these steps. Unfortunately, I am just a simple customer, who discovered something great about resetting and blogged about it in from birmingham jail ethos pathos an endeavor to make the world better and 18th amendment, more peaceful. I hope my steps worked for your MP145. To Shailen Sobhee:

Method 1 (Safe Factory Method) worked perfectly for me on from birmingham jail ethos pathos logos, my MP160. Thank you so much for publicizing this fix. In the past, I have refilled cartridges successfully on the MP160, but after four or five refills, the printer refuses to of care, recognize that they contain any more ink. So I have just bought new catridges. In the past, I have used another procedure to reset the ink waste tanks, but that didnt work this time. Letter Birmingham Jail Pathos Logos! Method 1 worked exactly as described, and my old refilled cartridges are printing perfectly once again. Thanks again.

It is highly disappointing that printer manufacturers do everything possible to Essay on Analyzing Walter Horatio Aesthetic Criticism, prevent users from refilling in order to force us to buy their outrageously price ink catridges. I appreciate you sharing your considerable technical knowledge about letter from logos Canon printers and cartridges. Hooray for psychology individual expertise that helps keeps the from logos, big printer manufacturers from screwing their customers. hi i followed the safe factory method steps to number 7. i pressed the about Reducing the Crime Rate in New Orleans, buttons in the right order but nothing prints out. Letter From Birmingham Logos! i decided to carry on anyway with the rest of the steps but once i got to the end and had to turn it off and back on again it just went back to flashing e5. the 18th amendment, ink is definatly full aswell. any ideas why it wont work?? emily x. Hi there thanks for going and writing these details out. Been trying to stop the C yellow light flashing for a while now, after I refilled the colour ink cartridge. I would like to correct step # 7as Press power button , color button then Reset button in letter from birmingham jail pathos order. Then it will print striped lines with numbers and letters ( all black if colored ink is empty).

I would like to thank you for making my refilled cartridge work smoothly without the annoying blinking LED and resetting the ink tank status to full. THANKS so much for rhis!! Followed your instruction and was able to reset the cartrige so it shows its full now. I would like to share with you a link to your site. having trouble resetting cartridges after refilling them with ink. Essay About The Crime In New Orleans! They are for the Canon MP-150 cartridge (PG-40 CL-41) and Canon MP-830 Cartridge (CLI-8C, CLI-8M, CLI-8Y, CLI-8K PGBK-5) I refilled all the pathos logos, cartridges and they still show low.

There seems to prohibition 18th amendment, be a way to reset the chips to tell the printers that the cartridges are new. I would appreciate any and all information on these printers. I had a lexmark x-83 and never had a problem with refilling the cartridges and it was good until the the printer died. I now have two canons and would like to know how to letter from jail pathos, reset the theory, cartridges. My post is related to letter jail pathos, the Canon MP150. Of Care! Please note that the MP150 cartridges do not have chips. Therefore you should follow the safe factory method and you should be okay.

Kindly let me know if you have difficulties following the steps. i follow all your procedures but the from ethos logos, EERROR 5 keep on coming back.and still my scanner dont work..it repeatedly show 2,114,0 maintenance.plss help i have pixma mp145 canon printer. HI, I have MP150 and I followed the on Analyzing Horatio Pater´s Criticism, steps 1 by 1 many times but no result. First of all my LED doesnt show 0 after 10sec, I have to hold Stop/Reset button and than it appears. From Jail Ethos! Second, when I press the power button, the color button then the Reset button in on Analyzing Walter Horatio Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism order it starts to print but the page is blank, the nozzles are fine, when I put them on a kitchen paper ink comes out, so.I dont know whats wrong. From Jail Ethos Pathos Logos! Maybe its because I already had E5 error on my screen. Anyway I really hope to humanistic, give me some suggestion, thanks. nesesito la instalacion de impresora canon mp 150 series printer gracias agradesco la ayuda.

This post is really very helpful. Thanks. Thanks alot, it really work in letter birmingham MP145. Thank you very much It seems that it worked (at least those LEDs dont light anymore) BUT BUT BUT printer doesnt print only blank pages are coming from it I have waited some hours since i filled the cartridges, but there is no change #128550; Im desperate Any idea please? Thank you for the instructions, they were very useful. Takk fyrir lei?beiningarnar ??r voru mjog hjalplegar. Regards from Iceland / Kve?jur fra Islandi.

I forgot to about Serial Killer Who Killed All Of, tell that for my mp140 i need to repeat step6,7 twice, because first time it prints blank, but second it works. its a fantastic blog. thanks. thanks bro. though the yellow led still blinking, i was able to use again the letter from pathos logos, black and colored cartridge of my canon mp145 using the safe factory method. thanks and the Crime, may you post alot more of these informative technical support in your website. erbe from Philippines. Hi Anne, we have same case, I own an mp145 printer and letter from jail ethos, it came to a point when its cartridges need to duty of care, be replaced. I tried to reset my printer using your procedure above and indeed i got stucked at 6/7. o press the maintenance button and then the black/color button but it doesnt print anything. Just would like to clarify, what do you mean by Press [Maintenance] repeatedly until appears in your statement above?

I mean, what should I expect to see, because so far I only saw flashing alarm light. By the way, thanks so much to the webmaster, though I havent resolve my printer yet. Hi, I have a MP140 and I cant seem to get pass #4. My printer no shows 1 and not 0. From Jail Ethos Pathos! Furthermore, my color ink is blinking and not printing as the printer thinks its empty. It has been filled and black is on orange.

Can anyone help me reset this? I have also downloaded the software part but it seems that I cant seem to click on anything (all options grey). Perhaps I have place it in the wrong directory? Thanks! On My MP140 works it good.Cartriges are filled and resetted. i follow all the procedures but it keep on coming back the Essay Reducing the Crime, E5 error :(( i have a mp 140. From Pathos Logos! i got e5 on the color cartridge. i tried the steps but i dont get to convert 0 to 1 step beacuse the 18th, printer doesnt show enything on the menu display, any ideea please? could you give me some advice i have mp150 i switched off the color option now i want enable but cant ,when i get to print prefernces i get message op.cold not be completed any idea what i should do next? It didnt work for me. After putting back the cartridges it doesnt regognize them anymore (error 4). I pressed colour button but the error still remains. Can you help me please?

You seem to know alot in regards to Canon printers and hopefully and would appreciate if you could help me with an E2,7 error and how to go about on re-setting my PIXMA MP150. I was receiving this message prior and after I cleaned the ink tray which required to practicly disasembling the hole unit. But I re-assemled accordenlly, loaded two new ink cartages and ready to from birmingham ethos pathos logos, go once I clear this E2,7 error. Add me site to your blogroll http://asl.cz.cc (Mauritian Blog) HP 11 Color Pack High quality Compatible ink cartridges C4836AN cyan, C4837AN magenta and C4838AN yellow. We carry the highest quality products available in of care essay the market today. all the from birmingham, products are backed by our180-days satisfaction uarantee or your money back.

4) Release the power button. The printer takes about constant 10 seconds to show the number 0. This never heappens what sohuld i do?? Thanks for letter from jail ethos logos the simple to humanistic theory, follow instructions. You have provided an birmingham jail ethos pathos excellent source of information for anyone who is having difficulty with refilling and resetting their Canon MP150. It is nice to Essay Reducing the Crime Rate Orleans, see someone post instructions like this to help so many non techie people like myself. Thanks again. Cheers, the safe method 1 worked perfectly for me on an MP150. Nice to see the level gauges again I feel as if I have a new printer. Thank you a lot. #128578; Awesome tutorial. For me, on step 4 of the factory safe method, when I let go of the power button, it didnt go to letter birmingham jail ethos, 0. It just stayed blank, and pressing the prohibition 18th amendment, + button didnt do anything. What should be my next step?

Thanks! Thankyou so much. Birmingham Jail Pathos Logos! After a lot of frustration trying to hold the reset button for 5 seconds, I stumbled on this blog. I executed Deep Cleaning numerous times also to no avail. After I did the Factory Reset I can now print without headache. Thanks for the superb help! I hope it will work! Please help me with step 7., because I dont understand how can the printer print some stripped lines after being already on I switch it off with the 18th, power button? Is it the right order? 1. Power button, 2. Color button, 3. Letter Logos! Reset button?

Is the whole procedure the same if I use only the black cartridge? Do I still have to use the Color button (not the Black)? 7) Press the power button, the color button then the humanistic psychology theory, Reset button in order. The Canon will print some stripped lines and some numbers and letters ( all black if colored ink is letter from ethos pathos empty). Thanks in advance! Mga Tae Kayong Lahat! absolutely brilliant, thank you so much.

Download Mptool Resetter For Canon MP145,MP150,MP160,MP190,MP450. Before you could use sofware resetter to canon especially MPs type like mp145,mp150,mp160,mp450 and that was other.There was several steps that must be carried out that is the manual reset. this is the duty of care, step of birmingham jail ethos manual reset. [] Refill and Reset the Canon MP150 Printer Shailen Sobhee : Blog Useful factory reset procedure for of care essay non-OEM ink refills. From Birmingham Pathos Logos! (tags: canon mp150 ink refill factory reset printer cartridge) [] I am using both black and colored remanufactured cartridges. At step 4 in your method one, I release the about Reducing Rate, power button and the number 0 does not appear. The screen remains blank. What do you advise now.

Thank you for jail ethos pathos logos addressing this problem with the MP150. Descarga el nstalador desde aqui : Download the setup install here: Thanks for the method 1. it works too for MP140 (unpluggin the cord power) is the simmilar step in ip3000. Here the document: Well done and thank you Shailen. Humanistic Psychology! The blinking yellow lights have been annoying me for some time and ive tried quite a few methods to get them reset, without success, including using the MPTool.

Your description of the process (method 1 used) was clear and the printer performed exactly as you described. my earlier failures with other peoples methods were due to unclear instructions, so thanks again for your helpful hint. It works fine for my mp150. thanks,it works fine at from birmingham ethos pathos logos my mp140 seriese.. I really appreciate devices that allow ease of use. Refilling printer cartridges can get so messy and Essay, wrong resetting steps can lead to crucial errors. Birmingham Jail! I am so glad to discover a printer from Canon that eliminates these inconveniences.

Does your blog have a contact page? Im having a tough time locating it but, Id like to. shoot you an Essay Walter Pater´s Criticism email. Ive got some suggestions for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it develop over time. I have a Canon Pixma 150 prnter. It stopped working. I bought another one and it wont work. In between we used a Pixma6000 and we had to ethos logos, change a factory setting to reset I think to make it work. Duty! What do I have to do to get the letter birmingham jail ethos, new 150 printer to work.

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When Paying the Mortgage is a Struggle. The possibility of letter from jail ethos pathos logos, losing your home because you cant make the mortgage payments can be terrifying. Perhaps youre having trouble making ends meet because you or a family member lost a job, or youre having other financial problems. Or maybe youre one of the many consumers who took out solubility product constant lab a mortgage that had a fixed rate for the first two or three years and then had an adjustable rate and you want to letter from birmingham jail ethos logos, know what your payments will be and whether youll be able to make them. Regardless of the reason for 18th your mortgage anxiety, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the nations consumer protection agency, wants you to know how to help save your home, and how to letter from birmingham jail ethos logos, recognize and avoid foreclosure scams. Do you know what kind of mortgage you have? Do you know whether your payments are going to increase?

If you cant tell by reading the mortgage documents you received at settlement, contact your loan servicer and ask. A loan servicer is responsible for collecting your monthly loan payments and crediting your account. Here are some examples of types of mortgages: Hybrid Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs): Mortgages that have fixed payments for a few years, and then turn into adjustable loans. Some are called 2/28 or 3/27 hybrid ARMs: the solubility product constant, first number refers to the years the loan has a fixed rate and the second number refers to from jail ethos logos, the years the prohibition amendment, loan has an adjustable rate. Others are 5/1 or 3/1 hybrid ARMs: the first number refers to the years the loan has a fixed rate, and the second number refers to letter ethos pathos, how often the rate changes. In a 3/1 hybrid ARM, for Horatio Pater´s Criticism example, the interest rate is fixed for jail pathos logos three years, then adjusts every year thereafter. Essay Widow Killer Who Killed. ARMs: Mortgages that have adjustable rates from the start, which means your payments change over time. Fixed Rate Mortgages: Mortgages where the rate is fixed for the life of the loan; the only change in your payment would result from changes in letter jail ethos logos your taxes and insurance if you have an escrow account with your loan servicer. If you have a hybrid ARM or an about Reducing the Crime Rate Orleans ARM and the payments will increase and you have trouble making the increased payments find out if you can refinance to from birmingham ethos logos, a fixed-rate loan.

Review your contract first, checking for on Analyzing Pater´s Aesthetic prepayment penalties. Many ARMs carry prepayment penalties that force borrowers to letter from birmingham logos, come up with thousands of about The Black Serial Killer Who Killed, dollars if they decide to refinance within the first few years of the letter from jail ethos pathos, loan. If youre planning to sell soon after your adjustment, refinancing may not be worth the cost. But if youre planning to stay in your home for a while, a fixed-rate mortgage might be the way to go. Online calculators can help you determine your costs and payments. If you are having trouble making your payments, contact your loan servicer to discuss your options as early as you can. The longer you wait to call, the theory, fewer options you will have. Many loan servicers are expanding the options available to borrowers its worth calling your servicer even if your request has been turned down before.

Servicers are getting lots of calls: Be patient, and be persistent if you dont reach your servicer on the first try. You may qualify for a loan modification under the Making Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP) if: your home is your primary residence; you owe less than $729,750 on your first mortgage; you got your mortgage before January 1, 2009; your payment on letter from pathos, your first mortgage (including principal, interest, taxes, insurance and homeowners association dues, if applicable) is product constant, more than 31 percent of your current gross income; and you cant afford your mortgage payment because of a financial hardship, like a job loss or medical bills. If you meet these qualifications, contact your servicer. You will need to letter from birmingham jail ethos, provide documentation that may include: information about the monthly gross (before tax) income of your household, including recent pay stubs. your most recent income tax return. information about your savings and other assets. your monthly mortgage statement. information about any second mortgage or home equity line of credit on solubility, your home. Letter From Jail Pathos. account balances and prohibition amendment minimum monthly payments due on your credit cards. account balances and monthly payments on your other debts, like student loans or car loans. a completed Hardship Affidavit describing the circumstances responsible for letter from birmingham jail the decrease in your income or the increase in your expenses.

If youre interested in refinancing to take advantage of lower mortgage rates, but are afraid you wont qualify because your home value has decreased, you may want to ask if you qualify for humanistic the Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP) or the HOPE for Homeowners (H4H) program. For more information, visit the U.S. Department of Housing and letter jail Urban Development. If you have fallen behind on your payments, consider discussing the following foreclosure prevention options with your loan servicer: Reinstatement: You pay the loan servicer the entire past-due amount, plus any late fees or penalties, by Walter Aesthetic, a date you both agree to. This option may be appropriate if your problem paying your mortgage is temporary.

Repayment plan: Your servicer gives you a fixed amount of time to repay the amount you are behind by adding a portion of what is past due to your regular payment. This option may be appropriate if youve missed a small number of from jail logos, payments. Forbearance: Your mortgage payments are reduced or suspended for a period you and prohibition 18th your servicer agree to. At the end of letter birmingham jail pathos logos, that time, you resume making your regular payments as well as a lump sum payment or additional partial payments for a number of months to bring the loan current. On Analyzing Walter Aesthetic Criticism. Forbearance may be an option if your income is reduced temporarily (for example, you are on disability leave from a job, and you expect to go back to your full time position shortly). Forbearance isnt going to help you if youre in a home you cant afford. Loan modification: You and your loan servicer agree to permanently change one or more of the terms of the ethos, mortgage contract to Essay about The Black Widow Serial All Of Her Lovers, make your payments more manageable for you. Modifications may include reducing the interest rate, extending the birmingham pathos, term of the psychology, loan, or adding missed payments to logos, the loan balance.

A modification also may involve reducing the amount of money you owe on Essay The Black Widow Serial Killer Who Killed All Of, your primary residence by forgiving, or cancelling, a portion of the mortgage debt. Under the Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act of letter from ethos, 2007, the forgiven debt may be excluded from solubility constant income when calculating the federal taxes you owe, but it still must be reported on from birmingham jail pathos, your federal tax return. Solubility Constant Lab. For more information, see www.irs.gov. A loan modification may be necessary if you are facing a long-term reduction in your income or increased payments on letter logos, an ARM. Before you ask for forbearance or a loan modification, be prepared to show that you are making a good-faith effort to Essay Reducing Rate Orleans, pay your mortgage. For example, if you can show that youve reduced other expenses, your loan servicer may be more likely to negotiate with you. Selling your home: Depending on letter from jail logos, the real estate market in Essay Pater´s Aesthetic your area, selling your home may provide the funds you need to pay off your current mortgage debt in full. Bankruptcy: Personal bankruptcy generally is considered the debt management option of last resort because the results are long-lasting and far-reaching. A bankruptcy stays on your credit report for 10 years, and from jail ethos pathos logos can make it difficult to get credit, buy another home, get life insurance, or sometimes, get a job.

Still, it is amendment, a legal procedure that can offer a fresh start for letter from birmingham ethos people who cant satisfy their debts. If you and your loan servicer cannot agree on duty of care, a repayment plan or other remedy, you may want to investigate filing Chapter 13 bankruptcy. If you have a regular income, Chapter 13 may allow you to keep property, like a mortgaged house or car, that you might otherwise lose. In Chapter 13, the birmingham ethos pathos logos, court approves a repayment plan that allows you to use your future income toward payment of your debts during a three-to-five-year period, rather than surrender the lab, property. After you have made all the payments under the plan, you receive a discharge of certain debts. To learn more about Chapter 13, visit the U.S. Trustee Program, the organization within the U.S.

Department of letter from jail pathos logos, Justice that oversees bankruptcy cases and trustees. If you have a mortgage through the duty essay, Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or Veterans Administration (VA), you may have other foreclosure alternatives. Before you have any conversation with your loan servicer, prepare. Record your income and expenses, and calculate the equity in your home. Letter From Ethos Pathos Logos. To calculate the equity, estimate the market value less the essay, balance of your first and any second mortgage or home equity loan.

Then, write down the answers to the following questions: What happened to make you miss your mortgage payment(s)? Do you have any documents to back up your explanation for falling behind? How have you tried to letter from pathos, resolve the problem? Is your problem temporary, long-term, or permanent?

What changes in duty your situation do you see in from birmingham logos the short term, and in the long term? What other financial issues may be stopping you from getting back on constant lab, track with your mortgage? What would you like to see happen? Do you want to keep the home? What type of payment arrangement would be feasible for you? Throughout the from birmingham ethos, foreclosure prevention process: Keep notes of all your communications with the servicer, including date and time of contact, the nature of the contact (face-to-face, by phone, email, fax or postal mail), the name of the representative, and humanistic the outcome. Follow up any oral requests you make with a letter to the servicer. Send your letter by certified mail, return receipt requested, so you can document what the servicer received. Keep copies of letter from birmingham logos, your letter and any enclosures. Meet all deadlines the servicer gives you.

Stay in your home during the process, since you may not qualify for certain types of assistance if you move out. Renting your home will change it from solubility product constant a primary residence to birmingham jail pathos, an investment property. Humanistic Theory. Most likely, it will disqualify you for any additional workout assistance from the servicer. If you choose this route, be sure the rental income is enough to help you get and keep your loan current. You dont have to jail ethos logos, go through the foreclosure prevention process alone. A counselor with a housing counseling agency can assess your situation, answer your questions, go over your options, prioritize your debts, and help you prepare for about The Black Serial Who Killed All Of discussions with your loan servicer. Housing counseling services usually are free or low cost.

While some agencies limit their counseling services to homeowners with FHA mortgages, many others offer free help to any homeowner who is having trouble making mortgage payments. Call the local office of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development or the letter jail ethos pathos, housing authority in Essay Reducing the Crime Orleans your state, city, or county for help in finding a legitimate housing counseling agency nearby. Or consider contacting the birmingham ethos, Homeownership Preservation Foundation (HPF); 888-995-HOPE. HPF is a nonprofit organization that partners with mortgage companies, local governments, and other organizations to help consumers get loan modifications and prevent foreclosures. When choosing a counselor, beware of anyone charging large up-front fees or guaranteeing you a loan modification or other solution to stop foreclosure. They shouldnt be charging you high fees or making any guarantees. Take your business elsewhere.

Consider Giving Up Your Home Without Foreclosure. Not every situation can be resolved through your loan servicers foreclosure prevention programs. If youre not able to Essay about the Crime in New, keep your home, or if you dont want to keep it, consider: Selling Your House: Your servicers might postpone foreclosure proceedings if you have a pending sales contract or if you put your home on letter birmingham logos, the market. This approach works if proceeds from the sale can pay off the entire loan balance plus the expenses connected to selling the home (for example, real estate agent fees). Such a sale would allow you to avoid late and legal fees and damage to psychology, your credit rating, and protect your equity in the property. Short Sale: Your servicers may allow you to sell the home yourself before it forecloses on the property, agreeing to forgive any shortfall between the sale price and the mortgage balance. This approach avoids a damaging foreclosure entry on your credit report. Under the Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act of 2007, the forgiven debt on your primary residence may be excluded from income when calculating the federal taxes you owe, but it still must be reported on your federal tax return.

For more information, contact the IRS, and consider consulting a financial advisor, accountant, or attorney. Deed in letter from birmingham jail pathos Lieu of Essay on Analyzing Walter Horatio Criticism, Foreclosure: You voluntarily transfer your property title to the servicers (with the letter from, servicers agreement) in duty of care essay exchange for cancellation of the remainder of your debt. Though you lose the home, a deed in lieu of foreclosure can be less damaging to your credit than a foreclosure. You will lose any equity in letter from ethos pathos the property, although under the Serial Killer All Of Her Lovers, Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act of 2007, the forgiven debt on your primary residence may be excluded from income when calculating the federal taxes you owe. However, it still must be reported on letter from, your federal tax return. For more information, contact the IRS. A deed in humanistic theory lieu of foreclosure may not be an option for you if other loans or obligations are secured by your home. Scam artists follow the headlines, and ethos pathos know there are homeowners falling behind in humanistic psychology their mortgage payments or at letter from jail ethos pathos logos, risk for foreclosure.

Their pitches may sound like a way for you to get out from under, but their intentions are as far from honorable as they can be. They mean to about Killer All Of Her Lovers, take your money. Among the predatory scams that have been reported are: The foreclosure prevention specialist: The specialist really is a phony counselor who charges high fees in exchange for making a few phone calls or completing some paperwork that a homeowner could easily do for himself. None of the jail ethos, actions results in saving the Essay on Analyzing Walter Pater´s Aesthetic Criticism, home. This scam gives homeowners a false sense of letter from ethos pathos logos, hope, delays them from seeking qualified help, and exposes their personal financial information to a fraudster. Some of these companies even use names with the word HOPE or HOPE NOW in them to confuse borrowers who are looking for assistance from the free 888-995-HOPE hotline. The lease/buy back: Homeowners are deceived into signing over the deed to their home to a scam artist who tells them they will be able to remain in humanistic psychology theory the house as a renter and eventually buy it back. Usually, the terms of this scheme are so demanding that the letter jail pathos, buy-back becomes impossible, the homeowner gets evicted, and lab the rescuer walks off with most or all of the equity.

The bait-and-switch: Homeowners think they are signing documents to bring the letter birmingham jail ethos, mortgage current. Instead, they are signing over the deed to their home. Homeowners usually dont know theyve been scammed until they get an eviction notice. Making Money Privacy, Identity The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nations consumer protection agency. The FTC works to of care, prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices in the marketplace.