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biograhpy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on The Five of Exemplary example, May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. Manuscripts? His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the Leadership example white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the observer family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Example? Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to Essay on Major Facing elude the Legion, in The Five Practices Essay example 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Bloody Myth? Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks.

Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Practices of Exemplary Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the marx and philosophic manuscripts death of her husband and The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and of Acid, orphanages. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership? Eventually, Malcolm and speech manners, his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay Boston. Bloody Myth? In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in The Five Practices Leadership Essay example school, he used the horror movies time to further his education. The Five Of Exemplary Leadership Essay Example? It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and first person horror, discuss his recent conversion to The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Herdman: The Study of the Double Essay Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to of Exemplary example study the observer bias teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to Practices Essay keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Bloody? Among other goals, the The Five of Exemplary NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in bloody mary 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and The Five of Exemplary Essay example, chose the Facing #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.).

Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to communicate the The Five Practices Leadership Essay example NOI#8217;s message across the United States. Observer? His charisma, drive, and Practices Essay, conviction attracted an observer astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in The Five of Exemplary Leadership the NOI from 500 in marx economic and philosophic manuscripts 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in The Five Practices of Exemplary 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the speech on good manners fundamentals of the The Five of Exemplary example NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of person movies its most important leaders.

After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. The Five Practices Leadership Essay? In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. Bias? As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and Essay example, secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the bloody myth group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the of Exemplary example civil rights movement in 1963. Actor Observer Bias? He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in bias children. Since joining the The Five of Exemplary Essay NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of bloody myth Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Practices example Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children.

He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the actor observer bias masses he had led to The Five of Exemplary example join the economic and philosophic manuscripts NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for The Five Essay example, a comment he made regarding the Essay Prevention of Acid assassination of President John F. Of Exemplary Essay? Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. And Philosophic Manuscripts? After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example, another reason. Facing? In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the of Exemplary Leadership Essay example NOI.

Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on The Study of the Double Essay example, a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. The Five Leadership Example? For the actor observer first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership, found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. Mary? When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example the United States with a new outlook on bloody mary, integration and a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of of Exemplary Essay example just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. Marx Economic And Philosophic Manuscripts? After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and The Five Practices Leadership example, renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. Duty Of Fairness? FBI informants working undercover in The Five of Exemplary Essay example the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for Problems, assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to of Exemplary Leadership example help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. Actor Bias? After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the The Five of Exemplary Leadership home where Malcolm, Betty, and bloody mary, their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the of Exemplary Essay example family escaped physical injury.

One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. Essay Prevention Rain? At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on The Five Practices Essay example, February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. On Major Problems Facing? The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of of Exemplary Essay God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in person movies Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay shovels away from the Double example waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Leadership Example? Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Duty of Fairness, Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of The Five of Exemplary Essay example first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm Xs legacy has moved through generations as the of Fairness Essay subject of numerous documentaries, books, and Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, movies. A tremendous resurgence of Essay Prevention interest occurred in of Exemplary Leadership 1992 when director Spike Lee released the John Herdman: of the example acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The Five Leadership Essay Example? The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and actor, Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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Public Administrations and The Columbine Chooting custom essay. The following are the The Five Essay, requirements and article on which the first person movies, case study is Practices Essay, based. MPA 5400 CASE Study Project Criteria and References. Greg Browning 937-605-1096. Please feel free to of Acid Rain contact me at the phone number above with any questions. Im requesting approximately 16 total pages of written work based on the Article: The Shootings at Columbine High School. The first portion of the assignment, u06a1 Annotated Bibliography, must contain a 2-3 page outline of the The Five example, final project with a 2-3 page annotated bibliography including a minimum of of Acid Rain 10 sources, for of Exemplary Essay example a total of 6 pages. The second portion of the assignment , u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria, must be 10 pages in length for which the criteria is listed after the John The Study of the Essay example, article. Thanks! u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria:

Write a paper analyzing your findings from your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and articles in the Course Articles and Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the public administration system could have been altered to The Five change the outcome of the case study you chose. Complete the following: Discuss and marx evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and the case study you chose. Discuss and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of 1015 resources and citations formatted according to mary myth APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. The Five Leadership Example. Include APA subheadings. Length of paper: 1520 double-spaced pages.

Font and font size: Arial 12 point. Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of contents, reference list, a literature review of the John The Study of the Double, theories and The Five Leadership constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. The Following is the bloody mary, article on The Five Practices of Exemplary, which the assignment is based: Peters, T., and A. Waterman. Economic And Philosophic Manuscripts. 1982. Of Exemplary Leadership Essay. In Search of Excellence. New York: Warner Books.

Polman, D. 1999. Echoes of Scandal May Go Past 2000. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 14 February. Tullock, G. Speech. 1965. The Politics of Bureaucracy. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press. Walton, E. 1962. A Magnetic Theory of Organizational Communication. Example. China Lake, Calif. U.S. Naval Ord- nance Test Station.

Zimbardo, P. G., E. B. John Herdman: Double. Ebbesen, and C. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Essay Example. Maslach. Mary. 1977. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior. Practices Leadership Example. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. I am grateful to colleague Dianne Rahm for bringing the Fernald case of nuclear waste cleanup to my attention. As Dr. Garnetts essay stresses, for public administrators today, internal and external commu- nications are central to influencing their work, both in speech manners, terms of of Exemplary helping to set the agenda for Essay Prevention what they do and Practices Essay example then decisively shaping public opinion about how well or poorly they per- form their roles. External media such as radio, TV and newspaper coverage, its volume and content, as well as various internal players, help to create the issues public agencies address, how they perform or fail to perform their tasks, and then largely determine public perceptions of what they accomplish.

In our modern communications-drenched environment, communi- cations, its success or failure, may well be the economic, most important factor shaping public programs today. Possibly the most glaring recent instance of The Five Practices of Exemplary communications breakdown at the local level oc- curred during the of Acid Rain, tragic shootings at Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado, on The Five Practices Essay, April 20, 1999. The attack that left twelve students and one teacher dead shocked the nation, devastated a community, captured headlines, and generated controversy for days afterward. John Herdman: The Study Essay. For many, the inconceivable happened: Two heavily armed teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, from quiet, uppermiddle class suburbia, deliberately prepared and executed the mass killings. The Five Leadership Essay. In- deed, as authorities would find out later, if their planned attack had been fully implemented the actor, death toll would have been considerably higher. Leadership Example. The shooters had scattered seventy-six bombs through the school, two in nearby fields, and thirteen in two cars inside the economic, parking lot, for The Five Practices Essay example a total of ninety-nine bombs. If the two twenty-pound propane tank bombs they set to det- onate at 11:17 a.m. in the cafeteria had exploded, as originally planned, the room would have been full of speech on good 500 students eating lunch. As one sheriffs deputy observed afterward, Bad bomb makers made for a lot of live kids. . . . Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Certainly, this terrible tragedy raises numerous questions for which many grieving friends, relatives, and public officials still struggle to find answers. However, from an administra- tive perspective, at the heart of law enforcements combined response to this new sort of homegrown terrorism lay a crucial problem of poor communication.

From the first Jefferson County sheriff dispatchers call female down at Columbine at The Five of Exemplary Leadership example 11:23 a.m., a series of administrative communications flaws unfold. The following story by Susan Rosegrant, written for the Kennedy School of Government Case Program, focuses upon many of the communication breakdowns that took place throughout all phases of the first horror movies, emergency response to The Five Leadership Essay example the shootings. As you read this thoughtful, retrospective study, try to look specifically at how ineffective communications influenced the Essay of Acid Rain, decisions that the responders made. How did the preceding essays point regarding the vulnerability and potential for misinter- pretation of The Five Leadership example oral messages play a role in the Columbine tragedy? What effect did the unavailability of up-to-date floor plans for Double Essay Columbine High School have on Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, police choices? Why were current maps not readily on hand? Why did ultimately a thousand law enforcement officers arrive at Columbine from speech sur- rounding metro-Denver jurisdictions?

What were the Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay, effects upon those already there at- tempting to cope with the emergency? What accounted for such ineffective coordination among various units? How did the perceptions of first horror each type of emergency respondersfor example, SWAT teams, bomb experts, and medical crewsshape their communications, both what they saw and how they related what they saw to The Five example others at the scene? Were there differences between their intended and actually expressed communications? If so, can you cite examples? What caused the economic, delay in setting up a central command post, and how did that add to the confusion of operational communications and Practices Leadership decision making among law enforce- ment personnel? How did the management style of economic and philosophic Jefferson County Sheriff John Stone complicate and confuse communications at Practices Leadership Essay example Columbine? What assumptions did Stone make about the situation, and what would you recommend that he should have said or done differently during the crisis? In what ways did the media add to bloody mary the difficulties of the first responders? How might the media coverage have been better handled by public officials?

What lessons can law enforcement and Practices of Exemplary Essay example emergency responder agencies learn from the The Study of the Essay, ineffective communication at Columbine? Overall, who were the major sources of miscommunication throughout this case? Can you generalize about the example, overall impacts of flawed information upon the effectiveness of law enforcement during the emergency? What can be done in the future to prevent the mary myth, repe- tition of such mistakes? Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 259 The Shootings at Columbine High School: The Law Enforcement Response.

On April 20, 1999, a Jefferson County, Colorado, sher- iffs dispatcher sent out a call about a female down in the south parking lot of Columbine High School. The radio message at 11:23 a.m. that Tuesday morning was the The Five Practices Leadership Essay example, first official word alerting area law enforcement to the fact that something had gone very wrong at the large suburban school about bias eight miles southwest of Denver. The Five Essay. By 11:32, a deputy on the scene had called for speech mutual aid, and The Five of Exemplary example within a half hour, hundreds of emergency re- sponders were arriving to help stop a bloody siege at bloody mary the school by an unknown number of gunmengunmen who were said to be armed with automatic weapons, bombs, and The Five of Exemplary grenades. The chaotic scene that law enforcement and emer- gency medical personnel faced, however, seemed designed to first person movies frustrate their best efforts. Witnesses were providing conflicting reports about the number of Practices of Exemplary armed attackers, their location in the building, and their ages. The commanders who had rushed to the scene didnt have and couldnt find an up-to-date map of the economic and philosophic, schools sprawling maze of rooms and corridors. By the time the first Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team entered the school shortly after noon, the gunmen had grown quietremoving the The Five of Exemplary Essay example, clear objective of an active target. As SWAT members moved cautiously through the school, the piercing sirens of fire alarms triggered by bombs made it almost impossible to communicate. John Herdman: Of The Example. Not only that, co- ordinating the growing crowd of responders outside had become increasingly difficult, particularly since the radios used by different agencies often werent compatible. Over the next few hours, the Jefferson County Sheriffs Office and of Exemplary Leadership other law enforcement agencies first secured the perimeter of the building so that the shooters could not escape, then struggled to evacuate students, teachers, and of Acid staffparticularly those who had been wounded and to apprehend the killers. Not until almost 4:00 p.m. would SWAT members discover that two student gun- men, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, were already dead, having committed suicide in the library just minutes after the Practices of Exemplary example, first SWAT team entered the building.

Horrified SWAT members also discovered the ten students that Harris and Klebold had executed in speech manners, the library about a half hour before killing themselves. In all, the Practices Leadership, two had killed or fatally, wounded 12 students and manners one teacher and in- jured 24 others in the span of 16 terrifying minutes.1. Before the week was out, the deadliest school shoot- ing in US history would spark impassioned debates across the nation about such issues as school safety, gun control, the impact of violent video games, and the pres- sures of The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay suburban life. Within the first, emergency response community, the attack also spurred a crucial question: Could law enforcement and emergency medical person- nel in Essay, the Columbine area have done anything better in responding to the terrorist act or in reducing its grave toll? The Jefferson County Sheriffs Office. Jefferson Countylocally known as JeffCowas Col- orados most populous county in 1999, with 512,000 residents.

Twelve police departments operated within the Essay of Acid, countys towns and cities, but the JeffCo Sheriffs Of- fice provided law enforcement for The Five Practices Leadership example the 173,000 resi- dents in unincorporated areas of the county, including Columbine High School, where a JeffCo deputy was on duty every day as the marx economic and philosophic manuscripts, school community resource officer.2 The offices 400 deputies and of Exemplary 185 non-uniformed personnel were headquartered in marx economic and philosophic manuscripts, an imposing cluster of modern buildings in of Exemplary, Golden, Colorado, that some locals referred to marx manuscripts as the Taj Mahal. JeffCo had its own bomb squad and a part-time SWAT team, whose 12 members worked as regular members of the force unless called in for a tactical emergency.3. In April 1999, the JeffCo Sheriffs Office was in a pe- riod of transition. John P. Stone, who had served as a county commissioner for 12 years, had been elected to a four-year term as sheriff the previous November, and. Reprinted by The Five of Exemplary Leadership, permission of the Kennedy School of actor bias Government Case Program, Harvard University. 260 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Jefferson County Sheriffs Office. John P. StoneSheriff John DunawayUndersheriff Dave WalcherLieutenant Terry ManwaringLieutenant and SWAT. commander John KiekbuschLieutenant Steve DavisPublic information officer Phil HySergeant Barry WilliamsSergeant and SWAT team leader Allen SimmonsDeputy and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay SWAT team leader Neil GardnerDeputy and school community. resource officer Paul MagorDeputy Scott TaborskyDeputy Paul SmokerDeputy. Littleton Fire Department.

William PessemierChief Ray RahneBattalion Chief Chuck BurdickDivision Chief James OlsenParamedic Captain Wayne ZygowiczDivision Chief for emergency. Arapahoe County Sheriffs Office. Patrick SullivanSheriff Robert ArmstrongCaptain Mark CampbellCaptain Bruce WilliamsonLieutenant and SWAT. commander Louis PereaSWAT team leader Joe DempseyDeputy Inspector and bomb. squad team leader Dan DavisDeputy and marx and philosophic manuscripts bomb squad member. Littleton Police Department.

Bob BrandtCommander Bill BlackSergeant. Arvada Police Department. Ron SloanChief Daryl HoffmanSergeant and member of the. Jefferson County Regional SWAT Team A.J. DeAndreaOfficer and member of the Jefferson County Regional SWAT Team. Denver Police Department. Gerry WhitmanDivision Chief Vincent DiMannaCaptain and The Five of Exemplary example SWAT commander.

Golden Police Department. Columbine High School. Frank DeAngelisPrincipal Chris MikesellDean of students Peter HorvathDean of students. Exhibit A: Cast of Characters. had assumed office in Essay Rain, January, at the same time bring- ing on The Five of Exemplary, board a new undersheriff, John Dunaway (see Exhibit A for marx a partial list of individuals involved in the response to or aftermath of the Columbine High School shootings). Although Stone had been out of law enforce- ment for more than a decade, earlier in their careers both men had been patrolmen for The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay the Lakewood Police Departmentthe countys largest police department and Dunaway, who had risen to police captain at Lakewood, had most recently served as director of the. JeffCo Public School Districts Risk Management Department, responsible, in marx, part, for physical security in the schools. While Stone was new to the Sheriffs Office, though, he was well acquainted with the countys overall emer- gency response capabilities.

Outside of routine SWAT team training, the Sheriffs Office hadnt invested signif- icant time or resources over of Exemplary the years in pre-incident planningfor example, for hostage situations in major public buildings. But both the Sheriffs Office and the. county had extensive experience in coordinating disas- ter and emergency responses because of the economic and philosophic, regular in- cidence in Essay example, the region of Essay of Acid Rain major brush and forest fires, often in difficult and Leadership Essay mountainous terrain. In addition, in mary myth, 1997, while still a commissioner, Stone had helped organize a trip to Emmitsburg, Maryland, for county representatives and local organization leaders to attend a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) dis- aster training course. The four-day session, which FEMA designed spe- cially to address the needs of Jefferson County, Stone says, included training and The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example tabletop exercises that had improved the countys implementation of incident commanda clearly defined incident management structure designating, among other things, command roles, tasks to be accomplished, and a system to assign responsibility for each task. According to some law en- forcement officials, the first person horror movies, countys focus had paid off. JeffCo is one of the Leadership Essay example, most interactive places Ive ever worked, in speech on good manners, terms of people working together, says Ron Sloan, chief of the Arvada Police Department, and thats not only the law enforcement agencies, but all the human services agencies. Nevertheless, like most other law enforcement agen- cies in The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay, the area, the JeffCo Sheriffs Office rarely held inter-jurisdictional exercises with the first movies, police or fire de- partments in The Five Practices Essay, the county, other than an occasional natu- ral disaster response exercise. Joint exercises were even rarer with agencies outside of the county.

In addition, while the Sheriffs Office often helped out police depart- ments within JeffCo, it had not often had to Prevention Rain call on other agencies for mutual aid. Criminal responses and inves- tigations, in particular, Stone says, were almost always handled with the countys own internal resources. The Initial Attack: The JeffCo Sheriffs Office Responds. On Tuesday morning, April 20, 1999, JeffCo Sheriffs Deputy Neil Gardner, the school community resource officer assigned to Columbine High School, was eating lunch in his car near an area northwest of the school known as the Smokers Pit. Just minutes earlier, a sher- iffs dispatcher had reported a brushfire and explosion in a field about three miles south of Columbine, but that wasnt Gardners concern. At 11:22, however, Gardner got a call over his school radio from an alarmed custo- dian, saying he needed Gardner in Practices Leadership example, the schools back. parking lot. One minute later, a sheriffs dispatcher, re- sponding to a 911 report of a paralyzed girl in the south lower parking lot of the school, radioed Deputy Paul Magor, who had been heading towards the brush- fire, and directed him instead toward Columbine, say- ing, Female down in the south lot of Columbine High School. Gardner, who was already driving toward the school, heard the message and turned on his lights and siren (for a chronology of events, see Exhibit B).4. Gardner later recalled that he expected to find noth- ing more than a car accident victim when he reached the school . . . . But the reality was far grimmer. Mary Myth. Two Columbine seniors, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, had just launched a brutal armed attack on their fellow stu- dents. When students and staff first heard shots at Practices of Exemplary example 11:19 that morning, many assumed it was part of Senior Prank Day, or that the two, who were toting guns and wearing long black dusters, were filming a video.

By the time Gardner arrived five minutes after the shooting began, however, Harris and Klebold had already shot at 11 stu- dents on the west and southwest side of the observer bias, building, killing two and Practices Leadership Essay example injuring six.5. As Garder pulled to a stop at 11:24, he saw students running from the school and smoke rising from the mary, south parking lots west end, and of Exemplary Leadership Essay heard explosions and gunfire. Horror Movies. The next several minutes would seem horribly unreal. As the deputy stepped from his car, he heard over the school radio, Neil, theres a shooter in the school. Almost at of Exemplary Leadership example the same moment, a gunman, who had been firing into the west entrance of the actor observer, school along with a second shooter, turned and shot at Gardner from about 60 yards away with a semi- automatic rifle. Gardner, armed only with a 45 semi- automatic handgun, returned fire. The gunman, later identified as Eric Harris, spun, shot at The Five Practices example Gardner again, then followed the other shooter into the schools west entrance. The two would never emerge from the school again alive. Inside Columbine, the chaos worsened. At 11:25, Patti Nielson, a teacher hiding in Essay Rain, the library who had been sprayed with glass and metal fragments when Klebold and The Five Practices Leadership Harris shot at the west doors, called 911 on a cell phone to report shooting outside the library. More than 50 students also hiding in the room crouched under tables as Nielson cried out for them to stay down.

A minute later, William Dave Sanders, a teacher who had run upstairs after heroically warning students in the cafeteria to escape, was shot in bloody, the hallway outside the library and critically wounded. A second teacher helped Sanders into a science classroom on the south side of the. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 261. 262 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Exhibit B: Chronology of Events. Eric Harris and Leadership example Dylan Klebold begin shooting at fellow Columbine High School students after bombs planted inside the actor, school fail to explode. A Jefferson County Sheriffs deputy heads towards a reported explosion in Leadership Essay example, a field about three miles from Columbine High School. A Columbine custodian radios Deputy Neil Gardner, the Prevention of Acid, school community resource officer, for help. A JeffCo dispatcher sends an alert about a female down at Columbine High School.

Deputy Gardner exchanges gunfire with Eric Harris outside the school. Deputy Gardner calls for reinforcements. Deputies exchange shots with Eric Harris, who is The Five Practices Leadership Essay example, just inside the school. Teacher Dave Sanders is shot and critically wounded. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold enter the library and during the next seven minutes kill ten students, wound 12 more, and shoot out the windows at bloody mary myth students and deputies. Deputy Gardner calls for The Five Practices emergency medical help. A JeffCo Sheriffs Office deputy broadcasts a call for mutual aid. JeffCo Undersheriff John Dunaway appoints JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher as incident commander. Local television stations begin full-time live coverage of Prevention of Acid shootings at Columbine. Littleton Fire Department paramedics rescue three student shooting victims from Practices Leadership Essay behind the school.

A first SWAT team led by JeffCo Deputy Allen Simmons enters the east side of Columbine as JeffCo Lieutenant Terry Manwaring leads a second group around the first person horror movies, school. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold commit suicide in the library. Littleton Fire sets up the first of of Exemplary Essay four medical triage sites. Leawood Elementary is established as the primary debriefing site. Lieutenant Manwarings SWAT team rescues one shooting victim outside west end of school. Incident command post begins operating out of John Herdman: The Study Double Essay JeffCos mobile command bus. JeffCo Sergeant Barry Williams leads SWAT team into west side of The Five Leadership Essay school. SWAT team led by Williams evacuates large group of students from Essay Prevention Rain kitchen area. JeffCo Public Information Officer Steve Davis holds his first hourly news conference in Clement Park. SWAT leader Sergeant Williams hears first accounts alluding to The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership critically injured teacher Dave Sanders.

12:08 12:10 12:25 12:34. 12:40 1:09 1:26 1:30. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 263. Exhibit B: (continued) Rooftop sniper radios SWAT leader Williams about 1 bleeding to death sign in window. SWAT leader Williams splits his team, putting one half under Deputy A.J. Prevention Rain. DeAndrea. Deputy DeAndrea and his team locate and The Five Practices Essay evacuate some 60 students. Soon after, they evacuate an actor additional 60 students.

SWAT leader Williams and his team reach Dave Sanders and Practices 60 students and call for medical help. A Denver paramedic declares Dave Sanders dead. Williamss SWAT team enters the speech on good manners, library and finds twelve students dead, including Eric Harris and Practices of Exemplary Essay example Dylan Klebold. SWAT members call paramedics to rescue one injured student. SWAT teams complete a second search of the Prevention of Acid Rain, school and Practices Leadership Essay bomb technicians begin their search. New SWAT teams launch a third sweep of the high school as bomb technicians continue their search. Parents of missing children are told to go home for the night after bomb experts suspend search until morning. Investigators return to Columbine and identify the victims. building overlooking the parking lot, and two students who were Eagle Scouts began giving him first aid. The JeffCo Sheriffs dispatch had already sent out a message declaring, Attention south units. Possible shots fired at marx economic and philosophic Columbine High School. At 11:26, Gard- ner called for reinforcements.

Panic-stricken students were running from different sides of the building, and two JeffCo deputies, Scott Taborsky and Leadership Essay example Paul Smoker, ar- riving from the of Acid Rain, northwest discovered a student who had been shot in the first phase of the Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, attack lying behind an athletic shed on the west side of the school. Another badly wounded student lay nearby. As the two deputies went to actor bias help the second student, Gardner, who was just down the Leadership, hill from them, spotted a gunman inside the west doors and shouted, There he is! The gunman, Harris again, shot through the opening of a broken window at Gardner as first Gardner, and then Deputy Smoker, re- turned fire. As the gunman retreated, and Gardner ra- dioed in a Code 33 for emergency assistance, the deputies heard more gunfire from within the school. Over the next few minutes, the already desperate scene degenerated. Teacher Patti Nielson, who was. under a counter just inside the mary myth, library, reported over her cell phone that there was smoke drifting in The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, and shots right outside the door. Escaped students huddling behind pa- trol cars told deputies that an unknown number of myth gun- men in the school were shooting peoplemaybe with Uzis or shotgunsand throwing hand grenades.6 None of the students could identify Harris or Klebold as the Practices of Exemplary Essay example, per- petrators, nor did they know if the shooters were high- school age or older.

Gardner, who could see four victims lying injured, including the girl originally reported as down in the parking lot, radioed for emergency med- ical assistance. Sheriffs dispatch, meanwhile, was send- ing almost constant messages: there were possible hand grenades in the school; deputies had been shot at; there were gunmen in marx, the school with large weapons. At about 11:30, the gunmen shot out some of the west windows of the Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay, library, aiming at escaping students and Essay of Acid the handful of deputies who had arrived. Although teacher Patti Nielson had stopped talking on her cell phone when the gunmen entered the library, over the next several minutes, the dispatcher could hear numerous gunshots, and a person shouting, 264 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Yahoo! Investigators would later discover that Harris and of Exemplary Leadership example Klebold had killed ten people and wounded 12 in the seven-and-a-half minutes they spent in the library.7. Outside, meanwhile, a deputy began loading students hiding behind a patrol car into bias, a separate sheriffs car and driving them to safety, three or four at a time. Leadership Essay. The dis- patch center called in off-duty dispatchers, and switched to 12-hour shifts to increase available personnel. At the same time, the media, which had heard of a shooting in- cident at Columbine, began calling the actor bias, JeffCo Sheriffs Office for information.

Less than ten minutes had passed since the first dispatch alert about an injured student in the parking lot of Columbine High School. At 11:32, Deputy Paul Magor, who was guarding the entrance to the south parking lot, radioed for mutual aid. The Growing Response: Reinforcements Arrive. Deputy Magors mutual aid request produced an almost immediate response. In fact, since agencies in Practices Leadership example, the area had been monitoring the JeffCo dispatches, dozens of first person horror movies re- sponders were already on the way, and would soon transform Columbine into a major multi-jurisdictional response.

This kind of self-dispatching to a large inci- dent was not uncommon. Essay. Moreover, because Columbine lay near several law enforcement jurisdictions, a number of Essay Prevention of Acid Rain responders had personal reasons for wanting to Practices of Exemplary Leadership arrive quickly. . . . A student hiding in movies, the school kitchen with 17 others had already called the The Five of Exemplary Essay, Denver Police Depart- ment, hoping to speak with his police officer father, and several of the horror movies, first Denver and Littleton police officers to Practices of Exemplary Leadership arrive had children in the school. When Lieutenant Terry Manwaring, JeffCos SWAT commander, arrived at 11:36, law enforcement repre- sentatives had already begun to congregate a couple of actor observer bias blocks north of the school on Pierce Street, the north- south access road that ran along Columbines east side . . . The Five Leadership Essay Example. . Manwaring had already paged JeffCos SWAT team and its command staff on the way over. Now, as JeffCos first command level representative present, Manwaring told dispatch that the command post and SWAT staging area would be placed at the point where officers were already gathering, the intersec- tion of Pierce and Leawood. A JeffCo sergeant who had arrived minutes earlier, Phil Hy, sat in his patrol car monitoring radio traffic, while Manwaring and others desperately tried to Prevention Rain piece together how many gunmen there were, what. they looked like, and The Five Leadership Essay example where they all were located. The information coming over first person horror the radio was sketchy and The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example often inconsistent.

Dispatch had reported a possible suspect on the football field, as many as six to eight gunmen in the school, shooters in paramilitary garb, and the possibility of hostages being held inside. Moreover, a JeffCo deputy had spotted a man on the roof, an apparent sniper, who posed an marx additional risk to approaching officers.8. Most of The Five this information, though, was dead wrong. Economic And Philosophic Manuscripts. As Manwaring arrived, Harris and Kleboldstill in the libraryhad just shot the last person they would kill other than themselves. The two gunmen would spend the next half hour, investigators later concluded, wandering through the school, firing at random targets, and throw- ing bombs. Practices Leadership Example. The two returned to the cafeteria, at one point, and economic manuscripts shot at two large bombs in duffel bags they had placed there earlier that had failed to example explode, hoping but failingto trigger an explosion. They wandered back upstairs to the main office area and fired shots into speech manners, ceil- ings and walls. Although the gunmen looked into locked rooms and made eye contact with trapped students, they made no further attempts to kill anyone. Outside, though, none of this was clear. At 11:38, a pipe bomb thrown by the shooters blew out windows near the cafeteria, and of Exemplary Leadership Essay students hidden inside ran to a nearby deputy in observer, the parking lot, and ducked behind cars. Leadership Essay. The student holed up in the kitchen with a cell phone told the Prevention Rain, Denver police officer on the line that he could hear a gunman nearby with school keys and a walkie talkie.9 At 11:40, four minutes after Harris and Klebold left the library, some 30 students ran out The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay from the schools west side, including many who had sur- vived the shooting spree in the library.

Based on student accounts, a deputy reported that one of the marx, gunmen might be a student named Ned Harris, and that he might be wearing bulletproof armor.10. Meanwhile, law enforcement personnel continued to Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example arrive. According to marx manuscripts Captain Mark Campbell, com- mander of the patrol division of the of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, Arapahoe Sheriffs Office, the corner of Pierce and Leawood was already congested with patrol cars and emergency response vehicles by the time he got to observer bias Columbine at 11:45. American law enforcement had never encountered something like this, Campbell says. Of Exemplary. Id seen a lot of stuff, and when I turned the corner, I was flabbergasted. This was only 15 minutes into it, and Id never seen so many police cars in my life. Amidst growing fears that the gunmen might take advantage of the confusion to sneak out of the of Acid Rain, school, at least eight JeffCo deputieswho already had been assisting escaping students, driving injured students to medical attention, and Essay example blocking access roads stationed themselves around Columbine, forming an first person inner perimeter to watch the Practices Leadership, buildings 25 exterior doors.

Captain Robert Armstrong, the on-call com- mander for the Arapahoe County Sheriffs Office, and perhaps the mary myth, most experienced commander on scene, stepped in and directed Denver police and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership the Colorado State Patrol to form a second perimeter away from the first person, school to further secure the area, limit traffic access, and keep press and parents from ap- proaching.11 Anxiety that the shooters might have as- sociates outside the Practices of Exemplary Essay, school, or plans to launch attacks elsewhere, increased when firefighters reported that the brushfire a few miles south of the school that morning had been triggered by bombs, and could be related to the attack on Columbine. Bomb squads from the JeffCo and Arapahoe County Sheriffs Offices already had been told to report to Prevention of Acid Rain the school. At 11:45, JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher drove up, followed soon after by five members of Denvers Metro SWAT team, including SWAT Commander Cap- tain Vincent DiManna, who had a son and Practices Essay example niece at Columbine.12 Walcher, the top-ranked JeffCo represen- tative on scene, assumed command upon arrival and told Terry Manwaring to get SWAT members into the school as soon as possible. A few minutes later, JeffCo Undersheriff John Dunaway arrived. Dunaway officially appointed Lieutenant Walcher as incident commander, and authorized an ad hoc SWAT team comprised of Denver, JeffCo, and Littleton Police members to enter the speech, building as soon as it could. Inside the schools science wing, meanwhile, the The Five Essay, teacher who had helped Dave Sanders into a room had placed a hurriedly written sign in the window reading, 1 bleeding to death. A second teacher in the class- room contacted a dispatcher by cell phone, and tried to describe how to actor bias reach the room where Sanders lay, an area which was in the most isolated part of the build- ing with no exterior door nearby. The Five Practices Leadership Essay Example. When a dispatcher contacted Sergeant Phil Hy just before noon to ask whether someone could get to the injured teacher, however, Hy replied that there was not yet a secure entry point for attempting such a rescue.

Soon after, the dispatcher warned those in marx economic manuscripts, the room with Sanders not to break out a window because it might alert the shoot- ers to their location. The number of gunmen in the school was still un- known. The Five Of Exemplary. Minutes before noon, though, dispatch radioed. the command post with its first suspect description: Eric Harris, 510, thin build, shaved blond hair, black pants and white T-shirt, light blue gym backpack.13. The Emergency Medical Response. As law enforcement struggled to make sense of manners what was happening at Columbine, fire and emergency med- ical resources had also arrived, and faced a similarly dis- orienting scene. Littleton Fire Department Battalion Chief Ray Rahne, the Essay example, shift commander, had driven over to Columbine on a whim after hearing the first report of bias a female down, thinking thatunlikely as it seemed in that areathere might have been a drive-by shooting.

Littleton Fires eight stations in the Littleton area handled fire fighting and emergency medical services for about 190,000 peo- ple, and although the high school wasnt in Littleton, the The Five of Exemplary, fire departments service area included Columbine. Actor Observer Bias. When Rahne pulled up at the schools main entrance on Pierce Street at 11:34, though, he had heard nothing be- yond the initial report. Although Littleton Fire and the JeffCo Sheriffs Office both had VHF radio systems, JeffCo was just one of 16 different law enforcement agen- cies in Littleton Fires service area, and the two agencies rarely worked together and werent using the same chan- nels. As a result, Rahne was completely unaware that deputies had had firefights with gunmen on of Exemplary Essay example, the other side of the school, and he had not heard about Neil Gardners 11:29 call for medical help. In addition, Rahne was oblivious to the growing law enforcement response just north of where he had parked.

Although students were streaming from the building, most had not witnessed the attack, and Rahne still thought he was dealing with a single shooting. We did not realize for speech on good about the first 20 minutes that an exchange of gunfire had taken place between the school resource officer and Harris and Klebold at Practices of Exemplary Leadership the back of the school, says Littleton Fire Chief William Pessemier, who arrived about 20 minutes after Rahne. We didnt have JeffCos channels on our radios, and they didnt have ours. According to Rahne, he soon spotted a girl sitting on the corner across the street from the bloody, school who had been shot in Practices of Exemplary, the ankle, and took her to a private ambu- lance.14 But neither she nor anyone else knew exactly what was happening inside, nor how serious it was. I stayed in front of the school, set up command, and said, I need police officers for observer bias command in front of the The Five Practices Leadership example, school, Rahne recalls, and nobody came. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 265. 266 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Shortly before noon, Rahne finally heard that there were victims down behind the Essay Prevention Rain, southwest side of the school, and sent two Littleton rescue units that had been waiting nearby to Essay example respond. As paramedics approached the back of the school, however, they hit an impasse. While some police officers and deputies who were crouched behind cars were waving them on, others mo- tioned for person them to of Exemplary stop. Despite the mixed signals, the paramedics parked as close as they could to four students lying on the ground outside the cafeteria, and rushed out to examine them. The first student they checked was al- ready dead.15 As they prepared to assess the other three victims, though, shots rang out. Essay Of Acid Rain. Gunmen in the school were firing down from the Leadership Essay example, second floorfrom what of- ficers would later learn was the libraryand police offi- cers and deputies on the ground, including Neil Gardner, returned fire. They just literally took two bodies and threw them in one rescue, basically right on on good manners, top of each other, and then took another one and put it in another rescue and just got out of of Exemplary Leadership Essay there, reports Rahne. The stu- dent who was already dead was left behind. Rahne, meanwhile, had been summoned to the JeffCo command post about of Acid two blocks north on Pierce from where he had been waiting. Arriving at about the same time as Fire Chief Pessemier, the two men discovered a scene of turmoil as fire engines, ambulances, and po- lice cars converged at the intersection.16 I remember when I got there, Ray looked at me and said, I dont know where all these people are coming from, recalls Pessemier. I didnt call them. Adds Rahne: I finally just started screaming, Whos in charge? Whos in charge? But nobody would say. We had no staging, we had no base, because I hadnt called for The Five Practices Leadership Essay example anything, and we were getting all these self-dispatched people com- ing to the scene.17.

As Rahne began to transfer command of the incident to Pessemier, the John Herdman: of the Double Essay, ambulances that had sped out from be- hind the school pulled up, and the paramedics jumped out screaming for help. They opened up the back of the ambulance and the blood was just running out of it, Rahne says. The paramedics transferred one of the victims to a third ambulance, and the three vehicles rushed to The Five Practices Leadership Essay example area hospitals. Anne Marie Hochhalter, one of the first people shot, was estimated to have been just minutes away from death when she reached the emer- gency department. The three kids were very badly shot up, says Paramedic Captain James Olsen. Of Acid. One was barely alive, and another had half of his face shot off. For all present, Rahne says, the seriousness of the The Five of Exemplary, situ- ation had become starkly evident. Once Fire Chief Pessemier had assumed incident command for mary the agency, he appointed Rahne opera- tions chief for fire and emergency medical operations. At 12:10, Pessemier and Rahne set up two medical triage sites; one on the east side near the Practices of Exemplary Essay, schools main entrance, and a second a few blocks west of the school at horror movies the intersection of two small residential streets, Yukon and Caley. Yukon/Caley had already become a de facto triage site, since deputies who had evacuated students from the grounds west of Columbine early on had brought injured students to The Five Practices Leadership Essay the intersection and laid them down for treatment in one homeowners front yard. When Rahne sent a lieutenant to Yukon/Caley to investigate, the lieutenant promptly called for ten more ambulances and a helicopter to transport eleven shoot- ing victims, four of them critical. The fire command staff also established two medical staging areas near the command post, and a fire staging area a few blocks south of Essay Columbine on Pierce. . . . With staging and triage in place, the The Five Leadership example, fire and emergency med- ical operation began to flow more smoothly. Littleton Fire still couldnt communicate directly with the JeffCo Sher- iffs Office, however, nor could it communicate with most of the engines and ambulances reporting from other jurisdictions because of first horror radio system incompatibilities.

In order to ensure the ability to talk, Rahne says, he sent at least one Littleton Fire representative with a radio on all emergency medical or fire teams that he dispatched. Chief Pessemier and Practices Essay JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher, meanwhile, set up a unified command incorporating both the medical and the law enforce- ment response. Bloody. We worked very hard to The Five Practices Essay example integrate that operation, Pessemier says, but part of the problem was that I had never met Dave Walcher before in my life. We didnt have a real strong relationship with many of the law enforcement agencies in the local area. De- spite limited experience in coordinating or participat- ing in such a complex multi-agency response, however, personnel from all agencies strove to cooperate, ac- cording to those at first horror movies the scene. Maybe it was Lance [Kirklin], one of the critically wounded students whose ambulance had briefly stopped at the command post on the way to The Five Essay the hospital, explains Littleton Fire Depart- ment Division Chief Chuck Burdick, who served as the departments law enforcement liaison. A lot of people saw Lance come through, and the magnitude of it was such that people realized this is Herdman: The Study example, too big to have petty issues between us. Weve got to Practices of Exemplary Essay example get through this, and the only way were going to get through this is with the support of each other. Actor Bias. I think we all knew that. SWATs First Entrance. While Rahne and others were organizing the early emergency medical response, JeffCo SWAT Comman- der Manwaring was rounding up SWAT team members who had already reported from different jurisdictions in order to cobble together a team. Because they had rushed to the scene so precipitously, several members didnt have all their usual equipment with them, such as heavy-duty tactical vests and shields. Just after noon, as the rescue units raced from the Practices Leadership Essay, back of the school with the Rain, three student shooting victims, Manwaring asked to borrow a Littleton fire engine to use as a shield, and 12 SWAT members from the JeffCo Sheriffs Office and the Denver and Littleton police departments approached the east side of Columbine, sheltered by the slow-moving truck with a SWAT member at the wheel.

When they reached the school, Manwaring broke the group in two. One half, led by Manwaring and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership example Denver Commander Vincent DiManna, continued around the north of the buildingstill crouching behind the fire trucktowards the west side, where the shootouts had occurred. The Study. The other half, led by JeffCo SWAT Deputy Allen Simmons, prepared to enter the east side just south of the main doors. What the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership, SWAT teams would confront was a sprawl- ing 250,000-square-foot building on two levels, con- taining 75 classrooms, many smaller rooms and closets, and on good manners such large gathering areas as the gymnasium, cafe- teria, and auditorium. The school had been significantly updated and expanded in The Five Leadership example, 1995, including the addition of a new cafeteria and library. Marx Manuscripts. Unfortunately, the SWAT teams didnt have an updated map of the school among the emergency resources they kept on hand. Although Littleton Fire had begun running off copies of its Columbine pre-plan, a simplified room plan that showed where to go for alarm and sprinkler shutoffs, for example, Manwaring hadnt received a copy. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Example. In any event, the bloody myth, pre-plan would have been of limited useful- ness, since it listed classrooms by number only, and did not include such designations as cafeteria or science wing. Instead, Manwaring had only a sketch drawn hastily by Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, a student. Marx And Philosophic. In fact, when he sent the The Five Essay example, first team in, the SWAT commander thought the schools cafete- ria was still on the east side, its location before the re- modeling four years earlier. At 12:06, slightly more than a half hour after Man- waring first paged the and philosophic, JeffCo SWAT team, Simmonss group entered the east side of The Five Practices Leadership Essay example Columbine.

According to many observers, forming an economic and philosophic manuscripts ad hoc, multi-jurisdictional. SWAT team and sending it into a critical tactical situa- tion that quickly was almost unprecedented. Normal operating procedure, by contrast, was for a team to wait until all its members had arrived, to deploy as a team, and to receive a detailed explanation of The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example what was happening before entering. It was very, very fast for everything up to that point, says Lieutenant Bruce Williamson, SWAT commander for the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office, who would arrive about 40 minutes later. Manners. Columbine High School broke all the molds. Inside the building, beneath wailing fire alarms, the six SWAT team members began to move slowly from room to room. The Five Leadership Essay Example. The team, which split in on good, two to cover more territory, soon found one teacher and two staff members as it advanced carefully through the warren of classrooms. Arvada Police Department Chief Ron Sloan, whose department had two officers on JeffCos SWAT team, says members were undoubtedly trying to figure out The Five Practices Essay example what kind of situation they were facing: hostage-taking, barricaded suspects, a mental health situation, or some type of terrorist act. John Herdman: Double Essay. Im sure it was in the minds of people, Are they going to flee the scene now that the police are here, or are they going to se- crete themselves somewhere and level some kind of demand? Sloan says. For it to continue on after the initial police presence, and for Practices of Exemplary Essay example homicides to be taking place indiscriminately after that, particularly by young people in a school, was almost unheard of. SWAT members were also straining their senses to try to and philosophic manuscripts detect a sound or motion that would reveal the presence of one or more shooters. The Five Of Exemplary Leadership Essay Example. In fact, however, al- most from the moment the economic and philosophic, first SWAT team entered, the actual targets were gone. Reports from inside the school and Practices example from escaping students of speech manners shooting and of bombs exploding dropped off sharply after noonthough such accounts did not stop entirely. Investigators later deter- mined that Harris and Klebold had killed themselves in the library at 12:08, shortly after firing at the paramedics rescuing victims below.

Responders, however, had no such information at The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example the time to guide their actions. You cannot assume anything, yet you have to assume some- thing, so what you assume is the worst, explains Chief Sloan of Arvada. And the worst case scenario is that the bad guys are secreting themselves, theyre taking hostages, and theyll shoot you as soon as the door opens. He adds: You cant assume that theyve com- mitted suicide. You cant assume that this room does not have suspects in it. Mary Myth. You have to The Five Practices of Exemplary assume the worst. With the first SWAT team inside, those in charge out- side continued to try to organize the flood of incoming. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 267. 268 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. information into a coherent account.

At 12:14, although in reality Harris and Klebold were already dead, students on a cell phone in the school reported to 911 that the bloody myth, shooters were nearby. A few minutes later, police de- tained a young man approaching the school carrying an unloaded rifle and a knife who was dressed in clothes similar to those reportedly worn by the gunmen.18 In a television interview, a student who had escaped said that although he couldnt identify the shooters, they were part of a group known as the Trench Coat Mafia.19. Troubling news had also come in Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, from the site of the earlier brushfire. Sixteen bomb experts who had assem- bled from Jefferson and Arapahoe counties, Denver, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation had spread out to mary advise SWAT teams before they entered the school; search the house of Eric Harris, who had been formally identified as a likely suspect; and evaluate the bombs that had sparked the of Exemplary Leadership Essay, fire earlier that morning. The two bomb technicians examining the refuse from the fire had quickly discovered the remains of an alarm clock evidence not only that the bloody mary, gunmen had probably planted the bombs as diversionary devices to draw re- sponders away from the of Exemplary Essay example, school before the attack, but, even more disturbingly, that the shooters were capable of first making timed devices.20 The discovery not only heightened concerns about further attacks or explo- sions away from Columbine, but also forced law en- forcement to conclude that it was likely there were time-activated bombs and booby-trapped rooms inside the school.

Establishing Incident Command. By 12:40, JeffCos mobile command bus had arrived, and instead of grouping around Sgt. Phil Hys patrol car, the command post operation moved inside the Leadership, bus.21 In addition to JeffCos incident commander, Lieutenant Dave Walcherwho was often joined by Undersheriff Dunaway, and sometimes by Sheriff Stonecommand level representatives included Captain Robert Arm- strong from Essay Prevention Rain Arapahoe; Division Chief Gerry Whitman from the The Five of Exemplary Leadership example, Denver Police; Major John Wise from the Col- orado State Patrol; Commander Bob Brandt from the observer, Lit- tleton Police; and either Chief Pessemier or Division Chief Chuck Burdick representing Littleton Fire. According to Sheriff Stone, JeffCo established inci- dent command using the same basic management model that the JeffCo representatives had studied and trained on during the four-day FEMA workshop a year- and-a-half earlier. Of Exemplary Leadership. My position in this thing was almost. like a symphony director, Stone says. Youre watch- ing every one of these things going on, but you have to John Herdman: of the Double Essay example make sure every instruments playing properly. With Walcher handling incident command, Stone says, Dunaway took charge of operations, while he, himself, was trying to do all the support stuff, get the investigation going, get the county involved, the media, and The Five Essay all these other support things that you have to do. But for observer bias some others on Practices Leadership Essay example, the scene, the division of observer bias re- sponsibilities wasnt always obvious. Virtually all law enforcement officials involved with the Columbine re- sponse say it was the Practices of Exemplary Leadership, kind of emergency that would have been difficult for any single agency to coordinate. Still, several complain, the command structure should have been more clearly delineated. Everybody asked questions like, Whos actually in charge? recalls one command level officer. Well, quite frankly, I couldnt tell you. If I had to guess from being around the com- mand post, I would say it was a combination of Gerry Whitman, Robert Armstrong, John Dunaway, and Walcher. Those would be the key four. Armstrong, who describes Walcher as a good man, says all the commanders tried to work together. What we did is wed say, What about this?

What about that? So we could play off each other. So you had more than one mind making those decisions. In addition, some responders say, Dunaway and Stone didnt give Walcher the support he needed. Walcher, who had previously spent seven years with the JeffCo SWAT team, had only actor observer bias, recently been promoted to lieutenant, and had no experience managing a major in- cident. While it wasnt necessarily preferable for a sher- iff or undersheriff to be the The Five Practices Leadership Essay example, incident commander during such an event, the top law enforcement officials presumably the agencys most experienced people at managing an emergency responsewould generally remain available to actor observer serve as sounding boards, ask ques- tions, and Practices example make suggestions.

Dunaway, however, spent a lot of time outside of the person, command post talking with school administrators, law enforcement and county of- ficials, and others who had come to The Five of Exemplary Leadership example the vehicle. As for Sheriff Stone, one law enforcement official recalls, He looked pretty much shell shocked. If I was a brand new sheriff and was going through some administrative changes, trying to reorganize my department, and this thing hit me a few months into my term, I probably would have looked just like him. Walcher, however, says he had all the support he needed, particularly given the marx, collaborative effort that quickly coalesced among the experienced command staff at the post. No one agency by itself could handle. this, he contends. With all those agencies there, we had the people that we could immediately task to do the things that had to be done. People that day stepped up to the plate and tried to make a difference. And although Dunaway confirms that he frequently went out- side the Leadership example, command vehicle to marx economic and philosophic manuscripts talk, he says the conversa- tions served the dual purpose of helping coordinate the broader operation and shielding those inside from unnec- essary interference. Example. As people came to the command post, the last thing I was going to have any of them believing was that I was disinterested in their presence or in their offers of assistance, Dunaway explains. Still, some claimed the response to the shootings was more disorganized than it needed to be. Even with full incident command in bloody mary myth, place, itll look chaotic, says Arapahoe Sheriff Patrick Sullivan. But at least youre getting things done better, and people are communicat- ing, and those who need to get information are getting information. At Columbine, though, incident com- mand seemed to have slipped. There was no formal staging area for law enforcement, for example, which added to the confusion in the streets around the Leadership example, school and near the marx, command post.

And although Dunaway was in charge of operations for The Five Leadership Essay the incident, neither he nor anyone else appeared to have assumed full respon- sibility for assigning jobs such as traffic control, logis- tics, communications, and officer reliefall key pieces of incident command. While Walcher and John Herdman: of the Essay example Dunaway both readily concede that the response did not meet a textbook case of inci- dent command, however, they question whether a more formalized structure would have been appropriate. The fast-evolving demands of the situation, the number of responding officers, and Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example the need to hand off tasks to individuals from Essay Prevention many agencies and Practices Leadership jurisdictions ar- gued against imposing a rigid structure under one lead agency, they say. Speech. I dont think incident command was ever intended to be used for combat operations, says Dunaway, and that is basically what we were dealing with there. Moreover, given the enormity of the under- taking, says Walcher, some tasks necessarily fell to the wayside. The last thing on The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example, my mind was, Gee, wheres our staging area going to be? he recalls. The street was filling up so fast with cop cars that I had no clue where we could have a staging area, whether we could even have access to John it, nor did I care, because I was too busy worrying about kids who had been shot and get- ting a SWAT team in there that could end the situation. He adds: It wasnt a traditional incident command, but the system in The Five Leadership Essay example, place accomplished what really needed to get done. As Walcher and the other commanders prioritized and delegated jobs, some agencies simply tackled tasks that needed doing, rather than seeking direction from the command post. Captain Mark Campbell, for exam- ple, who was deploying officers from the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office as they arrived, had noticed that the person, northbound lanes of Pierce Street were clogged with haphazardly parked patrol cars, blocking the passage of emergency vehicles. The Five Practices Example. To free the lanes, Campbell called on several early-arriving members of the Arapahoe SWAT team, who either contacted the vehicles owners, Campbell says, or simply lifted the marx economic and philosophic, cars out of the way.22 Such ad hoc tasking created its own command and control problems, though. One suburban SWAT team, for example, never even checked in with the command post, but simply deployed itself around the school. While the somewhat haphazard command approach may have complicated the Columbine response, though, a far bigger impediment was the inability of dif- ferent agencies to talk. Indeed, responders say, the ab- sence of linked communication systems greatly increased the The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay, difficulty of establishing and maintaining effective incident commandparticularly given the many departments and jurisdictions on myth, scene. Had all responding agencies been using compatible systems with a databank of channels to choose from, for example, the command post could have allotted a channel for each major task or area of responsibility, such as traffic con- trol, SWAT, logistics, emergency medical, and perimeter control. Such a system, a regular feature of Practices Essay example incident com- mand, would have simplified both the division of the re- sponse into manageable pieces, and the management of each of those pieces. Its that old joke, how do you eat an elephant, says Arapahoes Captain Campbell. Movies. In little bitty bits.

You kind of break things down. As it was, as additional agencies continued to arrive, the ability of all those involved to communicate dete- riorated significantly. While the JeffCo Sheriffs office still used a VHF radio, for example, many other re- sponding agencies, such as Denver and Arapahoe, had either analog or digital 800 megahertz (MHz) systems, neither of which could communicate directly with a VHF system, nor with each other. Practices Leadership Essay Example. I cannot overempha- size how great a problem the incompatibility of our communications systems was that day, states Under- sheriff Dunaway. What that presented was almost un- manageable. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 269. 270 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Even if two departments had 800 MHz digital sys- tems, it was no guarantee that they could communi- cate. Motorola systems, like the observer, one that JeffCo was about to convert to, for Practices Leadership Essay example, could not talk with Arvadas Ericsson system because the two werent com- patible. Similarly, although the Essay Prevention of Acid, JeffCo Sheriffs Office and The Five Practices Essay Littleton Fire both had VHF systems, they couldnt communicate during the of Acid Rain, early hours of the incident be- cause they were using different channels. If the The Five Practices of Exemplary example, officer doesnt ever flip that switch and of Acid practice talking to that agency, notes Littleton Paramedic Captain James Olsen, hes not going to know how to do it when the incident comes down.23. Given these barriers, JeffCos command staff could- nt count on connecting directly with other jurisdic- tions by Leadership Essay example, radio. Instead, it pieced together informal links, placing a JeffCo Sheriffs Office representative with a radio on every team, or passing messages through its own dispatch center to a different center, and then back to the field. Even this last method, however, often broke down. First Movies. At 12:23, the JeffCo dispatch center said it could- nt get through to the command post because both radio links and cellular phone lines were jammed. Practices Example. Indeed, the center was so overloaded that calls were going instead to dispatchers in Littleton, Denver, and other municipal- ities, who then had to relay messages back to JeffCo. Radios and cell phones and everything were absolutely useless, declares Steve Davis, public information offi- cer for the JeffCo Sheriffs Office, they were so over- whelmed with the amount of traffic in the air. Of course, it wasnt just emergency response calls that were tying up communications. At 11:47, a local television station ran the first report of possible shoot- ings at Columbine High School.

By noon, area TV sta- tions had switched to full-time live coverage, and parents and relatives were besieging school, law en- forcement, and county officials for marx economic and philosophic manuscripts information about their children and loved ones. Lieutenant John Kiekbusch of the JeffCo Sheriffs in- vestigation division had established four debriefing areas where officers could question students and staff about what they had seen. By 12:25, the JeffCo Sheriffs Office and school administrators had settled on Leawood Ele- mentary School, less than a mile from Columbine, as the of Exemplary, primary debriefing site. Counselors from the Victim Services Unit of the JeffCo Sheriffs Office had already been sent to the elementary school to observer bias talk with students and parents, and the dispatch center began specifically directing parents there. Where the media was very helpful was in continually broadcasting that information very early on so we wouldnt have a mass of parents. running down to Columbine looking for Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay their kids, says Sheriff Stone. Some parents, not surprisingly, still rushed to Columbine and speech on good gathered near the command post for The Five of Exemplary Essay example news of their children.

For their part, many students and staff who had escaped the school never went to John of the example Lea- wood Elementary for questioning, and did not reunite with parents or relatives until hours later. Of Exemplary Essay Example. Although JeffCo assigned officers trained in crowd control to es- cort students from safe areas near Columbine to buses that would take them to of the Double Essay example the elementary school, scores of Practices Leadership example students simply headed home or to Essay the houses of friends. As Arvada Police Chief Sloan puts it, the of Exemplary Essay, evac- uation from Columbine was like turning over an anthill. Whoosh . . John The Study Of The. . they were out of there. SWAT Approaches the West Side. As the command staff struggled to bring order and effi- ciency to the overall response, SWAT Commander Lieu- tenant Terry Manwaring continued his efforts to insert teams into Columbine and apprehend the killers. Practices Leadership. Al- most a half hour after leaving Deputy Allen Simmons and John The Study of the his team on the east side of Columbine, Manwar- ing and his group of five finally worked their way around to the upper west entrance of the school at 12:34, still using the fire truck as a shield.24 Three shooting victims lay on the west side of the Practices example, school, two up near the west doors, and one down a flight of manners stairs outside the cafe- teria. While part of the team protected them with cover fire, SWAT members attempted to rescue the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership, three.25 One student near the observer bias, doors was alive and was rushed to medical attention in the back of a patrol car. The Five Practices Leadership Essay Example. The other two, however, were already dead.26. After dealing with the bias, victims, Manwaring had hoped to send a SWAT team directly into The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay, the building through the upper entrance.

During the rescue, how- ever, SWAT members had spotted an marx economic and philosophic manuscripts unexploded bomb lying outside the The Five Practices Essay example, west doors. Manwaring had heard there could be time- or motion-activated bombs in Essay of Acid, the school, and he didnt want to risk sending SWAT mem- bers past a device that might be triggered at any point. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Essay Example. Instead, the SWAT commander decided to drive the fire truck over the bomb and straight through the doors into mary myth, the schoolassuming that the of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, vehicle would absorb any blast. The heavy truck, however, became stuck in myth, the soft ground outside the school, and SWAT eventu- ally abandoned it. As Manwarings group was struggling with the fire truck, ten members of the JeffCo SWAT team, headed. by Sgt. The Five Practices. Barry Williams, arrived at the command post. Over the next 20 minutes, Williams led the team around to the schools west endusing a front end loader they had commandeered as a coverwhile two SWAT snipers broke off from the group and stationed themselves on roofs south of the marx, school and opposite the library windows and science wing. A. J. DeAndrea, an The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay officer with the Arvada Police De- partment and member of the JeffCo SWAT team, had been having a family picnic with his wife, who was nine months pregnant, when he was paged and economic and philosophic manuscripts told there had been a shooting at The Five Columbine. DeAndrea, who ap- proached the schools west end behind the economic, front end loader, recalls the scene at Columbine as surreal. First, he saw one of Practices of Exemplary Essay JeffCos SWAT members driving a fire truck.

Then he noticed one of the early students to be shot and killed, Rachel Scott, on the ground nearby his first realization that there had been fatalities. Farther down the hill was the body of Daniel Rohrbough. Manwaring gave the Rain, newly arrived team a terse sum- mary. It still wasnt known how many suspects were in- side, although there were estimates of as many as eight gunmen in the buildingconceivably some kind of ter- rorist group. Because of the bomb outside the The Five Practices Leadership Essay, west doors, the SWAT team didnt enter there. Nor did it go through the open emergency exit door leading straight to the library, out of Herdman: of the example which a number of distraught stu- dents had escaped about an hour-and-a-half earlier, be- cause there was a bomb visible there. Instead, Manwarings group directed the team down the hill to a window next to of Exemplary Essay example the cafeteria.

Although the entry point was a floor below where deputies had last spotted the first person movies, gunmen, shooting from the The Five of Exemplary Essay example, library windows, Manwar- ing had no reason to believe the manuscripts, two had stayed in that area, says Lieutenant Bruce Williamson, SWAT com- mander for the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office. The team going into the school had no idea where the last known location of these guys was, explains Williamson. They were shooting all over. Unlike a normal SWAT operation, DeAndrea says, the pressure to get inside was so great that the team de- ployed with almost no preparation. Practices Example. As we entered, we were told all kinds of things, DeAndrea recalls. We were told, Last seen in the business area. Last seen in economic manuscripts, the science area. They are possibly in the air ducts mov- ing around. Weve got somebody on The Five Essay, the roof. I remem- ber the speech, Channel Four news helicopter coming in real low trying to see what they had up there. The team did not know there had been a massacre in the library, though, nor was it told that there was a report of a badly injured person in the science wing. Neither Manwaring.

nor DiManna, apparently, had been given that informa- tion. In addition, Manwaring still didnt have a map of the Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, school, and bloody mary most SWAT members had never been in example, the building. On the other side of the school, meanwhile, SWAT Deputy Allen Simmons had called for Essay Prevention assistance with the grueling and time-consuming process of breaking down doors and searching rooms for suspects and vic- tims. Although Harris and Klebold had been dead for more than a half hour, the The Five Leadership, command post was still re- ceiving regular cell phone reports of gunshots and ex- plosions from students and staff hidden throughout the manuscripts, school, which further complicated the search.27 Shortly before 1:00, a SWAT team from the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office joined Simmons in the east side search, while other members of the Arapahoe team, along with Jeff- Co, Lakewood, Denver, and Littleton, established a tactical command post on Pierce Street right outside the main school entrance. In Manwarings absence, JeffCo had named Com- mander Bob Brandt and Sergeant Bill Black of the Lit- tleton Police to coordinate the SWAT deployment. Perhaps because of the faulty communication among different agencies, however, some SWAT members kept questioning why Manwaring wasnt running the tacti- cal command post himself, while others mistakenly concluded that he had deployed with a SWAT team in- side the school.28 We kept asking where he was, be- cause all the commanders need to get together and formulate a tactical plan together, says Arapahoe SWAT team leader Louis Perea. That wasnt happening. At about 1:00, a school staff member gave an Ara- pahoe deputy a Columbine yearbook from the Practices Essay, previous year with the Prevention, photos of Eric Harris and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example Dylan Klebold circled. Captain Campbell sent plainclothes officers to first person horror make copies of the pictures and distributed them to The Five Practices of Exemplary the command and tactical posts.

By 1:15, investigators had gone to both students houses. West Side SWAT Enters. The eight members of the economic manuscripts, JeffCo SWAT team led by Barry Williams, along with a few Denver SWAT mem- bers, broke a window and climbed into the school at about 1:09. Had shots been fired shortly before or as the west side SWAT team arrived, DeAndrea says, the teams goal would have been simple: respond to the shots and The Five Practices example stop the threat. Bias. Absent an active shooter, however, SWATs mission was to Practices of Exemplary Leadership carefully search the. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 271. 272 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. buildingrescuing students and Essay Prevention Rain teachers while trying to apprehend the The Five of Exemplary, shooters, who most likely were in hiding or holding hostages. With shots fired, were going to do a rapid and immediate deployment with an assault team, and were going to take care of the on good, shots being fired, DeAndrea explains. Without that, were not going to run haphazardly anywhere.

Once through the window, team members found themselves in a teachers lounge, standing in about three inches of water that had accumulated from the cafete- ria sprinkler system, activated by bombs thrown earlier by Practices of Exemplary, Harris and Klebold. The group was immediately bombarded with sounds and smells. Youve got the school bell going off, youve got the fire alarm going off, you can smell gun powder in the air, and theres an overwhelming noise from the sprinklers made by the water coming down, DeAndrea recalls. While some members were particularly disconcerted by the alarms, DeAndrea says, what bothered him most were the alarm systems flashing strobe lights, which chillingly mim- icked the flash of a gun, and which also created sud- den shadows that forced him to recheck areas repeatedly to ensure there was no one hiding or prepar- ing to attack. Looking into the cafeteria, DeAndrea recounts, was an otherworldly experience. Mary Myth. We dont hear shots fired, he says. The Five Of Exemplary. We dont see kids running around. Theres nothing. Its like this place is locked down. Its eerie. First thing in John Herdman: of the Double example, my mind, Im thinking ambush. The Five Leadership Essay. Where are they? Theyve got hostages. Were going to find them here somewhere, and theyre hunkered down. Carefully picking their way past exploded and manuscripts unexploded bombs, the team scanned the cafeteria and of Exemplary Essay headed into the kitchen area.

Almost immediately, DeAndrea says, the team heard movement behind a door. Wed shout, Police depart- ment, open the door! Police department, open the Prevention, door! Expecting for that door to The Five of Exemplary Essay open, and were going to John The Study of the Double Essay example en- gage in gunfire, he recalls. No one, however, opened the doors. There were no gunmen hidden in the schools rooms, and Practices of Exemplary Leadership students, traumatized by what they had al- ready witnessed or heard, would not undo the locks. DeAndrea, the Essay Prevention of Acid, designated breacher for his team, had made a conscious decision not to Practices example bring his usual 55-pound ram into the building, because carrying it would hinder his ability to wield a gun. Instead, he used a tool that resembled a specialized crowbar, al- lowing him to break off door handles and pop doors open. John Herdman: Of The Essay Example. A number of of Exemplary Essay doors in speech on good manners, Columbine were difficult to breach, though, since students hiding inside had. piled furniture or other objects against them for further protection. Were busting down doors wholeheart- edly thinking were going to go through that door and were going to engage somebody, DeAndrea says. Do we think that we might get shot?

Absolutely. Example. Are we thinking a bomb might go off because this is the room theyre in, and its booby trapped? Absolutely. Actor Bias. But we still have to get through the Practices of Exemplary Essay example, door. Instead of gunmen, the team found 20 to 30 students hidden in the kitchen area, as well as two male staff members hiding in the walk-in freezers. The team began to evacuate students and actor staff, even as Williams passed on a report that the shooters might be in the library or the The Five of Exemplary example, science area. JeffCo had been joined by more SWAT members from of Acid Denver, and the team passed small groups of students from Practices Leadership Essay one member to another and then out the marx and philosophic manuscripts, same window through which they had en- tered. Once outside, students were directed up the out- side stairs to be driven to safety.

Since the path took them past the bodies of both Daniel Rohrbough and Rachel Scott, officers told students to focus only on the person immediately in The Five Practices of Exemplary example, front of them. Away from the building at last, SWAT members took students to the east side, where law enforcement person- nel quickly searched them, not only looking for speech on good manners injuries, but trying to ascertain that the attackers were not among the Practices of Exemplary Essay, escaping students. To help, deputies had recruited Columbines two deans of Prevention students, Chris Mikesell and The Five Leadership Essay example Peter Horvath, stationing them near the tactical command post on the east side of the school. Marx Economic And Philosophic. Mikesell and Horvath scanned passing students, searching not only for Harris and Klebold, but also for students who were thought to be associates of the two, and Leadership Essay who might be accomplices in the attack. Once checked, students were supposed to duck through a hole cut in the fence and board buses waiting on an adjacent residential street.

Because of economic manuscripts a lack of The Five Leadership Essay communication, though, Arapahoes Captain Campbell says, a Denver officer down the street was stopping buses at first and wouldnt let them pass. By the time the buses came down to pick these kids up and on good transport them over to The Five Essay example Leawood, the kids had already said, Screw this, Im out of here, says Campbell. With the two SWAT teams in the building, mean- while, SWAT commanders Manwaring and DiManna had returned to the tactical command post on the east side of the person horror movies, building. Manwaring, who finally had got- ten a current floor plan for the school from Leadership school ad- ministrators, sent in some additional SWAT members after the original two teams to help secure the observer, evacua- tion routes. Practices Of Exemplary Example. He did not, however, send new teams into. other parts of the school, fearing that too many SWAT teams inside would add to the confusion and unaccept- ably increase the risk of friendly fire. Although communications at bias Columbine were patchy and unreliable on April 20, due to overloaded cell phone systems and incompatible radios, information continued to pour into the JeffCo Sheriffs command post. Despite periodic breakdowns, the three dispatchers in the mo- bile command bus were receiving messages from the The Five Leadership example, JeffCo dispatch center, other regional dispatchers, county officials, school officials, the tactical command post, and person movies officers responsible for the different aspects of the The Five Essay, response. In addition, messages were being relayed in John Herdman: The Study Double example, regarding cell phone calls made to of Exemplary Leadership families, police, and marx economic and philosophic manuscripts even television and The Five Leadership Essay radio stations by students trapped in the school. Finally, there was a constant stream of re- ports, queries, and requests from peopleofficial and otherwisewho had gathered around the command post. There was so much information coming in, in Essay Prevention, such a short period of time, that it was absolutely phys- ically impossible for any one person to Practices get a handle on what was going on, recalls Chuck Burdick, Littleton Fires main representative at and philosophic manuscripts the command post. At one point in of Exemplary Essay, time, I remember very vividly my brain just say- ing, Absolute overload. I got to the point where I didnt hear anything. Not even gray noiseit was no noise at all.

It was the strangest experience Ive ever had. The volume of information wasnt the only problem, Burdick says. Bloody. Because it sometimes took a long time for The Five Essay messages to get through, he says, many accounts were outdated, leading to a skewed understanding of speech what was happening inside the school. Early on, for ex- ample, reports of gunfire in one area of the building were sometimes received along with later accounts of shots and explosions in other parts of the The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay, building, lead- ing responders to assume that there were more than two gunmen at work. Thats what led law enforcement to think there were six or more shooters in the school, Burdick explains. SWAT member DeAndrea, who recalls being pep- pered with information as he was first working his way through the high school, says he had great sympathy for those on mary, the outside trying to Practices of Exemplary Essay unravel conflicting ac- counts. Observer. Go back and look at Practices example the hundreds of people who are around that command post with information, he says, on top of the hundreds of phone calls that are. coming in to a very small number of people. If I call in and tell you one thing, and somebody else calls in and tells you another thing, who knows whose information is more correct? Were not computers to process all this information and get it all out accurately. He adds: Ill tell you, I was happier to be inside the on good manners, school than to be at the command post. Much of the crush of information was unavoidable. The Five Practices Essay Example. But, according to some responders on scene, com- manders could have eliminated a portion of the extra- neous input.

Although it was standard practice among law enforcement to cordon off a command post during a major incident, JeffCo had not stationed officers around the mobile command trucks, and didnt isolate the vehicles with crime scene tape until later in the af- ternoon. As a result, people came and went relatively freely. There was no actual command post security, complains one command level officer. So you had re- porters, police who just showed up, citizens, concerned parents, and kids who were victims, all co-mingling around these command posts. In addition, says the of- ficer, Undersheriff Dunaway continued to spend too much time outside talking, and too little time inside di- recting operations. When youre running something, you cant be standing out in the parking lot next to your command post where theres no perimeter security, be- cause 50 people are going to talk to you. He needed to John Herdman: of the Double Essay be in somewhere, sitting down, getting fed information, and he didnt do that. Dunaway and some others, though, dismiss the charge that students or parents came close to the com- mand posts. Moreover, the Undersheriff says, his con- versations outside the post, which included periodic meetings with Sheriff Stone and chief investigator Lieu- tenant Kiekbusch, were a necessary part of the effort to learn more about Harris and Klebold, to search for ad- ditional suspects, and to Practices of Exemplary Leadership ascertain whether the mary, attack was going to spread beyond the high school. I needed to retain a certain distance from the operational aspects of The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example it in order to marx economic and philosophic contemplate the policy-level issues that we might face that day, Dunaway says. Managing the Media. Just as Columbine was the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, biggest and most complex incident that most local emergency responders had ever confronted, so it was the biggest event most local media had ever covered, and quickly became a leading national and international story as well. When Steve.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 273. 274 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Davis, public information officer (PIO) for economic and philosophic the JeffCo Sheriffs Office, first left for Columbine at about 11:30 that morning, though, he had no idea how important the event would become.29 Following his usual practice, Davis pulled out a standard call list as he drove and began phoning local TV stations, newspapers, and radio stations. I told them Ive got a report of shots fired, ex- plosions at the school, Im on my way down there, and Ill try to pick a place to The Five of Exemplary Essay meet, Davis recalls. By the time he got to Columbine at about 11:45, Davis says, there were at least two television crews and a radio station on scene, as well as a few PIOs from other jurisdictions who had reported in actor, case Davis needed help. Already it was clear that the incident was going to be too large to handle by simply traveling from one media representative to another.

Moreover, it was essential that reporters and camera crews be kept away from the command post, so that they wouldnt bother law enforcement officials managing the response. Ac- cordingly, Davis, with the help of the other PIOs, told reporters that all interviews would take place at a des- ignated media center in The Five Practices Leadership Essay example, the parking lot at the northeast corner of Clement Parka recreational area which abutted the high schools north side. Although the in- formation hed been able to gather was extremely sketchy, Davis says, he began giving interviews to Essay Prevention the media outlets already there, standing behind a podium that one of the TV stations had brought along. As the seriousness of the attack at Columbine began to The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay emerge, however, and as news operations flocked to the scene, Davis soon realized he could not satisfy the barrage of John The Study Double Essay requests for individual interviews. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Example. At 1:30, he held the first of what would be an ongoing series of hourly news conferences. Having such frequent press conferences turned out to be critical, Davis says, since it helped keep information current and accurate. The Study Of The Essay Example. There were so many rumors and myths getting started, it gave me a chance to confirm stories or chop them off right at of Exemplary example the root immediately, instead of letting them fester all day, he explains. On the other hand, the actor observer bias, hourly updates made it al- most impossible for Davis to stay abreast of the latest developments himself. Most of the news conferences would run 30 to 40 minutes with questions and an- swers, he recounts. When I ended that, I would start to walk out and was just mobbed by media wanting an individual interview. By the time I got done doing that, it was time for the next news conference. I would liter- ally have to run over to the command post, stick my head in, and The Five Practices example say, OK, whats new?

Whats changed? Or, Im hearing questions about this and this, do we have anything on that, can we address this? And then Id run back to the microphones and hold another news confer- ence. Although Davis could have appointed someone else to observer bring him updates from the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, command post, he felt it essential that he hear the person, information firsthand. There were so many concerns about what was going out and the accuracy of what was going out, he notes, that I wanted to Leadership hear it straight from those people before I turned around and movies went to the microphones.30. Despite his efforts to keep the press cloistered in one area, Davis says, some media representatives sought out more dramatic stories and footage. Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Example. Several journalists got near to the command post, and marx economic and philosophic a TV reporter at the Yukon/Caley triage area interviewed wounded students, even though families had not yet been notified of the students injuries. Far more alarming to law enforcement were televised reports that revealed sensitive details of the response. Helicopter news footage early on, for ex- ample, showed Manwarings SWAT team making its slow approach to the school behind the cover of the fire truck. Obviously, Davis says, the concern is The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay, that if your gunmen were in there watching TV, they would have known exactly where we had people. Moreover, a local TV station broadcast live conversations with stu- dents trapped in the school who had called the station on their cell phones. The kids are saying, Im holed up in the science room with 23 other kids and Essay of Acid Rain weve got the door barricaded, recalls Davis. And were thinking, Get that off the air! Now were telling the Practices, gunmen exactly which room to go to in order to find 23 more hostages. Even the helicopters, themselves, posed a problem, kicking up dirt that in some cases tem- porarily blinded the rooftop snipers, and making it harder for responders outside the observer, building to hear.31. Members of the JeffCo Sheriffs Office also had to be vigilant in restricting the press to a media area outside of Leawood Elementary. As the afternoon wore on, more and more panic-stricken students and parents were gath- ering. Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Example. School staff, working with law enforcement, had posted a list of those students who had reported ina list that they updated every 15 minutes.

The SWAT Response Continues. The efforts by the command staff and by Steve Davis to mary digest and act upon incoming information were mir- rored inside Columbine by the intensive efforts of the SWAT teams to understand what they were seeing and. hearing and to make appropriate decisions. Of Exemplary Essay Example. At 2:17, JeffCo SWAT leader Barry Williams, in Essay Prevention of Acid Rain, charge of the west side team, divided his group in half in order to move more quickly through the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, lower level of the school. And Philosophic. The sense of urgency driving the team had only increased. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Essay Example. Shortly before 2:00, Williams had received the speech on good manners, first reports from dispatch alluding to the critically injured Dave Sanders, one alerting him to an injured teacher in the science area, while anotherlater found to have identified the wrong roomsaid a male was doing CPR on a victim in the library, and that a blue and of Exemplary Leadership example white shirt was hanging from the door knob to mary signal the victims presence. In addition, one of the two snipers on the roof radioed Williams at 2:15 to report the The Five example, sign in actor observer, the second-story window reading, 1 bleeding to death. Although Williams had asked dispatch for direc- tions to reach the victim, though, his connection with dispatch was erratic, and he apparently was never given a clear description of where the science wing or the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership, li- brary were located. From the reports he had received, it wasnt even clear whether there was just one victim, or a few in Prevention of Acid, different parts of the school. While Williams moved with half the team into the business and computer classrooms, A. J. DeAndrea took a team of three JeffCo deputies and a Denver officer and headed into the auditorium, where they had been warned shooters might be concealed on the catwalk. Alarms and strobe lights were still assaulting their senses, DeAndrea says, making it extremely difficult for The Five members of first person horror movies even the same team to talk. You cant hear anything, he remembers. Basically, everything is hand signals, be- cause unless Im in The Five Essay, your face yelling, youre not going to manuscripts be able to communicate. DeAndrea also had trouble hearing dispatch reports, he says, and couldnt commu- nicate well with the other half of the JeffCo SWAT team, let alone Simmonss SWAT team on the other side of the The Five Leadership Essay, school, because the line-of-sight radios didnt receive well within the core of the building. Barry [Williams] and speech I communicated very rarely, he says. I was getting some transmissions, but Im sure that I missed a lot. After checking the auditorium, which was empty, DeAndreas group emerged on of Exemplary Leadership example, the upper level of the school, where a dispatch report had indicated there might be students hidden nearby.

The teams progress had accelerated, DeAndrea says, once additional Denver officers with a lighter ram had joined his group. In fact, one of the few encouraging aspects of the re- sponse was the ease with which members of the two teams interacted, despite the of the Essay, fact that SWAT teams rarely worked with other jurisdictions.32 There was not. a glitch, DeAndrea says. There were no egos that day. There was no posturing. It was a total team effort. In addition, although there were now a couple dozen SWAT members working their way through the school including some who had become separated from their teams, and The Five who had only irregular radio contact with other officersno SWAT members mistakenly shot at each other. We had a huge potential for friendly fire, says Arapahoes SWAT commander, Bruce Williamson, and thank god that never happened. Nevertheless, the fear that the presence of too many teams inside might trigger accidental injuries or death remained a con- straint. According to one report, the Lakewood SWAT team, which had positioned itself south of the school, volunteered to try to myth rescue the bleeding victim upstairs, having seen the Practices Leadership Essay example, sign in manners, the window. The Five Practices Essay Example. But incident com- mander Walcher vetoed the attempt, claiming there would be too much risk of surprising teams already in- side and precipitating dangerous crossfire.33. Upstairs at last, DeAndrea says, SWAT members could see motion in a room close by, off of the choir room in actor bias, the music section.

When the team breached the door of the room at 2:24, DeAndrea says, they found 60 students crammed into one small space. Practices Of Exemplary Leadership. Theyre ter- rified, he says. Ive never seen fear like this before. You physically grab one child, pull them out, and the rest follow, if you will, in a straight line. DeAndrea had been told there could be a shooting victim nearby, he says. But he also knew it was his re- sponsibility to get the 60 students to safety. Now we have a problem, he says. Weve got 60 kids. Its neg- ligent for first person movies us to leave them in there knowing that there are bombs inside this school. Do we know if any bombs are on a timer? Is the whole school going to blow up?

We stop everything, and The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example we need to get these 60 out, and were in the dead center of the school. DeAndreas team set to work, hurrying students in groups of ten out the west side of the school along the exact route SWAT had used to enter, with a SWAT mem- ber at the head, middle, and end of each cluster. In a normal SWAT response, DeAndrea says, not only would the mary, team have patted down all the students as potential suspects, it would have handcuffed them until they could be properly searched outside. But given the pressure to get the Practices of Exemplary, students out of the building safely, DeAndrea simply ordered them to keep their hands on first movies, their heads until an officer told them to take them down. The news helicopter footage of students existing the school with their hands on top of their heads became an enduring image of the Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, Columbine tragedy.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at myth Columbine High School 275. 276 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. As DeAndreas team was evacuating the students, a further drama was occurring outside. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Essay Example. A deputy who had spent the speech manners, previous two hours conducting air surveil- lance from a news helicopter radioed dispatch that someone was trying to climb out a broken window on the schools southwest side.34 The Lakewood SWAT team, which had been checking the parking lot for vehicles belonging to Harris and Klebold, convinced an armored car company to loan them a bulletproof car.

Just after they drove the armored car to the side of the school, SWAT members managed to Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay catch the seriously injured student, Patrick Ireland, as he fell from the library window.35. The Final Discoveries. Between 2:30 and 2:45 that afternoon, the speech manners, three main SWAT teams searching and The Five of Exemplary Leadership example clearing Columbine High School began to converge. Bias. After removing the The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay, 60 stu- dents from the choir room, DeAndreas team found two more groups of person about 30 students each in two nearby rooms and handed them to Simmonss team, which had just worked its way down the southern east-west hall- way, to escort out the east side of the building. The group led by Barry Williams, meanwhile, had finished its search of the Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, business wing downstairs, and had mounted the stairs by the cafeteriacoming up just down the hall from the Essay Prevention of Acid, other two teams and The Five Practices Leadership example heading into the science wing. Herdman: The Study Of The Essay. There the group found another 20 to 30 students, which Simmonss team again hurried out the east side. At 2:42, Williamss team finally reached the critically injured teacher, Dave Sanders, as well as about 60 stu- dents in that and an adjoining classroom. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Essay. Williams ra- dioed for medical help and Herdman: The Study of the Essay a member of the team stayed behind as the The Five Leadership example, others escorted the mary myth, traumatized students from the building. Although a second SWAT member soon returned to wait with Sanders, what happened next is The Five Practices Leadership, not entirely clear.

Because Sanders was so crit- ically injured, SWAT members apparently didnt feel they could move him from the building, and they waited for a paramedic to arrive. At the same time, however, paramedics continued to hover outside the east en- trance, expecting that the injured party would be car- ried out to them. Although Simmonss team had established an entry route from the east, paramedics, who wore no protective clothing, did not normally enter a building until it had been secured.36 After the two SWAT members waited for about 20 to 30 minutes, a. Denver paramedic finally arrived from the Double example, west side of the building. Tragically, however, Sanders had no pulse, and The Five Practices Leadership Essay the paramedic declared that he had died.37. The horror of the day had not yet ended, though.

Williamss SWAT team finally entered the library at 3:22, the last area of the school to Essay Rain be searched. Imme- diately, Williams radioed to dispatch. The Five Of Exemplary Essay Example. Barry Williams is a very calm, cool, collected man, DeAndrea says. You could hear in his voice there was something very wrong inside the library. The scene inside, DeAndrea says, was shocking and terribly sad. Although one girl with several gunshot wounds was still alive, twelve other students in the room were dead, most huddled under tables where they had tried to hide. Two, how- ever, surrounded by weapons and bombs, matched the actor, description of the gunmen, and appeared to Practices of Exemplary Essay have com- mitted suicide with gunshot wounds to speech on good the head. De- spite the apparent suicides, law enforcement still had to operate under the assumption that there might be ac- complices in the building or already outside. Given the many bombs visible in the room, SWAT moved as quickly as possible, radioing for paramedics, and The Five Essay evacuating four staff members found hiding in rooms off the library, including teacher Patti Nielson, who had climbed into a cupboard following the shooting spree almost four hours earlier. Essay Prevention Rain. As two paramedics removed the wounded student via the librarys emergency exitwalking around bombs in The Five Essay example, the hallwaythe SWAT team called for the bomb squad to take over.38. Back in the hall outside the Essay Prevention, library, DeAndrea says, the three SWAT teams studied a map that Williamss group had torn from the wall, and concluded they had searched the whole school. Even now, though, they didnt quit. The teams returned to the main lobby on of Exemplary Leadership example, the east side of the bloody, building, regrouped with reinforcements along normal jurisdictional lines, and went back through the building for a rapid second sweepthis time, finding no one alive.39 As the The Five Practices Leadership example, teams searched, the Littleton Fire Department was finally able to shut off the alarms and sprinkler systems. Outside, mean- while, Sheriff Stone and bloody mary myth Steve Davis held a news briefing at which Stone announced the The Five of Exemplary Leadership example, possibility of up to 25 dead as the Essay Prevention of Acid Rain, result of the attack.40 The actual toll that would emerge over the next several hours was grim enough: fourteen students and one teacher killedincluding the two gunmenand 24 victims injured.

The JeffCo Sheriffs Office, in its final report, declared the deadly shootings and Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay massacre at John Herdman: Double Essay example Columbine over after the SWAT teams completed their second search at Practices of Exemplary Leadership 4:45. More than 160 victims had been treated at four. triage sites for maladies ranging from shock to gunshot wounds, and Rain 24 students had been transported to Practices of Exemplary area hospitals. For SWAT members, particularly those who had been in the school since shortly after noon, the ex- perience had been overwhelming. Typically when we do a tactical operation and we make an entry into a high-risk situation, two minutes is a very long time, notes Williamson, the Arapahoe SWAT commander. This went on for hours. The Study Of The. So the adrenaline dump and the noise and the screaming kids and the dead children and the blood and the carnage and the signs of the of Exemplary, ex- plosions from the horror movies, devices that went off in the school they were dealing with that for a long time. When the team members finally emerged, Williamson says, everybody was fried.

Thats emotionally the worst day Ive ever dealt with. Ive got four kids of my own. I went home and hugged them all. By the end of the first day, almost 1,000 represen- tatives of area law enforcement and emergency re- sponse agencies had reported to The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay Columbine. While the Denver Police had provided the most aid to JeffCo during the shootings, followed by the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office and the Littleton Police, responders came from mary myth half a dozen sheriffs offices; 12 fire and example EMS agencies, employing 46 ambulances and two helicopters; 20 area police departments; the Bureau of Herdman: The Study of the Double Essay Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the of Exemplary, Colorado Bureau of Investigation; the FBI, and the Colorado National Guard.

The Bomb Squad and Investigators Take Over. If Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold hadnt scattered explo- sive devices around Columbine High School, investiga- tors would have been able to conduct an immediate crime scene analysis, which in all probability would have allowed the first person, coroner to identify the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay, victims and re- move their bodies from the school the night of the at- tack. As it was, the location and removal of marx and philosophic manuscripts bombs forced a delay in the identification of victims that was a final cruel twist for both families and responders. Although the 16 bomb technicians originally assem- bled, joined by The Five Practices Essay example, evidence collection experts from the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, worked quickly after the SWAT teams finished, they faced a monumental task. Person Horror Movies. There were bombs easily vis- ible in the library, in hallways, outside doors, and even on the roof. More troubling, though, was the likelihood of hiddenand possibly timedexplosive devices. In. the cafeteria alone there were more than 400 un- searched backpacks, and the school had 1,952 lockers, any one of The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay which could contain a bomb. Technicians first disposed of all the bombs from the library that they could retrieve without moving any of the bodies, including those of Klebold and Herdman: Essay example Harris, since the victims had to remain undisturbed until investiga- tors had completed their initial crime scene analysis.

Late that afternoon, as bomb experts discussed which part of the school to The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay clear next, though, Deputy Inspec- tor Joe Dempsey, team leader of the Arapahoe County Sheriffs bomb squad, along with a Denver bomb squad detective, spotted the top of an alarm clock poking out from a large, blanket-covered mound in marx and philosophic, the back seat of a car identified as Klebolds. Practices Of Exemplary Essay. A check of Harriss car soon after revealed a similar blanket-covered shape. Given the danger posed by the large bombs, experts had to clear the cars before returning to bloody myth the building. In all, technicians removed two 20-pound propane tanks, 20 gallons of gasoline, propane combustible liquids, and several pipe bombs from the two vehicles. That night, some of the bomb experts accompanied five new SWAT teams that were brought in at about 10:30 p.m. to conduct a third sweep of the building, while oth- ers continued the painstaking search for Practices Essay example bombs. Bomb squad commanders called off the John Herdman: The Study Double Essay, clearing process, though, after an overly tired technician lowering a pipe bomb into a special disposal trailer at about 10:40 p.m. bumped the device into the side, setting off an The Five Practices Leadership Essay explosion that threw 15 live bombs out of the trailer. We were get- ting a lot of pressure because the evidence people and the command staff and the familieseverybody wanted into that school, explains Deputy Dan Davis, a mem- ber of the Arapahoe bomb team. Essay. But we couldnt say that it was safe for them to Leadership Essay go there. Parents who were still waiting at speech Leawood Elementary for The Five word of observer bias their missing children were advised by 11:30 p.m. to go home for the night. At 7:30 a.m. the following morning, April 21, the coroner and Practices Leadership Essay example a team from the JeffCo Sheriffs Office re- turned to speech the library, followed by two forensic teams, to Practices collect evidence, identify the deceased, and take videos and Essay Prevention of Acid photographs of the crime scene. Of Exemplary Essay. Investiga- tors, relying primarily on physical descriptions provided by waiting parents the bloody mary myth, previous night, identified all the victims by noon, and The Five Practices Leadership officials notified the families soon after.41 With the preliminary investigation finished, bomb technicians returned and discovered 19 more bombs under the bodies of Harris and Klebold. The bodies were finally removed from Columbine late that afternoon. If it ever happens to anybody again, I would.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 277. 278 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. hope that they make a contingency plan to photograph everybody and move the bodies the first night so you can look for devices, because having to go back in myth, there again was very traumatic for The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example those guys, says Joe Dempsey. We would have felt better had we known that we were able to take the kids out of the library that first night. Before a full-fledged investigation of the incident could begin, the bomb squads still had to clear the rest of the school, including the backpack-strewn cafeteria, where technicians had already found a large propane tank bomb that had failed to explode. Actor. Given the enormity of the task, and the desire to move forward quickly, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and The Five of Exemplary Leadership example Firearms brought in dogs trained to sniff out explosives, and took them through as the experts in the library were finishing. That afternoon, after the dogs completed their work, officials declared the building safe enough for investigators to enter. But per- haps due to sensory overload from all of the ammunition, detonated bombs, and other explosive materials in the building, the dogs missed one of the two largest bombs in the schoola second 20-pound propane bomb with a timer hidden in a duffel bag in speech on good, the cafeteria. After a tech- nician spotted the bomb Thursday, he ordered everyone from the building, and bomb squad members returned for a meticulous backpack-by-backpack search.

According to plans and homemade videotapes later uncovered by investigators, Harris and Practices of Exemplary Leadership Klebold had timed the two propane bombs to explode in the cafe- teria at 11:17, when the room was likely to be teeming with almost 500 students. First. The two then planned to shoot those students who tried to escape.42 They had set the car bombs, meanwhile, to go off about 20 minutes after the cafeteria bombs, as emergency personnel rushed to the scene. Had the plan worked as envi- sioned, bomb experts say, the exploding tanks and en- suing giant fireballs probably would have killed or injured many of the students in the area, and might have caused parts of the library to collapse into the cafeteria. The good Lord was looking after this school and Practices Essay example all those kids because neither one of those bombs went off in the cafeteria, says Robert Armstrong of Ara- pahoe. Thats a big thing. Bad bomb makers made for a lot of marx manuscripts live kids. Practices Of Exemplary Example. Weve got to be thankful for that.

In all, bomb technicians found 76 explosive de- vices at the school, as well as two bombs in The Study of the Double Essay, the field, 13 in the two cars, and eight more at The Five Practices the two students houses, for a total of 99. Last year we had 79 bomb calls, says Dan Davis of the Arapahoe bomb squad, and a lot of those were just suspicious packages. This was well over a years worth of devices in one. night. With the mary myth, bomb work finally done, meanwhile, the main crime scene investigation began in The Five of Exemplary example, earnest. Essay Of Acid. When completed in mid-June, seven teams had col- lected more than 10,000 pieces of evidence, taken some 10,000 photographs, and conducted about 5,000 interviews. In mid-July, the county school dis- trict finally was allowed to begin making repairs and alterations to the badly damaged school building.43.

With the investigation concluded, Columbine still did not fade quickly from the nations consciousness. Over the The Five Practices of Exemplary example, following months, commentators, politicians, and othersbacking a range of John Herdman: The Study example causes from The Five Practices of Exemplary gun control, to curtailed violence in movies, to increased parental involvementpointed to Herdman: example the shootings at the high school as a poignant and powerful symbol of the need for Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example change in American society. While residents in the Columbine area also mulled these issues, for many, an speech on good examination of the emergency response, itself, became the primary focus. Newspaper articles critical of law en- forcement actions appeared within days of the shootings, and several months later, the families of victims brought lawsuits against emergency responders, the Practices Leadership, school, and even the parents of Eric Harris and on good Dylan Klebold. Even without this outside scrutiny, though, the shootings at Columbine would remain etched in the minds of all those who were there on April 20, 1999, whether students, teachers, or SWAT members. The Five Practices Leadership Essay. And for Prevention Rain many, the questions raised by the experience would never be easily answered. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Essay Example. I think about John Essay this thing every day of my life, says JeffCo SWAT mem- ber A.J. DeAndrea. I have to read about The Five Essay example it every day in the newspaper. I see those kids lying there every day. On Good Manners. Ive soul searched, what could I have done dif- ferently?

What could I have done better? He adds: The only way I could have changed it is to have been right there, to of Exemplary Leadership Essay example know it was going to go down, and to have been able to engage them the second that they started. And lives still would have been lost. 1. It would be months more before some investi- gators accepted that the carnage unleashed that day had been the work of just those two. 2. Though the school had a Littleton address, it actu- ally lay about two-and-a-half miles outside the on good, city border. 3. As was the case with about 50 percent of Practices of Exemplary example SWAT teams nationwide, JeffCo SWAT members didnt have designated take-home cars in marx and philosophic, which they. could keep their tactical equipment. As a result, 16. when paged for a SWAT response, most members headed first to the Sheriffs Office to gather their equipment and then drove together to Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay the scene. Full-time urban SWAT teams, by actor bias, contrast, typi- cally kept their equipment with them at all times, and could report directly to a developing incident.

4. Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Essay Example. In addition to original interviews, this account re- 17. lies heavily on bloody, the Jefferson County Sheriffs Office Report in CD-ROM format, titled, Columbine High School Shootings: April 20, 1999. Due to. legal proceedings related to The Five Leadership example the shootings at Columbine, many law enforcement responders declined to be interviewed for this case study. 18. 5. Observer Bias. The two students killed outside of the school were Rachel Scott and Daniel Rohrbough. The student first reported as injured in The Five Practices Leadership example, the parking lot, mean- 19. while, was Anne Marie Hochhalter, who survived the attack, but whose injuries left her paralyzed. 6. The objects reported as hand grenades were later found to be small home-made bombs. 7. Thirty-four students who were also in Essay Prevention of Acid, the library. were uninjured.

20. 8. The man was later discovered to be a heating and air conditioning repairman who was there to The Five Essay example fix a leak. Bloody Mary Myth. He was removed from the roof. shortly after noon. 9. According to the JeffCo Sheriffs Report, instead. of a gunman, the students were hearing custo- dians with keys and school radios.

10. Harriss nickname was Reb, which may have 21. aggravated confusion over his first name. 11. Although Columbine wasnt in Arapahoe County, several members of the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office 22. command staff reported before JeffCo because their headquarters was only The Five Practices of Exemplary, a few miles away, while it was about 15 miles to JeffCos headquar- ters in Golden. 23. 12. DiManna was off duty when the shooting broke out, but drove directly to Columbine when he. heard the marx economic manuscripts, report on The Five example, his radio.

13. Jefferson County Sheriffs Office Report, Col- umbine High School Shootings: April 20, 1999, Narrative Time Line of Events: 11:10 a.m. to 11:59 a.m. 24. 14. Actor Bias. Littleton Fires own ambulances, known in The Five, the department as rescue units, only handled criti- cal patients, in order to keep fire resources freed up for emergencies. 15. The victim was Daniel Rohrbough, one of the 25. first students to be killed by the shooters. The congestion was worse than it might have been, Rahne says, because Denver police didnt trust the capabilities of outlying agencies and had called for their own fire department and paramedics to report. All of a sudden, he says, we had Denver police, Denver fire, and Den- ver paramedics all coming.

Fire and law enforcement agencies managing a major incident usually each established a basea designated area near the incident where arriving resources could assemble and be briefedand staging areas, from which ready resources could be deployed. The individual was questioned and later re- leased. According to the JeffCo Sheriffs report, he claimed to observer be there to help the police. Although law enforcement and the media ini- tially seized on Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, the Trench Coat Mafia angle, students identified with this set were later found to be so loosely organized that they didnt con- stitute a real group, and Harris and Klebold werent even members of that crowd. The bomb that initially exploded in mary myth, the field was inside a backpack, and detonated after a road worker picked up the bag and tossed it aside. The Five Practices. A bomb in a second backpack nearby exploded soon after, probably ignited by the fire. Bomb technicians were never able to determine whether the device functioned as planned, or was simply triggered when thrown. Mobile command trucks from first Denver and Arapahoe County had arrived earlier and The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay were being used for other functions. While clearing cars might seem a mundane job for SWAT, Sheriff Sullivan says it was actually a fine fit. Number one, theyre a team. Manners. Number two, theyre very healthy, very strong individuals. Some agencies tried to The Five of Exemplary connect using established mutual aid channels, such as Colorado Law En- forcement Emergency Radio (CLEER), or Interna- tional Tactical Channel (ITAC). Even these, however, had frequency constraints, with CLEER being a UHF channel, and ITAC only available to users of 800 MHz systems.

The group had to move slowly, observers say, because the fastest and most direct route to the west entrance went right by the school, within easy shooting range of any gunmen who might be inside. After shots were exchanged during the initial medical rescues on Essay Prevention of Acid, the south side of the school, Susan Rosegrant / The. Shootings at Columbine High School 279. 280 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Littleton Fire had concluded it was too danger- ous to send in more paramedics until the Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, build- ing was secured. 37. 26. The deceased students were Rachel Scott and Daniel Rohrbough, the latter being the student already pronounced dead by the paramedics 38. more than a half hour before. 27.

Investigators later speculated that those hidden 39. were actually hearing the sounds of SWAT teams breaking down doors. 28. Unlike many SWAT commanders, Manwaring often deployed to the site with the team instead of remaining at a tactical command post, al- though he didnt enter the building. 29. Davis had been with the Sheriffs Office for 20 years, eighteen-and-a-half of them in speech manners, uniform before becoming the PIO. 40. 30. Among the breaking stories Davis had to Practices Essay example deal with early that afternoon was the apprehen- sion by economic manuscripts, officers of three young men dressed in The Five Practices Leadership example, black who were walking near the school. The three were let go a few hours later after police concluded they had no connection with Columbine or the shootings.

41. 31. The JeffCo Sheriffs Office eventually asked the Federal Aviation Administration to impose tempo- rary flight restrictions over the school to clear the airspace. 32. Marx Economic And Philosophic. In his four years on SWAT, DeAndrea had only worked with another team during one incident. 42. 33. David Olinger, The Denver Post, Columbine Rescuers in the Dark: Officers in School Were Unaware of Dying Teacher, May 30, 1999. 34.

The JeffCo Sheriffs own helicopter arrived later in the afternoon, but did not contribute to the response. 43. 35. Essay. Ireland, who had been shot twice in the head, recovered, but remained partially paralyzed on person horror, his right side. 36. By this time, Littleton Fire had established two additional triage sites to of Exemplary Leadership Essay treat the injured, Chapter 9 Review Questions. including one right outside the main east entrance.

Through the investigation that followed, it re- mained unclear whether earlier medical atten- tion might have saved Dave Sanderss life. The injured student, Lisa Kreutz, survived her injuries. Teams wrote the names of their jurisdictions and the time searched on the door of each room, De- Andrea says, to make it clear which rooms they had checked. Marx Economic And Philosophic Manuscripts. The only untoward occurrence of the second sweep was when a SWAT team used frangible slugs fired from a shotgun to blow the hinges off a locked door without warning the other teams in Practices Leadership, advance, sparking a short-lived armed response. Stone was roundly criticized for releasing such an inaccurate figure.

According to Davis, though, the bloody, number was not far out of line, given the conflicting reports theyd received from inside the school, and the number of crit- ically injured students already rushed to hospi- tals who were not expected to survive. Although the coroner wanted to Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example withhold notifications until after a formal identification, District Attorney David Thomas and a few associates broke the news to families still wait- ing at bloody myth Leawood, as well as to those who had returned to their homes. Although Joe Dempsey says one of the timed pipe bombs intended to trigger a propane tank did go off, either because the The Five of Exemplary Essay, timer worked or because a pipe bomb tossed near it set it off, it didnt detonate with the force necessary to bloody mary puncture and ignite the propane tank. The most significant change was the demoli- tion of the The Five Leadership, library to and philosophic create an open atrium over the cafeteria. The school also added an The Five Practices Leadership Essay emer- gency exit door to the science wing. (Stillman, Richard. Herdman: The Study Of The Example. Public Administration, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning US, Aug-04. pp. cclxxxii cccv). Assignmnent Criteria for Unit 6 Annotated Bibliography: Write a paper analyzing your findings from your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and articles in the Course Articles and Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the public administration system could have been altered to change the outcome of the case study you chose.

Complete the following: Discuss and evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and the case study you chose. Discuss and The Five Practices Leadership evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the mary, case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of The Five Practices Essay public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the Essay Rain, following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of 1015 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Bloody Mary Myth. Include APA subheadings. Length of paper: 1520 double-spaced pages.

Font and The Five Practices Leadership Essay example font size: Arial 12 point. Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of economic contents, reference list, a literature review of the Practices Leadership Essay, theories and movies constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. In this assignment, you are required to of Exemplary Leadership prepare an annotated bibliography (23 pages) and a rough draft outline (23 pages, for a total of person 46 pages for the entire paper) for your case study analysis final project. You will use the research collected in this assignment to complete your final project. Step 1: Develop an Annotated Bibliography. Your annotated bibliography should: Provide a citation in APA style for each reference.

Provide a summary of the key ideas of each reference. Describe how each source relates to the course project topic. Provide a brief summary of each major content area. The Five Leadership Example. List subsections with each major content area. Step 2: Create a Rough Draft Outline of the Case Study Analysis. Identify and define the theories you will use in marx economic manuscripts, your case study analysis. (Note: Be sure to reference the author or developer of the theory.) Identify the public administration process or processes that relate to Practices of Exemplary Essay the case study. Identify the Prevention Rain, internal and external relationships that you will analyze regarding this case study. Your assignment should meet the The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of 10 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and The Study Essay formatting guidelines. Other resources such as Web sites, other journal articles, and videos can be included. Of Exemplary Essay Example. Cite these resources using APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines.

Include APA subheadings. Length of paper: 23 pages for annotated outline and Essay Prevention Rain 23 pages for The Five Practices Leadership annotated bibliography. Use double-spaced pages. Font and font size: Arial 12 point. u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria:

Write a paper analyzing your findings from your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and articles in the Course Articles and Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the first horror, public administration system could have been altered to change the Leadership, outcome of the movies, case study you chose. Complete the following: Discuss and evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and of Exemplary Leadership Essay the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. Write a conclusion to observer summarize what you learned and implications for the future of public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of of Exemplary example 1015 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Include APA subheadings. Length of bias paper: 1520 double-spaced pages.

Font and font size: Arial 12 point. Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of contents, reference list, a literature review of the theories and The Five of Exemplary constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. Place your order of custom research paper With us NOW. The assignment will be written from scratch by our qualified and experienced writers. A-Research-Paper.com is committed to deliver a custom paper/essay which is bloody myth, 100% original and deliver it within the deadline. Place your custom order with us and experience the different; You are guaranteed; value for your money and a premium paper which meets your expectations, 24/7 customer support and communication with your writer. Order Now. Use the order calculator below and The Five Leadership Essay example get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry. 2017 A-Research-Paper.com.

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50 Free Microsoft Word Resume Templates for Leadership example, Download. Microsoft Word resume templates are the speech manners, most frequently used tool in the job hunting. It also happens to be the most pivotal tool of job seekers. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership? Resumes can be drafted using almost any word processor or graphic design or even web design software. Marx Economic? But word processors are preferred in almost all scenarios. And Microsoft Word is the clear winner among word processors.

So everybody seeks for Microsoft Word resume templates. One good thing about of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, word resume templates is that they can be important in almost all of the famous word processors, such as OpenOffice and others. It can be frustrating having to create your resume. That is because resumes are the first person horror, first impression that will be made on your possible future employer. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Example? They introduce you, even before you introduce yourself. So it is clear that your resume has to be absolutely up to the mark. For that, you don#8217;t only John The Study, need good content but also good layout and design. These well formatted resumes will make writing a much easier task verses starting from scratch.

Its important to The Five Practices Leadership example, have your resume stand out from the job competition. These resume templates outline occupation skills and economic and philosophic, job experiences so an employer can see, at a glance, how you can contribute to the their company. If you follow the link by clicking the title above, you will find 7 beautiful Word resume templates. Practices Essay Example? Below Im sharing two of John The Study Essay example my favorites. Standard free CV Templates with a Flow Short design as the main graphical element for the template for Practices of Exemplary Essay example, you to download for free. This download contains multiple resume templates for Microsoft Word, including a general resume and a student resume. The resumes are designed using both a table format and an outline format. They can be used to create chronological or functional resumes. First Person? Each template provides structure, examples and The Five example, tips so that you don#8217;t have to start from scratch when creating your resume. When writing your resume, remember to follow the #8220;5 C#8217;s of Resume Writing#8221;: Be convincing, concise, clear, consistent, and clean. This is an unconventionally modern design.

I think it is ideal for professionals of all industries that related to manners, communication such as designing, writing, social media management, brand identity, marketing and similar other jobs. This Microsoft word template has the Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay, best use of typography. I have never seen a resume template use typography so beautifully. This is another one of those modern kind of design. Marx And Philosophic? These days, two-columned resumes are pretty trendy because they can contain loads of content on The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example, a single page. This resume template reminds me of old WordPress. So if you are a web developer, you might want to use this one.

Many Shades of Every Free CV Template for Microsoft Word. You can use there free word CV resume templates for all your personal and professional needs. John The Study Essay Example? Download them by clicking on the download links on the page, and open the downloaded file in Practices, your favorite writing software and modify it to reflect your own career profile. This website offers almost a dozen free word resume templates. Im listing two of my favorites, you can check out the rest by going to the link. And Philosophic? This is The Five Practices, a unique resume template.

It has that star rating system that enables to describe your expertise level in various kinds of actor observer bias skills in a very effective, yet quick way. This is The Five of Exemplary, a classic themed resume design that can ever hardly fail to Essay Prevention of Acid, impress the interviewer. Practices Leadership Example? This design shows that you are a serious professional. The good thing about such designs is person, that they put a lot of emphasis on your content and nothing else. This is quite a congested design that contains loads and loads of data one page. You should only use this template if you have loads to say about you but you wanna keep your resume to one page. Note: in design industry, congested resumes are not popular.

So if you are a designer, I#8217;d suggest you don#8217;t use this template. As the of Exemplary Leadership, name suggest, this resume is designed for people with a lot of experience to show. This is a congested resume design, it will not look beautiful if some parts are left empty. This is a beautiful classic themed template. I love this design but I just have one problem, I feel that this template is not that memorable . Otherwise, it is one of my favorites in actor bias, this collection. The Five Practices Essay Example? This simple and free Word template is first person horror, included in this list not because of its design but because of what the concept and structure of a comprehensive CV should be. In fact, the chronological resume template is the most traditional resume format.

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Another set of 3 pages for a free word resume template . This resume is designed for intermediate level professionals, containing three different aspects of pages. Convey your work experience to a potential employer with this blue line design template which features your work experience in chronological order. Emphasize your education with this formal resume template that includes an artfully designed header and a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. A modern resume template with an attractive color scheme and an indented resume body; includes a Quick Parts menu to John Herdman: The Study of the Double Essay example, select a header with or without a photo. A basic resume template with an The Five example oversized font and a shadowed border; includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. In this resume template your contact information is printed down the right side of the page, inscribed in Essay of Acid, white text against an orange column. Of Exemplary Essay Example? This basic resume template has a serene color scheme and includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without photo. This resume template is on good, framed by The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example a light gray border and highlights your work experience; includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without photo.

This resume template has a trio-colored header, is framed with a black border and includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. Microsoft Word Templates#8230; not exactly resumes. Bloody Mary Myth? These are Microsoft Word templates that are handy but they are not exactly resume templates. Accompany your unsolicited resume with this job application letter template which lists your strengths and conveys your desire to work. Leadership? Employees wishing to recommend a friend or colleague for a job with your company can use this form template to submit the candidate#8217;s resume to the Human Resources department or hiring manager. Essay Prevention Of Acid? Customize the template to match your company#8217;s referral program policies. The Five Of Exemplary Essay? Use this functional resume format to highlight your career accomplishments when applying for a position within the same company. The template lists accomplishments, professional experience, skills, and education. Use this cover letter template to bloody myth, respond to The Five Practices of Exemplary, job ads that request a salary requirement; includes a detailed job history and Herdman: Essay, a range of lowest to highest salary. Online Microsoft Word has a self sufficient and very simple mechanism to build a comprehensive resume for free in itself.

This site explains this procedure before you. I have shared a couple of cover letter templates in this collection, but do you know what makes a cover letter great? If you wanna to The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, learn the John Herdman: The Study, art of writing a killer cover letter then check out Practices Essay, my guide for writing impressive cover letters. Copyrights 2016 - Designzzz. All Rights Reserved.

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A reflective account of valuing diversity and The Five Practices Leadership Essay, one aspect of anti. A reflective account of valuing diversity and one aspect of marx and philosophic anti-discriminatory practice which relates to a client from Practices Leadership Essay example clinical placement. This is a reflective essay which will give an account of the bias concept of Practices valuing diversity and one aspect of anti-discriminatory practice. Its aim is to demonstrate these concepts by explaining their relationship with regards to a diverse client whom I have cared for during my placement. Valuing diversity is recognising differences and turning them into positive characteristics. Howard (2004) supports this theory by defining valuing diversity as being aware of, sensitive to, and appreciating differences. The Department of Health (2004) explain valuing diversity within the NHS and determines the importance that health professionals recognise, respect and value difference for the benefit of the organisation and its patients. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) incorporates the idea of non-judgemental care into its code of professional conduct by maintaining clause 7 of the actor UKCC Guidelines for Practices of Exemplary Leadership Professional Practice (1996, pp25) who instructed as a registered nurse, midwife or health visitor you are personally accountable for your practice.

In the exercise of your professional accountability you must recognise and respect the uniqueness and myth, dignity of each patient and client and respond to their need of care, irrespective of The Five Practices Essay example their ethnic origin, religious beliefs, personal attributes and the nature of their health problems or any other factors. Herdman: The Study Of The Essay! This emphasises the roles of health professionals in supporting people from different backgrounds, treating them fairly and protecting them from discrimination. Discrimination is the unfavourable treatment of people who are socially assigned to a particular category (Haralambos and Holborn 2000). They further explain how discrimination is closely linked with prejudices which are learned beliefs and values that make people biased against members of such groups. Discrimination within the nursing profession is explained by Moonie (2002) as a decision to deny one person or group the same rights as another. The Five Practices Leadership Essay! In order to examine these concepts it will be vital for the purpose of this paper to use reflection. Reflection on an experience has been developed as a learning tool in professional education in order to help promote the integration of theory into practice (Schon 1991).

I have chosen to use Johns (2000) model of structured reflection as a framework. This will help me to actor observer, describe and analyse an appropriately chosen scenario that has been extracted from my reflective journal, which is a structured diary that allows me to describe the Practices Essay example incident, how I felt, what satisfied me, what troubled me and bloody, what would have liked to have done differently. It is important to use reflection to ensure a conscious effort is made to become self aware of Practices of Exemplary Leadership my own actions and prejudices. Economic And Philosophic! Reflective practice is a self initiated method of achieving self awareness (Rowe 1999). Of Exemplary Leadership! Rawlinson (1990) suggests that it is not a matter of asking who we are, instead it is of great importance as a nurse to question the horror movies effects on clients after each interaction with them. Furthermore, we can become more objective in Essay our thinking by making a commitment to understand ourselves and and philosophic manuscripts, recognise how our values might influence our ability to understand others (Alfaro-LeFevre 1998). Reflection will also be used to question the verbal and of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, non-verbal communication used within the nurse-patient relationship. Communication is Herdman: of the example, defined by Dunne (2005) as the process where information, meanings and feelings are shared by people by exchanging verbal and non-verbal messages. This will play a fundamental role in order to distinguish both positive and of Exemplary Leadership, negative attitudes toward my chosen client. Williams et al (1998) explains the extent to how good communication is actor observer, demanded of nurses, therefore I will further show how communication with a particularly diverse client has made me more aware of Practices of Exemplary Essay example diverse issues in health care.

The scenario will allow me to examine the need to value diversity and the effect of anti discriminative practice in relation to my client and the provision of mary myth care, whilst paying attention to drug misuse and Practices Essay example, how communication can affect certain situations. Subsequently, this will show how I will endeavour to value diversity as a healthcare provider. In addition to reflection, Herons (2001) six category intervention analysis is speech on good, a tool that identifies six basic intentions that a nurse may have in the course of a client interaction. It provides a framework for identification of intentions and interactions thus enables analysis of The Five Essay example communication with others and first, will therefore attempt to demonstrate any improvements in a therapeutic relationship for The Five of Exemplary the benefit of observer bias both myself and my client. Interventions will refer to of Exemplary example, my verbal and non-verbal communication. Heron (2001) describes how non-verbal behaviour is critical in bloody mary myth determining how verbal communication comes across to the client. In order to maintain confidentiality I have provided my client with a pseudonym (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2002). John was a 34 year old gentleman who presented himself to the Accident and Emergency Department (A E) with swelling to his left leg. He was admitted on to the ward for investigations into a suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which is the formation of a blood clot (Hinchliff et al, 1996).

My first communication with John was on his admission to the ward. Initially, I carried out some admission forms, which involved gathering information from the client and of Exemplary Leadership, other relevant sources such as his case notes. Alfaro-LeFevre (1998) explains the importance of assessment and information gathering in order to put together a clear picture of a persons health state. My findings from case notes indicated that John was an speech on good manners, intravenous drug abuser, who used heroin on The Five Practices Essay example a daily basis. Drug misuse or abuse, are the terms used to describe the use of illegal, prescription-only or over-the-counter drugs, for purposes other than intended by the manufacturer or doctor (NHS 2005). Heroin is a narcotic which is produced from morphine, a compound which comes from the opium poppy (Alderson and Rowland 1995).

On finding the information relating to my clients health state, I recalled hearing two staff nurses joking in the office earlier that day by myth saying oh joy, were getting another bloody smack head, it then became apparent who the The Five Practices Leadership example nurses must have been talking about. Observer Bias! Therefore, this remark was significant in relation to The Five Practices example, diversity and discrimination, and the possible effects this could have on Johns care. Another comment was made by the same nurse, as I collected some admission documents from the nurses station. Manuscripts! This time she was explaining how John has had recurrent admissions to the ward with deep vein thrombosis, described him as awkward and questioned why the Trust allows such people to take up beds. At that time I felt sympathetic towards John, as I did not think it was fair for him to be spoke about in that context. It is of Exemplary Leadership example, true that up to 400,000 hospital admissions within the UK are linked to the use of illicit drugs (BBC 2005). As a Nurse, this form of bloody stereotyping could have an The Five Practices Leadership Essay, adverse effect on holistic care and Pollard (2002) explains drug misuse is being overlooked, and does not receive the quantity of support that is myth, needed.

However, the Department of Health (2000) issued The Vital Connection, a framework that aims to ensure the NHS uses its resources to make a difference to the health and life opportunities of Leadership local communities by of Acid Rain meeting the The Five Practices diverse needs of different groups and bloody mary myth, individuals. The practical scenario I have decided to use expresses my own prejudice and how I blamed diversity in relation to drug addiction on my clients communication and behaviour during his initial admission and without looking at the wider picture. Initially, I was quite apprehensive about admitting John but wasnt sure why. I have carried out numerous admissions and maintained confidence in this task, but finding he was a young, male drug abuser made me feel uneasy. I was unsure of reasons for my own somewhat negative opinion as I had never had much experience or interaction with drug addicts.

I hoped to see John as an individual and not as a member of a social deviant group. Monahan (2006) claims that people who use class A drugs cause trouble within society. This leads me to believe that as a consequence of the society in which we live, I have only ever heard negativity about those who abuse drugs. The term deviance is used to describe differences from accepted standards within society and The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay, is closely associated with the labelling theory which focuses on the reaction of other people and the subsequent effects of Essay those reactions which create deviance (Williams et al 1998). In addition, the lifestyles of heroin users are often portrayed in very negative ways by Practices of Exemplary Leadership the media and it is likely that many people use labelling and form a negative stereotypical view of people who have used this drug (Clark 2005). Nevertheless, I assured myself to try and maintain professionalism and introduced myself to John, who was sitting on his bed looking very anxious and agitated.

His non-verbal communication showed me that he probably had lack of trust for me. Of Acid! On asking how he was feeling his quick sarcastic reply just great made me feel quite belittled and The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay, embarrassed. Essay Prevention Of Acid Rain! Jones (1994) explains how building relationships to establish trust is Practices Essay, sometimes difficult and time consuming and meeting the on good emotional needs of The Five Practices Leadership Essay example clients may involve some personal cost. Heron (2001) explains how observation provides information which allows the nurse to then make a decision from. In this situation, the indicating information was that John sat and observer bias, bit his nails while staring at me, it was clear that something was making him feel unsettled. I had quickly made my own assumption that he obviously needed a fix and The Five Practices Leadership, firstly looked at on good, his prescription chart to find when he had last consumed methadone, which is a potent synthetic narcotic drug that is less addictive than morphine or heroin and is used as a substitute for these drugs (Oxford Dictionary for Nurses 1998). I found John was not due for any medication, therefore I did not mention my reasons for looking.

I asked permission to ask a series of questions which would make up a personal file for my client. John made a hand gesture that I interpreted as sit down therefore, I took this as implied consent and The Five Leadership, sat in a chair next to the bed. Implied consent relates to behaviour that indicates if the Prevention Rain patient is agreeing to what has been proposed (NHS 2002). Firstly, I ensured to The Five, present a close open posture, maintain good eye contact and use open ended questions in an attempt for first movies John to use some description in his answers, thus allowing me to retrieve as much information possible. The Five Leadership Example! I also hoped this would allow him to observer bias, bring up his drug addiction as opposed to me having to ask.

According to Heron (1989) I had adopted a facilitative intervention approach, which enables the client to take the majority of control. Therefore, I gave him time after each question, but found this quite awkward as he only provided short answers with an aggressive tone in his voice. Price (2005) explains how tempting it is to The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, think that health assessment just means asking questions, but pausing long enough to see and speech manners, hear can sometimes provide us with useful clues for further enquiries. Johns attitude towards me seemed quite negative and made me feel inadequate. Attitudes are learned predispositions to think, feel and The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example, behave towards a person in a particular way (Allport 1954, cited by Erwin 2001). John remained nervous and John The Study of the Essay example, agitated just as I imagined drug addicts to be. However, reflecting on Johns non verbal communication and relating it with my own, I remember how my eyes would sometimes drift to glance at his arms thinking I might find needle marks and bruises and attempting to fulfil my own curiosity. I could sense that John was becoming irritated and of Exemplary Leadership example, appeared impatient which seemed to make my verbal communication quick. When reflecting on this part of the scenario, my communication did not meet the Prevention of Acid professional approach intended by myself at the beginning of the interview and could not have made any contribution to of Exemplary, the therapeutic relationship that I was hoping for. Bloody Mary Myth! I was very judging and blamed Johns behaviour on his addiction even though my own actions probably contributed to The Five Essay, his behaviour towards me.

On realising my failing attempt of communicating, I therefore composed myself and adopted a more proactive approach. This involved quick thinking and horror movies, good use of self awareness. I ensured an appropriate pace and tone in my voice when specific questions were asked. Thompson (2002) suggests talking fast can convey excitement, anger, anxiety, arrogance or irritation so you must be aware of your verbal speech. Having avoided the subject of drugs initially, I felt it was appropriate in relation to activities of living, therefore I approached the issue by asking I believe you use heroin on replying correct, I further went on to ask how often he injected and if it affected his life. At the time, I doubted myself and thought I had bombarded John with such personal questions, and found myself to be quite uncaring with consideration to such a sensitive issue. When relating my intervention to Practices Leadership example, Heron (2001), my behaviour was confronting, although, in a caring context. I felt that my initial attitude toward John reflected the way in bloody myth which I approached the issue of drugs. Tschudin (1992) claims in The Five order to meet the needs of a diverse client we need to go beyond the appearance, the first person movies misdeed, our fears and hang ups, as these are the factors that affect the provision of care more than the weightier matters of Leadership Essay example moral behaviour. I felt it was important to first person horror, distinguish any relationship between Johns current health state and his drug addiction, although I jumped to the conclusion that John would probably be less precise when discussing this issue. Sarafino (1998) suggests the effects of drug abuse on health are not documented well.

Drugs seem to be less prevalent than drinking or smoking and drug users are unwilling to admit they use drugs. Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Example! However, I found him to be open about his addiction but less interested in discussing if or how it affected his daily activity. Use of reflection allowed me to realise how I underestimated both John and myself by being afraid he might be dishonest with me. However, Roes (2003) talks about mary myth addiction in general, he believes disinterested clients appear uncooperative because their agenda is different from ours. Therefore they might agree with our goals in The Five Essay example relation to on good, health but appear uncooperative because they do not believe better things will happen for them. I made it clear that the information he provided was imperative in order to ensure the The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example correct care was given. At this point John informed me that his family were unaware of his addiction and health state and he did not want them to find out. In my opinion I found it immoral to hide such a dangerous factor in John of the Essay example his life especially learning that he had young children, however, by critically analysing this information it is important to question if drug misuse harms just the The Five of Exemplary Leadership Essay example drug user or could they have a negative and possibly dangerous effect on others too?

Barnard (2005) explains a report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation which exposes the Essay Prevention devastating impact heroin addiction can have on The Five Practices of Exemplary example the users family, stating families are drawn into a downward spiral of problems. Mary Myth! On reflection, it could be assumed that he was possibly defending his family, therefore this showed me a more compassionate side to John and my opinion of him began to The Five, change. I informed John that the legal documents I was completing were confidential. Clause 5.2 in the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) Code of Conduct states that you should seek clients wishes regarding the sharing of information with their family and others. Person! However, The British Medical Association (2005) argued when looking into views relating to confidentiality. They found patients are concerned that their health information be kept secure but were concerned that confidentiality of their information might be insufficiently protected. This was a particular concern for John as he explained how he had joined a rehabilitation group anonymously but received correspondence to his home address and ended his programme as a consequence. At this point John explained how fed up of lying put his head in his hands and although he wasnt crying, it was obvious he was upset when talking about family. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Example! I explained how it is important to release emotions in order to release tension. As Heron (1990) describes a facilitative approach, I discovered I was being cathartic by manners trying to encourage John to release tension.

I asked his permission to speak with a member of staff to Leadership example, find information relating to support services that might be of potential interest to him. I deliberately asked the staff nurse who had made the discriminative comments, she directed me in contacting the drug liaison team but also said that they had already referred him in the past and he hasnt changed. I felt it was appropriate to bloody myth, inform her of the reason that he terminated the programme and stressed that he had lost his faith in gaining confidential help. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Leadership Essay Example! I emphasised his interest and actor observer, explained I had gained consent to The Five of Exemplary Essay, find some information for him. In spite of this, Bunton and Macdonald (1992) claim that intravenous drug users form some deviant group that is sensitive to health promotion messages, which makes appropriate behaviour changes difficult in these peoples lives. Pettitt (2000) describes the Nurses role in advocacy involves upholding the rights of a person without prejudice or discrimination. On reflection, I took the risk of advocating on behalf of John, even though I knew I might have been in conflict with the trained nurse. However, I had begun to empathise with John and wanted to provide holistic care, especially as drugs had a negative effect on Double Essay example his health and a significant factor in the reason for his admission. Empathy is described by The Five Practices Essay example Tschudin (1992) as an Herdman: The Study of the Double Essay, ability to perceive feelings of the other person, and the ability to Practices Leadership Essay, communicate this to them.

The Department of Health emphasised in John of the their ten year strategy in example tackling drugs the need to ensure all problem drug misusers, irrespective of age, gender, race and drug with which they have a problem, have proper access to support from appropriate services. On looking at an even wider picture, his addiction was also a negative factor in his family life and a potential risk. According to Herons six category analysis, I was prescriptive as I had passed on advice that I had initially gained from actor observer senior staff, and directed John in gaining confidential help. In addition Heron would also suggest this communication as informative as I had imparted new knowledge on Practices Leadership Essay example John and interpreted information for his benefit. On completion of the assessments I felt more relaxed with John and continued with use of verbal and non verbal communication by asking about personal interests.On reflection, the issue of drugs was only brought up when discussing health and in the appropriate areas of the mary myth assessment. I felt I had valued diversity more at this point and beyond, as every interaction and communication with John since the discussed scenario had been provided in a holistic way, as I am more aware of my actions, communication and the positive provision of care. When thinking about the scenario at this stage, It allowed me to realise that when initially meeting clients I sometimes expect too much of myself and expect everyone to like me instantly. Reflection has enabled me to clarify for The Five Practices example my own needs that this is not always the case and actor observer, I now understand that we meet as strangers and have to orientate each other and establish rapport while working together to clarify and The Five Practices example, define existing problems (Perry and Jolley 1991). As a person I regard myself as being open minded and never considered that I held any obvious prejudices. However, the John The Study Double example use of reflection brought attention to how judgemental I was before knowing John as a person as opposed to a drug addict. I had reproved a staff nurse for making a discriminative comment, although by using reflection as a tool I highlighted the areas when I indirectly discriminated myself.

At the The Five beginning of the assessment I had not valued diversity, instead, I made assumptions about John based on the category that he was socially assigned to. I took a few moments to reflect in action during the scenario and become self aware of my communication. Mary! This transformed the way I thought, ensured that I was conscious of my actions and allowed me to focus on Johns positive attributes. The result of The Five of Exemplary example this approach significantly changed the Essay situation as I felt relaxed, professional and example, sensitive to the fact that John, like many other patients was anxious about actor observer being admitted on to a hospital ward. The Five Practices Of Exemplary Essay Example! Also, my pro active approach seemed to change Johns attitude towards me and Essay of Acid, thus creating what I felt was an effective nurse-client relationship.

After the event took place I took time to consider and understand my own thoughts and The Five Practices Essay, actions via my reflective journal. With great emphasis on Johns (2000) model, reflection signified how certain situations troubled me, such as the initial orientation between nurse and Herdman: The Study Double Essay example, client, although the benefit of the model gives me an opportunity to create an action plan to aid my learning. It will be imperative in the future to The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership example, always make a conscious effort in self awareness. Person Horror! On the Practices Essay other hand, there are also areas of such interaction that I am proud of, specifically when I used my initiative to manners, provide information for the benefit of my client. This experience made me aware of the importance of Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay example valuing diversity, not just with those who misuse drugs but to of Acid Rain, appreciate all clients regardless of The Five Practices of Exemplary Essay example any diversity they are associated with. This scenario has not taken away any prejudices I may hold, although as a nurse and a valued member of our society this task has highlighted the growing importance of respecting diversity within healthcare and how putting prejudice aside can enable equality for those who I will care for actor now and throughout my career.

I have also discovered how effective and beneficial it is for The Five Practices example both nurse and client when diversity is valued. By this I mean utilising diverse issues and reflecting on them. I can focus on being self aware of Prevention of Acid communication and intervention skills to of Exemplary Essay example, ensure a holistic approach is taken in all interactions with clients. On the whole, this experience proved useful for first person horror my learning and therefore my future as a healthcare provider. Alderson, P and Rowland, M (1995). Making Use of Biology. (Second Ed). London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Alfaro-LeFevre, R (1998).

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British Journal of Community Nursing. Practices Leadership! 5, 1, p14-19. Rawlinson, J (1990) Self Awareness: Conceptual Influences, Contribution to Nursing and Approaches to Attainment. Nurse Education Today. 10, 2, 111-117. Roes, N (2003). Essay Prevention Rain! Addiction Today: Meet the Challenge of Reflecting Hope to Hopeless Clients. (Online) Available at: http://www.addictiontoday.org/docs/archive/83p14-15.pdf (Accessed on: 01/01/06 at of Exemplary Leadership Essay example, 22.13 hrs) Rowe, J (1999) Self-Awareness: Improving Nurse Client Interactions . Nursing Standard. 14, 8, 37-40. Sarafino, E (1998). Observer Bias! Health Psychology: Bio psychosocial Interactions . Chichester: John Wiley Sons.

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London: Butterworth-Heinerman Ltd. United Kingdom Central Council for marx and philosophic Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (1996) Guidelines for Professional Practice . London: UKCC. Williams, A; Cooke, H and May, C (1998). Sociology, Nursing and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Essay, Health . Oxford: Reed Education and Professional Publishing. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on of the Double Essay hand, waiting to The Five Practices, help you. Speech On Good! Each of of Exemplary example us is qualified to a high level in actor observer bias our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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