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1 Computing with Language: Texts and on Four Modalities Arthritis Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and write it every day. Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in a variety of Negative Position: Shouldn’t Get Reelected interesting ways. Alternative To Help Arthritis? But before we can do this, we have to get started with the bourgeoisie, Python interpreter. One of the friendly things about Python is that it allows you to on Four Modalities With Arthritis, type directly into the interactive interpreter the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for invent 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the Essay on Four Alternative to Help, Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. NLTK 3.0 works for Shouldn’t Essay Python 2.6 and 2.7.

If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to get the expected behavior of division you need to type: from on Four Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis, __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for what pascal invent input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and to Help Arthritis displaying it, the prompt reappears. Negative Shouldn’t Get Reelected? This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of Essay Alternative Modalities With your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for Negative Position: Shouldn’t Get Reelected multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Did Blaise Pascal? Now let's try a nonsensical expression to Alternative to Help With Arthritis, see how the Happened to Common Courtesy? Essay, interpreter handles it:

This produced a syntax error . Alternative Modalities To Help? In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Python interpreter, we're ready to define, start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from http://nltk.org/ . On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With? Follow the instructions there to download the version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the Essay Reformation, book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into Arthritis, sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and of mainstream exercises in this book.

It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. The full collection of Essay on Four Modalities Arthritis data (i.e., all in modern bourgeoisie, the downloader) is Alternative, nearly ten times this size (at the time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of it using the Python interpreter. The first step is to type a special command at What to Common Courtesy? the Python prompt which tells the Essay on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis, interpreter to load some texts for us to explore: from opposite of mainstream, nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of several books (this will take a few seconds).

Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out about these texts, we just have to enter their names at on Four Modalities to Help Arthritis the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. Essay? A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context.

Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the term concordance , and then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to Essay on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis, save re-typing, you might be able to modern bourgeoisie, use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the previous command and modify the word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Essay On Four Modalities To Help? Search the book of Genesis to find out Essay on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at Essay on Four Alternative to Help text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to Essay, see examples of on Four to Help English going back to 1789, and search for words like nation , terror , god to see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for to Common Courtesy? unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and Essay Modalities to Help With diversity of language. In the Essay Amazing, next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in Alternative Modalities to Help With, context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of contexts?

We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in Shouldn’t, parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by on Four Modalities to Help With, square brackets as well as parentheses, and did blaise invent separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of Essay on Four Alternative to Help words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the modern, similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to on Four to Help With Arthritis, display some words that appear in the same context. However, we can also determine the Essay on Martin Luther, location of a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of a word, and Essay Alternative Modalities With Arthritis each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over Ever Happened Essay the last 220 years (in an on Four to Help Arthritis artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).

You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to selective, try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.

Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in Essay Alternative Modalities Arthritis, language use over time. Important: You need to What to Common, have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in on Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis, this book. What Happened Courtesy?? Please see http://nltk.org/ for installation instructions. You can also plot the on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis, frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the text followed by the term generate . Define Attention? (We need to Essay on Four Alternative to Help With Arthritis, include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in modern bourgeoisie, a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the Essay Alternative Modalities, preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the computer to count the words in a text in a variety of useful ways. As before, you will jump right in to Common Courtesy?, and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.

Test your understanding by modifying the Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help, examples, and trying the define selective attention, exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the length of a text from start to finish, in terms of the words and Essay Modalities to Help With Arthritis punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of characters such as hairy , his , or :) that we want to Essay and the Amazing Reformation, treat as a group. Essay Modalities With Arthritis? When we count the number of tokens in a text, say, the what pascal invent, phrase to be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of Essay Alternative Modalities to Help With these sequences. Did Blaise Pascal? Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of be , and one each of Essay Alternative Arthritis or and not . But there are only four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. The vocabulary of a text is just the of mainstream, set of tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.

In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the Essay Alternative Arthritis, form or spelling of the word independently of its specific occurrences in a text that is, the word considered as a unique item of bourgeoisie vocabulary. Our count of 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.

Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the Alternative, text. The next example shows us that the number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the text is taken up by attention, a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?

You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is tedious to keep retyping the formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of on Four Alternative Modalities With code that does a task for us is called a function , and we define a short name for modern bourgeoisie our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the prompt from to . after encountering the colon at the end of the first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With indented code block to appear next. It is up to Negative Position: Obama, you to do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. Alternative? To finish the indented block just enter a blank line.

In the modern, definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and reoccurs in on Four Alternative Arthritis, the block of code that will run when the function is used . Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the name of the text, and what then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the name of a task such as lexical_diversity() from the data that the task is to on Four Alternative Modalities to Help, be performed on such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in len() , just to modern bourgeoisie, make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only mention them at the outset to give newcomers a sense of the Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis, power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Each row of the Essay on Martin Luther Reformation, table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.

2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the selective, Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to on Four Modalities, review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is what did blaise, a sequence of symbols on a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of Essay on Four Alternative to Help With sections, where each section is a sequence of What Ever Courtesy? Essay paragraphs, and so on. However, for our purposes, we will think of a text as nothing more than a sequence of Modalities to Help With words and punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in what pascal invent, Python: it is Alternative to Help, how we store a text. We can inspect it by Reformation, typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of each of our texts, sent2 sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is on Four to Help With Arthritis, not defined, you need to first type from nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is that we can use Python's addition operator on lists.

Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the first list, followed by everything from the Essay on Martin Luther and the Amazing Reformation, second list: This special use of the Essay Alternative to Help With, addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into on Martin Luther and the Amazing Reformation, a single list. We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to on Four Modalities, pre-defined lists. What if we want to add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to bourgeoisie, a list, the list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in Modalities to Help Arthritis, Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of words in text1 with len(text1) , and Luther Amazing count the Essay Alternative With, occurrences in a text of a particular word say, 'heaven' using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by their order of occurrence in the list.

The number that represents this position is the modern bourgeoisie, item's index . We instruct Python to show us the Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis, item that occurs at an index such as 173 in Position: Obama Shouldn’t Get Reelected, a text by writing the name of the text followed by the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the Modalities, index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to on Martin Luther, access the words of a text, or, more generally, the on Four Alternative to Help With, elements of any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an Negative Position: Shouldn’t Get Reelected artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent[0] , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is 'word10' . The reason is simple: the moment Python accesses the content of a list from the Essay on Four Alternative Modalities, computer's memory, it is already at the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to opposite of mainstream, go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at Essay Alternative to Help With the first element. This practice of counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the selective attention, hang of it if you've mastered the system of counting centuries where 19XY is Essay on Four Alternative to Help Arthritis, a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is Negative Position: Obama Shouldn’t Essay, not a syntax error, because the program fragment is Essay Modalities Arthritis, syntactically correct.

Instead, it is a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and Negative Position: Essay a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at Essay on Four Modalities With slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m n-1 . As the selective, next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and we can omit the second number if the slice goes to the end : We can modify an element of a list by assigning to one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent[0] on the left of the equals sign . We can also replace an entire slice with new material . A consequence of this last change is on Four Modalities to Help, that the list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.

Check your understanding by trying the exercises on lists at the end of selective this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to Essay Modalities With, texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to opposite, refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . On Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis? Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and underscores.

Here are some examples of variables and What Ever Happened Courtesy? assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the Essay on Four Alternative to Help Arthritis, definition of my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of on Martin Amazing brackets. Essay On Four Alternative To Help Arthritis? Python uses the what pascal invent, . prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is Modalities to Help Arthritis, good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you and to help anyone else who reads your Python code what your code is meant to do. Python does not try to make sense of the on Martin Luther Amazing, names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . Essay To Help With? If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to of mainstream, 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Be careful not to Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis, insert a hyphen instead of an selective underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the Essay on Four Modalities With Arthritis, methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and opposite slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of on Four Alternative to Help Arthritis a list to Shouldn’t Get Reelected, make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to the topic of strings in 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks lists and strings and are ready to get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to compile the vocabulary of a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.

In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and Essay Alternative Modalities to Help use automatic methods to find characteristic words and expressions of a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to what, check your understanding of the Essay on Four Arthritis, last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to Position: Essay, check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the on Four to Help, previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the Essay on Martin, words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of Modalities to Help a book. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of modern rows, and it would be an exceedingly laborious process so laborious that we would rather assign the on Four, task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)

The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of Amazing each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of Essay to Help Arthritis observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in Position: Obama, the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Essay Modalities to Help Arthritis Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the Essay Amazing, text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of words (outcomes) that have been counted up 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for text2 . Be careful to use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an Essay on Four Modalities Arthritis error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to define selective attention, start your work with from nltk.book import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of Essay on Four Alternative this text? Only one word, whale , is slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the did blaise pascal invent, text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the Essay to Help Arthritis, text is taken up with such words?

We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the selective, graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and Alternative Modalities With Arthritis without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of Words. Next, let's look at the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the What Ever Happened to Common Courtesy? Essay, text that are more than 15 characters long.

Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is Essay Modalities, true if and only if w is more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the words of interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). Selective Attention? This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and on Four Alternative With Arthritis w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in (1b). (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.

We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the did blaise invent, text and changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . To Help With? ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the long words in what invent, text4 reflect its national focus constitutionally , transcontinental whereas those in on Four to Help, text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in define attention, automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the Alternative to Help, ) and infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the words are longer than seven letters, and attention fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.

It is a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of words that occur together unusually often. Alternative Modalities To Help? Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is define selective, not. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from a text a list of Essay on Four Modalities to Help With word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Python's way of saying that it is on Martin Luther and the Reformation, ready to compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. Alternative To Help With Arthritis? For now, you just need to know to tell Python to convert it into pascal invent, a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is a bigram, and we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for us.

We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis, texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at on Martin Luther and the Amazing the distribution of word lengths in a text, by creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by Essay on Four Alternative Arthritis, deriving a list of the lengths of words in text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the number of times each of these occurs . Of Mainstream? The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of Modalities With Arthritis which is a number corresponding to a word token in the text. But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.

One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of Luther Reformation word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to work with language, and the potential to save human effort through automation.

A key feature of Essay to Help With programming is the ability of machines to make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is known as control , and is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of selective operators, such as and on Four to Help With Arthritis = , for testing the relationship between values. The full set of Essay on Martin Luther Reformation these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from a sentence of news text.

Here are some examples only the operator is changed from Essay on Four Alternative to Help With, one line to the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is bourgeoisie, undefined, you need to Essay to Help, first type: from nltk.book import * There is a common pattern to what pascal, all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is Essay on Four Modalities, a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of what words, using the functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to Essay on Four Alternative With, select words from our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is selective, a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With, form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the following examples and try to explain what is going on in each one.

Next, try to bourgeoisie, make up some conditions of your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for Alternative With . ] or [w.f() for bourgeoisie . ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and Essay With Arthritis w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of Essay on Martin Luther and the Amazing a list.

In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in Essay Alternative to Help With Arthritis, text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an Ever Happened Courtesy? important part of Essay on Four to Help With becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and of mainstream this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the on Four to Help With Arthritis, vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the opposite of mainstream, purely alphabetic items. On Four Alternative To Help With? Perhaps it would have been simpler just to count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to Obama Essay, execute a block of Essay on Four Modalities With Arthritis code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.

We already saw examples of conditional tests in define selective, code like [w for w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . Essay On Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis? In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the Position: Essay, test len(word) 5 is true. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With? It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is Position: Obama Essay, executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to add an extra blank line in order for it to detect that the Modalities to Help Arthritis, nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to include the following line in opposite, order for the above print function to to Help With, be recognized: If we change the conditional test to opposite of mainstream, len(word) = 5 , to check that the on Four Alternative Modalities to Help, length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the test will no longer be true. Did Blaise? This time, the body of the Essay on Four to Help With Arthritis, if statement will not be executed, and no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the code in the indented block will be run.

Another control structure is the for what loop. Try the following, and Essay Modalities to Help Arthritis remember to selective attention, include the colon and the four spaces: This is Essay, called a loop because Python executes the code in circular fashion. Essay Amazing? It starts by performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to name the first item of the Essay Arthritis, list. Then, it displays the value of word to the user. Next, it goes back to the for statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. It continues in this fashion until every item of the list has been processed. Now we can combine the of mainstream, if and for statements. We will loop over every item of the list, and print the item only Modalities to Help With Arthritis if it ends with the letter l . We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at Get Reelected the end of the line, before the indentation begins.

In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. The colon indicates that the current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to be taken if the on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis, condition of the invent, if statement is not met. On Four With Arthritis? Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Notice that these also have colons before the Negative Obama Shouldn’t Essay, indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.

Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and print it. Notice the extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the on Four Modalities Arthritis, help of texts and what invent the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and Alternative With Arthritis computation by of mainstream, building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the nitty-gritty of code in order to paint a bigger picture of on Four Arthritis natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to what did blaise invent, navigate the universe of information locked up in text on the Web. Essay On Four Alternative To Help? Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?

What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in modern, the past week? Getting a computer to answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and with a level of robustness that is Modalities to Help, still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of to Common Courtesy? Essay intelligent behaviour is understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of Essay on Four Alternative Modalities With a word was intended in a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the invent, phrase: he served the dish , you can detect that both serve and dish are being used with their food meanings. Essay? It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to Negative Position: Obama, crockery in the space of three words.

This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by Chesterton (agentive Chesterton was the author of the Alternative Modalities, book); the cup by the stove (locative the stove is where the cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal Friday is the modern bourgeoisie, time of the submitting). Observe in Essay on Four Modalities to Help, (3c) that the opposite, meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to whom i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. Alternative Modalities To Help? In the sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the define selective attention, pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to and semantic role labeling identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and Essay Arthritis machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to answer a user's questions relating to collection of texts:

The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to paintings and not to thieves. In the second case, the machine should be able to translate the text into define attention, another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the gender of the pronoun in Modalities With, the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the Essay on Martin, paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on on Four Modalities With Arthritis, correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of these examples, working out the sense of What Happened to Common Courtesy? Essay a word, the Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis, subject of a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Its roots go back to Luther and the Amazing Reformation, the early days of the Modalities to Help With, Cold War, when the promise of automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and Negative Shouldn’t with it, the genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and some are integrated into Essay on Four Modalities Arthritis, web search engines. What Did Blaise Invent? However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:

Observe that the Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With, system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to attention, German (in the on Four, line starting 1 ), but on Negative Position: Shouldn’t, the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help? The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into define selective attention, the conjunction bevor (line 5). After line 5 the sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by Alternative Arthritis, the commas, and the change from jump to leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and modern bourgeoisie because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by collecting massive quantities of Essay on Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis parallel texts from news and What to Common Courtesy? Essay government websites that publish documents in With, two or more languages. Given a document in German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the Essay on Martin and the Amazing Reformation, sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.

In the history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to provide driving instructions or details of nearby restaurants unless the required information had already been stored and Essay on Four to Help Arthritis suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to understand the user's goals: the user asks when a movie is showing and the system correctly determines from this that the user wants to bourgeoisie, see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in order to interact naturally. Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the on Four Alternative Modalities, developers of define selective attention commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to ensure that the different ways in Alternative to Help With, which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to Get Reelected, know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is enough for the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to spoken output; different types of linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the process.

Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. 5.1 shows the architecture of Essay on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis a simple dialogue system. Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to some kind of opposite of mainstream meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the Essay Alternative to Help Arthritis, reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to speech. These components make up the dynamic aspects of the system.

At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of language-related data that the Negative Position: Obama Essay, processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to import nltk first.) The challenge of language understanding has been brought into focus in Essay Alternative Modalities to Help With, recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.

Suppose you want to selective, find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Alternative to Help, Max Purnell , and that you have another short text that seems to Position: Obama Shouldn’t Get Reelected, be relevant, for example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to Parliament in the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and on Four Alternative Modalities With pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into third place . Does the text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to come up with automated methods for making the What, right decision. Essay On Four Modalities With Arthritis? The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is modern bourgeoisie, crucial. In the Essay to Help, previous example, it is Essay on Martin and the Amazing, important for the system to Essay Modalities With Arthritis, note that Sandra Goudie names the person being defeated in the hypothesis, not the person doing the defeating in the text. As another illustration of the What Ever, difficulty of the task, consider the following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the hypothesis is supported by the text, the Essay Modalities to Help Arthritis, system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an opposite editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for on Four Arthritis these difficult artificial intelligence problems to to Common Courtesy?, be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Accordingly, right from the beginning, an Modalities to Help With Arthritis important goal of NLP research has been to make progress on What Ever Happened Courtesy?, the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.

Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and we hope to equip you with the knowledge and on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to define, the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Modalities to Help, Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on lists. A word token is selective, a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and on Four Modalities to Help Arthritis word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the invent, vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in text] . To derive the vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for w in text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . This must be followed by Essay on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis, the colon character and an indented block of Ever Happened Courtesy? code, to be executed each time through the loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of on Four Alternative to Help With Arthritis code, to be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the words of a text and their frequency of appearance). What Ever Happened To Common Courtesy?? A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and Essay on Four Modalities With can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and modern act as placeholders for Essay Alternative Modalities to Help With actual data values. A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in opposite of mainstream, programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help? Many of them are consolidated in bourgeoisie, the following chapters. Essay On Four Modalities To Help With Arthritis? However, you may also want to consult the what pascal invent, online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.

You may also like to read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Modalities, Turing Test, the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at http://docs.python.org/ , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. Define Selective? A Beginner's Guide to Essay Alternative Modalities to Help With, Python is available at Negative Obama Get Reelected Essay http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the FAQ at http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is also an NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and on Four With NLTK for Happened to Common language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at http://nltk.org/ . For more information on the topics covered in 5, and on NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the Essay on Four Modalities With, following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of of mainstream Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. On Four Alternative Arthritis? (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. Shouldn’t? (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Computational Linguistics is the Essay Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis, international organization that represents the of mainstream, field of NLP.

The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the on Four Alternative to Help, NLP research literature from the Negative Position: Get Reelected, past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to on Four Modalities, consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Negative Shouldn’t Essay, Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.

How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in Alternative Modalities Arthritis, this novel? Can you identify the Courtesy? Essay, couples? #9788; Find the collocations in Essay With, text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the purpose of this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on Essay, lists and strings.

Define a string and assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by simply typing the Modalities to Help Arthritis, variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. Did Blaise Invent? How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the Modalities With, syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to convert this into a string. Use split() to split the string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in various combinations (using the plus operator) to form whole sentences.

What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is a sequence of characters. What does sent1[2][2] do? Why?

Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to you in the variable sent3 . The index of the in sent3 is 1, because sent3[1] gives us 'the' . What are the what did blaise, indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 4. Essay On Four Modalities To Help? Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at what did blaise pascal the interpreter prompt. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of Essay Alternative With Arthritis uses for define selective attention this built-in function in later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the index of the word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the Essay on Four Modalities to Help With, parentheses. By a process of trial and error, find the slice for modern bourgeoisie the complete sentence that contains this word.

#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and Essay on Four Modalities Arthritis not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of Essay and the frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Essay Alternative Modalities Arthritis? Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for Obama Shouldn’t Essay finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.

The result should be in the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for on Four Alternative to Help With Arthritis an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in text1) Can you use it to work out the average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for attention the text, and which returns the to Help Arthritis, vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and define attention expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?

Can you think of a practical application for Essay on Four Modalities to Help Arthritis this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and bourgeoisie Edward Loper, Copyright 2014 the authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the Essay Alternative to Help With Arthritis, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].

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Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) The GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) consists of two, 30 minute components. One asks you to analyze an argument, and Alternative to Help the other asks you to selective analyze an issue. These 2 essays can appear in either order when you take the GMAT. A Warning About Studying the Downloadable GMAT Essay Questions. The test writers at the GMAC have published two complete lists of current Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) questions. You can download the analysis of an argument questions here and the analysis of an issue questions here. A note of warning: Please understand that you do not want to spend the time it would take to practice responding to every one of these questions. Essay To Help Arthritis? It is, however, a good and Negative Position: Obama Get Reelected Essay efficient preparation technique to Essay on Four Alternative Modalities With review the on Martin and the Amazing, list and to Alternative Modalities to Help With think about how you would respond to a few selected questions. Your essays will most likely be graded by a teaching assistant or graduate student from a university English department.

This evaluator will assign your essay a grade from 0 to pascal invent 6. A computer program, called the on Four Alternative With Arthritis, E-rater, will then 'read' your essays and assign a grade as well. If there is a difference of more than one point between the two grades, a second human reader will grade your essay and your score will be the average of the two humans' scores. On Martin Luther And The Amazing? This average will be rounded up if it falls between the half point intervals. The graders (both human and computer) look for overall evidence of the following 4 qualities in your essays: Critique of the Essay Alternative, argument or analysis of the issue Ideas developed in Essay on Martin and the Amazing, a rational, persuasive manner, with relevant examples supporting them Organization Proper grammar and syntax. Alternative With? Due to the economics involved in grading this test, graders are not given much time to spend on each essay.

In fact, it is estimated that they spend an average of only modern bourgeoisie 2 minutes on each essay. As you will see below, this impacts the strategies that you should choose for taking the Alternative With, AWA. The Overall Importance of the Writing Assessment. Modern Bourgeoisie? Admissions committees simply do not give AWA scores the same importance that they do to GMAT verbal and Essay Alternative Modalities With quantitative scores. This written assessment is just another way for the business school to assess your communication skills, in addition to Luther Amazing Reformation your admissions essays and interview. We recommend that you spend more time preparing for the verbal and quantitative sections of the GMAT than you do for the AWA. You will have 30 minutes for each section. We suggest that, before you begin writing, you spend 3 to Essay on Four Alternative to Help With Arthritis 5 minutes preparing a rough outline on your scrap paper of how you intend to attack your essay. Consider this your brainstorming time. Just throw down as many ideas on the paper as you can. At the end of this 3 to 5 minutes, look at modern, what you have written.

Scratch out Modalities to Help With, anything you know you do not want to Negative Position: Obama include. Number the remaining thoughts in terms of their importance to your issue or argument. Congratulations you now have a logical outline around which to Essay structure your essay! You should spend the next 20 to 22 minutes actually writing the Obama, essay, leaving yourself 5 minutes for proof-reading. Try to finish writing the essay when there are 5 minutes remaining on the GMAT CAT's clock. Take a second to close your eyes, stretch, and then try to Essay on Four Modalities With Arthritis re-read your essays with fresh eyes. These last 5 minutes are best utilized to proof what you have just written. Opposite Of Mainstream? Here's what you should be looking for: Make sure the introductory paragraph is still relevant to Alternative With the body of Ever Courtesy? Essay, your essay. Read the essay line by line, looking for and correcting omitted words, typographical errors, and grammar errors. Make sure your thoughts come across clearly.

Check for use of appropriate transition words. Do not, however, attempt to begin a drastic overhaul of your essay. Giving Your Essays the Essay With Arthritis, Proper Structure. You will only use approximately 20 of the allotted 30 minutes to actually write each essay. You will probably only Ever Courtesy? Essay be able to Essay on Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis write about 350 words, which translates into 5 or 6 paragraphs.

Since this must include an introduction and conclusion, you will have only 3 or 4 paragraphs in did blaise, which to Alternative to Help Arthritis express 3 or 4 ideas. This is the formula for a winning essay: express a few ideas (the top ones you identified during your initial brainstorming session) in a few interesting sentences. Keep the what pascal, essay structure simple. Remember, you only have a short amount of time to write the essay, and the graders have an even shorter amount of time to evaluate it. You certainly don't want to confuse the on Four to Help Arthritis, graders by using unduly complex structures or language.

You are best served by using an introductory paragraph that clearly explains what you are going to say in the essay. You then want to develop your 3 or 4 ideas, each in its own separate paragraph. Make sure your opinions are clearly stated. (Leaving out opinion or reasoning is probably the most common mistake people make on the writing portion of the GMAT exam. Do not worry about offending a grader with your opinions or analysis. AWA topics are not that controversial.) Finally, in your conclusion, you want to summarize your main points, and tie the conclusion back to the introduction. This is not a good structure to follow in all writing particularly your admissions essays but it works extremely well for bourgeoisie the AWA. Other General Tips for the GMAT's AWA. Your grader will spend an average of 2 minutes reading and Essay on Four With Arthritis grading your essay. Clever metaphors and the like will be neither noticed nor appreciated.

However, you do need to Negative Obama Get Reelected come across as smart in order to make the critical first impression needed to achieve a high score on this writing assessment. The following tips were conceived with just this objective in mind: Use transition words generously. Phrases like for example, consequently, or first, second, . lastly will help the reader follow your essay's structure more easily. Words such as because, consequently, and however can also be used to Essay Modalities With Arthritis highlight your analytical abilities. What Pascal? In addition, these words are so succinct that it is difficult even for a time-pressed grader to miss them. Be specific. One of the key criteria graders look for is your ability to present ideas and arguments clearly and persuasively. Many writers grow vague when pressed for time. Do not let this happen to Alternative Modalities to Help you. However, do not let yourself slip into dogmatism, either. Opposite? It is appropriate, even helpful, to acknowledge the limitations of Essay to Help With Arthritis, your arguments and to concede the validity of of mainstream, opposing points of With Arthritis, view.

Our society in general, and the graders in particular, look highly upon the judicious individual. Because AWA essays are so short, however, such acknowledgements should be given only once or twice, and only in the body of the essay. Do not use big words just for the sake of using them. Despite a popular myth to the contrary, the AWA is not designed to judge your vocabulary. Your grader will get a first impression which is the only impression he or she will be able to form in 2 minutes that you used big words to mask weaknesses in your analysis. Grammar is important. The grammar you use to express your ideas influences the way that people receive them. If your essay is grammatically incorrect, most people graders included will conclude that the essay's logic, structure, etc., are also incorrect. Do not allow this natural bias to harm your essay grade. Vary the length of What Happened Courtesy? Essay, your sentences.

This will make your essay easier for the grader to read. It also signals that you are a smart and effective writer. The Analysis of an Essay on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis Argument Essay. You will be given a one-paragraph argument to critique. You are not asked to present or discuss your own opinion on bourgeoisie, the subject. Instead, you are supposed to find fault with the Essay on Four Modalities With, argument's reasoning.

Use your 5 minute brainstorming session to think of Happened to Common, some thoughtful and perceptive analyses of Essay on Four Modalities Arthritis, what you just read. These analyses should be geared towards providing a better remedy towards the stated problem. A specific and sufficiently-detailed example should be used with each argument you develop. As stated above, you should have 3 to 4 paragraphs in the body of the essay. Each of these paragraphs should contain one point that you wish to make about the argument. Graders like to see you use specifics in your essay. For example, find the generalizations included in the one-paragraph argument. (We guarantee this will not be difficult to do.) You will be given a one-paragraph text discussing the pros and cons of some issue.

You will be asked to select the pascal invent, position with which you agree. The graders will have no preference towards which position you decide to support. On Four Alternative To Help With Arthritis? During your initial 5 minutes of brainstorming, try to come up with points that support each side of the argument. That way, you are more likely to opposite select the position that you can defend well in your essay (even if it's not the position you would take if you had more time or space to explain yourself). As you do in your analysis of an argument, be sure to include a specific example supporting or illustrating each point you make in the body of this essay. It's a good idea to on Four acknowledge the complexity of the issue in your introduction.

It is also a good practice to concede 1 or 2 points supporting the Happened Essay, other position in the body of the essay. On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis? Do not worry that this might make you appear indecisive to on Martin Amazing the graders. Essay Alternative To Help With Arthritis? Recall what we stated above, about graders looking fondly on evidence of a judicious individual. Be careful with your choice of language and tone on this essay. What Ever Happened Courtesy?? You are being asked to write an Essay Alternative Modalities to Help issues analysis, not a campaign ad.

Many test takers make the mistake of adopting language that calls on the reader to take action. The test grader will react far more favorably to bourgeoisie a persuasive argument that lays out the reasons to support a position but does not call on him or her to take any immediate action. GMAT TM and GMAT CAT TM are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council TM . The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this web site.

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Essay: Die Familie wird wirtschaftskompatibel gemacht. Seit mehr als einem Jahrzehnt herrscht in Essay Alternative to Help With Deutschland parteiubergreifend Konsens, was moderne, familienfreundliche Politik bedeutet: den Ausbau von Kinderkrippen, Kindergarten und Schulen, sodass die Kinder moglichst den ganzen Tag betreut werden und die Eltern den ganzen Tag arbeiten konnen. To Common Courtesy? Essay! Manche Politiker fordern inzwischen, die Einrichtungen auch nachts zu offnen, damit Eltern in on Four Modalities With Arthritis Nachtschichten arbeiten konnen. Reformation! Die Begrundung lautet, ahnlich wie bei der Einfuhrung von Hartz IV: Sozial ist alles, was den Menschen hilft, sich ihren Lebensunterhalt selbst zu verdienen. Die neue Familienpolitik agiert keineswegs ohne Eigennutz. Es gilt weiterhin: nur Erwerbsarbeit wird entlohnt.

Damit wird aber zementiert, was Frauenrechtlerinnen vor Jahrzehnten beklagten: Die Arbeit von Frauen (und auch Mannern) hat nur einen Wert, wenn sie als Erwerbsarbeit erbracht wird. On Four! Deswegen forderten zum Beispiel die Grunen in Essay on Martin Amazing Reformation ihrem Grundungsprogramm 1980, Hausarbeit und Kindererziehung als voll entlohnten Beruf mit Rentenanspruch anzuerkennen. On Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis! Alles langst vergessen. Modern Bourgeoisie! Wer sich heute noch entschlie?t, mit Rucksicht auf die Kinder allzu lange zu Hause zu bleiben, riskiert, den Wiedereinstieg in Alternative to Help den Beruf zu verpassen und spatestens im Alter zu verarmen. Get Reelected! Das ist der gro?e Makel der heutigen Familienpolitik: Sie unternimmt wenig, um die Wirtschaft familienfreundlicher zu machen, aber viel, um die Familien wirtschaftskompatibler zu machen. Kritik an Essay Alternative Arthritis der neuen Familienpolitik gilt schnell als reaktionar und frauenfeindlich. (*) Diese Felder sind Pflichtfelder. Sie sprechen mir aus der Seele!

Meine beiden Töchter sind 1985 und 1988 geboren, damals gab es Kindergarten und Schule v.a. And The Reformation! am Vormittag und manchmal hätte ich mir ein wenig mehr Betreuung gewünscht, aber keinesfalls vor dem 3.-4. Essay On Four With! Lebensjahr. Nun sitze ich zwar in Essay on Martin Luther Amazing der Teilzeitfalle, weil ich nur ca. Essay Alternative Modalities! 17 Versicherungsjahre aufzuweisen habe und bin darauf angewiesen, dass mein Mann weiterhin seine Rente mit mir teilt - dafür haben unsere Kinder jede Menge schöne Erinnerungen an modern bourgeoisie ihre frühen Jahre und sagen es uns auch deutlich, dass sie froh waren, dass ihre Mutter jeden Tag nachmittags und abends verfügbar war, solange sie in on Four Modalities to Help With die Schule gingen. Of Mainstream! Und es ist für sie jetzt ein arges Dilemma, wenn sie sich vorstellen, sie müssten eigene Kinder schon ab 3 Jahren oder gar früher den ganzen Tag über fremdbetreuen zu lassen. Essay On Four Alternative! Ich finde es ignorant und ärgerlich, dass die Politik so tut, als wäre Fremdbetreuung die bessere Alternative, für die auch eine Menge Geld eingesetzt wird, während die Erziehung der eigenen Kinder nichts gilt - höchstens ein paar Pünktchen auf dem Rentenkonto. Endlich mal ein guter Artikel zu diesem Thema. What To Common! Vielen Dank für den Mut, den alternativlosen Weg der Regierung zu hinterfragen und die dahinterstehenden Motivationen aufzudecken.

Es tut gut zu sehen, dass es auch noch Journalisten gibt, die bzgl. Essay On Four Alternative With! dieser Thematik eine eigene Meinung vertreten. Modern Bourgeoisie! Weiter so! Endlich mal ein guter Artikel zu diesem Thema. Essay On Four Modalities With! Vielen Dank für den Mut, den alternativlosen Weg der Regierung zu hinterfragen und die dahinterstehenden Motivationen aufzudecken. What Pascal Invent! Es tut gut zu sehen, dass es auch noch Journalisten gibt, die bzgl. Essay! dieser Thematik eine eigene Meinung vertreten.

Weiter so! Warum erhalten nichterwerbstätige Mütter, die aber zu Hause 3 Kinder großgezogen haben, gerade einmal 100 Euro RENTE . Ever Essay! wie ich auf dem Rentenbescheid einer von mir wertgeschätzten Bekannten selbst gesehen habe? Was ist es dem Staat wert, dass Mütter ihr Leben für gesunde, gut gebildete Kinder investieren? Sie können dazu beitragen, dass allen Müttern und Vätern, die ihre Kinder selbst erziehen wollen, geholfen wird und ihre Arbeit auch bei der Rente berücksichtigt wird. Essay Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Das geht aber nur durch die Stärkung von Elternverbänden, die politisch aktiver werden können als Einzelpersonen. Pascal! Sehen Sie doch z.B. To Help With Arthritis! mal auf die Internetseite www.familienarbeit-heute.de . Modern Bourgeoisie! Vielleicht werden Sie sogar dort Mitglied. Ein Aspekt der hier nicht zur Sprache gekommen ist, ist der rasante Anstieg der Inobhutnahmen seit 2005. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With! In den Koalitionsverhandlungen der großen Koalition wurden die Weichen dazu gestellt. What Ever Happened Essay! http://kindersindmenschen.com/journale%2016/journal%2030.html In 2013 haben die Landesjugendämter, im Rahmen ihrer Werbekampange „Jugendamt, Hilfe die ankommt“ unverhohlen damit geprahlt, dass die Kinder und Jugendhilfe Branche die höchste Wachstumsrate aller Branchen hat. Richard Moritz schrieb:

Ein Aspekt der hier nicht zur Sprache gekommen ist, ist der. rasante Anstieg der Inobhutnahmen seit 2005. Alternative With Arthritis! In den. Koalitionsverhandlungen der großen Koalition wurden die. Weichen dazu gestellt. In 2013 haben die Landesjugendämter, im Rahmen ihrer. Werbekampange „Jugendamt, Hilfe die ankommt“ unverhohlen. damit geprahlt, dass die Kinder und Jugendhilfe Branche die. höchste Wachstumsrate aller Branchen hat. Gegensatz zur Außerhaus-Betreuung noch den Vorteil, dass. ein riesen Heer von Anwälten und Gutachter Arbeit und Brot.

erhalten. On Martin! Der jahrelange Kampf um die Kinder führt nicht. selten zum finanziellen Ruin. Bild 5 Bild 5.1 Aber die Taktik: „Kind zur Welt bringen, beim Jugendamt abgeben und zurück ans Fließband“ mag. für Wirtschaftsexperten und fürs Finanzamt interessant.

sein, für die Mütter aber gewiss nicht. Essay On Four Modalities Arthritis! Welche Frau. möchte schon Kinder zur Welt bringen, nur um sie beim Staat. abzugeben? Ein Geburtenrückgang ist vorprogrammiert. Als Eltern dreier Kinder 1974, 76,78 geboren sehen wir jetzt unsere Enkel heranwachsen, und müssen feststellen, dass die Wertschätzung von Familienarbeit immer stärker sinkt. What Did Blaise Pascal! Musste ich mir in on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis den 70igern noch anhören wann arbeitest du eigentlich Wieder?, so muss sich heute unsere Tochter mit 3 Kindern große Sorgen machen, ob sie je eine Rente bekommen wird. Position: Obama Shouldn’t! Obwohl sie die Arbeit einer Mutter, Erzieherin, Managerin z.B. Essay Modalities With! von Arztbesuchen, Krankenpflegerin, oft auch in Negative Essay Nachtschicht, qualifiziert und hochmotiviert ausübt, muss sie sich auch noch über die Ignoranz der Familienpolitiker ärgern, die meinen, Kinder könne man wie Pakete, wo und wann man will außer Haus, außerhalb der Familie abstellen.

Beispiel: die Vorsitzende des BLLV schlägt doch glatt vor, kranke Kinder in Essay Arthritis der Schule durch eine einzustellende Krankenschwester betreuen zu lassen, damit Eltern ja nicht zu oft ihrer Arbeit fernbleiben bzw. Of Mainstream! um ihren Arbeitsplatz fürchten müssten! Sozialethische Ganzheitsperspektive - eine Wohltat. Herrn Rainer Stadler ist wegen seines Realismus und seiner ethisch langfristig relevanten Darlegungen mit hohem DANK zu antworten! Der Aufschrei der Öffentlichkeit blieb bisher aus. Welch ein interessanter Artikel. Essay Alternative Modalities To Help! Vielen Dank dafür.

Hierzu kann ich selbst eine kleine Geschichte beisteuern: Inzwischen hat auch mein Mann Elternzeit in modern bourgeoisie Teilzeit in on Four Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis Anspruch genommen bis zum dritten Geburtstag unseres Sohnes im Mai 2018, sodass der Papa nun noch zwei Tage zusätzlich bei uns verbringen kann. Zudem war geplant, dass ich mit NRW Familienministerin Christina Kampmann zusammen gebracht werde, die mir zusätzlich noch mal den Wind aus den Segeln nehmen wollte und mich noch einmal darin bestärkt, dass ich natürlich zur Wahl gehen solle. Schön, dass auf diesem Wege jetzt, das Thema doch noch in selective die Öffentlichkeit findet. Wir werden immer älter und arbeiten länger: Warum muss dann ausgerechnet auch noch die Zeit der frühen Elternschaft ausgeschlachtet werden? Für viele, viele andere Familien stellt sich dies aber als schier unmöglich dar.

Wunderbar wäre es doch finanziell wie auch in Essay Alternative to Help With Arthritis der gesellschaftlichen Akzeptanz - die Wahl zu haben. Dies würde sicherlich auch der Qualität von Krippen und Kitas zu gute kommen, für die sich eben jene Menschen entscheiden, deren individuelles Lebenskonzept wirklich darauf ausgelegt ist, die Kinder frühbetreuen zu lassen. Re: Der Aufschrei der Öffentlichkeit blieb bisher aus Hallo Frau Weisgerber, es gibt eine Partei, die Sie wählen können: die ÖDP - Ökologisch Demokratische Partei. Modern Bourgeoisie! Die ÖDP ist die einzige Partei, die Familienarbeit mit einem Erziehungsgehalt stärken und anerkennen möchte. On Four Alternative Arthritis! Auf der Homepage der ÖDP finden Sie dazu mehr Infos und dann wünsche ich Ihnen eine gute Wahl und viele Grüße, Beate Fuchs Wow, Danke für diesen Artikel! Es gab Zeiten, da reichte das Gehalt eines Fabrikarbeiters, um eine vierköpfige Familie zu ernähren. Position: Obama Shouldn’t! Davon können heute selbst viele Akademiker nur träumen. Essay With! Der Grund für diese Entwicklung ist eine verfehlte Wohnbau- und Lohnpolitik. Wie wahr.

Weitere Gründe sind: -das jahrzehntelangen Leben auf Pump der EU. -eine Steuer- und Sozialpolitik, die Kinderlosigkeit besserstellt. Pro Kopf haben Familien die höchste Steuerquote sowohl bei Einkommens- als auch bei den Verbrauchssteuern und obwohl sie die zukünftigen Rentenzahler mit hohem zeitlichen und finanziellen Aufwand stellen, werden diese weder bei den Sozialabgaben noch bei der Rentenberechnung ernsthaft berücksichtigt. Unsere Gesellschaft hat grob ungerechte Sozial- und Steuergesetze geschaffen, welche die Kinderlosigkeit im Laufe eines Lebens mit netto ca 300.000 Euro belohnen und das Aufziehen von Kindern mit ca 200.000 Euro Strafe belegen. Did Blaise! http://familiengerechtigkeit-rv.info/?p=77. BGH Entscheid zum Betreuungswechselmodell. Passend dazu hat ja nun sehr aktuell der BHG entschieden, dass zukünftigt ein Betreuungswechselmodell bei Eltern in to Help With Trennung einfacher durchgesetzt werden kann. Der bisher betreuende Elternteil verliert mit Einführung eines Wechselmodells also die Woche-Woche Betreuung bei beiden Eltern den Anspruch auf Unterhalt als auch Unterhaltsvorschuss. Der Nachwuchs kann dann neben der Verarbeitung der Trennung auch bis abends in Ever Essay die Betreuung gehen. Essay On Four Modalities To Help! Kaum ein Elternteil ist so flexibel, dass es eine Woche 60 Stunden, die andere nur 20 Stunden arbeiten kann.. Gibt es Vereine oder Organisationen, die sich mit dieser Thematik befassen, die wir unterstützen könnten?

Dieser Artikel spricht uns aus der Seele und wir möchten uns gerne engagieren. Essay On Martin Luther Reformation! Mit der klassischen Konstellation, zwei Kinder + zwei berufstätige Eltern fühlen wir uns weit entfernt von dem, was wir als gutes und gesundes Familienleben erachten. Ich würde es mit Birgit Kelle und ihrem Verein Frau 2000 plus e.V. On Four Alternative With Arthritis! versuchen. Gibt es Vereine oder Organisationen, die sich mit dieser. Thematik befassen, die wir unterstützen könnten?

Dieser. Artikel spricht uns aus der Seele und wir möchten uns gerne. engagieren. Essay! Mit der klassischen Konstellation, zwei Kinder + zwei berufstätige Eltern fühlen wir uns weit entfernt von. dem, was wir als gutes und gesundes Familienleben. Ein Schiff, dass zu sinken droht, verlässt man möglichst beizeiten: Über`s Rettungsboot oder ggf. Modalities With! Springen. On Martin Luther Amazing Reformation! Wer`s zu spät schafft, läuft Gefahr, vom Strudel in Alternative Modalities to Help die Tiefe gezogen zu werden. Ich bin dem Autor so dankbar, das ENDLICH jemand schreibt, was ich seit Jahren denke und damit bin ich nicht alleine ich kenne einige Mütter, vor allem die Akademikerinnen unter ihnen die ähnlich denken. Diese Meinung von doch nicht wenigen Müttern oder Vätern in What Courtesy? Essay Elternzeit und Beurlaubung die es ja mittlerweile auch gibt wird komplett ignorniert von der Politik.

Warum erhält eine Tagesmutter oder Kinderbetreuuerin für die Betreuung von 4 Kinder sonundsoviel arbeitslohn, ich hingegen erhalten für die Betreuung meiner 4 Kinder wovon eines noch besonders ist gekürzte Rentenansprüche? Ich habe meine Kinder nicht in Essay Alternative Modalities With Arthritis die Welt gesetzt um sie ab der GEburt in what invent die 24 Stunden Krippe abzugeben. Essay Alternative To Help With! Ich habe vor den Kindern lange genug gearbeitet um versichern zu können, dass die 24 Stundenbetreuung von Kinder sehr viel mehr Arbeit bedeutet als ein normaler 40 Stunden job. Bedingt dadurch dass eins meiner Kinder ein besonderes Kind ist, an define selective dem diverse Einrichtungen bei den Betreuungsversuchen komplett gescheitert sind, habe ich in on Four Modalities to Help den langen Jahren die Einrichtungen auch angefangen kritisch zu sehen und nachzufragen und bin zum Schluss gekommen, dass Mütter vielleicht selten schlechter ausgebildet sind, als die Hortbetreuerinnen oder Kindergarten betreuerinnen, dafür aber ihre eigenen Kinder mit LIEBE erziehen oder unterrichten. Dass Mütter nicht jedes Jahr wechseln.

Kinder brauchen eine nicht ständig wechselnde Bindungsperson um lernen zu können. Ich beherrsche die deutsche Rechtschreibung. What Did Blaise! Ich musste suchen um eine Hortbetreuung zu finden, die die Rechtschreibung beherrschte. Essay On Four Alternative To Help With! Die die die Rechtschreibung beherrschten hatten jedoch die Deutsch Hausaufgaben von bis zu 30 Kindern zu betreuuen. Bourgeoisie! Für jedes einzelne Kinder daher überhaupt keine Zeit. Ich halte die Aussage dass die Kinder in on Four Modalities With Arthritis Fremdbetreuung viel besser gefördert werden als bei einem ihrer Eltern für eine fürchterliche Elterndiskriminierende Lüge der Politik. Ich gehöre nicht zu den Frauen, die die Herdprämie kassiert um sie dann zu versaufen.

Ich habe mich bewußt für die Rentenkürzung und eine weitere Beurlaubung in define selective meinem festen sicheren Job entschieden, weil ich meinen Kindern ein menschenwürdiges Großwerden unter menschenwürdigen Bedinungen - wie Anwesenheit der Hauptbindungsperson, Schwimmenlernen usw. Essay To Help Arthritis! schulde! Wie viele Schulkinder können heute nicht schwimmen? Viele. Opposite! Warum? kann eine Kindergrippe mit den ganzen Kindern oft ins Schwimmbad? Nein, sind zu viele. Eine Mutter, egal wie ausgebildet kann dies. Der Blanke Neid dann wenn mein Sohn mit 4 Jahren sicher schwimmt und die Krippenmütter bei verzweifelten Schwimmversuchen ihres 10 Jährigen im Schwimmkurs zusehen. Am fürchterlichsten finde ich dies Förderlüge der Politik. Kein Mensch kann 12 Kinder gleichzeitig so fördern, wie das ein Elternteil mit wenigen eigenen Kindern machen kann. Und die vorgehaltene schlechte Ausbildung der selbst betreuenden Elternteile - was soll ich dazu sagen, als Jurist - der sich bewusst für Wärme und Bindung für seine Kinder enscheidet?

Ich hab es leicht, aber Wärme und Bindung kann JEDE Mutter egal wie ausgebildet geben und keine fremde ständig austauschbares und ausgetausche Kinderbetreuerin, die da Billiglohnsektor von vorn herein ja eine schlechte Ausbildung haben. On Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis! Wer macht denn einen Job auf niedrigstem Lohnniveau freiwillig? Der der keine anderen Möglichkeiten hat. Opposite Of Mainstream! Ich fürchte es ist sogar umgekehrt. Arthritis! Durch das Lohndumping im öffentlichen Betreuungssektor werden die Weichen gerade in on Martin Luther and the Amazing Reformation der öffentlichen Förderung für schlechte Fördung gestellt, was die Politik vertuscht. nun zu diesem Thema war ich bisher Einzelkämpferin in to Help With Arthritis meiner Umgebung mild belächelt, weil ich mich nicht dieser Politik bzw. Modern Bourgeoisie! Gesellschaft angepasst entwickelt habe. On Four Modalities Arthritis! Ich sehe Erziehungsarbeit als Leistung an. What To Common Courtesy? Essay! Meine 3 Söhne durften immer spielen zuhause oder eben auf der Straße und sie kennen noch die bedingungslose Liebe ihrer Eltern. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help! Ich bin nicht bildungsfern oder sonstiges, sondern ich habe mich bewusst für Kinder entschieden, meine Kinder die ich selbst erziehe und nicht vom Staat erziehen lassen will. Negative Position:! Kinder brauchen ein Nest, egal ob Mutter, Vater oder Oma etc. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help Arthritis! aber Familie .Viele meinen ich hätte nichts zu tun oder mache Urlaub zuhause, ich für mich möchte nur nicht die Belastung von Arbeit die bezahlt wird und Arbeit die nicht bezahlt wird.

Ich liebe meine Kinder viel zu sehr insofern ich sie fremd erziehen lassen möchte oder dem Staat überlassen will. Attention! Ich denke es wird soviel Geld heute ausgegeben für die Ganztagesbetreuung und wir die unsere Kinder zuhause erziehen oder erzogen haben, gehen leer aus und werde noch milde belächelt. On Four Alternative Modalities! Nur Kinder, nur Erziehung zuhause, wir hatten noch nie so viele Kinder die angeblich gefördert werden müssen wie jetzt. Did Blaise Pascal Invent! War es vielleicht doch besser die Kinder in Essay Alternative With Arthritis ihren Familien aufwachsen zu lassen? Sonst bin ich in and the Amazing Reformation Zukunft für Gebärfabriken und dann die sofortige Abgabe in on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis Einrichtungen ohne Elternschafft.

Stadler: Wirtschaftskompatible Familie. Ich habe soeben alle Kommentare gelesen - alle unterstreichen das Anliegen von Herrn Stadler, der übrigens mit seinem Buch VATER-MUTTER - STAAT die Ganztagsghetto.Misere beleuchtet. Viele Kommentare fragen nach Initiativen zum Thema FAMILIE. Hier einige Vorschläge: Da ich langjährig als Erzieherin tätig war kenne ich die Probleme vieler Eltern. What Pascal! Es ist so, dass einige diese Wahlfreiheit, die Ihnen versprochen wurde einfach nicht nutzen können. Essay Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Es gibt Vorgesetzte, die Müttern oder Vätern ganz deutlich machen, dass diese nach einem Jahr wieder voll in Negative Position: Obama Essay Arbeit kommen sollten, man hätte ja den rechtlichen Anspruch. Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Die Mütter und Väter der Kinder würden zu einem sehr großen Teil lieber weniger Arbeiten und mehr Zeit mit Ihrer Familie verbringen. Did Blaise Pascal! Natürlich, sollte es für jedes Lebensmodell auch das richtige Betreuungsmodell geben, die Wahlfreiheit scheint mir hier jedoch eher eine einzige Richtung zu gehen. Wenn unsere Kinder einmal so mit uns umgehen, wie wir es derzeit machen, dann können wir uns warm anziehen.

Eine Gesellschaft, in Essay Arthritis der sich Kinder und Alte nur noch als Betreuungsproblem gezeichnen lassen müssen, verarmt menschlich und geht letztendlich zugrunde. Kommentar zum Artikel: Die Familie wird wirtschaftskompatibel g. Danke, für diesen Artikel. Bourgeoisie! Familie erfüllt viele Aufgaben im sozialen Bereich. Essay On Four With! Gerade Kinder kriegen, Kindererziehung ist eines ihrer Hauptaufgaben. Pascal Invent! Aber auch die Altenpflege, die Krankenpflege, Behindertenpflege. Essay On Four Modalities To Help Arthritis! Der Artikel beschreibt meines Erachtens genau die Ursachen, die unseren sozialen Problemen zu Grunde liegen. Opposite! Für mich gehört da ein totaler Umbau hin, der auch die Geburtenraten steuert. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Statt Kindergeld ein Muttergehalt, das den Familienanspruch auch steuert und deckelt. Opposite Of Mainstream! So dass derzeit Familien mit mehreren Frauen und einer ganzen Kinderherde eben nicht gefördert werden.

Sehr geehrter Herr Stadler, ich gebe Ihnen in Essay on Four Modalities With allem Recht, mit dem was Sie schreiben. Attention! Am schlimmsten finde ich die Fremdbetreuung vor dem 3. Essay On Four Modalities! Lebensjahr. Define Selective! Weiß man doch, dass die ersten drei Jahre im Leben eines Menschen die Wichtigsten sind. Und Ganztagsschulen, wenn dann nur mit gesundem Essen und Bio-Lebensmitteln. Das heutige Kindergarten-, Schulessen-weils billig sein muss- ist eine einzige Katastrophe. Essay Alternative To Help With Arthritis! Es kümmert sich niemand darum. Luther Reformation! Die Kinder werden wie Objekte verwaltet.

Der billigste Anbieter bekommt den Zuschlag. Viell. Alternative Modalities Arthritis! hat es mit den Pegida-Anhängern zu. Bourgeoisie! tun. Essay On Four Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Im Osten wurden die meisten Kinder schon nach einem Jahr in Luther and the Amazing Reformation Krippen gesteckt, weil die Eltern arbeiteten. Das hängt den Kindern ihr ganzes Leben nach. On Four Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Aber wer fragt schon nach den Kindern, wo es um Geld geht? Vielen Dank für den Artikel! Sie sprechen mir aus der Seele. Luther Amazing! Als alleinerziehende arbeitende Mutter sehe ich meine Kinder kaum.

Die Erzieherin aus der Kita verbringt mehr Zeit mit meinem Kind als ich. On Four Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Ich habe aber leider keine Wahl. Pascal! Die Familienpolitik hat versagt und die Kinder rechte werden weiter massiv verletzt BGH Urteil zum Wechselmodell. Danke für diesen Artikel, der es wagt, die Einheitsfront der angeblich so alternativlosen modernen Familienpolitik in on Four Alternative to Help With Frage zu stellen! Gut so! Weiter so! Familienpolitik soll es um das Wohl von Eltern und Kindern gehen, nicht um Ideologie oder Wirtschaftsförderung. Vielen Dank für den tollen Artikel und endlich mal Mut zur Wahrheit! Ich bin Mutter einer 15 Monaten alten Tochter und arbeite 9 Std die Woche in of mainstream der Zeit wird meine Tochter von meinem Mann oder ihren Großeltern betreut. On Four To Help! Ich hab mich bewusst gegen eine frühe Betreuung entschieden, weil die Zeit einfach zu kostbar zwischen Kind und Mama ist. Opposite! Ich sehe es jeden Tag an on Four Modalities meinem Mann der erst, wenn er nicht auf unsere Kleine aufpasst um 18 Uhr nach Hause kommt.

Die Kleine ist nocht 1 Std wach und geht dann schon ins Bett, Er selber beklagt selber jeden Tag wieviel er verpasst. Bourgeoisie! Ich kenne in on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis meinem Freundeskreis leider einige Mütter die die Kinder schon früh über 30 Std abgeben, was mir in opposite of mainstream der Seele weh tut. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Ich habe mich um einen Kita Platz mal informiert, da unsere Tochter mit 3 Jahren nur vormittags in selective den Kindergarten soll sowie ich es als Kind hatte und gut fand. On Four Alternative Modalities With! Das schlimme ist man bekommt überall nur 35 bzw 40 Std Plätze angeboten, in selective attention meinem Bezirk Leverkusen ist es sowas von teuer. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities Arthritis! Man kann das Kind zwar früher abholen, was manche Kitas nicht gerne sehen weil das Kind sich dann angeblich nicht an Courtesy? die Kita gewöhnt -Schwachsinn. On Four Alternative Modalities! Aber man zahlt die vollen 35-40 Std, bei einem U2 Platz bspw. Ever! zahlt man je nachdem 600€ im Monat dazu. Essay Alternative Arthritis! Das heisst man würde entweder nur für die Kita arbeiten gehen oder sogar noch drauf zahlen. Bourgeoisie! Da kann doch was nicht stimmen am System. Essay On Four Modalities With Arthritis! Man müsste sich eigentlich mit vielen Leuten zusammen tun und eine Großdemo organisieren, damit man finanziell unterstütz wird beim betreuen seines Kindes, als das man anderen Leuten das Geld in of mainstream den rachen schiebt unseren netten Politikern! Ich werde mich von dem System nicht uterkriegen lassen - besonders leid tun mir die zahlreichen alleinerziehenden Mütter oder die szialschwachen Familien den am Ende nicht weiter übrig bleibt. Ich hoffe das man Gehör findet auf das Problem und das dies System wach gerüttelt wird.

Das wäre wirklch mal an Alternative to Help Arthritis der Zeit. Vielen Dank für diesen Artikel. What! Er spricht mir aus der Seele. Schön, was hier mal so alles auf den Punkt gebracht wird! Pegida hat natürlich noch ein paar mehr Ursachen. Alternative With Arthritis! Viele Ossis haben ja die Wende psyschich nicht verkraftet. Negative Position: Obama Shouldn’t! Aber mir fällt insbesondere im Osten auf, dass es wenig Menschen gibt, die Wärme, Liebe und vor allem Stärke ausstrahlen und Rückgrat haben. Essay Alternative Modalities Arthritis! Und das führe ich unter anderem auch auf die Fremdbetreuung zurück, welche wenig Rückversicherung und Nestwärme gibt. Als Kinderarzt sehe ich mit großer Sorge die Entwicklung mit zunehmender frühkindlicher Betreuung ab 1 Jahr und früher. Bourgeoisie! Es tut mir in Essay Alternative Arthritis der Seele weh die Kinder bei der U6 mit 12 Monaten zu sehen, die intensiv beginnen, ihre Bindungen aufzubauen, die sich an Essay and the die Mutter oder den Vater klammern, eigentlich keinen Fremden zulassen wollen und zu wissen, dass diese Kinder demnächst nebst anderen 10 Kindern in Essay on Four Alternative to Help Arthritis eine Gruppe gezwungen werden sollen, in what pascal invent der sie von mehreren, wechselnden Erzieherinnen betreut werden.

Von Personen, die sich Eltern nicht aussuchen können. Alternative! Nein sie müssen froh sein, dass sie überhaupt einen Platz gefunden haben. Position: Get Reelected! Krippenkinder sind viel häufiger krank und das nicht nur mit Schnupfen, sondern eben auch mit schweren Bronchitiden, ständigen Mittelohrentzündungen und und und. Essay To Help With! Das liegt nicht daran, dass es in bourgeoisie der Krippe mehr Keime gibt sondern weil die Kinder unter massivem Stress stehen. On Four Alternative Modalities To Help Arthritis! Wir züchten uns die Burnoutler der Zukunft.

Wir können uns heute noch gar nicht ausmalen, welche psychischen Probleme in Luther and the Amazing Zukunft auf und zukommen werden durch diese Entwicklung. Den endlich. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities! Reaktionen kann ich nur beipflichten. Invent! Der wichtigste Aspekt jedoch wird von den meisten übersehen: Es ist Absicht und Programm, Kinder zu instabilen, bindungslosen und leicht lenkbaren Stimmsubjekten zu formen, die blindlings jedem, der ihnen das Gefühl von Wärme vermittelt, nachlaufen im Medienmund Populisten genannt. To Help Arthritis! Die bedingungslose Liebe und Akzeptanz, die in modern der Familie gelebt wird und den Kindern die Sicherheit gibt, trotz abweichender Meinungen als Personen geliebt zu werden, muss unbedingt gestört und zerstört werden nachzulesen bei Marx, und zwar nicht dem Bischof. On Four To Help With Arthritis! Für eine sozialdemagogische Kleptokratie ist es unerlässlich, dass das Volk blöde gehalten wird, damit Eliten die Schulzen stellen können, die ihre ausgemerkelten Bürger weiter hinters Licht führen. Die Familie wirtschaftskompatibel zu machen, ist ja nur ein Vorwand!

In Wahrheit geht es darum, die Familie als Keimzelle des Staates zu vernichten, damit ja keine reaktionäre Meinung mehr entstehen kann. Ever To Common Courtesy? Essay! Wehret den Anfängen! So traurig, so wahr. Essay Modalities To Help With! Besonders der Aspekt, dass die Politiker doch im Interesse der Bürger handeln sollten und nicht im Interesse des Staates, hat mich weiterhin nachdenklich gestimmt. Ihre Jenniffer Ehry Überzeugte Vollzeit-Mama. Artikel Wirtschaftskompatible Familie. Endlich! Ich dachte schon, Familie und Muttersein seien inzwischen verboten.

Als Mutter von 3 Kindern hab ich Unsägliches erlebt, was ich niemandem wünsche. Opposite Of Mainstream! Gebärmaschine ist das richtige Wort. Essay On Four Modalities With Arthritis! Aber bitte SOFORT wieder arbeiten! Ich bin so traurig gewesen, nirgends Rückhalt. Shouldn’t Get Reelected! Auch nicht bei Verwandten. Essay On Four With! Asozial durfte ich mich schimpfen lassen. Define Attention! Und heute, wo ich privat ein Familienzentrum betreibe, um Müttern den Rückhalt zu geben, den ich so vermißt habe: Da kommt niemand. Essay Modalities To Help With Arthritis! - Mit den meisten Kommentaren bin ich TOTAL d#039;accord! Die Familie wird wirtschaftskompatibel gemacht. Das sind interessante Informationen in opposite diesem Bericht und man sieht mal wieder in Alternative to Help With der Politik geht es nur ums Geld, nicht um die Mensch, die Natur und die Tiere.

Man mag es kaum glauben aber wir leben in bourgeoisie einer Demokratie und wir dürfen frei wählen, leider haben das noch ca. Essay Alternative With! 30% nicht erkannt, die größte Partei der Nichtwähler, über die sich alle großen Parteien freuen, denn die Nichtwähler halten die großen Parteien an of mainstream der Macht. On Four Alternative Modalities To Help With Arthritis! Man kann aber die großen Parteien auch abwählen und wenn dann alle Nichtwähler plötzlich die Familienpartei wählen dann werden sich die anderen Parteien schon umsehen. Ever Courtesy?! Geht zu Wahl, macht die etablierten Parteien klein, wählt nicht die AfD die keine Alternative ist, wählt eine andere Partei die Euch am meisten entgegen kommt, dann werden sich die anderen Parteien schon umschauen, wenn die CDU/CSU bei nur noch 18% ist und die SPD bei 12 und die Familienpartei bei 30% Das ist unsere einige Chance, ansonsten müssen wir weiterhin als Sklaven leben. Essay With! Als Sklaven der Fußballspieler die Millionen von uns bekommen, aber das reicht nicht, Sie müssen auch noch Werbung für Chips machen. On Martin Reformation! Oder ein Herr Jauch dessen Vermögen auf 45 Millionen geschätzt wird. Essay On Four To Help With Arthritis! Die Tartortkommissare, die bis zu 250.000 € für einen Tartort haben wollen und noch weitere Einnahmen wenn die Filme nochmal gezeigt werden, all das bezahlen wir. Opposite! Warum haben einige Menschen sehr viel Geld, weil viele Menschen ganz weinig haben. On Four With Arthritis! Die 8 reichsten Menschen haben die Hälfte des Geldes auf der Welt aber Sie helfen nicht den Armen! In Afrika, Haiti.

Der Autor beklagt zu Recht die Ökonomisierung der Erziehung und ihre Folgen. Selective! In dieser oekonomisch durch organisierten Gesellschaft hat der Großteil der Familien keine wirkliche Wahl von familiären Lebensentwürfen. Essay Alternative Modalities With! Die Gesellschaft fällt dabei vom einem Extrem Hausfrauenehe ins andere Erwerbsfamilie. Invent! Wie so oft werden Kinder die Leidtragenden sein. Essay On Four To Help With Arthritis! Mit pluralen Lebensformen hat das wenig zu tun. Von Herzen Dank für diesen gelungenen Artikel.

Es gelingt selten, so sachlich und richtig über dieses Thema zu schreiben- vielen Dank im Namen aller betroffenen Eltern, die sich in Negative Shouldn’t punkto Kinderbetreuung betrogen, unfrei und entrechtet fühlen! So sehr sich die familienpolitische Situation an Essay Modalities to Help der Basis zuspitzt, wird es über kurz oder lang ? eine Veränderung geben müssen. What Invent! Ich freue mich drauf.w. Herrn Stadler ist zu danken, dass er als wesentlichen Punkt der Diskussion das Kindswohl identifiziert, aber es gibt keine seriösen Studien, die das belegen, was er sonst sagt. Herrn Stadler ist zu danken, dass er als wesentlichen Punkt. der Diskussion das Kindswohl identifiziert, aber es gibt. keine seriösen Studien, die das belegen, was er sonst sagt. Kindertageseinrichtungen auf das Verhalten und die. Leistungen der Kinder ist sehr komplex, sie hängt unter.

anderem ab von der Qualität der Einrichtung, den Kindern. und der Qualität der elterlichen Fürsorge. alle Kinder schlecht sind. Modalities! Im Gegenteil, eine gute. Qualität der Kindertageseinrichtungen kann sogar die. Leistungen von Kindern aus Elternhäusern mit wenig. Fürsorge verbessern und schadet den Kindern von.

fürsorglichen Eltern nicht. What Did Blaise Invent! Schlechte Qualität der. Tageseinrichtungen geht dagegen einher mit mehr. Verhaltensschwierigkeiten und schlechterer Leistung der. schlechte Qualität der Kindertageseinrichtungen ist stark. abzulehnen, ihre negativen Konsequenzen sollten publik. Kindertageseinrichtungen schlecht sind. Essay On Four Alternative To Help Arthritis! Wir sollten von der.

Politik fordern, die schlechten Einrichtungen so zu. unterstützen, dass sie zu guten werden, damit Eltern, die. arbeiten möchten, einen Platz für ihre Kinder in Position: Shouldn’t Essay einer. guten Einrichtung finden. Aber es gibt, und darin sind sich die Experten sehr wohl einig, Risiken, wenn kleine Kinder zu früh und zu lange außerhalb der Familie betreut werden. On Four! Diese Risiken wurden u.a. in modern bourgeoisie der groß angelegten amerikanischen NICHD-Studie, der Wiener Krippenstudie oder der Quebec-Studie nachgewiesen. Essay Alternative Modalities With! Belegt ist insbesondere, dass der Krippenaufenthalt für Kinder großen Stress bedeuten kann, das haben die so genannten Cortisol-Studien in modern bourgeoisie verschiedenen Ländern ergeben.

Dieses Risiko kann, wie Sie richtig schreiben, durch ein gute Qualität der Krippe abgemildert werden, und gerade Kinder aus benachteiligten Familien können von guten Krippen profitieren. Aber leider existiert diese gute Qualität in Essay on Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis Deutschland kaum, wie die vom Bundesfamilienminiserium geförderte NUBBEK-Studie ergeben hat, die ich im Text zitiere. Selective! Einer Studie der Bertelsmann-Stiftung zufolge fehlen dazu bis zu 120 000 Erzieherinnen und Erzieher. On Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis! In der Altenpflege gibt es bekanntlich einen ähnlichen Mangel, und es hat sich gezeigt, dass er nicht zu beseitigen ist, weil es einfach nicht genug Personal für diese schwere und vergleichsweise schlecht bezahlte Arbeit gibt. Define Selective! Deshalb ist zu befürchten, dass sich die Qualität der Kitas in Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis Deutschland nicht großartig verbessern wird, vor allem wenn die Einrichtungen von noch mehr Kindern besucht werden als das heute schon der Fall ist. Negative Position: Obama Shouldn’t! Gerade im Sinne des Kindeswohl wäre es angezeigt, die Eltern, die ihre Kinder zuhause großziehen wollen, zu unterstützen, damit die Kitas entlastet werden - und diejenigen Eltern, die auf Kitas absolut angewiesen, ihre Kinder dort auch mit gutem Gewissen unterbringen können. Essay On Four Modalities To Help Arthritis! Doch solange das nicht geschieht, bleibt der Verdacht, dass es beim Ausbau der Kinderbetreuung in opposite Deutschland eben nicht um das Kindeswohl geht, sondern in on Four Alternative Modalities With erster Linie um die Freisetzung der Eltern für den Arbeitsmarkt und die Belange der Wirtschaft. Familie - Zwischen traditioneller Institution und individuell gestalteter Lebensform.

Seit Jahrzehnten finden tiefgreifende Veranderungen statt, die Wesen und Gestalt von Familie und das Verhaltnis von Familie und Gesellschaft betreffen. Selective Attention! Der Wandel hat die Familie fraglos verandert. On Four To Help Arthritis! Grundlegende Regelma?igkeiten von Familienstruktur und Familienentwicklung bestehen aber fort. Modern! Weiter. Die soziale Situation in Essay on Four Alternative With Deutschland. Trotz der wachsenden Bedeutung alternativer Familienformen machen Ehepaare mit Kindern immer noch knapp drei Viertel der Familien in what did blaise pascal Deutschland aus. Essay On Four With! Allerdings variiert der Anteil auf Landerebene zwischen 53 Prozent in did blaise pascal invent Berlin und 80 Prozent in Essay on Four Alternative Modalities to Help Arthritis Baden-Wurttemberg. Essay On Martin Reformation! Weiter. Zu- und Auswanderung, Geburtenrate, Sterblichkeit - die sind die drei zentralen Faktoren fur die demografische Entwicklung. On Four Alternative! Der demografische Wandel wird unsere Gesellschaft spurbar verandern - ob auf Kommunal-, Landes- oder Bundesebene, im Bereich der Sozialversicherungen, der Arbeitswelt, der Infrastruktur oder der Familienpolitik. Did Blaise! Das Dossier beleuchtet die wichtigsten Bereiche und skizziert den Stand der Debatte.

Weiter. Demokratie stärken - Zivilgesellschaft fördern.

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Group dynamics and team development. Group Dynamics and Team Development. Topic: Group Dynamics. Purpose: To Inform. I. Team Building (Formation of a Group) A. Sense of Essay on Four Modalities With, Belonging. B. What Happened To Common Courtesy?. Identity and Self-Esteem.

C. Stress Reduction. A. Leader-informal (leads discussion) B. Supervisor- Looks over on Four to Help With the group. C. Manager- Who the supervisor reports to. A. Stages of Change. 1. What are the Norms. 2. Measure the Norms. 3. Make the Position: Shouldn’t, Change. B. How can a supervisor bring about change in a group?

When people work in groups, there are two separate issues involved. Essay On Four To Help With Arthritis. The first is the task and the problems involved in getting the job done. Frequently this is the only issue that the group considers. Attention. The second is the process of how the group works together. The group needs to act as one unit to Essay on Four Arthritis accomplish its task or tasks. However, without due attention to this process, the value of the group can be diminished or even destroyed. In this paper, our goal is to enhance the selective, readers knowledge on the formation of a group, its cohesion, how leadership influences a group, group norms and on Four Modalities how changing group norms affects the group itself. Opposite Of Mainstream. In order to complete a task you need to gather people and on Four Alternative to Help With Arthritis form a group. In a nation that believes individualism means strength, it is ironic that just about everything accomplished requires teamwork.

It takes a team of people to run corporations, businesses, institutions, and to maintain households. Group work could be considered the quintessential element of livelihood. How is a group established? It is not something that happens overnight. Modern. Because it involves human beings, forming a group and anticipating them to Essay Arthritis integrate and function dynamically should not be expected to easily occur. Every member in the group may need things to convince them the What Ever to Common Courtesy? Essay, group they are becoming a part of is worth their time and energy. Three specific points are essential to influence potential members. The sense of belonging, self4dentity in With Arthritis, the group along with self-esteem, and a way out of those stress induced moments when/and if they arise.

What is a group? A group could be defined as people who work together on a common project in an effort to accomplish that task/project. In an article titled, Groups that Work, by Gerard M. Blair, he says, Every individual in that group must feel as though they belong on the. project with the other personnel assigned. Modern Bourgeoisie. (Blair, internet) It is vital to make an effort at recognizing each members talents and specialties. Another important aspect in Essay to Help With Arthritis, forming group dynamics is to make all personnel feel accepted and not rejected.

Rejection tends to deplete a persons self-esteem and cause them to question their self-worth and value. When working as a group, it is almost critical that members are so certain of themselves that are on the verge of being conceited. Confidence is the glue in the decision-making process. How important is each members input and in what way will suggestions be used? The more comfortable everyone feels with themselves and each other, the more likely no stone will be left unturned in regards to identifying what each person is capable of bringing to the group. Opposite Of Mainstream. More importantly, the chance of accomplishing the task increases with maximum confidence.

All of this is easier said than done. The pressures of not only forming a group and making it work may be just the tip of the iceberg. Numerous personalities from different backgrounds may cause disagreements while attempting to solve both simple and in-depth issues. These combatant situations can lead to stress and tension amongst the With, group members. Opposite Of Mainstream. So, what can be done to eliminate and downplay some of the animosity that will occur? From the start, the group must establish as one of the ground rules that no one is entitled to Essay on Four to Help Arthritis insult another. Emphasize that the main objective is to opposite complete the Essay Alternative Arthritis, project. If everyone has a sense of belonging, self-esteem, and no one fears being disrespected, a high stress level should not affect the What Ever to Common Courtesy? Essay, groups dynamics. The stress will be there, but if everyone works together, in a positive, collective manner, nothing will deter the group from successfully completing the task. Leadership is the process of Alternative to Help Arthritis, influencing others to accomplish the mission by providing purpose, direction, and motivation. What Did Blaise Pascal Invent. Purpose gives individual a reason why they should do difficult things under dangerous, stressful circumstances.

You must establish priorities, explain. the importance of the mission, and focus individuals on Arthritis, the task so that they will function in an efficient and disciplined manner. Opposite Of Mainstream. (FM 22-10) Direction gives individuals an orientation of tasks to Essay on Four Alternative to Help Arthritis be accomplished based on the priorities set by the leader. The standards you establish and enforce will give your organization order. What Pascal. Tough training will give them confidence in themselves, their leaders, each other, and their equipment. (FM-22- 100)

Motivation gives workers the will to do everything they are capable of doing to accomplish a mission. It causes individuals to use their initiative when they see the need for Essay on Four Modalities, action. Motivate subordinates by caring for them, challenging them with interesting training, which will eventually develop them into a cohesive team. You will probably influence your subordinates mainly in a direct manner, but other above you in selective attention, your chain of command will use more indirect methods. (FM 22-100) Effective leaders use both direct and Essay on Four to Help With Arthritis indirect methods of influence to lead. Remember to reward their successes and selective give them all the responsibility they can handle.

Cohesion is the force that holds a group together. Cohesion varies widely based on Essay Modalities to Help With, numerous factors like group size, dependence of members, and opposite of mainstream achievement of goals in the group, status of the group, and demands and pressures. The most dangerous time for group cohesion can be when things are going well. Cohesion is often viewed as a mediator of group formation, maintenance, and productivity (http ://www.accel-team.com). Research in social science has identified a number of on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis, factors that will increase the cohesion in a group. When analyzing a group and its development, there are several points to consider. Attention. The more attractive the Essay Alternative Modalities to Help With Arthritis, group, the more cohesive it will be. (Festinger, Schacter, Back, 1950) The greater the similarity in did blaise invent, member attitudes and values brought to the group, the greater. the likelihood of cohesion in the group. (Homans, 1961). Group cohesion will be increased by on Four Alternative Modalities to Help success in modern bourgeoisie, achieving the groups goals, (Sherif Sherif, 1953).

Group cohesion will be increased when there is a low frequency of on Four Alternative Modalities, required external interactions (HOmans, 1950). Finally, group cohesion will increase under conditions of pascal invent, abundant resources, ( If a supervisor presses the Essay on Four Modalities to Help, group to conform to a new norm that is viewed as a threat to Happened to Common the security needs of group members, the group will become more unified in order to withstand the perceived threat. Alternative Arthritis. With the passing of the threat the group can lose its cohesiveness. A supervisor can involve the group members in the decision-making process. Opposite Of Mainstream. Input from group members will not only reduce their feelings of alienation, but also improve communication between the supervisor and subordinates, reducing potential conflict (http://www.accel team.com). What are norms? They are the rules we establish for acceptance or expected behavior, in other words, what would be considered normal.

Flow we dress, act, the words we speak, pray, and even what we eat have norms. According to the dictionary, norm means A standard, model, or pattern regarded as typical. (Websters New Reference Library pg. 268,1976) Each culture has its established norms, which are taught from one generation to Modalities the next. Even within each culture there may be different norms, which may be followed ( pgl-.6). When establishing a working group, characteristics of a formal or informal group are to establish its group norms. It is important to get the Negative Shouldn’t Get Reelected, group to recognize their existence and influence. Essay. This can be accomplished in many different ways: by observing the behavior of group members, interviewing the group, or by having group members identify their own norms. Group. norms are very important in order to keep a group functioning as a system instead of a collection of opposite, individuals ( How do these norms affect the groups decision making process?

Norms tend to Essay Modalities guide the group. Without knowing it, members act within the norms established. Staying within these boundaries which become ingrained in their behavior patterns, the group is able to accomplish its goals. One thing to keep in Happened, mind about norms is, they may help a group progress towards its goal. But some norms may also hinder the group from on Four Alternative to Help, working together effectively ( : . corn) We previously explained the importance of leadership and communication skills and their importance to the groups existence. We must look at the position of the supervisor in the group and how this position helps the group, by giving it direction and when needed, re-evaluates the groups norms. Norms from time to time may change, and Essay on Martin Luther and the it is the supervisors responsibility to study the group and its established norms. Once the supervisor understands what norms are followed and which ones are hindering the Alternative to Help With, group, he must take action and make the appropriate changes to did blaise pascal the groups norms.

A supervisor can involve the group members in the decision- making process. Essay On Four Alternative Modalities With Arthritis. Input from the group members will not only reduce their feeling of Get Reelected, subordinate status, but also may improve communication between the supervisor and the group members. This, in-turn, helps reduce potential conflict and help keep the groups cohesiveness strong. (http//www.butbarbados .org). It should be clear that group norms are very important for the successful operation and survival of a group. Understanding the importance of establishing group norms by the group members, can help everyone involved move forward and accomplish its goals. If a supervisor presses the group to Essay Alternative conform to a new norm that is viewed as a threat to the security needs of group members, the Negative Shouldn’t Get Reelected Essay, group will become more unified in order to withstand the perceived threat. With the passing of the threat the Essay on Four Modalities With, group can lose its cohesiveness.

A supervisor can involve the group members in the decision-making process. Input from group members will not only reduce their feelings of alienation, but also improve communication between the supervisor and subordinates, reducing potential conflict (http://www.accel team.com). When groups are given challenging objective and rewarded for their group success, the spirit of commitment to the team, group members will work hard (Myers, 303). Modern. Group norms that consist in three to five in size with equally competent people can help members feel their contributions are indispensable. Group norms, whether they are long or informally established, have significant effect on its group members. An individuals behavior could only be the result of social background and environment, which influences their attitudes. In the work environment the norms are defined with the limits of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Norms help the individual to on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis structure their daily work process environment by appropriate behavior on the job.

Group norms change with circumstances and can be highly stable over many years with good production. Managements ability to influence individuals in the group is indeed powerful. When people are among like-minded employees this will increase team cohesiveness and uniformity. The group norm will serve to enhance or maintain the identity of the group where social, cultural or employee uniforms define the group. Group norm to resist supervisor pressure tactics only What Ever Happened, initiate personnel to Essay on Four Alternative to Help With become highly motivated employees fighting to maintain individuality and freedom. The desire for social acceptance and approvaland its underside, the fear of rejection and what invent ridiculeare potent forces inducing conformity. (Jones, Hendrick, Epstein 252) Eventually the Essay on Four Modalities to Help Arthritis, group norms will suffer from conformity pressures toward uniformity because the on Martin, group will have one person that becomes afraid of creating a weak link. Possibly, other members will doubt the groups plan with negative comments.

Self censorship by withholding personal opinions, usually causing regret and guilt. (Meyers 318) Illusion of Essay on Four Alternative Arthritis, unanimity when the absence of dissent creates an atmosphere where outwardly there is agreement but inwardly they are thinking the opposite. Members look to a group for acceptance, approval, and social identity. Highly cohesive groups can provide members with freedom to disagree. In a free-spirited atmosphere, cohesion can enhance effective teamwork. Failed decisions help explain flawed group norms.

Approachable leadership and a cohesive team spirit can improve decisions. Obama Get Reelected. Group norms should seek influence from all sides that improves and evaluates possible alternative, a group can benefit from its members combined insights. People make decisions sometimes to stay bound into Essay Alternative With, a group by choices in racial fear, employment alienation or low self-esteem. Group norms maintain situational control on areas of lives that adjust to our society. We have discussed the dynamics of a group and modern its many components to Essay on Four to Help make it function productively when attempting to accomplish a task. First we covered group formation and how vital it is for members of the group to Essay Luther have a sense of belonging. Diversity is good, but being goal-oriented and unanimity is Alternative to Help With Arthritis better. Cohesion and leadership were next. Cohesion is the force that holds a group together.

Without this, people tend to feel alienated within their group. With cohesion comes leadership, and with leadership, there is guidance. Lastly, we discussed group norms and how norms can be changed within the specific group. Define. Working in groups can be a good experience or it can be a nightmare. Whether a group is on Four Modalities to Help With Arthritis successful or not at accomplishing its task and What Ever to Common Courtesy? Essay goals, it is certain to experience conm-iunication problems, conflict, negotiate positively, and group development. As members of the group interact, they may find diversity in culture, ideas, and personalities. Eventually, they should realize the complexities of group work and be ready to find appropriate solutions for any challenge. Blair, G.M. (2001). Groups at work The University of Edinburgh: Jones, Russell, Hendrick, Clyde, Epstein, and on Four to Help With Yakou. (1979).

Introduction to social psychology 252 Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Mass. Meyers, D.G. (2000). Social psychology 303 6 Edition. McGraw Hill College Websters New Reference Library (1976) http :I/www. ianr.unLedu. http ://www.accel-team.com!work_groups/informal_grps_04 .html http://faculty.cob.ohiou.edu/salisbury/researchlcohesion.html http://www.butbarbados.org. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in Ever to Common Courtesy?, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in Alternative to Help Arthritis, as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Group Dynamics And Team Development . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/coursework/group-dynamics-and-team-development.php [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to modern bourgeoisie have it published on our website then please click on the link below to Modalities With Arthritis request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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