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HSC Ancient History Part 1: Core Study Cities of Vesuvius Pompeii and Herculaneum. Situated in the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region and located between the ports of Misenum and Stabiae. Was a seaside town located north of Vesuvius. Fresco from picasso’s, a household shrine in the House of the Centenary entitled Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius Vesuvius a symbolises fertility (fertile land) and Essay on The, wine (as evidenced by the grapes) as Bacchus is the god of fertility and wine. Snake is a further symbol of picasso’s, fertility as we can view it as a phallic symbol The olive leaves symbolise agriculture The bird symbolises nature Thus, the fresco reveals information about the geographical resources of are a Construct Essay, Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as giving a brief insight into some religious views.

Pliny the picasso’s, Elder, Natural History. A region blessed by fortune warm springs shellfish Gods of wine and grain fine harvest nowhere do olives produce more oil shaded with green vines famed grapes filled the dripping vats [Herculaneum] was made glorious by the name of Hercules b. Plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The town of Pompeii covered an area of 66 ha surrounded by defensive walls. It is The Failure and Rebirth irregularly shaped and built on terrain that slopes from 10 meters up to 40 meters above sea level. Over time, four main areas were developed that were heavily influenced by the Greek principles of urban planning: The forum The insulae or blocks fronting the Via Stabiana Region VI The eastern area The earlier areas were those developed around the picasso’s, Forum and Via Stabiana insulae The grid pattern, developed in other Roman towns, was not precisely applied to Pompeii. The Greek influence can be seen in and Rebirth Essay, the regular layout of the streets and roads and picasso’s guernica, divided the towns into insulae The blocks varied in size from 850 5500 m 2 Some contained only one house while others contained a dozen or more. Herculaneum followed the classical layout of Greek towns with narrow straight streets that divide the are a Construct, town into insulae. Walls The fortifications of Pompeii are its walls that surround and picasso’s, enclose the city with a perimeter of 3.2 kms.

The walls have been restored a nd reconstructed on numerous occasions due to in animal farm, the effect of military battles that effected the city. Seven gates open in the walls and many speculate the existence of an eighth Porta Capua. Herculaneum had a sea wall, with large vaulted chambers for boats. The oldest circle of wall dates back to picasso’s, the 6th Century BC and was made from blacks of lava and a malleable volcanic stone. Organizations Are A Social! By the first half of the 5th century BC a new town had replaced the old one. The new fortification (possibly due to Greek influence) was constructed by a double parallel ring of walls.

Around the picasso’s, end of the 4th century BC,. House! The old fortifications were partially replaced by guernica, a new one built on approximately the same line as the previous one and made of square blocks of sarno limestone. The main reason for Essay the restructuring of the fortifications was the need to prepare the city against guernica the incursions of the Carthaginans led by Hannibal (218-201 BC) The single ring of walls was replaced by a double ring with a new wall in social ecological health, tuff from Norcea, built on the embankment, while the external ring was increased in height. Between the two rings of wall, a communication patrol trench was created, accessible by means of special sloping steps , still partially visible in the section of fortifications near the Porta Ercolano Gate. The last intervention on the walls was undertaken around the period of the Social Wars (late 2nd regular intervals, and covered in fake marble blocks of plaster as in the early style. The quadrangular towers had two access points: one from the base on the inside of the guernica, ring of walls and one from above the patrol trench. Gates City gates were positioned at the end of the main thoroughfares The most impressive examples of Gates at Pompeii are the Marine Gate and Essay, the Herculaneum Gate Streets Streets in guernica, Pompeii are extremely varied, some built with solid Roman engineering and underlain with water conduits; some dirt paths; some wide enough for two carts to pass; some alleys barely wide enough for pedestrian traffic. Organizations! There are many different names for the dissimilar types of streets in both Herculaneum and Pompeii.

The main highway that leads from Pompeiis main gate is call the Via dellAbbandanza. The Via dellAbbandanza is one of the guernica, main Decumani running the Water, length of the town, east to west. The Cardines run north to south, both meet at right angles. Roads The Pompeian road network is- in itself- a reflection of the nascent origins and development of the city. Emanating from the forum, the picasso’s, streets of on The, early Pompeii are not geometrically aligned , however later Pompeian districts have a more organized infrastructural road system containing main axial highways decumani which are perpendicularly crossed by minor streets known as cardini giving rise to isolated blocks insulae- such are occupied by more than one house, or in some circumstances a single house or public building. Pompeian roads are comprised by a carriage way, paved with large, polygonal blocks of basalt, edged by pavement generally higher than the road itself. The roads were reinforced by kerbs made of lava, limestone or tuff some of guernica, which preserve the marks of techniques, Oscan stonecutters. Another observation that can be made from Pompeian roads is the logically placed holes on the edge of pavements, thought to guernica, hold posts which support street stalls or sunblinds, and in some instances are hypothesized to transport animals.

In order to facilitate pedestrian crossing and to protect their feet from rainwater and sewage which flow through the carriageway, there are ovoid shaped stepping stones placed between two pavements which were made from the same materials as the road surface, and were generally needed in areas close to entrances of buildings. Traffic Situation There are deep grooved marks in the streets of Pompeii due to Social Construct Essay, the heavy volume of traffic that use the picasso’s, streets, both pedestrians and wheeled carts. Herculaneum- the traffic is essentially non-existent. Drainage With the exception of the forum- Pompeii has no drainage network, causing the about Clean Water, dirty runoff and sewage to run into the streets. Guernica! However, the Doll’s House Essay, streets are built on an incline and the water flows out picasso’s guernica of the city towards open outlets at the foot of the city walls. There are large slabs of larva on the streets allowing pedestrians to cross the road in a civilized manner and not step in in animal, sewage or run off from rain. Herculaneum has a more advanced and picasso’s, adequate sewage system.

Street Wolves The streets of Pompeii are sometimes a dangerous place for the youth. Street wolves are notorious in Pompeii, they were predators who sometimes molester the pedestrians. The youth to wear a purple stripe on their robes to identify those too young for incarceration. Lighting at Night The Pompeians used lamps of terracotta, bronze, iron, glass or even gold for lighting the most common type being a container of oil which was lit with fire, with a neck from which the on The, wick emerged for the light, a hike for the fuel and a handle for holding the lamp. The lamps are often decorated various planets, gladiatorial contests, horse races, erotic scenes, theatrical masks, animals and plants. Candle sticks are also a popular form of picasso’s guernica, lighting often bronze with a long neck. Social Ecological! Because of the cost of bronze the candle sticks were are an picasso’s guernica important element of the home, used on mental pieces and in the dining room. The lamps are used in all forms of life, streets, theatres and public baths.

Fountains The public water fountains- nymphea- flow day and night for the consumption of the public, however some do have taps to regulate the flow. Public water fountains are conveniently located at many street corners meeting the needs of the Organizations Essay, population. The fountains have been strategically placed about 70 meters apart so that the citizens can always count on a supply of water near their homes. There are roughly 40 fountains in Pompeii and picasso’s, they vary little in form. The fountains they have a rectangular basin made of four stone slabs usually lava, joined by iron cramps. Water is transported by of Burmese Essay, a lead pipe and gushes out of a decorative spout. The towns water supply is brought from the picasso’s guernica, springs of the Acquaro River by the Serinum aqueduct and the water is then distributed from the castellum aquae (water tower) situated at the highest point in the town near the Vesuvian Gate. The water pressure is made through a downward flow through the underground pipe leading all through town, the public bath houses are a prime example. The water supply also allows more wealthy patrons to access a private water supply. 2. The nature of in animal farm, sources and evidence.

Pliny the Younger: Two letters , written 25 yrs after the eruption, to Historian Tacitus, describing the events that took place, his Uncles death, and his personal reaction to the eruption. Geological evidence supports his account as well as its corroboration with modern historians. However accounts are limited to Misenum and Stabiae rather than Pompeii and Herculaneum He himself acknowledges his limitations as he states for it is one thing to write a letter, another to write history. Vitruvius 1 st Century Architect, Manual on Architecture Of Architecture Limitations: 27 AD, his depiction of Greek and Roman houses did not always correspond to picasso’s guernica, archeological evidence Bias towards some paintings as he didnt like the contemporary styles Writes mostly about houses: the houses of bankers and farmers of the revenue should be more spacious and imposing and safe from burglars Advocates and professors of rhetoric should be housed with distinction, and in sufficient space to accommodate their audiences Pliny the Elder 37 books in his Natural History He is deemed reliable as he is the only ancient writer to cite his sources Limitations: his work is known to be contradictory, uncritical and uneven. Writes descriptions of the Campania region: A region bessed by fortune warm springs shellfish Gods of wine and grain fine harvest nowhere do olives produce more oil Cassius Dio Writes in his History of Rome Details of the eruption: all the while an inconceivable quantity of Island, ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and filled all the air people fled, some from their houses into the streets, others from outside indoors Martial A poet, writes in his Epigram Details the effects of the eruption: It all lies buried by flames and mournful ash Strabo Writes about Geographical issues in picasso’s, his Geography This area appears to have been on social ecological health promotion fire Seneca Writes in his Naturales Questiones Describes the Earthquake in 62 AD That devastated Campania and guernica, a flock of 600 sheep perished Mostly archaeological evidence Herculaneum was skeletons (preserved under 20 meters of ash) At Pompeii, plaster casts were found from hollows left by organic material which rotted. Carbonisation is the process of organic material transforming into House and Antigone Essay, carbon (coal) Archaological based evidence means a greater reliability- less bias Limitations lie within the picasso’s guernica, excavation process which entails both the disruption of about Water: Ultra-Pure Water, evidence and the loss of evidence; thus not providing a full picture. Human Remains House of guernica, Meander 3 Children, hoe and pick found on one side 10, mainly adult, bodies intertwined on the other side Demonstrates the force of the pyroclastic surge. Bronze lantern indicates the material available Ring Lady Found on the beach in Herculaneum apossible attempted escapee from the eruption 46 years old Gave birth to approximately 2-3 children Questioning over the rings and Essay Island, jewelry that it possibly had not originated from there Useful to understand how victims died from asphyxiation as extrapolated from the cowering body position Also useful to understand that most people ran to the beach Soldier 36 year old male found in picasso’s, Herculaneum 175cm a very tall for the time Stab wound in thigh ademonstrates occupation as a soldier Every bone broken except for inner ear a demonstrates strength of pyroclastic surges Animal Remains Dog Found in Pompeii Body position that is convulsing shows the strength of the pyroclastic flow Demonstrates security in Pompeii a people had dogs as guards a corroborated by a mosaic on the floor of the House of the Tragic Poet with the inscription cave canem or beware of the dog Fish Found in Herculaneum latrine pit Show the prevalence of seafood and the fishing industry Mule Found in The Failure Essay, a Pompeian bakery Suggests their use for labour in daily tasks such as winding a mill Thus allows one to extrapolate the contextual technology (or lack thereof) Horse Found in the Villa of Papyri in Herculaneum Horses used as domestic animals for guernica people of high status Plant Remains Identified plants from plaster casts of roots Carbonised materials of 26 plants Grapes 2400 vine root holes found Presence of grapes is corroborated by ancient writings and multiple frescoes Olives Carbonised whole fruit found within walls a importance within daily life Presence of about Water: Water, olive presses- method of extracting the oil Gardens Different types of plants indicate social status Able to recreate gardens and vegetables used in picasso’s, everyday life. Incidental writings including: Graffiti An art form or a way of communication, as opposed to the contemporary view that it is social ecological defacement It was engraved using stylus, iron nail, wooden splinter or tooth pick M. Grant Cheers! We drink like wineskins Sauvis demands full wine jars please, his thirst is enormous Useful in showing Historians the picasso’s, opinions and thoughts of people of all classes as well as detailing information about the mundane It is highly reliable as it is spontaneously written by techniques in animal farm, citizens and not intended for historiographical purposes.

Shopping lists Written on the walls of households, mainly in the culina Useful for showing everyday life as well as the resources/food available and consumed by families Political Campaigning Written on the walls and gates of Pompeii in support of citizens who were either running in the election or the current politicians Shows local aristocracy of the city, democracy, need for power Gladiatorial programs or edicta munerum Talk of favourite gladiators and comments on important battles Gladiatorial programs could also be found throughout the streets of Pompeii and Herculaneum Reveal the entertainment and leisure activities of the city One example, contains a victory carved on a city wall This suggests that the culture was not only interested in the sport of the game but actively invested themselves into the promotion and support of the game It is useful to reveal daily activities of Pompeians; specifically to a historian studying cultural values and anthropology Tombstone Inscriptions People who could not afford cremation would be buried with a tombstone displaying their funerary inscriptions Useful for guernica showing religious customs and burial practices. Advertisements Inscribed on the city walls throughout Pompeii and Herculaneum; essentially anyone could select a random location and illustrate their ad for the community to see, however it was unlikely that advertising would be found on the facades of private housing An example includes In the property of Julia Felix, daughter of Spurius, elegant thermal baths for refined people, shop with lodgings above and apartments on the first floor to let for five years Inscriptions Writing on the city walls was a prominent form of written communication Wallace-Hadrill The vibrating humanity of the city still echoes with a thousand voices in every corner that is disinterred Decorative Arts: Mosaics and Frescoes. Frescoes , as derived from the Essay about Clean Water: Water, great Hellenistic pictorial schools, are paintings on either wet or dry fresh lime plaster so that the pigments are absorbed into picasso’s, the layers of the plaster. Usually frescos appeared on internal or external walls and incorporated pictures and designs. Due to their detail, mystery and beauty they have become prominent sources from The Failure Essay, Pompeii and picasso’s guernica, Herculaneum and are categorised according to the four Pompeian styles (A system coined by in A Doll’s Essay, August Mau in 1882) Structural Architectural Fantastic Ornamental Mosaics, are pictures or decorations made of picasso’s guernica, different coloured pieces of stone, glass or other material, inlaid to form a simply or elaborate design. Usually mosaics appeared on the floor either inside or outside. Due to their intricate design and beauty they have become famous sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Cicero Generally speaking, one tries to techniques, imitate the ways of the illustrious people Wallace Hadrill the decoration allowed the picasso’s, visitor a social orientation. It helped steer them within the house guiding them round the internal hierarchies of social space Lessing veritable outdoor art galleries Mosaic on the entrance of the Organizations are a Essay, House of the Tragic Poet with the inscription cave canem or beware of the guernica, dog. The mosaic depicts an The Failure and Rebirth Nationalism Essay interpretation of Cerberus, the fierce 3 headed dog that guards the picasso’s, gates of Hell in Greek mythology.

Many Roman Arts had a Greek, Hellenistic influence indicating trade, social class as well as education. Fresco Praedia of Essay about Clean Water: Ultra-Pure, Julia Felix, is one of a unique set that depicts the busy daily life of Pompeii, including market stalls, an open air school, conversation, and a beggar receiving alms from a lady with her maid. Julia Felix was a very wealthy Roman woman; a very successful and well known businesswoman, property owner and public figure in Pompeii. One of the reasons she may have had artworks of the middle class life in picasso’s, her extravagant villa is due to her familial connections to Imperial freedmen, or her frequent dealings with middle class citizens. Mosaic, found in the triclinium in the House of the Faun, depicts the The Roles in A House, Greek God Dionysus (Roman counterpart Bacchus) as a child, riding a tiger. Guernica! This enforces the Essay about Water:, Hellenistic influence on Roman religion and artwork. The masks depicted in picasso’s, the border around echo from Greek theatre, and the tiled waves are of a very Greek structure, and imply the importance of the sea to the Pompeians; combined with a depiction of the god of fertility, serve to purport how big and valuable the fishing industry was to them. Organizations Are A Social Construct Essay! This mosaic, along with the many other Dionysian depictions found in the House of the Faun, also serve to suggest the owner being a strong adherent to the Dionysus/Bacchus cult. Fresco found in the Villa of the Mysteries, depicts the reading of the rituals of the bridal mysteries, to gain entry into the cult.

The Villa of the Mysteries is guernica named after the techniques in animal farm, frescoes found in the Triclinium of the picasso’s guernica, house; of Essay, which the subjects are hotly debated; one interpretation h suggests that the picasso’s guernica, room was the headquarters for a secret Dionysian cult, for women, that required specific rites and rituals in Essay Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water, order to gain entry. Another interpretation is that of Paul Veyne, who believes it to depict the bridal rites for young Pompeian women. Despite confirmation of the real interpretation, we can extrapolate the importance and most possible presence of religious rites and its significance in Pompeian life. Ampitheatre- open circular or oval building with a central space for the presentation of dramatic or sporting events surrounded by tiers of seats for spectators. An inscription reveals that it was built by two local officials Quinctius Valgus and picasso’s, Marcius Porcius at a private expense The ampitheatre was used for gladiatorial games Tacitus The people of Essay, Pompeii, where the show was held, came off best as they enjoyed witnessing such games A riot occurred in 59AD, destroying much evidence, as spectators from Pompeii and the nearby town of Nuceria fought with each other, with the result that the Emperor Nero banned games at Pompeii for 10 years Tacitus The senate debarred Pompeii from holding any similar gathering for ten years The amphitheater was located in picasso’s guernica, the eastern part of techniques in animal farm, town, positioned against the embankment that filled this corner of the picasso’s, city wall, the towers of Essay on The Island, which can be seen in the background. A section of the guernica, awnings (velarium) that protected against the sun also is visible, the masts of which were fitted through stone corbels attached to the rear wall of the summa cavea Ada Gabucci Palaestra- wrestling school or gymnasium Palaestra is highly valued by the Romans as it is a significant part of the Greek athletic tradition. A small palaestra was built in the 2 nd Century BC, however later more than a ha was cleared to build a larger palaestra near the ampitheatre. According to The Failure of Burmese Nationalism Essay, Zanker it was 140 by 130 meters in picasso’s guernica, area, 100 Iconic- Corinthian columns in a three sided portico, shaded by a row of trees and used to practice athletics and excersise It also contained a large swimming pool that must have certainly been welcome in the summer (Zanker) Graffiti also evidences the variety of games that existed there Palaestra also served a political purpose as according to Cassius Dio the social ecological health, collegia juvenum were paid for by state to teach youth military discipline and loyalty to emperor in the Palaestra Temples- a building devoted to guernica, the worship of deities Temple of Isis Part of the notorious cult of Isis Egyptian influence The building consists of a large rectangular space marked off by in A House, walls, within which is the guernica, cella of the god raised up on a pedestal and Water, standing in a splendid niche.

Of interest and picasso’s guernica, great elegance is the small temple with its plaster decorations situated in the peristyle and used for the preservation of the Nile water considered to be holy by the members of the cult of the and Rebirth of Burmese, Egyptian goddess Isis. Guernica! Adjacent to techniques in animal, the temple there is also a space to accommodate the priests houses and for the meeting of the faithful. Temple of Jupiter or Capitolium Centre of Religious life in Pompeii and dates back to the 2 nd Century BC Situated on the northern side of the Forum, it is dedicated to the highest divinity of ancient times actually it was built in honour of the Jupter, Juno and Minerva triad and towers above a wide staircase with two large arches either side which have remained virtually intact. In a spectacular manner it closed off the fourth side of the square where there was no colonnade Temple of Apollo Integral part of the Forum even though it predates it It goes back to picasso’s guernica, the Samnite period of the 6 th Century The building shows architectural features of both italic and on The, Greek derivation and has a rectangular plan with the picasso’s, perimeter being surrounded by in A Essay, an astonishing 48 columns. The inner cella, raised on a podium, was reached by picasso’s guernica, means of a long flight of steps. Opposite these was the of Women Doll’s and Antigone, sacrificial altar. The central part, which contains the guernica, altar to the god, is also surrounded by columns.

It is adorned with two statues depicting Apollo shooting arrows and Diana (the originals are housed in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples). Essay Water:! On one of the columns which mark off the cella of the god there was a sundial. b. The limitations, reliability and guernica, evaluation of sources. No content all skills section. c. The evidence provided by The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum. 62 AD earthquake: killed 600 Sheep, only warning sign. 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Pliny the picasso’s, Youngers Account of the Organizations are a Social Construct, Eruption and the Death of his Uncle. At the guernica, time of the eruption, Pliny the Elder was with Pliny the Younger were at Misenum, however, Pliny the Elder commanded a fleet that sailed to Stabiae to assist with the damage Pliny the Younger recounts the early stage of the eruption, later known as the Essay on The, Plinean stage Pliny the Younger in picasso’s guernica, his letters to Tacitus writes that the only warning signs were tremors in the days prior to the eruption, however this was seen less alarming because frequent in Island, Campania (Pliny the Younger) The first sign was a cloud of unusual size and form Pliny the Younger Limitations of picasso’s, Pliny the Youngers account include the fact that he wrote 25 years after the Organizations are a, eruption in the form of two letters to guernica, his friend Tacitus.

Some events are also exaggerated as well as the significant omission of the date of the eruption. However, Pliny the Younger acknowledges these limitations as he states it is one thing to write a letter, another to write history recognising that his work is not worthy of Organizations are a Construct, serious history. He also refers to the Campania region as a whole rather than specifying Pompeii or Herculaneum. Despite these limitations, Pliny the Younger was an eyewitness of the events and thus he can still be deemed a reliable source as his account provides a personal account which can be corroborated with Volcanologists. Pliny the Younger compared the cloud to an umbrella pine that reached great heights and picasso’s, spread into various branches Upon his route, Pliny the social ecological model health, Elders boat was stuck at the Stabiae shore due to picasso’s, what Seutonius described as adverse winds which caused him to be overcome by the force of dust and ashes (Ibid), The reliability of Seutonius is however limited, as he was a gossip columnist who even speculated that Pliny the Elder was killed by a slave Pliny the social ecological, Younger recounts the death of picasso’s, his uncle at Stabiae, commemorating and idolising his Uncle, stating that he was pretending to be cheerful in order to maintain composure among his troops. Pliny the Younger describes the eruption as a terrifying black cloud, split by twisted blasts of The Roles, fire shooting in different directions, gaped to reveal long fiery shapes, similar to flashes of lightening, only bigger The eruption of 79 AD has been analysed and chronologically categorised through stratigraphic analysis of the layers or strata of volcanic ash. Pyroclastic surge: evidenced by thin black layers; a low density turbulent cloud of hot ash and rock that billows over terrain, barely touching the ground. Picasso’s Guernica! A pyroclastic surge travels at incredibly high speeds of up to farm, 300 km/h. The eruption at Vesuvius was unique as there was six layers in the strata indicating there were six pyroclastic surges. Pyroclastic flow: a much denser, hotter, dry avalanche of ground hugging molten rock, pumice and gasses.

It moves a lot slower than a surge- only up to guernica, 50 km/h Sequence of events: Day one (midday): An initial explosion thrusts a terrifying black cloud that resembled an umbrella pine that reached 20 kilometers into the air and spread out into various branches (Pliny the Younger). Pumice is formed from hot magma that has cooled so quickly that it is techniques in animal farm still full of volcanic gasses and picasso’s, is like a hard foamy sponge. And Rebirth Nationalism! Day one (midday) day two (4-6am): Pumice fallout all over picasso’s guernica Pompeii begins, ranging from pebble size called lapilli (about 1cm) to rock size (up to of Burmese Nationalism Essay, 20cm), according to [1] Cassius Dio enourmous stones were thrown up to reach the height of the mountain-tops themselves. The buildup causes roofs to collapse under the weight. Travel around Pompeii becomes difficult. Pumice fallout at Herculaneum is picasso’s less. (Day two (4-6 am): The collapse of the Organizations are a Essay, column of hot gas and pumice in the quasi initial explosion, caused a series of picasso’s guernica, pyroclastic surges and flows of ash and hot gases, which race to the south and west at an estimated speed of up to 100 kilometers an hour. The first surge covers Herculaneum in 3 m of hot ash while, in accordance with Cassius Dio, all the while an inconceivable quantity of ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and filled all the air Day two (5-7 am): A second surge deposits another 1.5 m of The Roles of Women Doll’s House and Antigone Essay, ash on Herculaneum Day 2 (around 6:30 am): a third surge in the direction of picasso’s guernica, Pompeii stops at the Herculaneum gate. Day 2 (7:30-8 am): Three more successive surges, reaching temperatures between 100? and 400? bury Pompeii to a depth of up to 4 m, as corroborated by Essay on The, Eusebius in his Chronicle stating that the picasso’s guernica, surges consumed the surrounding countryside. Techniques Farm! The final surge reaches Misenum. NOTE: 2 stages: The first or the Plinean Stage, that lasted eighteen to twenty hours and produced a rain of pumice southward of the cone that built up to depths of 4m at guernica, Pompeii, followed by a pyroclastic flow in the second, Pelean phase that reached as far as Misenum but was concentrated to the west and northwest. Herculaneum lay directly under Mt Vesuvius, only 7km from its peak, it suffered a different although even more horrific fate than Pompeii.

The people of Herculaneum would certainly have been terrified by ecological, the initial explosion, shock waves and earth tremours in the Plinean stage of the eruption, as according to Cassius Dio people fled, some from their houses into the streets, others from outside indoors. In an guernica article published in of Women Doll’s House, 2002 Sigurdsson and Casey elaborate on the stratigraphic evidence, asserting that as Herculaneum was upwind of the fallout, the pumice fall in the first few hours was moderately light. However, in the next and more destructive phase of the eruption, the Pelean phase, Herculaneum bore the picasso’s, full brunt of the succession of pyroclastic surges. The first, reaching temperatures of over 400?, would have killed the inhabitants, and subsequent surges and Essay, flows destroyed buildings and carbonised organic matter. In this final phase, the city was buried up to a depth of 20m compared with the guernica, 4m at Pompeii. Differences in of Burmese Nationalism Essay, the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum: Further away from the peak More pumice fallout but less surges Buried under 4m of ash. Closer to the peak (only 7km away) suffered more damage Less pumice fallout but more surges, and before Pompeii received surges. Buried under 20m of ash. Roman response: Modern Historian Diess, recounts in his work Herculaneum, Italys Buried Treasure that news of the eruption was flashed to picasso’s, Rome by about Clean, signal towers where it was dealt with in picasso’s, the most efficient Roman manner and Island, the popular emperor Titus dispensed emergency aid with his own funds in guernica, addition to the funds of the state corroborated by Seutonius who stated that Titus displayed not merely the concern of an emperor but also the deep love of a father. Moreover, Diess states that the health, senate decreed that the assets of picasso’s, extinct families should be divided among all survivors yet no aid could compensate for such a loss again congruent with Cassius Dio who stated Titus restored all damage from his resources.

How people died: Herculaneum was hit by a pyroclastic flow travelling at 300 km/h The high temperatures caused brains to boil and skulls to and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, explode Bodies vapourised and the soft tissue disappeared, replaced by ash and they immediately became skeletons. Lack of oxygen caused items to be carbonised and thus preserved. Bread a basic staple food of Romans Baking ovens only rarely found in houses. Almost all people went to a bakery for their bread. Bakers were highly respected and could become wealthy. Made and sold bread on bakery premises and sold either on premises or from stalls.

Bakery of Modestus had 3 small mills for grinding flour and one large baking oven. 81 Loaves of bread were found in the Bakery of Modestus carbonised To date, 33 bakeries have been found in Pompeii. Picasso’s! Small mills were turned by donkeys. Two donkey skeletons were found still harnessed to mills in Herculaneum. Evidence of at least 10 different bread products, including offellae, and Essay about, a kind of guernica, dog biscuit for their pets. Standard loaves were flat, about 5 cms thick. Bakers shop in Herculaneum. A seal in shop reads Sextus Patulcus felix, possibly the baker himself. 25 different baking pans of various sizes found in this shop he specialized in cakes. Workers trod the cloth in a mixture of The Roles in A House Essay, fullers earth, potash, carbonate of picasso’s guernica, soda and urine. The Roles Doll’s House! Fullers rinsed, dried and brushed the picasso’s, cloth.

It was then bleached with sulfar and died Wool was also used in the processing of techniques in animal, felt a slippers, hats, blankets, coats The Guild of Fullers a powerful organisation a headquarters are interpreted controversially to be in the Eumachia Building. The large number of fulleries and dye-shops far exceeded local demand and could be interpreted as evidence of an important export trade a physical remains easily identified due to picasso’s guernica, fixed facilities a vats, tanks for washing, cauldrons for heating water 4 Fulleries are large Fullery of Stephanus is one Fullery of Stephanus typical fullery clothes press, a large balcony, one large basin for washing, 5 small foot-basins and three large interconnecting basins for rinsing. Stephanus hung the wet clothes over cans on the upper floor and in the courtyard whilst Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus dried the fabric on on The brick pillars between the Corinthian columns of a large atrium. A clothes press was discovered in picasso’s guernica, a shop attached to the House of the Wooden Partition in Essay on The Island, Herculaenum. Statue of Eumachia patron of cloth makers and dyers found in the building. Made from different types of fish that were left to guernica, ferment for approx. 1-3 months Used to flavour meat, vegetables, fish, fruit and medicine. Most fish fermenting facilities were found outside the town some form of Garum processing did take place in town in a house in social ecological model, Region I. Hundreds of labeled garum containers of a distinctive shapes, known as urcei, found at Pompeii demonstrate its popularity. Pliny the Elder no other liquid excep unguents has come to be more highly valued Garume was a potent mix, made from guernica, the guts of fish and on The Island, other parts that would otherwise refuse Ponsich and Tarradell Aulus Umbricius Scaurus owned at least 6 workshops producing garum 30% of Garum containers in Campania carry his name or that of his extended family. Picasso’s! E.g. epigraphic evidence states The best liquamen of A. Umbricius Scaurus Mosaic of a garum urceus, from the House of Umbricius Scaurus, the inscription reads flower or liquamen stopper is when it is used for trade, the stopper preserves it.

Vineyards are found in town and in the country Mostly grapes were pressed with a wine press but some were pressed by foot. Generally wine appears to have been brought in from the countryside when needed Wine Villas in the country had rooms for pressing the grapes (tocularia), for fermentation (cella vinariae) and storage. Wine jars were buried completely or partially in the ground for protection for weather storage. Wine was transported to town in large leather wineskins (cullei) Most famous local wines: Vesuvinum and Pompianum. 2014 vine-root cavities of a large commercial vineyard near the Pompeian Ampitheatre a on site was a room set up for wine pressing and a shed with embedded dolia which could each fill 40 amphorae. Smaller vineyards adjoining the Essay on The, Inn of Euxinus and the Inn of the picasso’s guernica, Gladiators have been found; grapes were pressed on the premises. Villas of Boscoreale- Villa of Pisanella and Villa Regina Pisanella had an internal courtyard of 120 dolia that could hold up to of Women in A Doll’s and Antigone, 50,000 litres| Regina had 18 dolia holding 10,000 litres. Large variety- Herculaneum: epigraphic evidence of picasso’s guernica, a sign on a wine bar inviting patrons to Come to the Sign of the Bowls advertised half a dozen types of wine and their vintages.

Large variety Pompeii: Tavern advertisement drink here for Essay on The Island just one as; for two you can drink better, and for four have some really good Falernian wine Martial stated in his Epigram: famed grapes filled the dripping vats Pliny the guernica, Elder discusses the potency of in animal, Pompeian wines stating that Pompeian wines are rather dangerous and can cause a headache Strabo describes Pompeii as a fortified trading post Imports More imports than exportsa indicates that Pompeian society was wealthy in that they had the luxury to try exotic things at their own expense. Also indicates developed international relations and trading schemes. Picasso’s! Tableware- terra sigillata- from Puteoli Such as red-slipped table vessels found in most houses. Terra sigillata from northern Italy, Southern Gaul and Cyprus One specific example is a chest found in social ecological model health, 1881containing 90 carefully packed and unused south gaulish bowls and 37 earthenware lamps.

An extrapolation that can be made from the discovery of these items is that they are representative of picasso’s guernica, a recently received consignment to a Pompeian wholesaler of such wares. Nationalism Essay! Wine from Kos, Crete, Rhodes, Turkey, Sicily, Palestine and central Ital.y Olive oil from Libya and Spain Garum from picasso’s, Spain Exports Garum A mosaic from the House of Umbricius Scaurus depicts a bottle of garum with the inscription flower of liquament and are a Social, a stopper on the lid. Guernica! The presence of a stopper indicates that garum was intended for trade. Pliny the Elder no other liquid excep unguents has come to Ultra-Pure Water, be more highly valued Wine Amphorae from Pompeii has been found as far afield as Middlesex in the UK Bronzes and metal work From literary sources, we know Campania (more pointedly the town of Capua) was famous for guernica its bronze vessels, thus it is possible that such metal work was also exported from Pompeii. While a marble relief was found depicting metal workers, its findspot was not recorded, only one metal working premises can be securely identified outside the Vesuvian Gate due to the presence of hammers and anvils. The fact that the metal workshop was found outside the gates brings historians to the collective extrapolations regarding the concept of avoiding taxes, positioning workshops close to The Roles Doll’s and Antigone, resources, as well as having a highly developed scheme of specialized labour. Industry was central to the economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum- agriculture, wine, garum and olive oil production being the most prominent industires.

Bread a basic staple food of Romans Baking ovens only rarely found in houses. Almost all people went to picasso’s, a bakery for their bread. Bakers were highly respected and could become wealthy. Made and and Antigone Essay, sold bread on bakery premises and sold either on picasso’s guernica premises or from stalls. Bakery of Modestus has 3 small mills for grinding flour and one large baking oven.

81 Loaves of bread were found in the Bakery of Modestus. (carbonised) To date, 33 bakeries have been found in Pompeii. Small mills were turned by donkeys. Two donkey skeletons were found still harnessed to mills in Herculaneum. Evidence of at least 10 different bread products, including offellae , and a kind of dog biscuit for their pets. Standard loaves were flat, about 5 cms thick. Bakers shop in Herculaneum. A seal in shop reads Sextus Patulcus felix, possibly the The Failure of Burmese Nationalism, baker himself. Specialised in cakes for twenty-five bronze baking pans of various sizes, from about four inches to picasso’s guernica, a foot and a half (Deiss. Principal sources of income for Vesuvians; generally, the profitable cultivation of both vineyards and olive groves could only Organizations Social Construct Essay be undertaken by the wealthy, because of the cost of the long wait between planting anf the first harvest, and guernica, the cost of olive and wine presses. The Failure And Rebirth Nationalism Essay! Many of the landowners who had estates in the countryside lived in the city, visiting their villa irregularly and leaving it to be run by trusted dependents e.g. the rich Pompeian banker Lucius Caecilius Jucundus is believed to have owned the Villa of Pisanella.

Excavation by Jashemski revealed 2014 vine-root cavities from a large commercial vineyard near the picasso’s, Pompeian amphitheatre; on the site was a torcularium, and a shed with embedded dolia which could each fill 40 amphorae. Health Promotion! Smalled vineyards adjoining the Inn of picasso’s, Euxinus and Inn of the Gladiators have been found, with torculas; in other places, grapes were pressed by foot Generally, wine doesnt seem to have been stored in large quantities in taverns or bars, but brought in from the countryside when needed. Villas had torculariums (pressing), cellae viniariae (fermentation), and storage. The torcula consisted of a solid wooden crossbar fixed at one end and pushed downwards by ecological, means of picasso’s guernica, a winch with an techniques in animal arm lever. Pliny the Elder said districts with a mild climate store their wine in jars and bury them completely or partially in the ground thus protecting them from the weatherspaces must be left between jars to prevent anything likely to affect the wine from guernica, passing from social promotion, one to the other, as the wine very soon becomes tainted.. The viticultural villas at Boscoreale, Regina and Pisanella, possessed a huge storage capacity pisanella:120 dolia with 50 000 L capacity, Regina: 18 dolia with 10 000L. Picasso’s Guernica! A wide variety of wines were produced in the Vesuvian area: a sign on a Herculaneum wine bar inviting patrons to Essay on The, Come to the Sign of the Bowls advertised half a dozen types of wine and their vintages. Another tavern in Pompeii advertisement confirms that there was a wide range of wines sold in Pompeii: drink here for just one as; for two you can drink better, and for four have some really good Falernian wine. From Plinys Natural History and evidence from labelled wine jars, it seems the two most famous local wines were Vesuvinum and Pompeianum.

Of the latter, Pliny said Wines from Pompeii are at their best within ten years and gain nothing from greater maturity, but he maintained that they were injurious because of the hangover they cause, which persists until noon the following day. Judging from picasso’s guernica, a scrawl on the wall of a Pompeian bar, the quality of wine varied considerably: Inn keeper of the devil, die drowned in your own piss-wine. You sell the farm, inferior stuff but you keep for yourself, you swine, the guernica, good bottles. The same estates that produced wine produced olives and oil The Villa of The Failure, Pisanella held enough storage for 5910 L of olive oil According to Pliny, more skill was needed to produce olive oil than wine, because the same tree produces different kinds of oilthe green olive, which has not yet begun to picasso’s guernica, ripen, gives the first oil and this has an outstanding tastethe riper the berry the are a Social Construct, more greasy and less pleasant is the flavour of the oil. The oil from the picasso’s guernica, green olive was also used in the manufacture of Essay on The, perfume which Pliny believed was the most pointless of picasso’s guernica, all luxuries. Most of the pressing was done on estates even though oil presses were found in Pompeian houses and in the Forum granary. Because The cause of oil is warmth (Pliny), presses and store rooms had to and Rebirth, be warmed by large fires. Cato, in his Agriculture, recorded that Pompeian presses made from lava stone were the best. These trapeta were for picasso’s the first pressing, to separate the flesh from the pip so as to avoid the oil gaining a bitter taste. About Water! The second pressing was done with the grape press torcula . The first oil from the press is the richest, and picasso’s, the quality diminishes with each successive pressing age imparts an unpleasant taste to in animal, oil and after a year it is old. (Pliny) Within Pompeii, officinae oleariae retailed oil and guernica, it is Organizations Construct believed that there may have been an olive market near or in the Forum olitorium . Oil was not only used as the basic ingredient in perfume, but also for cooking, particularly in the thermopolia which provided a service to those who had limited cooking facilities in their homes, and for lighting. Oil was used in guernica, the thermae and palaestra for rubbing into bodies. Pliny disapproved of social ecological model health, this practice which he blamed on the Greeks the Greeks, progenitors of all vices, have diverted the use of olive oil to serve the ends of picasso’s, luxury by making it available in gymnasia.

Pompeii was renowned for its garum, a fish sauce which was one of the main condiments used for flavouring roman cuisine. According to Pliny, no other liquid except unguents has come to be more highly valued. They were various flavours depending on the type and quality of the fish used and social model promotion, its method of preparation. Apparently the valuable red mullet made the best garum, followed by guernica, tuna, mackerel and sardines, while anchovies were used four less refined sauces. The fisherman from Pompeii and Herculaneum sold their catches, both fresh and salted, in Organizations Essay, the market in the forum but prominent garam manufacturers such as Marcus Umbricius Scaurus may have obtained his fish more directly. Picasso’s! The wealthiest families had a monopoly on its manufacture which they then sold to street retailers. Of Burmese Nationalism! Garum was a potent mix, made from the guts of picasso’s guernica, fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse, probably gills, intestines and blood, and the smell must have pervaded Pompeii. Although it was popular with most some like seneca, hated the Essay Island, foul smell. The following gives a more detailed description of picasso’s, its manufacture: The entrails of sprats or sardines, the parts that could not be used for sailting were mixed with finely chopped portions of fish and with roe and eggs and then pounded crushed and stirred.

The mixture was left in the sun or a warm room and beaten into a homogenous pulp until it fewrmented. When this Liquamen, as it was called, had been much reduced over a period of six weeks by evaporation. It was placed in a basket with perforated bottom through which the residue filtered slowly into a receptacle. The end product decanted into jars was the in A Doll’s House, famous garum; the picasso’s, dregs levft over of Women House and Antigone were also regarded as edible and known as Allec (M. Ponsich M. Tarradell) A product indispensable to the production of garum was salt. The Pompeians skilfully exploited a depression near the coastal road to Herculaneum to make a salt plant. Saltwater, washed up by the high tides, entered a channel into large shallow basins where it evaporated in the sun. As its concentration increased, it was allowed to overflow into progressively concentrated pools.

Eventually, the pure crystallised salt was collected with spades from the final basin. Wool was the basis of one of the most important industries in Pompeii, the washing and picasso’s, dyeing of techniques in animal, wool and the manufacture of cloth. Associated with this laundering, bleaching and re-colouring of guernica, clothes. Both these activities were carried out in workshops and fullonicae or laundries. The raw wool was first sent to an officina lanifricariaae where is was degreased by boiling in leaden boiler.

Once carded it was taken to the spinners and weavers, in Organizations, private homes or in offic nae The cloth was next sent to officinae tinctoriae for dyeing, often in picasso’s, bright colours such as purple or saffron. The finished product was distributed to cloth merchants. Laundries or fullonicae were scattered all over Pompeii 18, of which four, like the Fullery of Staphanus, were large. Some occupied the social, rooms of picasso’s guernica, private houses (possibly rented) and were identified by The Roles of Women Doll’s House, a number of interconnected basins or tanks with built-in steps for washing and rinsigi. Picasso’s Guernica! Workers trod the cloth in a mixture of fullers earthpotash, carbonate of sode and Essay on The, urine (because of its ammonia content). Although camel urine was the picasso’s guernica, most prized, laundries usually hadd to The Roles in A Doll’s and Antigone Essay, make do with human urine and male passers-by were urged to supply their urine by filling the jugs hanging outside. There were special areas set aside for urine collection. The fullers then rinsed, dried and brushed the guernica, cloth. Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus dried his fabric on brick pillars between the Corinthian columns of large atrium, while another fuller, Stephanus, hung the wet clothes over Essay about Water: Ultra-Pure Water canes on the upper floor and in the courtyard.

Once dried, the cloth was bleached with sulphur and then dyed. Igh, and over half a metre tle under two metrres high, and over picasso’s guernica half a metre wide, was discovered in The Roles of Women in A House Essay, a shop attached to the House of the Wooden Partition in Herculaneum, and picasso’s, a painted sign over `the Pompeian workshop of M. Vecilius Verecundus, an eminent mill owner and cloth merchant, showed the various processes involved in cloth manufacture. Wool was used also in the processing of about Water: Ultra-Pure, felt to make slippers, hats, blankets and cloaks. It was impregnated with heated vinegar, creating a matted effect, and then pushed and pressed until it reached the right consistency. The Guild of picasso’s guernica, Fullers was a powerful organisation within the city.

Its headquarters, as well as a possible wool market, were located in the Eumachia building on the eastern side of the Forum. This magnificent building, with the dimensions and layout of in A House Essay, a temple, was paid for by the priestess/business woman Eumachia, who has married a wealthy owner of pastures and picasso’s, flocks of sheep and became the patron of the cloth makers and dyers. She dedicated it in her own name that of her son, Numistaeius Fronto, to the imperial family. Within the building was a statue of and Rebirth, herself. The thirty or so bakeries that have been identified in Pompeii saved householders from buying the grain , milling it into flour and baking their own bread, which was a basic foodstuff. Because of the poor quality of the flour, the picasso’s guernica, bread was very hard, and due to the lack of yeast, deteriorated quickly. Bakeries did their own refining of the grazing in lava stone mills, usually three or four, set in a paved courtyard with a table for techniques in animal kneading the dough, and a brick oven. A mill was composed of three parts: a fixed conical block called a meta , a mosnry base with a lamina for guernica collecting glour, and a hollow cylinder, catillus, into which was inserted a pole, turned by mules or donkeys. The ovens were heated by burning vine faggots, and, once hot enough, they were cleaned out in readiness for baking small round loaves of bread. These, marked off in eight sections for easy breaking, were dispatched to the various small shops and stalls in surrounding streets.

A few bakeries had an adjoining area for techniques in animal farm selling their own bread, but most did not. 4 copper assus = 1 bronze sestertius. 4 bronze sestertii = 1 silver denarius. 25 denarii = 1 gold aureus. Roman prices tended to fluctuate according to local conditions, thus historians are unable to determine exact values and make concretised observations. For example, epigraphic evidence engraved on uneven columns in the atrium walls of a house states that 7 days before the guernica, Ides bread was worth 8 copper asses or 2 sestertii wheras 3 days before the ecological model health promotion, ides the price of bread went down to only 2 copper asses.

Copper asses were the picasso’s, most common form of currency as people did not trust their slaves with the likes of Construct Essay, denarii let alone the precious gold aureus. A collection of 1600 coins was found in the dolium of counter in the Inn of Lucius Vetutius Placidus, indicating that Pompeians had an ancient form of cash registers! Pompeian society placed a significant emphasis on commercial life and commercial success The forum as well as the via del abbadanza (the main thoroughfare of Pompeii) was crowded with shops Identified shops include a masons shop, extrapolated from a fresco depicting masonry tools as well as the picasso’s guernica, owners name- Diogenes. A carpenters shop was also excavated, and identified according to a similar fresco depicting carpenters tools. Seen in the frieze in the Praedia of Julia Felix where scenes reveal the busy markets in the forum. The emphasis on commercial life is evidenced by the fact some shops advertised their commercial interests as well as the strong desire for profit The mosaic on techniques the entrance near the porta antica of the House of Umbricius Scaurus showed a amphorae or vessel of garum a pictures were the guernica, universal language as not all were literatea people sent their slaves out to do the shopping Epigraphic evidence proclaimed profit is joy found inscribed on the mosaic entrance way of two wealthy men, Siricus and Water: Ultra-Pure Water, Numerianus.as well as another welcome gain inscribed around the impluvium of the house of a carpentera Pompeian society was concerned with wealth and almost was capitalist! Images of Mercury, the god of commerce, were also displayed in numerous places to fain blessings: on a sign outside a shop; on a sale counter; as part of a set of scales; or on the wall of a workshop. Over 600 privately owned shops, workshops and inns have been excavated. Herculaneum was known to be a quieter fishing/ resort tow than the bustling and commercial Pompeii. NB: Herculaneum was the port town and thus their commercial interests primarily revolved around fishing. Markets, or macellum, were another prominent aspect of the economy.

Seen in the frieze in the Praedia of Julia Felix where scenes reveal the busy markets in the forum- more specifically the picasso’s, meat and and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism Essay, fish market. The existence of these is verified by fish bones found scattered in the forum. Temporary markets were also common, these too are represented in the Frieze from the Praedia of Julia Felix which portrays scenes of a mules and carts carrying merchandise; a man displaying shoes; cloth merchants showing their wares to guernica, two women; a man selling bread and a fruit and vegetable stall, indicating stalls were set up for vendors to sell goods such as shoes, cloth, metal vessels, fruit and vegetables. As well as stalls situated in the surrounds of the ampitheatre, established to sell refreshments to on The Island, patrons. Markets were set up on specific days, as reinforced by epigraphic evidence on the facade of the Shop of the Potter Zosimus that Pompeian market day was Saturns day

Full legal rights Could hold political office Wealthy landowners and businessmen Controlled public finances, spaces and guernica, religion Privileged seats in the ampitheatre and theatre Received honorary statues and tombs. Could not hold public office. Were under legal control of fathers or husbands. Could own property Conducted businesses Constructed buildings and tombs Held priesthoods Supported electoral candidates Received honorary statues and tombs. Men and techniques in animal, women freed from slavery Often worked for former masters Many became wealthy and influential.

Voted in elections Owned businesses Participated in some religious cults Could become an Augustalis (Priest of the Cult of the Emperor highest political position they could reach) Could not hold formal political office. Could not hold formal political office Some worked for former Masters. 40% of the population were slaves Little evidence of their lives remained Some slaves were owned by Pompeiis town council. Few tombstones attributed to slaves Domestic work common Few houses had separate slave quarters There is a wide range of slaves, from Germans who were commonly sent to the salt mines, to educated Italians who had simply fallen into debt. Women: Hand maiden slaves hair, clothes, jewellery Gladiators are slaves yet highly respected. The typical role of women in Roman society was to guernica, perform tasks such as running the health, household, bringing up the children and controlling finances; Rome is a military empire, and the men had to be out training all day as soldiers, working as a politician for the empire, or be an external merchant; thus, Pompeian women had much more freedom than their Roman counterparts. The evidence of wall paintings (Julia Felixs frieze) inscriptions and frescoes show Pompeian women actively engaged in public life and moving freely about the city. Inscriptions about rich women Marcia and Rufina Metilia inform us of the ability of women to own property in their own right and to manage their affairs without supervision by picasso’s, a male relative. A prominent Pompeian woman was Poppaea Sabina. Her family owned the House of Menander and the House of the Gilded Cupids. She was married to the emperor Nero and owned her own villa in nearby Oplantis.

Another important businesswoman was Eumachia. Her family owned brickmaking works and vineyards, as suggested by Essay about Water:, amphorae discovered all over the Mediterranean. Picasso’s! She constructed a large building in The Roles of Women in A Doll’s, the Forum that bears her name: the Eumachia building. A Latin inscription from the picasso’s guernica, 1st Century AD reads: Eumachia, the public priestess (of Venus), daughter of Lucius, had the vestibule, the covered gallery, and the porticoes made with her own money and dedicated in her own name and in the name of her son Marcus Numistrius Fronto, in honour of the social model, goddess Concord and Augustan Piety. She married into another prominent family, her husband Marcus Numistrius Fronto, who either him or their identically named son held the office of duumvir in AD 3. Wooden and picasso’s, wax tablets detailing the financial transactions of the banker Caecilius Jucundus provide further information about women conducting business. There are at least fourteen women mentioned in these documents. One, Umbricia Januaria, was possibly a freed slave as suggested by Essay Clean Water: Ultra-Pure, her name.

She operated a business for her former master: Umbricia Januaria hereby attests that she received from L. Caecilius Juncundus 11, 039 sestertii, less a percentage [1-2 per picasso’s cent] as his commission, for the auction of Ultra-Pure, good on her behalf. Although women could not vote, they made public declarations supporting particular candidates for guernica election. From the in A Essay, electoral campaign programmata from Pompeii, it seems it was quite acceptable and legitimate for women to do this. For example, Taedia Secunda canvassed votes for her grandson; Asellina scrawled electoral comments on picasso’s the walls of her tavern. Women at The Roles of Women in A Doll’s and Antigone Essay, Pompeii may have attended the contiones before candidates were chosen. The election programmata show that women did have a part in the public life even if they did not vote: The programmata may be regarded as a collective activity in which women took part no only as members or clients of the family but also as members of the community and the electoral district. (Sauvnen) From graffiti and inscriptions, we can gain otherwise limited knowledge into the lives of less wealthy women. Valeria Hedone and Asellina owned taverns; Statia and Petronia worked in picasso’s, bakeries; Amaryllis and Social Construct, Specula worked in the cloth trade. Other women worked as vegetable sellers, weavers, doctors and money lenders. Vettia accepted from Faustilla 15 denarii with eight assess in interest . There were also the lower class poor women and slaves who worked as household servants, cooks, cleaners, wet nurses and prostitutes. Funerary monuments testify to picasso’s, the fact that some Pompeuan women were important enough to have been honoured by a funeral at ecological health promotion, public expense.

One such woman was the priestess Mamia. Another woman. Veia Barchilla, erected and paid for a large tomb to commemorate the life of her husband. One feature of life that was common to picasso’s, all levels of society in The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese, Pompeii and Herculaneum was the relationship of client and patron. Elite freeborn families acted as patrons to those in the lower class. It was the responsibility of the client to support his patron at political elections and do any favours that might be required. In return, the patron might assist his client in legal matter or give him a small free gift or a free meal.

One example of the picasso’s, patron-client relationship at Pompeii was that between Eumachia and Water: Ultra-Pure, the guild of fullers. The statue of Eumachia was erected in her honour by the fullers guild. The inscription reads The Fullers [dedicated this statue] to Eumachia, daughter of Lucius, public priestess. Extract from Pompeii and guernica, Herculaneum: Interpreting the Evidence by Brian Brennan and Estelle Lazer: Political life at Pompeii and Herculaneum was dominated by the patronage of poorer citizens and of particular social and business groups by members of Essay about Clean Ultra-Pure, a powerful, wealthy and influential elite. In a way similar to Rome itself, where the great senatorial families had an impressive tradition of office-holding and public service, powerful local Pompeians offered both protection and assistance to guernica, individuals. They assisted those who sought advancement in political office or desired to make connections and alliances that would help them in business or in social model, social life.

In return, the picasso’s, patrons expected support in social ecological, elections and public recognition of their exalted status. The patron, patronus , could expect support from his clients, clients . Every patronus sought to outdo his rivals in the size and extent of his supporters, clientela. The number of clients who came to your house in the morning, or who accompanied you to the forum, or who cheered you in the theatre, indicated your importance. Guernica! Patronage might also be extended to separate groups within the community or to the whole populace, whose support was won by offering benefits, beneficia. Essay! Benefits could include the provision of food, gladiatorial entertainments, public works or projects such as theatres, temples or public baths. Duumviri : the two men. They operated as co-mayors of Pompeii and could only serve one year.

Elections took place each year in the spring. They were also in guernica, charge of justice. Aediles: Two citizens were elected to this position each year. They were described as two men, for taking care of streets, buildings, temples and public buildings. At its foundation in c. 80BC, the Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum was given a lex (or charter), that set out the political and administrative structure still in use at techniques farm, the time of the eruption in 79AD. There were 3 political institutions at Pompeii: The comitium or peoples assembly: Made up of all adult, male citizens of the town, including freedmen. It functioned to elect magistrates and to vote honours. The ordo decurionum: The legislative body of picasso’s guernica, Pompeii, able to make decisions on any matter that concerned the colony as a whole. Its members were called decurions . New members were elected every five years likely to have remained until death. The magistracy: Two duumvirs and two aediles (junior magistrates), who were responsible for social promotion the judicial system, administration, public works, and buildings, municipal cults and picasso’s guernica, games-giving.

The magistrates presided over proceedings in model, the ordo and picasso’s, elections in the comitium. Every 5 years the duumvirs held a census to revise the list of Organizations are a Social Essay, ordo members and were given the title quinquennial duumvirs. A candidate for magistracy must be male, free-born, over 25, have a fortune above a certain level and have an unblemished reputation. To become duumvir a candidate first had to be elected aedile. Other honours: The most prestigious honour to be bestowed on a citizen was that of patron of the town. A patron was formally selected by the town council to picasso’s guernica, represent and farm, protect the interests of the community at Rome. E.G.

Marcus Holconius Rufus and Marcellus. Another rare, purely honorific title was that of military tribune'; this was awarded to picasso’s guernica, a citizen of popular demand, presumably in return for services to techniques farm, the community. E.G. Guernica! Marcus Tullius and Marcus Holconius Rufus. Herculaneum : Political set up similar to Pompeii, however it did not suffer the imposition of a colony after the Social War of 91-87BC. Surviving inscriptions demonstrate that Herculaneum was run by two annually elected duumvirs. Aediles, also attested, would have supervised the markets, roads and public buildings. The towns finances may have been overseen by a third official, a quaestor, who is mention in a single inscription. Programmata Programmata are unique to ecological model health, Pompeii They are painted posters, usually red or black on a white background. Picasso’s Guernica! They support particular candidates for political office.

It is thought that the Essay about Clean Ultra-Pure Water, candidates often commissioned them themselves. They have been found on the facades of houses, particularly on major thoroughfares where many passers-by would have seen them. 131 candidates have been identified, 90% of picasso’s, them dating to election campaigns after 62AD. I ask you to elect Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus and Marcus Samellius Modestus aediles, men worth of public office All the fruit-sellers with Helvius Vestalis call for Marcus Holconius Priscus as duumvir for lawsuits The 79AD election campaign of Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus is particularly well documented. Programmata relating to his attempt to become aedile have been found on major thoroughfares such as the Via dell Abbondanza. Monumental Inscriptions: On stone and bronze found at both Pompeii and Herculaneum. Marble a more common Bronze a more important more valuable Unlike programmata, monumental inscriptions were usually permanent. Organizations Essay! The inscriptions fall into categories of: Official declarations: Public pronouncements or decisions. Honorific inscriptions: Honours voted by the comitium to particular individiuals who had their statues set up at public expense.

In the Forum, 41 bases for picasso’s standing statues along the poritcoed sides and 16 equestion bases can still be seen. Nationalism! Aulus Umbricius Scaurus was honoured with an picasso’s equestrian statue. Essay Island! Dedications: Found on public buildings and record who or what the building is dedicate to and who paid for it. Gladiators were usually slaves or convicted criminals. They trained at the Palaestra and in the Gladiators Barracks.

Helmets, greaves and picasso’s guernica, weapons were found in the gladiators barracks, due to poor recording much evidence was lost, 15 complete helmets, 6 single greaves, 5 pairs of Organizations Social Construct, greaves, 3 shoulder guards and a small round shield remain lavish embossments imply they were used for ceremonial parades rather than actual fights. Samnite: Heavily armoured with a sword or lance, rectangular shield, metal helmet, protective armour on right arm and left leg. Thracian: Not as heavily armoured short curved sword, small round shield, arm guard on his right arm, leg guards and picasso’s guernica, highly decorated helmet. Myrmillo (fish man): Fish shaped crest on helmet, rectangular shield, arm and leg guards. Retiarius (the net wielder): trident, tried to trap his opponent in his net, an arm and shoulder guard. Specialists: fought using daggers and lances, chariot fighters (essedarii), cavalrymen (eques), and some who fought blindfolded. Gladiators are extremely popular, especially with girls: Thracian Celadus is referred to as the heart throb of the girls.

Wealthy members of society paid for gladiatorial games, many of which are recorded in epigraphic evidence Marcus Tullius paid for a wild beast hunt and 20 pairs of Organizations are a Social Construct Essay, gladiators. People gambled on the outcome of cockfights. Mosaic showing a cockfight, on guernica the table in the image is a purse full of money which will go to in animal farm, the owner of the picasso’s guernica, winning cockerel. Appear to have a varied diet. Seeds and pips from foods such as dates, figs and olives have been preserved in the volcanic ash. Carbonised eggs, figs, loaves of bread and nuts including walnuts, hazelnuts and The Roles of Women in A Doll’s, almonds have also been found.

Animal bones from sheep, pigs and cattle attest to the consumption of meat. Evidence for the presence of seafood in the populations diet comes from fish bones and the shells of picasso’s guernica, scallops, cockles, sea urchins and cuttlefish. A team from Oxford university has been investigating remains from latrine pits and ecological model health, sewers at Pompeii. As latrines were usually in the kitchen they were used to dispose of both human excrement and food scraps. So far, mineralised seeds, small bones and marine shell fragments have been found. Further work is being carried out picasso’s as part of the Essay Water, Herculaneum Conservation Project which should provide more dietary sources. Professor Wilhelmina Jashekski, an archarologist specialising in the gardens of Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and other fruits and vegetables. Picasso’s! Evidence for viticulture (grape growing) within Pompeii and hence for the drinking of wine came from her discovery of a vineyard within the walls.

Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry, and game also provide information about diet at techniques, Pompeii and Herculaneum. Made of a fermented mixture of small fish such as sprats and anchovies combined with the entrails of a larger fish such as mackerel. Lighter, strained version was called liquamen Aulus Umbricius Scaurus made, exported and guernica, imported garum. Small terracotta jars that once held garum have been found in Pompeii and Herculaneum; they have painted labels with info like contents, manufacturer, shipper and Essay, the recipient Excavators have uncovered stalls selling take away foods doused in guernica, this fish sauce. Wall paintings suggest banqueting is about Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water popular; depicting people eating and drinking, helped by slaves to picasso’s guernica, remove outer clothing and vomiting An outdoor triclinium was found in the House of the Moralist at Pompeii, with three stone couches that were painted red and a marble topped table.

A bronze brazier and various serving and eating vessels were found nearby. There was an absence of formal dishware sets but an abundance of small grilling vessels (like barbeques) found in the residences studied, indicating that people were eating-and-running on the go (Penelope Allison) Most evidence for clothing in Pompeii and Herculaneum come from artistic representations this is pragmatic as statues and frescoes may not depict what was actually worn. Men of rank and of equestrian class wore a knee-length belted tunic more commonly than the toga. The width of the purple stripes on the front and Essay Clean Water: Ultra-Pure, back indicate the rank of the wearer. Pompeians dressed as the Romans dressed. Males wore a tunic, the basic item of clothing, which was something like a long t-shirt. It was worn under a toga. Status was distinguished by stripes and colours.

The tunica laticlavis or the senatorial tunic had broad stripes that extended from the guernica, shoulder to the hem. The toga praetexta of the curule magistrates was an off white toga with a broad purple border. Organizations Construct! Togas were worn for public and formal occasion s and picasso’s guernica, usually in in animal, the Forum. The toga was the national dress of Rome. The toga was a large oval-shaped piece of cloth, usually wool, worn as the standard Roman garment. Women did not wear togas, only when to signify disgrace. Stola: A long, sleeveless tunic, usually suspended at the shoulders from short straps, worn on top of another tunic. Worn by women of rank and picasso’s, as a symbol of marriage enabled a woman to publicly proclaim her modesty and respect for tradition. Palla : Cloak worn over a womans head when outdoors. Vittae: Woollen headbands. A bronze statue in the villa of Papyri at Herculaneum shows a woman wearing a tunic fastened in the style of a Greek peplos.

Painting in the lararium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, depicts both the Essay about Clean Water: Water, tunica laticlavia and the toga praetexta worn by magistrates. Statue of Marcus Holconius Rufus depicted in military dress uniform and cuirass (breastplate armour) to depict his role as the Military Tribune it is likely he never wore this. Social occasion -opportunity to satisfy not only the well-being of the body, but also of the spirit Cantarella and Jacobelli. 4 Thermae discovered in picasso’s guernica, Pompeii: The Stabian baths, the Forum baths, the Central baths (still under construction) and the Sarno baths. 2 thermae discovered in Herculaneum: The Suburban and Forum baths.

Divided into male and female sections or they were divided by time allocations. Decoration often with a marine theme Visitors would also practice physical exercise and play sport, indulge in a range of therapies such as a massage, stroll in the gardens, listen to music and poetry recitals and read in the library, conduct business and receive invitations. Pornographic graffiti Masseur in Essay about, Pompeii is accused of taking liberties with women. Picasso’s Guernica! Graffito describes Apelles the waiter dining most pleasantly with Dexter the slave of Essay Clean Water:, Caesar and then both screwing at the same time. Guernica! They found so many lamps in the Forum baths and the Stabian baths implies they were open at night Slaves carried their masters or mistresses oil, soda and strigil Women wore a two-piece or more modest costume, men wore leather trunks or nothing. Oldest and on The, largest in Pompeii date from as early as the 4th century BC. Earliest known hypocaust, installed in the 1st century BC. Iulius and Annius refurbished the baths and added a laconium and a destrictarium. In the Augustan period a new was added, the palaestra extended and a swimming pool added. Elaborate stucco decoration and fourth style wall paintings, mosaic floors.

An inscription in the entrance courtyard states that they were financed by Marcus Nonius Balbus architecturally notably vistibule Diess Waiting room = one of the great finds of picasso’s guernica, archaeology -Deiss. Are A Essay! It featured walls of varied coloured marbles, framed white stucco panels containing bas-reliefs of naked warriors in guernica, various poses, winged cupids and social ecological model health promotion, a red spiral stucco frieze running around the room. A floor of black marble squares divided by narrow bands of white marble. Magnificent wooden panelled doors. A vaulted roof with light coming through a glass-enclosed ceiling niche.

Thermae: Municipal or privately owned bath complexes. Apodyterium : Changing room with benches and picasso’s guernica, shelves or niches for clothes. Laconium: A small round room useed as a sweat bath, usually with dry heat. The room was heated either by a fireplace, hot stones or a brazier placed at the centre of the room. Tepidarium: A vaulted chamber designed to acclimatize visitors passing from the apodyterium to Island, the caldarium, with benches where people could sit to picasso’s guernica, get used to social model health promotion, the heat and/or wash themselves. Calidarium: The principal bath chamber for picasso’s a hot-water or steam bath, containing a communal, rectangular pool and Organizations are a Social, a basin. Frigidarium: A vaulted chamber for cold baths, containing one or more cold-water pools. Normally visited after the heated rooms. Hypocaust: Heating system, provided by a charcoal-burning furnace located at the back of the caldarium, hot air circulated through the interstices and under the marble floor which was raised about 70-90cm to brick pillars and guernica, through air ducts built behind the walls. Ceilings had grooves in the plaster which collected and channelled the condensation down the walls. Palaestra: Wrestling school/ gymnasium Seneca I hear grunts of musclemen exercising

Natatio: Open air swimming pool. Praefurnium : Heating room. Destrictarium: Scraping-room, where oil and about Ultra-Pure Water, sweat were removed from the body with strigils. Early inhabitants relied on water from the Sarno river for the purposes of life, for pleasure, and for our daily use (Vitruvius), deep wells and picasso’s guernica, rain collecting cisterns for their water. NB: while they appear to be level, supply aqueducts decline 1-3m/km. At the time of Augustus, the farm, imperial aqueduct at Misenum had a branch built to supply Pompeii (Sernium aqueduct) Water from this channel flowed into guernica, a main tank or water tower (castellum aquae) near the vesuvian gate. Essay Clean Ultra-Pure Water! From the castellum, it was siphoned off into 3 main pipes that fed different areas of the picasso’s, city. Vitruvius discusses this process in his On Architecture stating that in the reservoir are three pipes of equal sizes, and so connected that when the water overflows at the extremities, it is ecological model promotion discharged into the middle one The sloping terrain aided the water pressure that dispersed the water into various tanks all over Pompeii. Fourteen of these secondary tanks have been uncovered.

Many private homes were directly connected to this source of fresh, running water. One of the three pipes supplied the forty two public fountains (nymphaea) found all over Pompeii. We have evidence of three fountains at Herculaneum. They were usually located at crossroads- obviously the supply of guernica, water was more important than traffic movement, because, in some places, the fountains obstructed the roadway. It is likely that most people in Pompeii lived within easy walking distance of Organizations, a fountain. Picasso’s Guernica! These public fountains provided a continuous supply of fresh water as there was an overflow system. The excess water ran down the streets and helped wash away the rubbish. The fountains were quadrangular stone basis often decorated with gargoyles. Water flowed through lead pipes but the Pompeians were unaware this was a health hazard.

Another feature was the installation of castellum plumbeum, a lead pillar that acted as a pressure tap and Essay about Clean Ultra-Pure, ensured equal water pressure throughout the town. Smaller houses still made use of guernica, cisterns At least 91 but probably more were connected by pipes to the main water supply In these houses, ornamental fountains, pools and other features became common Some houses even had private baths in techniques farm, the Augustinian period, such as the House of the picasso’s guernica, Meander, the techniques, house of Paquius Proculus and the house of the Vestals. Pompeii was noisy, dirty, smelly and picasso’s, generally unhygienic with rubbish in farm, the streets. The disposal of waste matter and rubbish constitutes a major problem for all societies whether ancient or modern. Guernica! Like most Roman towns, Pompeii had public latrines To dispose of the waste matter from these, the Romans devised a system that involved water running continuously through a drainage channel that moved the waste matter along. A large public latrine with seating for twenty has been found in are a Social Essay, the north-west corner of the Forum at guernica, Pompeii There was a small anteroom and Essay about Clean Ultra-Pure, then the main toilet area containing seats. Roman toilets were communal with no private cubicles People sat side by side on benches above the flowing channel. There was no toilet paper, only a sponge and a stick Public latrines were also located at guernica, the baths and the palaestra Some private homes in ecological, Pompeii and Herculaneum, such as the House of the Painted Capitals, had latrines. These were often located near the kitchen area and were flushed by hand or connected to the houses water supply from the aqueduct. The waste matter drained away to cesspits beneath the roadway or to the sewage system Private toilets were usually only for one or two people, however some houses in picasso’s guernica, Herculaneum catered for up to six users.

Pompeians took pleasure out of techniques in animal farm, toilet humour as epigraphic evidence of graffiti describes the latrines as Marthas banqueting room Purpose or function of the Basilica. It is a place for legal proceedings and business transactions Besides use for law the building would probably been used for other large gatherings such as auctions Exchange where businessmen or speculators met clients and guernica, signed contracts. What does the basilica reveal about Pompeian life? It reveals that law and justice was carried out in everyday life and they had magistrates and a proper, lawful area to carry these duties out. Description and dimensions.

Standard plan of basilicas: Long rectangular central hall, flanked on either side by Essay about Ultra-Pure, a colonnaded aisle and an apse at picasso’s guernica, one end. On The Island! Pompeii Basilica: Covers an area of almost 5000 sq. m Central hall was two stories with light filtering through the upper gallery Hellenistic-style building Five large doors (fitted with wooden shutters) that open onto a portico with four Ionic columns on the south-west corner of the forum and its interior space was designed to impress the visitor with the guernica, majesty of law Focus of interior= raised tribunal where the The Roles House and Antigone, chief magistrates, the duumviri sat as judges Herculaneum Basilica Many buildings still buried under debris and one building stripped of its decorations in the 18 th century could have been the guernica, basilica although it may in techniques in animal, fact be a shrine to the imperial cult We know the guernica, towns basilica building was rebuilt at the expense of the Proconsul Marcus Nonius Balbus, after the earthquake of The Failure Nationalism Essay, AD62 and his statue connects him to this so-called basilica building Basilica itself 37m by 60m and centered stood a statue of the Emperor Vespanian This was flanked by niches which contained paintings depicting scenes from the life of picasso’s, Herakles or Hercules- the mythical founder of the town Interior space housed many bronze and marble statues of emperors and a series of full length portrait statues of the social, Balbus familyserving a reminder to picasso’s, visitors of the Balbus familys benefactions to their town. Location and location significance. Pompeii basilicalocated at the southwest end of the Forum. Importance or significance as an Archaeological object. It is the oldest surviving Basilica in Italy- therefore it helps historians understand the area in which law enforcement was carried out as well as important business transactions. Key fact to remember: The two duoviri (magistrates) made judgments about. Unworthy Decurions Electoral candidates without the social ecological, required qualifications Inappropriate behavior during elections Misuse of public funds Robberies Murder. They were responsible for sentencing but could only picasso’s give death penalty to foreigners and slaves. Small covered theatre seating up to 1,300 people Possibly used for musical recitals and displays of oratory.

Also suitable for literary readings and The Roles in A, possibly used for meetings of various kinds. Purpose or Function of the Roman Temples. Regarded as the homes for picasso’s gods and goddesses Place were correct rituals were carried out by the priests to honour the gods. What does the roman temples reveal about Pompeian life. Their dedication and belief in about Water: Ultra-Pure Water, different gods and goddessesreligion. Description and guernica, dimensions. Consisted of a cella (chamber) to contain a statue of the deity, which stood before the altar. Location and location significance. Most temples were mainly located in or around the forum. Importance or significance as an Archaeological object.

Understanding of the worship for of Burmese gods and goddesses- although their was little focus on personal religious devotion rather on the loyalty to Rome. Key fact to remember. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and picasso’s guernica, were dedicated to public cults, enabling the The Roles Doll’s, people to demonstrate their loyalty to Rome. The temples were not places where regular services were held for large numbers of people little focus on picasso’s guernica personal religious devotion. Evidence (modern, ancient, written, epigraphical) 10 temples excavated in Pompeii, none in Herculaneum.

Numerius Popidius Celsinus, son of Numerius, rebuilt at his own expense from its foundations the techniques, Temple of Isis, which had collapsed in an earthquake; because of his generosity, although he was only 6 years old, the town councilors nominated him into their number free of charge. Temple to the Egyptian Goddess Isis, built in the Theatre District around end of 2nd century, reflecting the trading links between Pomp and picasso’s, Alexandria. Unearthed in 1760, the techniques in animal farm, unusual discovery of an Egyptian temple in Italy, as well as the vividness of the remains there sparked much excitement. Carbonised remains in pits and on the altar A dead body presumed to guernica, be the priest Statuettes and well preserved paintings A small structure (purgatorium) with steps leading down to a well was believed to have provided purifying water for ceremonies. Much of the sanctuarys decoration was calculated to emphasize the foreignness of the social ecological model, goddess. Picasso’s Guernica! A tablet inscribed with genuine hieroglyphs was discovered in fron of the the temple itself Paintings depicting Egyptian gods: Anubis, Bes, Osiris, Harpocrates and Isis; and Egyptian landscapes peopled with strange creatures such as crocodiles, ibis and pygmies. Further evidence of the cult has been found at Herc, as well as other surrounding sea-port towns such as Stabiae and Puteoli. The popularity of the cult is reflected in the discovery of statuettes of Isis and several cult-rattles, sistra , found in private houses. Furthermore, some twenty lararia were decorated with images of Isis, and several individuals donated statuettes within the farm, sanctuary enclosure: A marble statuette, executed in archaizing style, depicts the goddess holding a sistrum in her right hand and the key of the guernica, Nile in her left.

Traces of The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, gilding can still be seen on the marble. Inscription: Lucius Caecilius Phoebus erected (this statue); space granted by decree of the town councillors. An inscribed pilaster, which once supported a (now lost) statuette. Picasso’s Guernica! Inscription: T Augustan Isis. Manilia Chrysa [fulfilled] her vow [willingly to the deserving deity.] Statuette of about, Bacchus, as a version of the Egyptian god Osiris, depicts him with a panther and is displayed in a small niche in the rear wall of the temples, with ears in picasso’s, stucco on either side, symbolic of his responsiveness to prayer. Inscription on plinth:

Numerius Popidius Ampliatus, father, at his own expense. (father of the child who nominally rebuilt the temple) Actor Norbanus was honoured with a portrait bust in the sanctuary, perhaps in and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism, connection with his appearances in the adjacent theatre. The notion that the cults popularity was the result of some kind of religious crisis, with the guernica, ride of a belief based cult requiring initiation at Essay about Clean Water, the expense of traditional religious cults, is no longer tenable, although the cult was regarded with suspiscion at Rome until the 1st century AD. The reference to worshippers of Isis in electoral notices , however, certainly implies that at least some of her adherents had a sense of group identity not found with other cults. Both of picasso’s, these notices date from Essay Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water, Pompeiis last decade. Road outside the temple: All the worshipppers of Isis call for picasso’s Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus as aedile. 50 metres from temple, Stabian Street: Popidius Natalis, his client, with the are a Social Essay, worshippers of Isis, call for Cuspius Pansa as aedile. Temple of picasso’s guernica, Jupiter.

Marble plaque One side, 3 BC in Greek: Gaius Iulius Hephastion, son of social ecological model, Hephastion, priest of the community of Frigi, dedicated to Jupiter Frigio in the 27th year of Caesar, in the month of Pharmouthi, on the Emperors day. Buildings associated with administration, religion and commerce were clustered around or near the picasso’s guernica, Forum which was the chief meeting and Water: Ultra-Pure, trading place in the town. In Pompeii, the Forum was located were the guernica, main roads from Naples, Nola and The Roles of Women in A House and Antigone Essay, Stabiae met a confused jumble of picasso’s guernica, shops, workshops, crafts, residential and horticultural plots and houses across the whole city, with no real attempt at and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, commercial segregation or concentration beyond the tendency of shops to line the main roads and horticulture to cluster on the margins A. Wallace- Hadrill because our ancestors handed down to us the custom of holding gladiatorial combats there; the columns must therefore be more widely spaced to allow a good viewthe width will be two-thirds of the length, the shape thus being rectangular, a more convenient proportion for shows Vitruvius under the poticoes, the money-changers stalls, and picasso’s, above, galleries. [the dimensions had to] be proportionate to the size of the population, otherwise there will be a shortage of space, or the forum, too scantily filled, will look empty. The columns of the upper storey will be one-third less in height than those below, which being more heavily laden must be stronger Vitruvius Rectangular paved area 40m wide and techniques in animal farm, 150m long . Features about picasso’s, 40 statues of leading citizens and the imperial family At time of eruption was undergoing a comprehensive, vigorous and ambitious post-earthquake restoration Closed to wheeled traffic Access barred by large rectangular blocks fitted solidly in the ground Also evidence that the area could be closed off by grilled gates during certain events Deep wheel ruts on surrounding roads, attest to the amount of traffic focused on the Forum Network of drains in the forum- drainage water flowed down the streets to an outlet outside the walls Any day of the week the forum was busymarket day, however would have been filled with the lively bustle of Water, shopkeepers and guernica, stall- holders, merchants, money-changers, customers, teachers and students and those attending the law courts of holding political office Frieze in about Clean Ultra-Pure, the House of Julia Felix- depicts aspects of picasso’s guernica, life in the Forum Forum buildings were roofed in farm, red terracotta tiles Pompeian people covered the Forum walls, particularly the Basilica with painted notices in vivid colors and large letter, the better to draw attention M. Brion. Two theatres in Pompeii- essentially Greek in picasso’s, design Seating capacity in Essay, Pompeii largest theatre was 5000 Popular entertainment included comedies, tragedies and picasso’s guernica, farces Horse shoe shaped auditorium- divided into three horizontal areas Section nearest to Organizations Construct Essay, the stage (ima cavea) reserved for authorities and important visitors Highest section (summa cavea) appears to have been occupied by women Other members of the public were seated in the media cavea Proscenium- back drop for the performance was ornamented with columns and statues and picasso’s guernica, connected by three doors to an are behind, possibly by actors change rooms Adjacent to of Women in A Essay, the theatres was a spacious foyer (quadriporticus) where spectators could stroll between performances Herculaneum- theatre of Herculaneum could hold about 2500 people Proscenium decorated with red and yellow porphyry columns and guernica, cornices of green serpentine with niches for statuary. Often organized for religious festivities to celebrate the in A Doll’s House and Antigone, dedication of a monument or achievement Entry was free to picasso’s, all but admission could be gained to The Roles of Women in A Essay, the theatre only by having a small pieve of picasso’s, hone or ivory as a token which indicated where the Social Construct, holder was to sit in the form of gish, birds, skulls or theatre masks G. Capasso. Those with the image of the bird indicated the highest seats against the wall All classes attended the theatre although there is some doubt about slaves Theatres were noisy- audiences were farces, excitable and sometimes impatient Actors had a low social status but were popular Lucius Domitius Paris, a favourite of the threatre-loving emperor Nero was was called Paris, the sweet darling Grant Generally no female actors Women however, did seem to take part in mimes and pantomimes and there is a graffito of an actress called Histrionica Rotica (erotica) perhaps a name inficative of what she did on stage Seems performances were infrequence and tended to be put on for private groups J.R. Green Wigs and masks were worn which amplified the guernica, voice Trapdoors, methods of making thunder, lightning, rain and smoke which signaled the appearance of divine apparitions Most popular amoung the people were the ecological health promotion, Oscan farces (Atellanae)type of theatre Crude dialogue Pantomime- short amusing plots, ludicrous actions and obscene gestures Did not wear masks Performed bare foot Women sometimes did some form of a striptease in response to the audience Actors accompanied by musicians Based loosely on mythological themes. Theatre complex at Pompeii and picasso’s guernica, the magnificent theatre at Herculaneum, the number of theatrical motifs used in the decoration of well-to-do houses and social ecological model, the graffitii written by fans about local and picasso’s guernica, visiting actors. Pompeii- Palaestra in Pompeii was opposite the amphitheatre and farm, was a 107 by 141 metre rectangle, surrounded by guernica, a portico on three sides, shade trees and enclosed by in animal farm, a wall. In the centre was a large swimming pool Herculaneum- occupied a whole block with a street frontage of approximately 110m and depth of 70m with a swimming pool in the shape of a cross about 50m in length with its cross arm about 30m.

Surrounded by picasso’s guernica, trees (the roots have been found) and the field itself outside the pool was large enough for practicing all the traditional sports of athletics, wrestling, javelin and discus throwing. Its main entrance was like a majestic columned cella, or inner portion of a temple all was spacious and imposing Deiss. Deiss also suggests that in in animal, this room sacrafices were made before a competition and that there probably stood a magnificent statue of picasso’s guernica, Hercules, patron of the town. In order to promote physical excellence, virtue and loyalthy to the state, Augustus formed associations of young people (collegia) who competed in athletic competitions or Youth games before their elders. Local unit in Poempii was known as Iuventus Pompeiana and is believed to have comprised young men and women from the age of in animal, 11 to 17 This carefully inscribed travertine plaque was found in the Samnite Palaestra and picasso’s, probably commemorates its construction: Vibius Atranus, son of Essay Clean Ultra-Pure Water, Vibius, granted money in picasso’s, his will to the people of Pompeii; with this money, the Pompeian quaestor, Vibius Vinicius, son of Maras, by are a, decree of the assembly, issued a contract for picasso’s guernica this to be built, and he himself approved it. Buildings in Pompeii associated with gladiatorial contests were: The amphitheatre built c.70 BC at the expense of the duoviri quinquennali, C. Quintius Valgus and Marcus Porcius The barracks dated to 62AD The quadriporticus The schola armaturium, depository of gladiatorial armour but also thought to be a school for the Pompeian Youth

The great amphitheatre. Could hold 20 000 people- suggest people from towns and countryside around Pompeii regularly attended performances Built in the south-east of the cityto avoid congestion because south-east was not so densely populated Access to higher levels (summa cavea) via two double and are a Social Essay, two single stairways. This was were women were seated Middle sections (media cavea)- reached by a covered gallery leading from the western side Ima cavea- reserved for city authorities and distinguished guests were divided from the picasso’s guernica, rest of the cavea by techniques farm, a barrier 80cm high and the stone tiers in this area were larder and guernica, shallower to allow for the potable seats (bisella) of the elite who were protected from the activities in the area by The Roles of Women in A Doll’s House and Antigone, a parapet 2.18m high. Guernica! Access to arena was via 2 paced vaulted tunnels Velarium were provided and part of the system by are a Social Essay, which the awning was anchored can still be seen at the top of the back wall. Types of gladiators. There were different types of gladiators, some of whom included: the Samnite who was heavily armed with a sword or lance and a rectangular shield-he wore a metal helmet and protective armour on his right arm and left leg the guernica, Thracian was not as heavily armed-he carried a short curved sword and a small round shield and wore an arm guard on his right arm, leg guards and a highly decorated helmet the myrmillo (fish man) had a fish-shaped crest on his helmet, hence the name-he carried a rectangular shield and wore arm and leg guards the retiarius (the net wielder) used a trident (a three-pronged spear) and tried to trap his opponent in his net-he wore an arm and shoulder guard. There were also specialist gladiators who fought using daggers and lances, chariot fighters (the essedarii), cavalrymen (eques) and The Failure of Burmese Nationalism, even some who grappled with each other blindfolded. Staging a spectacle.

The games sponsors called editors munerum, were expected to fully or partly finance the picasso’s, production Possibly most famous was Cn. Alleius Nigidius Maius, described as prince of the games Lanista- an entrepreneur who sold or rented his gladiators for the munus Going price for a gladiator depended on his success in the arena Sometimes a lanista not only ran his own ludus (school) but was able to successfully negotiate for the performance of well-known gladiators from one of the imperial schools in Rome such as the Iuliani or Neroniani. Agents job was not easy as he had to be able to Water: Ultra-Pure, provide large numbers of gladiators, constantly recruit and train new members to picasso’s, replace those who died or retired, and The Failure of Burmese Nationalism Essay, deal with city authorities Advertising in form of edicta munerum was painted on walls and distributed by picasso’s guernica, pamphlets sold on street. Programs included Name of magistrate and Essay Island, his official position Reason for the spectacle Number of gladiators Other events such as beast hunts Date (usually held over one day) Provision of a velarium and picasso’s guernica, sparsiones Twenty pairs of gladiators of Organizations Social Construct Essay, Decimus Lurcretius Satrius Valens ten pairs of gladiators will fight at Pompeii from April 8-14. Fight with wild beast according to normal standards: Velarium will be used. Because spectacles lasted from dawn till dusk, the aediles gave permission for itinerant pedlars to set up food and picasso’s, drink stalls beneath the portico No remains of toiletsspectators probably used the latrines in the nearby Palaestra Spectacle began with a procession (pompa featuring musicians and all participants in The Roles in A and Antigone, ornate garments Morning session was often devoted to picasso’s guernica, venationes (animal hunts) Venatores and bestiarii would fight against wild exotic animals or animal would be pitted against animal Probably served to increase the bloodlust of the spectators Gladiators were subjected to a weapons check Tiro or T in social ecological model health, the graffitigladiator was freeborn or involved in his first fight Missum or M in the graffitieditor or emperor to grant mercy, usually took notice of wishes of spectators Vicit or V in picasso’s guernica, graffitivictorious gladiators, they received a palm as a sign of victory and money, the amount decided on before the contest Gladiators were prisoners of techniques in animal, war, slaves, freedmen, criminals condemned to death and occasionally ingenui, fallen on hard times Majority were slaves References to guernica, free men in the inscriptions six free men to twenty slaves appeared on one occasion in the area the same year witnessed gladiatorial displays on no less magnificent scale than before, but exceeding all precedent in the number of distinguished women and senators disgracing themselves in Essay Island, the area Tacitus These instances should not be considered the norm- women fighting But then he was a gladiator! It is this that transforms these fellows into hyacinths! Juvenal Discussing how they were adored by women- enough for them to leave their husbands and picasso’s guernica, children Many gladiators finished their career and went on to become instructors or even lanista. A major archaeological find was the gladiatorial equipment such as helmets, greaves and weapons found in 1766-67 in the gladiators barracks. What remains are fifteen complete helmets, six single greaves, five pairs of greaves, three shoulder guards and a small round shield. Many of these items are lavishly embossed and on The, it is guernica thought that they were used in the ceremonial parades rather than as fighting equipment.

Gladiators depicted on a tomb in Pompeiienabling historians to understand the The Roles in A Doll’s House and Antigone Essay, different armour and outfits worn by picasso’s, gladiators The gladiatorial troupe of Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and ecological model health promotion, awnings. Good luck to all Neronian games (CILV IV.1190) This beast-fighting will be on 28 August and Felix will fight the bears (ILS 5147) Wallace Hadrill describes the Pompeian houses as an interlocking jigsaw of large, medium and small housesHouses- Generic. Cicero asserted the picasso’s guernica, importance of are a Construct Essay, houses stating that the most sacred, the most hallowed place on earth is the picasso’s guernica, home The House of the Faun was a 2 nd Century AD Roman house which is said to reflect the luxurious aristocracy of this Roman period more than any other house At an area of approximately 3,000 square meters, it is the largest Pompeian private house Decorations- elaborate floor mosaics and magnificent wall paintings. Mosaics made from tiny, cut and coloured stones called tesserae. Essay On The! One mosaic depicts a Nile River landscape. Picasso’s! (Egyptian Influence?) Famous battle between Alexander the Great and Darius (Persian King) during the conquest of Asia This mosaic covered the floor of an exedra that opened onto the peristyle of the house Alexander is seen to the left and Darius stands on a chariot to the right, both are surrounded by their warring men. Techniques In Animal! The mosaic measures slightly less than 20 m 2 It is thought that the mosaic is guernica a copy of Essay Island, a painting featuring the same battle, as Pliny the Elder mentions a famous painting of the picasso’s, battle between Alexander and Darius Possible extrapolations from the mosaic include the fact that society was militaristic as well as that the owner of the house was a decedent of Alexander The mosaic of Bacchus riding a lion was found in one of the triclinia of the house. Bacchus is portrayed as a winged child drinking from a large cup This mosaic can be corroborated with a frescoe in the House of The Centenary: Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius which also portrays Bacchus is the god of fertility and wine.

Grand entrance hall. Pavement was written in Island, traditional Latin greeting HAVE, which welcomed guests to the house. Shops at the front and two atria. Named after the small bronze statue of the dancing faun found in picasso’s, the impluvium of the The Failure and Rebirth, larger atrium. Fauns are spirits of untamed woodland, which literate and Hellenized Romans often connected to Pan and Greek satyrs, or wild followers of the Greek god of picasso’s guernica, wine and agriculture, Dionysus and in animal, his Roman counterpart Bacchus. It is purely decorative sculpture of picasso’s guernica, a high order: the pose is light and graceful, Sir Kenneth Clark observed Two gardens, one average size and the other half the area of the house. Large peristyle had a spacious kitchen with high ceilings. Organizations Are A Construct! Windows released cooking smoke and odours. Four rooms interpreted as summer and winter dining rooms Bath complex and stables also found. The House of the Tragic Poet is a typical 2nd century BC Roman house in Pompeii, Italy famous for its elaborate mosaic floors and frescoes depicting scenes from Greek mythology, hence it is often also referred to as The Homeric Houseor The Iliadic House Vestibulum The vestubula floor near the porta antica front door contains a mosaic of a black dog spotted with white, represented on the pavement in mosaic, collared and picasso’s guernica, chained, and in the attitude of social ecological health, barking.

The collar is of red leather. Below the animal is inscribed, in very legible characters, cave canem or beaware of the dog, a sentence, probably, not uncommonly placed at picasso’s, the entrance of Organizations Construct Essay, Roman houses, as we can extrapolate from a Latin passage from Petronius Arbiter that guard dogs were common place. The mosaic also depicts an picasso’s interpretation of Cerberus, the fierce 3 headed dog that guards the gates of Hell in Greek mythology a Greek, Hellenistic influence indicating trade, social class as well as education. The mosaic is timeless, as according to Beard, it does still stand as a warning notice at the entrance to many a modern house Greek Frescoes in the Atrium The atrium was the focal point of Essay Clean, art in the House of the Tragic Poet, containing large scale mythological frescoes; each approximately four feet square, making figures slightly smaller than life-size. On the guernica, south wall of the atrium were two imagesone ofZeus and Hera on Mount Ida and and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, another of Aphrodite (now almost entirely destroyed). The image of Zeus and Hera celebrates a womans loss of virginitya transition from youth to womanhoodas Heras veil is clearly removed from her head, symbolically exposing her face. The image of Aphrodite was most likely a nude, outdoor image with other figures.

The west wall of the atrium shows images ofAmphitrite and Poseidon and of Achilles and The first image, sometimes informally called the abduction of Amphitrite, shows Eros and Poseidon fighting, with multiple nymphs surrounding and nude. The second, known as the Wrath of Achilles, depicts the storyline of the picasso’s guernica, Iliad, with Achilles angered from losing Briseis. From corroboration of the frescoes in the atrium of the House of the Tragic Poet, one can extrapolate the collective observation that international discourse between Greece and Rome was common through trade, and Roman society had a taste for The Roles in A the exotic as they often borrowed aspects of Greek society such as religion. Pompeian society did hold an utmost admiration for the Greeks, as according to Vitruvius, the Greeks were more refined, and possessed greater wealth Cicero elaborates upon this with his anthropological observation that Generally speaking, one tries to imitate the ways of the illustrious people Tablinium The tablinium floor, was decorated with an elaborate mosaic image. Here, actors gather backstage preparing for a performance, as one character dresses and picasso’s guernica, another plays a flute.

Other characters surround a box of masks to be used during the performance. Because this mosaic is the centerpiece of the room and therefore seemingly important, modern archaeologists came up with the name House of the farm, Tragic Poet to guernica, describe the entire villa. Next to this was a mosaic of Athena and Zeus, this was most likely supposed to portray Athenas birth scene. Peristyle To the left of the peristylewas a fresco known as the social ecological promotion, Sacrifice of Iphigenia, in which Iphigenia is taken by Ulysses and Achilles to be sacrificed just before Artemis delivers a deer to be sacrificed in her place. Observations/ Extrapolations Little is guernica known about the owners of the House of the Tragic Poet, however one assertion- founded on of Burmese the extensive evidence of Greek influence- was that they were indeed foreigners from guernica, Greece. NB: a praedia is a block of land. The Praedia of Julia Felix was a private house divided into insulae containing a bath system that was rented to the public Epigraphic evidence of an inscription states: To let, for promotion the term of five years, from the thirteenth day of next August to the thirteenth day of the sixth August thereafter, the Venus bath, fitted up for the best people, shops, rooms over shops, and second-storey apartments in the property owned by Julia Felix, daughter of Spurius From this one can extrapolate that Julia Felix was a business woman, landlady, letter of the picasso’s guernica, three baths, and a woman of high status; enabling an historian to make the The Roles Doll’s and Antigone, collective observation that women were able to picasso’s, hold high standing roles within Roman society such as owning and managing property, such assertion is reinforced by Essay, the fact that the largest estate in Pompeii was in picasso’s, fact owned by a woman. The Praedia was one of the largest in social health promotion, Pompeii, with orchards and gardens occupying most of the picasso’s guernica, space; the house takes up 1/3 of the estate. It is situated on the Via dellAbbadanza and appears to have been reconstructed after the earthquake of 62 ADa the imperative for reconstruction after the earthquake is a possible reason for Julia Felix to have to let out the The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, baths (make sufficient funds for repairs) Wallace Hadrill asserts that without the epigraphic evidence, one would not suspect that the elegantly decorated garden and nymphaeum attached to picasso’s, the baths were fore commercial use. And Rebirth Of Burmese Nationalism! The private bathing facility was elaborate and intended for the best people (epigraphic inscription) Venus bath: Venus is guernica a roman God, however her private lararium indicated veneration of the Egyptian god Isis. She does not publish her affiliation with the notorious cult of Isis because, contextually, it was not socially acceptable.

Artwork in the Praedia of Julia Felix Frescoes found generally depicted scenes of everyday life, generally shown in the forum. Frescoes/Friezes- difference is that a frieze circles the whole room like a boarder. Freizes found in the house depict aspects of the mundane. Ecological Model Promotion! One is picasso’s 70cm high and 31m long circulating the entire atrium It depicts commercial activities in the forum such as: Shop keepers selling their wares such as vegetables, cloth, bronze pans and shoes Male figures reading the latest news from a panel A woman accompanying a servant girl giving arms to an old man leaning on a stick A teacher whipping a student in front of Island, his classmates The frieze is picasso’s useful for historians studying daily Pompeian life as well as allowing one to extrapolate the importance of the forum as the epicentre of daily Pompeian life. It contained a large grotto style triclinium completed with a private nymphaea The Praedia is peppered with Egyptian influence: Walls of the grotto decorated with Nile scenes Peristyle which some scholars perceive to represent a branch of the about Ultra-Pure Water, Nile delta. Garden viridarium contained a small lararium or shrine to Isis Her house is useful to show Social structure Role of women Everyday life Leisure activities Egyptian influence The economy, commercial activity.

Overview The remains of about 100 villas have been excavated, some only a few hundred meters apart, scattered across the Sarno plain. Villas varied in scale, architectural features and luxury and picasso’s guernica, unlike urban domus, they did not look inward but were designed to take the view of the sea or the rolling countryside They were built outside the walls of the city Villas built purely for leisure- otium Often built on different kevels with terraces and belvederes, a subterranean portico cryptoporticus expansive gardens, groves, grottoes, large water displays, thermal baths and large swimming pools Villa of the Papyri: Herculaneum On the social ecological health promotion, coastal outskirts of Herculaneum was the epitome of a villa built for leisure. Believed to have belonged to the Pisones, a notable Roman aristocratic family, who loved to surround themselves with the most refined friends, philosophers and men of letters. Capasso stated that the villa remains one of the greatest testaments to picasso’s, the cultural level reached by the romans during the Hellenistic age This maritime villa was sheltered from the north winds by about Clean Water, the woods of Vesuvius and cooled by the sea breezes in the heat of summer. According to Amadeo Maiuri it had commanded all the freedom and breadth of guernica, a vista that its fortunate position could offer Its dimensions were 245 by 137m A colonnade of Essay, 36 columns circled the peristyle Extensive gardens filled with statues and picasso’s, fountains the water of which supplied by a system of of Women Doll’s House and Antigone Essay, hydraulic pipes A terrace overlooking the sea ran the guernica, entire length of the ecological promotion, villa and circular belvedere, giving a 360? view and picasso’s guernica, paved with a fine mosaic A total of 87 marble and bronze sculptures from the Greek archaic period Some originals and other superb copies were found in social ecological model health promotion, the garden and various rooms of the villa The sculptures included: Gods Nymphs Famous operators and philosophers Athletes Forrest animals It also contained the largest papyrus library (from where it got its name) containing 1800 rolls, almost entirely the writings of guernica, Epicurean philosophers and more specifically, the work of Philodemus of Gadara. Their content covered such topics as poetry, ethics, music, love, madness and death. Other villas: suburban villas The two Pompeian suburban villas: The Villa of about Ultra-Pure Water, Mysteries The Villa of Diomedes Were built on several levels providing the ideals of indoor/outdoor living. The villa of Diomedes had a series of terraces on several levels overlooking the largest garden in the whole Pompeian region (M. Grant) Both villas had their own bath suits with a succession of frigidarium, tepidarium and cadarium.

Main commercial thoroughfare in picasso’s, Pompeii was the road that ran from the Forum past the ampitheatre to the Sarnian gate: This was the Via dell Abbadanza Remains of shops can be recognized by the wide openings designed to entice potential customers where a wooden shutter slid back during the day Many had a mezzanine accessed by internal stairs this was the of Burmese Essay, living quarters of the shopkeeper. There was no order or collective to the shops, all interspersed with grand residences behind. Architectural evidence of a joint in the wall where a beam would have been attached for a sign that would have featured a picture of the product A collective observation that can be extrapolated from this is that: Literacy was not universal a people sent their slaves out to buy food a also multiple foreigners, as Pompeii was a port town. Alas, there is no evidence of guernica, this painting and such is mere deduction. Food outlets About 200 public eating and drinking places have been identified in Pompeii Some were merely fast food snack bars, and are recognized by marble covered counters or thermapolia in which large dolia, holding hot food and and Rebirth Nationalism Essay, drinks, were encased. In most places, food was taken away or eaten standing up a crude terracotta bowls; roughly made; not fired well; very brittle; only purpose is to be temporary vessels for food. Reused if intact, but lots of picasso’s guernica, broken bowls found. One of the largest food outlets found in Social, Herculaneum, opposite the palaestra had two spacious entrances.

Its counter was faced with irregular pieces of polychrome marble and eight large jugs (inserted into the counter itself) other jugs and amphorae may have been used for other types of oil or for sauce. A stove behind the counter was in picasso’s, use: varied dishes were kept simmering in terracotta casseroles over the charcoal fire (Diess) Wine bars and taverns- cauponae/ popina/ hospitum / stabulum A popina sold food and drink, these were the ones which were generally associated with drunken violence. The term thermopolia is often associated with this type of inn/bar Caupona did not sell hot food- therefore no dolia Cauponae were scattered throughout both towns but in Pompeii they were more densely clustered near the The Failure of Burmese Nationalism, entrance gates and around the ampitheatre. Indeed, places where people congregate in this case, before gladiator fights or passing travelers thus, geographical evidence reveals they were more abundant near concentrated areas of population. Picasso’s! Moreover, the Organizations are a Essay, hot weather in summer called for the need for refreshment And indeed, Pompeians were heavy drinkers Hospitum was a guest house- drinks and accommodation we pissed in the bed indicates it enabled accommodation Stabulum was an guernica inn or tavern which housed people as well as their animals. Bars contained amphorae, bronze cauldrons Epigraphic evidence reveals cheers! We drink like wineskins and Sauvis demands full wine jars please, his thirst is enormous you sell water and you drink the pure wine yourself corroborative epigraphic evidence reveals two people fighting over a drink. Essay Clean Water: Water! Alas, most drank their wine diluted they mixed it with water and added other ingredients such as honey, milk, ashes, lime, almonds and sea water (M.

Grant) They also sweetened sour wine with a sweet tasting lead acetate syrup made by boiling the dregs of guernica, wine in lead lined copper pans for several days (M. Of Women House Essay! Grant) Another Pompeian favourite was hot wine in winter. One of the better known establishments was a caupona owned by a woman named Asellina situated on the Via dellAbbodanza who employed foreign waitresses called Smyrna, Maria and Argle as indicated by electoral posters giving their names (some believed they were prostitutes) Sums showing customer debts were scrawled on picasso’s guernica the inside wall of The Roles of Women in A, her inn while political slogans, painted on the outside walls revealed her interest in guernica, the forthcoming elections. Electoral posters can be corroborated by others found in the city. An inscription found at the entrance of a bar states Hedone says: drinks cost an Essay Water: as here, but you get a better drink if you spend two. If you hand over four asses, you can drink Falernian (Imported wine) Villa Regina was found with 18 dolia with a capacity of 10,00 litres.

Food Evidence of drink in Pompeii and Herculaneum is picasso’s found both within and outside the walls of the techniques farm, cities. Archaeological evidence enables us to picasso’s, identify the foods that were available to the population. It appears that they had a varied diet. Seeds and pops from foods such as dates, figs, and olives have been preserved in the volcanic ash Carbonised eggs, figs, loaves of bread and nuts including walnuts hazelnuts and The Failure and Rebirth Nationalism Essay, almonds have also been found. Animal bones from sheep, pigs and cattle asset to the consumption of meat. Guernica! Evidence for Essay Ultra-Pure the presence of seafood in the populations diet comes from fish bones and the shells of scallops, cockles sea urchins and picasso’s, cuttlefish. A team from Social Construct Essay, Oxford University has been investigating remains from latrine pits and sewers at Pompeii. As latrines were usually in the kitchen they were used to dispose of both human excretement and food scraps.

So far, mineralized seeds, small bones, and marine shell fragments have been found. Further work at Herculaneum is being carried out as part of the Herculaneum Conservation Project, which should provide more dietary evidence. Professor Wilhelmina Jashemski, an archaeologist specializing in the gardens and horti of Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for picasso’s guernica the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and other fruit and veg. Evidence for viticulture within Poompeii, and farm, hence for the drinking of wine, came from her discovery of a vineyard within the walls. Picasso’s Guernica! Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry and game also provide information about diet at Pompeii and Herculaneum. However these sources are limited through peoples desire to of Women and Antigone Essay, portray a glamourized and exotic representation of food, such as Greek portrayals indicating influence. viii.

Influence of Greek and Egyptian Cultures. Statues many were copies of Greek originals (statues of Doryphoros, a cpy of the picasso’s, statue Polyclete) Mosaics (the Alexander Mosaic in The House of the Faun depicting Alexander the Great and a Persian King Darius at of Women in A Doll’s Essay, the Battle of Issus, a copy of a Hellenistic painting by Philoxenos of Eretria) Many murals depict characters and scenes from Greek myths. Theatre features of the large theatre reflect Hellenistic design The horse shoed shaped terraces The colonnaded quadriporticus Doric columns Palaestrae large open colonnaded spaces reflect Greek design Many buildings feature Greek architectural elements: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns Peristyle (e.g. the House of the Faun) Colonnade. Herculaneum probably named for Greek hero Herakles, Roman Hercules. Images of Hercules found in Pompeii ( statuette in temple of picasso’s, Isis) and Herculaneum (in a public fountain, house and wineshop) Demeter, Apollo evidence of worship of in animal, Greek Gods Sanctuary to Dionysus found near amphitheatre; Villa of the Mysteries secret Dionysian cult. Nile scenes in mosaics (threshold mosaic from the House of the Faun depicting crocodiles, hippopotamus and ibis) Wall paintings with Egyptian motifs (The temple of Isis has Egyptians style landscapes and scenes from Egyptian mythology) Garden Art the water feature in the Praedia of Julia Felix represents a Delta branch in the Nile, as does her grotto style dining room. The cult of Isis temple Egyptian gods are dedicated in shrines (the household shrine to Isis from the House of the picasso’s guernica, Golden Cupids features Anubis, Harpocrates, Isis and Sarapis) Cults of Isis and Sarapis popular because they offered ability of an afterlife. (NB: Primarily refer to public buildings)

Temples at Herculaneum are yet to be excavated, whereas there are a number of temples and sanctuaries in Pompeii. They were regarded as the homes for gods and techniques, goddesses and consisted of guernica, a cella to contain the ecological health, statue of the deity which stood before an altar. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and were dedicated to public cults, enabling the people to demonstrate their loyalty to Rome. Picasso’s! There was little focus on personal religious devotion. The domestic hearth or fireplace was the centre of the household and ecological model health, it was here that the paterfamilias celebrated the religious practices connected with the family and the household. The Roman goddess Vesta (Greek counterpart Hestia) was worshipped, along with three other deities: The lares: household deities that protected the family. They were headed by the family sporit, lar familiaris . They had their own shrine in a cupboard.

Any food dropped at picasso’s guernica, a meal was offered to the Archaeological report shows evidence of lares offerings: Small pits containing high concentrations of Essay Ultra-Pure Water, cremated bones and picasso’s guernica, carbonised plant remains were found in the gardens of and also the two peristyle gardens of (House of Amarantus). The bones include parts of piglets and the heads and feet of cocks. Of Burmese Essay! The carbonised remains include stone pine cones, figs, dates, grapes and hazel nuts. Other items include a piece of poppy seed bread or pastry. These remains have been interpreted as offerings to the Lares. Several classical authors refer to such offerigns and they are depicted on wall paintings at lararia in Pompeii but these are the guernica, first occasions such remains have been found in the ground. The genius : the god of the male line of descent. The god was worshipped on the birthday of the paterfamilias; sometimes represented as a snake. The penates: the gods of the larder or food store. Their statuettes were placed on the table at meal times. Every home also had its own shrine or lararium usually located in The Failure of Burmese, the atrium where the whole family carried out their daily worship. Prominent families kept wax mask-like images or portraits of their ancestors, and their family honoured these.

Excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have revealed a society that was tolerant of worship of foreign gods and the practices of imported cults. These tended to have a more personal focus with the promise of an afterlife. Picasso’s! The cult of Isis was very popular in Pompeii. Another foreign cult was the worship of the Thracian fertility god Sabazius, who was equated with the Graeco-Roman god Dionysus/Bacchus. Social Ecological Model Promotion! In 1954 a shrine to this god was unearthed. It consisted of a simple stone altar with two terracotta vases that probably contained offerings. Pompeian society was tolerant of the worship of foreign gods and the practices of guernica, imported cults. These tended to have a more personal focus as they provided the promise of an afterlife. See the Temple of Essay Ultra-Pure, Isis. Another foreign cult was the picasso’s guernica, worship of the Thracian fertility god Sabazius, who equated with the Graeco-Roman god Dionysus/ Bacchus. A shrine to this god was unearthed consisting of a simple stone altar with 2 terracotta vases that probably contained offerings.

Another discovery attesting to the diversity of foreign religious practices, was found by Social Essay, Maiuri in 1938 at the house of the Four Styles. Here he unearthed an ivory statuette of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, goddess of beauty, fertility and wealth. Picasso’s Guernica! Her worship could have come to Pompeii through trade links. Essay On The Island! Small amount of evidence suggests the presence of Jews biblical names of Mary and Martha found on walls and inscriptions on some amphorae. Our main sources of information about death and burial are the tombs and their inscriptions in guernica, the necropolis (Latin translation: city of social ecological model health promotion, death) or cemeteries located outside the city gates. No excavated tombs at picasso’s guernica, Herculaneum. The majority of tombs in the streets that cluster Pompeiis entrances are Roman, although a small number of Samnite burials have been excavated. House Essay! Most of the picasso’s guernica, funerary monuments are found on Sepulchre Street leading from the and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism, Herculaneum Gate and the Nucerian Way and near other gateways. The tombs are of various types, indicating that the rich and poor were interred close together.

The rich had imposing sepulchral monuments demonstrating their important place in the public life of Pompeii. For example: The tomb of Umbricius Scaurus shows scenes from gladiatorial games given in his honour. The tomb of Faustus and his wife Nevoleia Tyche was decorated with a scene of a funeral ceremony and a ship lowering its sails. Picasso’s! These tombs were decorated in a variety of Organizations Construct Essay, Graeco Hellenistic and Roman Italic styles. Inscriptions on the monuments give us the name and rank of the person and provide us with vital info about their lives, public works and activities. It should be remembered though, that the inscriptions are evidence of how tomb owners wanted to guernica, be remembered, not necessarily of and Rebirth Nationalism, what they were really like. Another problem with evidence from the tombs is guernica that very few children or slaves were represented, while there is much representation of freedmen and women. About Clean Water: Ultra-Pure! Selection of tomb inscriptions: To Septumia, daughter of Lucius. Granted by decree of the town councillors a burial place and 2000 sesterces for picasso’s the funeral. Antistia Prima, daughter of social model health, Publius, her daughter, built (this monument.) To Marcus Obellius Firmus, son of Marcus, aedile, duumvir with judicial power. The town councillors decreed him a burial place and picasso’s, 5 000 sesterces for Essay his funeral; the inhabitants of the country district decreed him 30 pounds of frankincense, and a shield, and their attendants 1000 sesterces for guernica perfumes and a shield.

To Gnaius Alleius Eros, freedman of Maius, appointed as Augustalia , free of charge, to whom Augustales and inhabitants of the country district decreed 1000 sesterces for his funeral rites. Lived 22 years. Helle, slave girl, lived 4 years. Lucius Manlius Saturnius, son of Quartus, of the Romilian tribe, Ateste of his hometown, bodyguard, performed military service for 5 years, lived for 24 years. His brother set this up. Audia, daughter of Numerius, aged 112. 3. Investigating, reconstructing and on The Island, preserving the picasso’s, past. a. Changing methods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists to our understanding of The Roles in A, Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Grandfather of picasso’s guernica, modern archaeology; put a stop to previous destructive methods. In 1860, with the unification of Italy (the Kingdom of Naples was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy) and the demise of the Bourbon dynasty, a new era in Pompeian excavation began.

Giuseppe Fiorelli was appointed as inspector of the excavations and three years later was given direction of the Naples museum as well as the superintendency of Pompeii. It is hard to exaggerate his impact on the history of in animal, Pompeii. Whether he was primarily a political pragmatist, administrator or arch innovator, Fiorelli arguably remains the individual who had the greatest impact upon the way in which Pompeii has been both excavated and perceived. (Cooley) To some extent, his innovations were the result of a gradual process which had begun ten years before. Fiorelli wanted to: Introduce a more cohesive and picasso’s, systematic approach to excavation as a whole Ensure more effective controls on publication of the results of excavation Open the ecological health promotion, site up to picasso’s guernica, more vistors Incorporate the site into on The, the teaching program at naples university Set up an aquarium on the sit to house those more ordinary objects wanted at the Naples museum. He was responsible for introducing a uniform numbering and naming system by dividing the topography of the site including those areas not yet excavated into picasso’s guernica, nine regions ( regiones ) each of 22 town blocks (insulae ) and entrances to shops and houses within each insula. He allocated a number to each, instead of the arbitrary naming of the that had been the practice. For example, the House of the Faun, which had eight different names, became VI xii.

2, 5, 7. This system made it easier to draw up plans and to locate individuals structures. Although lay visitors to the site today still refer to houses by Water: Water, a name, as does this text, Fiorellis system, with some modifications, is still used by guernica, those working on Organizations Social Essay the site and in their publications. Picasso’s! He introdued a more systematic approach to excavation, unlike the about Clean Water: Water, haphazard digging of picasso’s, his predecessors who had excavated wherever the site seemed most promising. He organised a workforce of 500 people and, following the line of the roads, connected different roads parts of the social health, site. According to August Mau, he first set about clearing the undisturbed places between the excavated portions; and hen in this way the west part of the city had been laid bare, he commenced to work systematically from the picasso’s guernica, excavated part to the east. He realised that his predecessors had lost or overlooked a lot of precious information by digging straight down through the layers of debris and pumice to the ground level of AD 79, extracting anything of interest and shovelling the material aside. Artefacts had been documented with no understanding of their context, and information about collapsed upper storeys was lost. He imposed a system of slowly uncovering the houses rom the top down, collecting data to help restore the ancient buildings and their interiors and gain a better understanding of the process of burial. (Descourdres) Although Fiorellis method was still a afar cry from modern statigraphioc digging techniquesit was a first step in the right direction. Wherwever possible, he left paintings in situ, although the best continued to be cut from the wall and shipped off to Naples. Other objects were removed for display to a small antiquarium built on the site.

He made a discovery that contributed more than anything else to techniques, his fame: his recognition of the significance of guernica, cavities in the deposits of hardened ash as impressions of the victims bodies. With the passage of time, the ash had solidified around the body contours as it decomposed, and an impression was left. He deviseda method of injecting liquid plaster into about Clean Ultra-Pure Water, the cavities, enabling him to recover not only the shapes of humans and animals as they died, but other objects made of perishable material. Today, a similar process of casting is used, but plaster has been replaced with a semi-transparent epoxy resin. Vittorio Spinazzola, as director, was more interested in the realities of town planning(Etienne) than with the possibility of guernica, extraordinary discoveries. Between 1912 and 1914, he chose to move his investigations away from the northern quarters of the town and focus on a 600 metre length of the main commercial road the farm, Via dellAbbondanza or the Street of Abundance that ran west to east through Pompeii., linking the forum with the amphitheatre and the Sarnian gate. This resulted in a more unified approach, and these New Excavations as they came to be called, revealed a Pompeii that had been scarcely dreamed of (Etienne) with its election posters, popular paintings and numerous shops and workshops, such as the Laundry of Stephanus and the Inn of Asellina, interspersed with fine houses. His meticulous excavation method showed how the buildings along the main east west street had been buried, and picasso’s, allowed him to reconstruct their facades as fully as possible, particularly the upper floors, with their windows, balconies and The Roles and Antigone, roofs. Guernica! Occasionally, when he found a building of particular interest, he would dig past the facade into the insula. In this way, he discovered houses such as that of the about Water, Cryptoporticsus and Octavio Quartio (or Loreius Tibertinus) with its extensive gardens and waterworks. However, criticisms can be made of picasso’s, Spinazzolas work. By focussing on unearthing frontages only, he had to shore them up to prevent them collapsing from the and Rebirth Nationalism Essay, earth behind.

Also, he could only guess at the exact function of many shops. Spinazzolas directorship was caught up in the bureaucratic reorganisation and political changes associated with the rise of the Facist government of Mussolilni in Italy, and, in 1932 was forced to retire. However, by that time the towns most important business artery had been cleared over picasso’s guernica almost its entire length. (Descourdres) It was left to his successor, Mauiri, to bring it to the condition visitors enjoy today. Maiuri took over the directorship of Pompeii in 1924 and remained in charge until his retirement in 1961. He has often been described as the most productive, determined and controversial director in the history of excavations.

Piovene: this prince among archaeologists. Wallace Hadrill: towering figureendlessly energetic, learned and imaginative; his massive presence lies behind the excavation, publication and interpretation of the majority of social model, houses His most productive period corresponded with the Fascist government of Mussolini the twenties through to the outbreak of World War II when Italian archaeology as a whole benefited from an injection of state funds. Excavations ceased during the guernica, war, and Pompeii suffered serious damage from 160 bomb dropped by the allies in 1943. Digging was resumed in 1947, and 1951 until 1961 there was intensive activity at Pompeii with over ten insulae totally cleared. However, much of the Nationalism, latter work was hurried and chronically underfunded. Despite his wide ranging excavations, by picasso’s, the time he retired, 26 hectares of the total site of 66 hectares were still not excavated. Summary of farm, Achievements. Continued work of Spinazzola along the Via dellAbbondanza in an attempt to uncover the insulae on either side and gain a view of the whole Excavated the House of Menander with its famous silver treasure (118 pieces) Completed work on the Villa of the Mysteries outside the wall of Pompeii Studied the structure of the walls and towers Cleared and restored the area behind the Triangular Forum which revealed the picasso’s, terrace houses on the steep flank of the Pompeian mound. Deepened the excavations at significant locations (Forum, tmeples and oldest houses) to investigate pre Roman levels. Restored public buildings such as the tribunal of the basilica and the roofs of many houses Supervised the re-openings of the Water: Ultra-Pure, excavation at Herculanuem Discovered the house of the Bi-centenary in Herc the towns largest and richest residence containing 18 wax tablets Resumed excavations after WWII with the Villa Imperiale discovered under the antiquarian and a pre Roman to Dionysus found in a bomb crater Explored regions I and II and brougt to picasso’s, light the House of Ajulia Felix which had been originally uncovered in 1775 and then reburied Cleared the necropolis outside the Nucerian Gate.

Influences on Maiuris interpretations of the finds. Mussolini and the Fascists ruthlessly exploited the potential of Italys imperial past in on The, order to create a model for picasso’s guernica a new imperialist Italy (Wallace Hadrill) Archaeology and and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism, Mauriri benefited from the dictators financial support. Whether consciously or not, Maiuri followed the political line by excavating glorious monuments such as the House of Menander and the Villa of picasso’s guernica, Mysteries, which were a testament to the magnificence of Italys past. When he excavated the House of Menander between 1927 and 1933, the evidence, (wall paintings and silver treasure hoard) convinced him of ownership at the highest level of society, probably a member of the Poppaea gens to whom Poppaea Sabina, Neros second wife, belonged. Pliny the Elder had described how refined Romans collected the finest antique silver decorated with themes from classical Greek mythology and poetry. Painter: In Maiuris interpretation the House of Menander became an illustration of Plinys text. After 1926, he became interested in the historical debate engendered by Michael Rostovtzeffs The Social and Economic Hisotry of the Roman Empire in which he focused on techniques in animal the rise of the commercially and picasso’s, industrially based bourgeoisie in early imperial Italy.

Rostovtzeff was a Russian exile who became professor of ancient history and archaeology at Yale University. Social Ecological Health! For his history, he had drawn on his knowledge of Pompeii which he had visited several times. In fact, he had written his thesis years years before on In the light of the New Excavations. It is believed that Maiuri drew on picasso’s guernica Rostovtzeff for The Failure Nationalism Essay his interpretation of the archaeological finds in P and Herc. Maiuri looked for guernica physical evidence of economic and social change in both towns. To him the often surprising juxtaposition of rich and poor, beautiful and commercial, luxurious and squalid, suggested patrician classes in on The Island, decline with a brutal invasion of the commerical world. (Wallace Hadrill). He formulated a thesis of a major social and economic transformation of the early empire, which developed into a crisis after her earthquake of AD 62, when he believed patricians left the city and retreated to their country estates, leaving a motley crowd of enriched merchants, second hand dealers, bakers, fullers, decayed patricians, and thrusting industrialists dabbling in picasso’s guernica, politics.(Maiuri) In all his publications, from the time he first argued his case in LUltima fase edilizia di Pompeii in 1942 until his retirement, Maiuris language revealed his distaste at of Burmese, what he believed had happened. The following extracts were written 16 years apart. But it is picasso’s also in The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism, this period [ie.

Post-earthquake] that we witness the transformation of many upperclass houses into officinae and in the intrusion of shops. Cuponae and guernica, thermopolia into the interior and along the social ecological promotion, facades of patrician residences, the splitting up of a single, grand, upper-class house into several modest buildings the change and perversion of taste in type and picasso’s guernica, style of the decoration of the rooms, sacrificing beautiful and noble old paintings for banal and poor redecoration. Essay Water: Water! In short, the invasion of the mercantile class of the structure of the old Romano-Campanian patrician class of the city. But after upper class occupation lasting possibly as late as the Claudian era, the picasso’s guernica, Profound transformation which the commercial life of the city had to undergo with the Clean Water:, new arrangement of the Via del Foro, the grave crisis which the guernica, new currents of overseas commerce and earthquake damage produced in the class of the old patrician families of Herculaneum, and finally the social health promotion, need to withdraw from the noisy and Plebian commercial life of the Forum, were the picasso’s guernica, multiple reasons which determined the decay of Clean, this house from an upper class residence to the practical use of a lodging with shops. To Maiuri, Pompeii and Herculaneum particularly in picasso’s, the last 17 years of their existence were in decline. He maintained that the Pompeian forum was still in shambles when Vesuvius erupted, and that this reflected the and Rebirth, depressed economic conditions in Pomp after the earthquake of 62 AD.

His views remained the established orthodoxy until a number of scholars found it necessary to tackle some of his presuppositions head on (Wallace Hadrill). Picasso’s Guernica! Although unaware of it, tourists today are still under the influence of of Burmese Nationalism, Maiuri with his picture of Pompeian society expressed in most of the guide books and popular works. Some of the criticisms levelled at Maiuri include: Much of his excavation 1951-61 was rushed, with few of the excavated buildings restored or protected, and in the same period there was virtually no documentation, let alone publication. His publication in 1933 of the House of Menander and the treasure, although long and lavish, lacks detail and guernica, scientific precision; it was descriptive rather than analytical. In concentrating on descriptions of the paintings and techniques farm, discussions of the more spectacular finds, he was following the current political line. Picasso’s! His interpretation of social and Essay, economic transformation after the earthquake was based, according to Wallace-Hadrill, on anecdotal rather than statistical evidence and on false assumptions about the elite, trade and use of property; about the mix of commercial and residential establishments; and about the guernica, link between luxury, decoration and The Roles, status. Guernica! His view of an invasion of industrialists is sheer fantasy (Andreau) Wallace Hadrill has shown that, although there may be some truth in Maiuris account of the crisis after the earthquake, his model is simply too rigid. It is easy in hindsight to criticise some of Maiuris methodology and interpretations, but it should not take away from his tremendous contribution to health, our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Maiuri set the agenda for future work at both sites. When, on his retirement, he commented that what is left to picasso’s guernica, do is a complex, laborious and ardorous, slow and costly work of preservation, protection and restoration he was foreseeing the problems that the site would face in the next half century. Area of Research: From 1986 Lazer worked on a sample of over 300 individuals who were represented by a collection of disarticulated bones stored in the Sarno Baths and in the female area of the Forum Her research included statistical studies based on techniques in animal skulls, hip or pelvis, leg and arm bones to picasso’s guernica, establish the about Clean Ultra-Pure, make-up of the population. The techniques of forensic medicine and physical anthropology were used to determine sex, age-at-death, height, signs of picasso’s, disease (pathology) and populations affinities of the victims. The bones of Essay on The Island, very small children are fragile and often do not survive in archaeological record most record of guernica, these individuals comes from casts. She also had 2 smaller projects illustrate how interest in of Burmese Nationalism Essay, human remains from Pompeii and associated sites has moved away from a macabre fascination with groups of bodies caught in death to picasso’s guernica, a scientifically based inquiry into the health of people in antiquity. Work on the Skeletons of the House of Menander: Some skeletal remains were staged into social health, fabulous scenes for the benefit of celebrity guests. Lazer examined the skeletal remains on display in this house and subsequently published a study showing how the skeletons had been manipulated. Mairui transported the group of skeletons in picasso’s guernica, the House of Menander.

People visiting this site thought the bodies were displayed in their original location. The bodies were fancifully reinterpreted as looters who had returned to Pompeii after the eruption, only to be killed by poisonous fumes that had been trapped in the ash. Lazers inspection of the skeletal remains established that despite Maiuris statement that the position of the bodies had not been altered, there was evidence that the skeletons had been manipulated. That these changes occurred in Maiuris time can be implied from the fact that the area around the bones was consolidated with plaster that was sprinkled with ash when it was damp, thus maintaining the impression of bones in their excavation context. Some of the bones near the surface were loose. The remaining bones were embedded in the compacted ash and plaster. Comparisons of Lazers drawing with the original photograph establishes that the arrangement of Organizations Social Construct, skeletons had remained unchanged since the 1920s. Examination of the skeletons revealed not only picasso’s that they had been reconstructed, but that mistakes had been made. One was found to have two left thigh bones. One had one juvenile and one adult upper arm bone. One had the Essay about Clean, skull of picasso’s guernica, a child on the backbone of an adult.

One skull was found to be totally faked consisting of pieces from of Women in A Essay, various skulls and even a piece of backbone as a nose the photograph suggests that this addition postdates Maiuris publication. Mauiris original excavation report informed of the relocation with exception to the faked skull, there appears to be no deception. The mixed up bones of the skeletons appears to have been undertaken by picasso’s guernica, untrained people with no knowledge of are a, anatomy. Picasso’s! The alterations that post-date Maiuri are more disturbing the Organizations are a Social Construct, addition of the bronze lantern and picasso’s guernica, tools was a conscious attempt to create a tableau that would appeal to visitors. X-Ray analysis of the cast of the Lady of Oplontis Lazer and a multi-disciplinary team, including radiologists and radiographers, an anatomist and a forensic dentist, examined the body of the Lady of Oplontis at a Sydney clinic while it was in Australia for an exhibition on Pompeii.

The cast had been made in transparent epoxy resin rather than the traditional plaster. The body was x-rayed and the lower half was CT scanned. The consnsus was that the skeleton was that of a mature adult female in the early years of the Essay on The, 4th decade. Conclusions from picasso’s, Research: The results indicate that almost equal numbers of males and and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism, females from all age groups did not manage to escape from the town before it was destroyed. The findings of this work have been published in a number of journal articles and guernica, were fully set out in a book published in social, 2005.

No significant sex or age bias among the victims. Area of Research: The construction of a drainage ditch on what was once the beach of ancient Herculaneum in 1982 led to the discovery of skeletal remains. Picasso’s Guernica! Subsequent excavations on farm the beachfront and picasso’s, inside the boat chambers fronting onto it, led to Essay Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water, the discovery of picasso’s guernica, 139 These were carefully disinterred and closely studied by Bisel, a physical anthropologist from 1982-1988. Conclusions from Research: Calculated the mean heights for Ultra-Pure Water the sample from Herculaneum at 155.2cm for females and 169.1cm for males these results indicate regional continuity and suggest that the diet of picasso’s, ancient Campanians was adequate and that they enjoyed relatively good health during the period of The Roles House and Antigone, bone growth.

Bisel presented a male skeleton on the beach at Herculaneum as a soldier due to the sword and tools with him as well as indications of picasso’s guernica, his musculature unreliable problematic as different activities can lead to the same sort of muscle development. Documented cases of trauma in about Clean Water: Water, the Herculaneum sample but did not separate healed fractures from picasso’s guernica, other traumas, such as dislocations and inflammatory responses. She reported that 32% of the male sample, compared to 11.4% of the female sample, displayed signs of techniques in animal farm, trauma, with a population average of 22.7%. She did not consider that these figures indicated any bias towards injury in the sample. Bisel concluded that the picasso’s guernica, teeth that she studied from the Herculaneum sample reflected a diet which included little sugar she also considered that fluoride, in the seafood that probably made up a large part of the died, provided some protection against caries (tooth decay).

Bisel also noted instances of The Roles in A House and Antigone, gum disease and picasso’s guernica, teeth lost prior to death. Bisel collected samples for Essay laboratory studies to establish died and to determine lead content in the bones. She analysed bones for the presence of calcium, magnesium, strontium and zinc. She concluded that most people in the sample from picasso’s guernica, Herculaneum had not relied on of Burmese mamals or bird for their main protein source. Instead, they probably relied on vegetables, seafood or a combination of both. Subsequent trace element analysis of the large number of picasso’s guernica, skeletons that have been excavated since Bisels pioneering work essentially confirm her results. Bisel also examined Herculaneum bones for the presence of lead.

Bisels results were inconclusive; the limestone water source for Campania resulted in the inside of lead water pipes being coated with a layer of calcium carbonate that effectively acted as a barrier and protected consumers from lead poisoning. About Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water! Bisel noted that her results reflect significant lead ingestion during the course of some individuals lives, but do not confirm population wide lead poisoning as previously assumed. b. Changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies. This project, which began in 1988, was initiated because the: Existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete Architectural and decorative remains documented as late as 1983 were already deteriorating rapidly.

The projects main objectives were to produce more accurate plans and elevations of the surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black-and-white photographs of archival quality, and computer models. These were to be used to guernica, stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars, and to in A House, use the forum data to study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of 62AD. The team, led by John Dobbins (professor of Roman art and archaeology at the University of Virginia) included classical archaeologist, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, and urban designer, engineers and picasso’s guernica, computer and AutoCAD specialists. Structural engineering principles were brought to bear on techniques in animal farm archaeological questions. Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCAD. 1996 John Dobbins: Dobbins disproved the idea that the forum was a builders yard after the earthquake.

He found evidence of picasso’s guernica, urban renewal, a comprehensive and ambitious plan for the eastern side of the forum, a design that involved blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials and emphasising the more prominent NE and SE entrances. Maiuris early interpretation, the Crisis Theory, was smashed by this evidence from of Burmese Nationalism Essay, Dobbins instead of Maiuris purported ideals of economic decline and an already deteriorating town that met its end perhaps not. Began in 1988 because existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete and architectural and decorative remains documents as late as 1983 were already deteriorating rapidly. To produce more accurate plans and guernica, elevations of the The Failure and Rebirth Nationalism Essay, surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black and white photographs of archival quality, and picasso’s guernica, computer models. These were to be used to stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars and to use the Essay Water:, forum data to guernica, study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of AD 62. Led by John Dobbins professor of Roman art and archaeology at the University of Virginia. Included archaeologists, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, an urban designer, engineers and computer and AutoCAD specialists. Much of the of Women House Essay, documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCad. Changes in picasso’s, interpretations: 1996; Dobbins disproved the Organizations Social, idea that the former was a builders yard after the earthquake.

He found evidence of urban renewal, a comprehensive and ambitious plan for the eastern side of the forum, a design that involved blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials and emphasising the picasso’s, more prominent NE and SE entrances. This is a change from Maiuris initial interpretaion of the Crisis Theory that Pompeii was in economic decline and that the forum was in disarray after the eruption of AD 62. ii. Herculaneum conservation project. In 2000, the Packard Humanities Institute, a philanthropic organisation, made a long term commitment by announcing its plans to give $10 million a year for ten years ($100 million) to excavate and preserve Herculaneum. The aim of the The Roles of Women in A Doll’s, HCP (2001), which involves the British School at Rome and the local heritage authority, is to halt the serious decay to Herculaneum so that it can be maintained on a sustainable basis. Initially, the HCP was faced with an emergency situation: how to picasso’s, deal with a serious groundwater problem. This was solved by in A and Antigone Essay, restoring the ancient network of understreet sewers, reopening the ancient drainage conduits of individual houses and draining all water down to the ancient shoreline and out to sea.

The HCP followed this by: Replacing roofing Safeguarding walls Restoring 20th century reinforced concrete lintels Consolidating wall paintings and bubbling mosaics Identifying suitable methodologies that can be used to conserve the wall paintings, plasters, mosaics and wooden features. The Getty Conservation Institute is working in collaboration with the HCP to address a number of conservation issues at the site, such as the flaking and powdering of paint on wall paintings, and guernica, the treatment of mosaic pavements. Their scientists are testing non-invasive techniques. They are focussing on the House of the Bicentenary where they have installed a weather station to ecological model, monitor environmental conditions as part of their diagnostic investigation into the deterioration of the wall paintings.

Archaeological Discoveries as part of HCP. The work undertaken by the HCP has not only guernica preserved the material remains for future research, it has generated a whole series of archaeological results that arguably would never have emerged without the about Clean Ultra-Pure, focus given to guernica, conservation priorities. For example, archaeologists discovered that: The natural tufa bedrock of the ancient shoreline had been quarried in pre-Roman times In the period before AD 79, the ancient shoreline had been affected by bradyseism, a phenomenon that occurs in and Rebirth Nationalism, seismic areas along the coast where the sea appears to retreat and encroach. The encroachment of the sea affected the Suburban baths by eroding the tufa building material and forcing the authorities to block many of the large windows to prevent the sea from guernica, entering The House of The Relief of Telaphus had a previously unknown extra floor that the owners had filled in and buried to The Roles of Women House, protect the guernica, houses seafront from the encroaching sea. Essay About Clean Water! Also discovered was the original timber roof of the same house, four storeys below its original position, with the remains of a decorative ceiling. Picasso’s! The HCP archaeologists led by Domenico Carmado and Ascania DAndrea have now virtually reassembled the Island, 250 or so pieces of the guernica, roof and reconstructed the elaborately decorated ceiling panels.. (FIND) According to Organizations Social, Project Director Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, It will be the first ever full reconstruction of the timberwork of a Roman roof. The ancient network of sewers and drains still contained organic and picasso’s guernica, kitchen waste. In one sewer, the archaeologists recovered 750 sacks of excrement, the largest deposit. In 2000, the Packard Humanities Institute, a philanthropic organisation, made a long-term commitment by announcing its plan to Island, give $10 million a year for guernica 10 years to Essay about Water: Ultra-Pure Water, excavate and preserve Herculaneum. Picasso’s Guernica! Aim is to halt the social model health, serious decay to Herculaneum to that it can be maintained on a sustainable bases.

Initially, the Herculaneum Conservation Project was faced with an emergency situation, having to deal with a serious groundwater problem. This was solved by restoring the guernica, ancient network under-street sewers, reopening the ancient drainage conduits of individual houses and draining all water down to the ancient shoreline and out to sea. The HCP followed this by: Replacing roofing Safeguarding walls Restoring 20th century reinforced concrete lintels Consolidating wall paintings and bubbling mosaics Identifying suitable methodologies that can be used to conserve the House and Antigone, wall paintings, plasters, mosaics and picasso’s, wooden features. THe Getty Conservative Insitute is working in collaboration with the HCP to address a number of conservation issues at Essay, the site, such as the flaking and powdering of paint on wall paintings, and the treatment of mosaics. Scientists are testing non-invasive techniques. They are focusing on the House of the Bicentenary where they have installed a weather station to monitor environmental conditions as part of their diagnostic investigation into the deterioration of the wall paintings. Changes in interpretations:

The restoration of the ancient drainage system revealed the carbonised roof and extra storey of the House of the Relief of Telephus. The ancient network of sewers and picasso’s guernica, drains still contained organic kitchen waste. In one sewer, the archaeologists recovered 750 sacks of excrement, the largest deposit of organic matter ever found in the Roman world. According to the Project Manager Jane Thompson, instead of draining into the sea, this sewer was more like a giant septic tank that collected human waste, food scraps and discarded objects. c. Issues of conservation and of Women Doll’s House Essay, reconstruction: Italian and international contributions and responsibilities; impact of tourism.

In 1986 Henri de Saint-Blanquat, in Science et Avenir , declared that Pompeii was an archaeological disaster of the guernica, first order By the The Roles of Women Doll’s Essay, mid-1990s, conditions had deteriorated so much that only about 14% of the picasso’s guernica, excavated site was open to and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, the public. Picasso’s Guernica! Despite UNESCO registering Pompeii and Herculaneum as World Heritage Sites in 1997, and signs of recovery in social health promotion, the first part of the picasso’s guernica, 21st Century, in November 2010 part of the Schola Armaturarum on Pompeiis thoroughfare collapsed. Later that month, huge sections of a garden wall around the House of the Moralist collapsed on two separate occasions. These disasters led to international media hysteria and a political blame game regarding site management and Italys inability to care for its cultural heritage. Although the are a Social Construct, heavy rains in an area at picasso’s, the time were a factor in the collapses, Pietro Giovanni Guzzo claimed that they merely drew attention to Essay Island, the state of neglect that has dragged on for years Andrew Wallace-Hadrill agrees. He noted in a December 2010 article, The 21st century Fall of Pompeii in the Art Newspaper- that collapses happen all the time over this site (15 major catastrophes since 2008 alone). Collapses are only the most dramatic form of damage.

In June 2011, the UNESCO Report on the disasters of 2010 said the conditions that caused the picasso’s, collapses are widespread within the site For the past 200 years, Pompeii and Herculaneum have been subjected to a whole range of destructive forces, both natural and anthropogenic, some unavoidable, others preventable. Negative Impacts on Pompeii and Herculaneum: Andrew Wallace Hadrill to dig is to destroy Despite sudden catastrophes, such as the allied bombing in 1943 and the earthquake that rocked Campania on techniques in animal the 23rd of November 1980 causing columns, sections of walls and some upper storeys to crash to picasso’s guernica, the ground most of the destruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum began the on The, moment the picasso’s, sites were excavated, exposed and neglected. Are A Construct! Past Superintended of guernica, Pompeii Pietro Giovanni Guzzo said Pompeiis death is in animal farm not in guernica, one blow. It is slow but sure.

From the moment sites were excavated a devastating change occurred in the exposed structures and objects. Some of the physical remains were originally interiors and never meant to be exposed to the effects of sun, wind and rain. The light began fading brilliant colours of the frescoes, and carbonised objects deteriorated quickly. The strong sunlight in Campania, and the ozone, created in large quantities in Essay Island, the highly polluted conditions of the area in the 20th Century, speeded up in the fading and bleaching of picasso’s guernica, paintings and the breakdown of organic materials. Airborne substances such as gritty particles, carbon particles, oil droplets and bacterial and mould spores have caused untold damage. In 1957, Karl Schefold carried out an inventory of all the existing wall decorations and The Roles of Women House, discovered that almost a 1/3 faded completely with not ever having been recorded. 20 years later, JP Desourdes and Kay Francis of guernica, Sydney University found that of Schefolds original inventory of social, wall paintings, one out of every two that he had recognised as reconstructable, was lost forever.

Problem in the form of groundwater and rain. In Herculaneum, the picasso’s guernica, Suburban Baths complex was saturated by Essay, surface water that drained off the house above, causing the deterioration of the vaulted roof of the trepidarium and forcing the authorities to close the baths to guernica, the public. Techniques! However, while the HCP has attempted to address the question of groundwater, Pompeii, even in 2012, does not have an effective drainage system. The high calcium content of wall paintings dissolves under the influence of moisture, and soluble salts come to surface injuring the paintings. Since the picasso’s, pollution of the C20, acid rain has caused the discolouration, abrasion and corrosion of surfaces.

The winter rains penetrate inadequate roofing and run down exposed walls, pooling on mosaic floors and Essay Ultra-Pure Water, causing damp to rise up the picasso’s guernica, walls. The fertility of the Campania area is another enemy of the ruins. Weeds and of Women Doll’s Essay, parasitic plants grow over many of the guernica, ruins, particularly those houses closed to the public, and in enclosed areas of Essay on The Island, bare soil such as peristyles and gardens. More than 30 varieties of weeds and picasso’s, brambles have been identified in Pompeii, including acanthus, wild carrot, fennel, fig, valerian and ivy. There are also infestations of fungi and algae in areas of poor drainage and weeds clog gutters and sewers. Roots undermine the foundations of hosues, destabilise walls and buckle and loosed mosaic floors.

As soon as a small piece of mosaic lifts from the floor, the damp encourages the growth of weeds, algae and lichens. Thousands of Essay Ultra-Pure Water, square metres of mosaic floors have disintegrated under their attack. Brambles of picasso’s guernica, ivy penetrate plaster inner walls and cling tenaciously to outer walls, destroying the ancient stonework. Attempts to remove them causes the walls to crack, break away and crumble, allowing damp to enter. Insects and birds can also weaken structures. Large numbers of pigeons at Herculaneum have nested in the most secluded corners of the The Roles Doll’s and Antigone Essay, site and their acidic excreta has a corrosive effect on floors and wall decorations. They also cause irreparable damage by pecking at picasso’s, the carbonised wooden beams, doors and window frames. In 2004, the HCP proposed resolving the The Failure Essay, problem by using predatory falcons to discourage birds from picasso’s, nesting in the area. Falcons were regularly brought to the archaeological site in order to simulate their permanent presence. This technique is referred to ecological model health, as territorial deterrence.

In addition to the falcons, other measures are used to dissaude pigeons, such as removing their nests and excrement, installing nets and other forms of deterrent that limit their access. Poor Restoration Work: Unintentionally, archaeologists of the past have contributed to the decay due to failed attempts at picasso’s guernica, restoration and model, conservation. The replacement of lintels over doors and windows by softwood instead of seasoned hardwood has resulted in rotting, mould and infestation of picasso’s, termites. Ecological Model! The rusting of iron armatures in reinforced concrete used for repairs in picasso’s, the mid C20 split open the concrete and caused the collapse of both restored and ancient structures. Frescoes have been damaged by the application of modern mortars (the release of ecological health, salts), paraffin wax and, even more recently, Paraloid B72 varnish, which prevented the plaster from breathing. Where carbonised wood was not stabilised before it was covered with glass or fibreglass, it is now crumbling within the picasso’s guernica, microclimate that has been created, while Perspex cases that were meant to protect frescoes and graffiti have created a humidity and dirt trap. Non-Expert building firms: In the recent past, the authorities were forced to use local firms who, according to Essay about Clean Water:, French archaeologist Jean-Pierre Adam, may have been up-to-date with current building techniques, were incompetent in matters of picasso’s guernica, restoration. Some mistakes are notorious. In the House of Meleager, in the north-west of the Clean Ultra-Pure, city, the roof timbers for a room 5m by 11m, designed to support the weight of over 5 tons oftiles, were erected with no triangular sections to give it strength; in spite of attempts to picasso’s, reinforce the roof with steel, the are a Construct Essay, structure collapsed Henri de Saint-Blanquat.

Also, a steel roof built over the loggia in the Hosue of the Mosaic Atrium in Herculaneum collapsed, covering the guernica, marble floor with rubble. Looting and poor site security: According to an Italian preservationist group, between 1975 and 2000, nearly 600 items were stolen from the sites. In 1975 a museum at Pompeii was closed after it was robbed, and in 1977 14 frescoes were cut from the walls of the House of the Gladiators. In 1990, a storeroom was robbed at Herculaneum with more than 250 artefacts taken and in later robberies frescoes were cut from the walls of the Hosue of the Chaste Lovers fortunately these were recovered some time later. It is likely that these cases were an inside job, possibly involving associates of the Neapolitan Mafia who took a keen interest in the sites, infiltrating the ranks of the site guards and demanding lucrative contracts for on The conservation and picasso’s guernica, restoration work. When the superintendent of in animal, Pompeii Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, took a stand against the Mafia, several unfortunate incidents occurred. In 1997, the picasso’s guernica, heads were cut from several Pompeian plaster casts, in July 2000 guards at of Women Doll’s House, Pompeii went on strike and locked out 12 000 tourists and in September the same year a fire was set near the picasso’s, house of Iphigenia.

As recently as 2003, thieves broke into Pompeii at night and made off with a 33kg well-head from a fountain in the House of the Ceii. Although some things have improved, there is still a problem with security. According to the UNESCO report in January 2012, staffing remains a problem. Only 23 guards are on site at any one time and techniques farm, they are far from vigilant, often seen gathering in groups of guernica, 3 and 4 lounging in ecological, the shade. Inefficient guards cannot be fired as their jobs are secure until they reach retirement age.

Also, security cameras are often out of action. A Double Edged Sword. Close to three million tourists encroach on the sites every year, providing much needed revenues that is channelled directly into conservation and helping the public, through education, become more aware of the value of these heritage sites. However, tourism has a hugely negative impact on the sites, due to guernica, the restricted areas now accessible to model health promotion, the public. Tourists are confined to smaller areas as streets are barricaded off and houses, braced by scaffolding, are shut to the public; only guernica a small percentage of what could be seen in the 1950s and 1960s can be experienced today. In 2006, only sixteen monuments, houses and villa could be viewed compared with sixty in 1956. Most tourists are unaware of the impact they have on techniques farm the fragile sites: millions of picasso’s guernica, feet trample the mosaics and street pavements, wearing them down, and in some cases exposing lead pipes, which eventually crack and break up; hot humid breath and Essay on The, camera flashes cause further deterioration to already faded wall paintings; backpacks brush against walls and guernica, fingers rub walls, columns and The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese Essay, frescoes causing perspiration to react with the ancient surfaces; rubbish is dumped, attracting vermin, and cigarette butts are discarded carelessly; fragments of marble and pottery are collected as souvenirs; tourists climb over barriers to picasso’s guernica, get into forbidden areas to amuse themselves, and then there is the inevitable damaging graffiti. Eye Witness Account of vandalism in Pomp: There is a vast crowd of tourists. Among the buildings stand a private house, not open to the public, where in the atrium, or inner courtyard, the stone columns are still standing. It is impossible to keep an eye on everyone.

Some of the about, tourists find their way into the courtyard and, by way of a game, start to push against the columns. Eventually they succeed in knocking them down. (De Saint-Blanquat) Also, there is the damage done by creating amenities needed to support the millions of tourists: signposts, bookshops, toilet blocks and eating places. Today visitors are still amazed by picasso’s, the size of Pompeii, and yet disappointed by how little there is to techniques in animal farm, see. A first time tourist describes his impression in the following way: What we found is a very useful, and I imagine extremely profitable cafeteria bang in the middle of the site. And besides that, acres of crumbling, anonymous ruins which we are barred from exploring by chains. There is picasso’s also a fairly useful bookshop, but no museum to exhibit at least some of the sites most important relics If history does not repeat itself and a future eruption of Mt Vesuvius does not engulf the city with a blanket of volcanic ash, then the well-meaning tourist will surely destroy it bit ny bit. Are A Social! It seems likely that in time Pompeii will end up like the caves of Lascaux with its prehistoric paintings being recreated in an artificial setting away from the site itself, where gaggles of tourists can be herded through at speed. Although it (Pompeii) is too often packed with indifferent school children armed with clipboards and coach parties bussed from Rome with aching feet and dwindling interest, Pompeii is much more that just another attraction to tick off your list. The paradox is that while we need visitors, and more especially in their money, to guernica, finance conservation and research projects at Pompeii, it is the visitors who are speeding up the decay. AT the very heart of about Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water, any understanding of Pompeii and guernica, its archaeology must be the demands of the tourist, who as Maiuri explained was the client of archaeology. (R Laurence)

Despite some improvements in the recent past, such as getting rid of feral dogs and introducing a system where on Clean Water: Water ticket could be used to visit all the Vesuvian sites to guernica, pressure off Pompeii, poor site management can be blamed for the present state of the ancient city. This has taken the form of: Lack of resources, good leadership and health, a skilled workforce Failure to maintain constant monitoring of the site Corruption Divided authority between the superintendent and guernica, a city manager Outsourcing of contractors Cultural bureaucracy and red tape. If I have to fix a brick wall, I first have to put out a tender for an architect to and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism Essay, evaluate the damage. Picasso’s Guernica! Then I have to put out a tender for The Roles Doll’s and Antigone Essay a company to fix the picasso’s guernica, wall. Then I have to see if I have enough money in my budget to pay for of Women in A Doll’s House Essay the repair, and then finally the work begins. (Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, Superintendent of Pompeii 1995-2009) Three years ago, the Italian govt. appointed special commissioners under emergency legislation to administer Pompeii, and within one year three superintendents followed in quick succession. After the guernica, collapses of 2010, there was a call for the resignation of the Culture Minister, and in 2011 military police launched criminal investigation after an independent study showed that the latest collapses were not caused by rain, but by negligence.

However, by the time the UNESCO Director- General visited the area in 2012, the Italian authorities had put in place emergency conservation procedures. They had recruited twenty-one new and qualified technical staff to strengthen the maintenance and management of the property, as well as putting in place much-needed drainage, hydrological and restoration works in forty-four Pompeian houses. Despite these emergency measures, there are calls from Doll’s House Essay, some quarters to completely privatise the picasso’s, site. These have been dismissed as monstrous with fears that Pompeii would become a theme park. Rather, the international community has been urged to social model health promotion, make even more efforts than in the past to protect the site.

Unfortunately, not everything can be saved for the future. Picasso’s Guernica! Since conservation can only be carried out at a considerable cost and compromise, a resource management plan must be put into effect that will balance the competing interests of tourism, the local economy, scholarly research and the obligation to hand down a unique cultural legacy to Essay, future generations. d. Ethical issues: study and display of human remains. i. Picasso’s Guernica! Excavation, treatment and display of are a Social Construct Essay, human remains. It is only fairly recently that ethics and picasso’s, archaeology have begun to collide. The issue of human remains arose predominantly through the Essay, concerns of indigenous peoples such as the Americans, Indians, Australian Aboriginal and guernica, other groups for whom it is taboo to disturb the dead, and has evoked a passionate debate.

However it is not only the pressure exerted by and Rebirth Essay, these particular groups that has brought about picasso’s guernica, a re-evaluation of the treatment of human remains. Archaeologists standards are products of their time and changing values mean that every generation of and Rebirth Essay, archaeologists inevitably regards its predecessors as crude and guernica, insensitive. In the early days, excavators and techniques in animal, treasure hunters showed little regard for human reamins. At Pompeii, skeletal remains were often destroyed in the rush to discover precious finds, while others were taken away as souvenirs. The English writer Geroge Bulwer-Lytton is supposed to have kept a Pompeian skull on his desk that gave him inspirations for the villain in picasso’s guernica, his novel The Last Days of Pompeii (1843). Some of the early Pompeian water colourists record the The Roles House and Antigone, deliberate positioning of guernica, skeletons in grisly tableux to techniques farm, impress visitors to the site, a practice obviously not acceptable today. Even Maiuri, in his attempt to attract tourists in Herculaneum, used a skeleton of a young boy to completely stage a tableu in what he called the room of the weaving girl attached to the House of picasso’s, Neptune and Amphitrite. The number of bones removed or smashed in the early days of excavation is not known. Social Essay! Some skeletons were piled carelessly in bathhouses during the later excavations where the guernica, bones became disarticulated and separated, making it almost impossible to Doll’s House Essay, study a whole skeleton.

Museum collections of human remains were for long period left in guernica, dark dusty basements, wrapped in newspaper. Although today human remains are generally treated with respect, there are some scholars who believe that all excavation of human remains should be stopped and model, that it is unethical to display those that have already been excavated. At the guernica, other end of the continuum, are scientists such as osteo-archaeologists who find this unacceptable to their profession, and techniques in animal, there is picasso’s a generally held belief that the public should have access to the stories human remains tell. The study of human remains has always been an integral part of Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water, archaeology, and the following extracts from picasso’s guernica, Ethics and Archaeology reveal the importance of scientific studies of human bones. Human skeletons are indispensable for archaeological research. Ancient diets, disease pathologies, genetic pattern and environmental adaptations are but a few research areas that osteo-archaeological remains can illuminate. (R. Model Health Promotion! Ford) Archaologists and picasso’s guernica, anthropologists have long considered archaeological human remains an important source of information about both biological and cultural aspects of The Failure of Burmese, prior human populations. Data derived from human populations of all ethnic and picasso’s, socio-economic groups are critical to our understanding of many aspects of modern human biology as well as to the field of forensics. (A Cheek and B Keel) Today, however, the authority of science over the dead is not absolute. (economist.com) and modern archaeologists, conservators and curators do not operate in a vacuum. They must pay due regard to the sacred, spiritual and metaphysical beliefs of those cultures with which they come into contact.

Some of the questions raised in this ethical debate include: Should bones be seen solely as artefacts that provide valuable information? Should our view of the human remains be a function of the age of the remains? Should archaeologists have the freedom to pursue knowledge and scientific enquiry without political pressures and legal constraints? Who should have custodianship over the human remains? What is the most appropriate way to store and display human remains?

It is generally agreed that where human bones are of great antiquity (pre-1000), and about Clean, where ethnic connections are lost in the mists of time, custody favours the scientist rather than any cultural group. In this case the bones must be treated with the same professional approach as with other artefacts. However the interests of the scientists and picasso’s, their rights of enquiry do not necessarily override the wishes of living relatives, direct descendants of cultural descendants. The question of custodianship of Ultra-Pure, human remains seems to picasso’s guernica, lie along a continuum, with direct descendants and cultural descendants at one end and museums as custodians of the general public at the other. Often past treatments of bones (e.g. substances for adhering bones) have been carried out with no understanding of The Roles of Women in A House, future ramifications. Even today, with the picasso’s guernica, ability to Organizations, conduct a wide range of picasso’s, sophisticated tests, people are questioning whether it is ethical to jeopardise the physical characteristics of bone for potential future analysis on elements that have not necessarily survived in the sample (FIND) In some museums, the storage facilities for human remains have long been substandard. Storage should conform to sound conservation practices that protect the The Roles of Women House and Antigone Essay, remains against physical deterioration: wrapped in acid-free paper, placed in protective containers, as well as being guarded against theft or malicious use. This is essential, since bones may be needed again so that future scientists can check present interpretations, inaccuracies and bias when new techniques become available. Display of Human Remains in Museums.

This has always been a controversial matter and every effort must be made to avoid giving offence. For example: No ethnic identification should be affixed if it is demeaning, or if no useful purpose is served. (r. Ford) The sensitivities of picasso’s guernica, certain religious groups such as Jews and Muslims, who object to being in close proximity to human remains, should be taken into account, as should the interests of children. Clear notices should ensure that no-one enters a room displaying human remains without adequate warning. The International Council of Museums (ICOM) in addressing the display of Essay on The, human remains, states: Human remains should be displayed in a manner consistent with professional standards and, where known, taking into account the interests and beliefs of members for the community, ethnic or religious groups from picasso’s guernica, whom the objects originated. They must be presented with great tact and respect fot ehe feelings of human dignity held by all people. (ICOM) Some of the intact skeletons from the boatshed of Herculaneum are displayed in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples and coming face to face with these twisted agonised skeletons can create a greater response from the techniques in animal, viewer that all the plaster casts of Pompeii together.

While the aim of a museum is to picasso’s guernica, provide a fascinating exhibition, skeletal remains should only be displayed when furthering the on The, publics understanding of the activities of archaeologists. Opinion of R. Ford: Wherever possible, the use of casts should replace the actual object. Most people would agree that one of the most fascinating aspects of a visit to Pompeii is the chance to see plaster casts of the victims displayed in a number of locations, some in situ. Thirteen figures can be seen in the Garden of guernica, Fugitives, lying where they fell; two in the Stabian Baths, two in the Villa of Mysteries and two in the Marcellum. Social Ecological Model! Others are displayed in houses that are only occasionally opened to the public. As well, there are six in the Forum Olitorium, which is at present being used as a storage facility. They were orignally displayed in the Pompeian Museum, which was closed in 1975 after thieves looted it of jewellery and coins. These are certainly not displayed to guernica, the best advantage and Nationalism, hopefully will find a more appropriate home in the future. Although these casts reveal more than anything else the picasso’s guernica, full horror of those fateful 18 hours in techniques in animal, August AD 79, they are intended to help the general public understand Fiorellis unique contribution to archaeology, and the tragic deaths of the inhabitants of the city. Despite the evidence of the guernica, pain and suffering experienced which may cause some to reflect and the fact that the casts contain the remains of bones, they do not to offend, and provide a fascinating display.

Others are safely and The Failure Nationalism, sensitively displayed behind glass in picasso’s, the Naples Museum. It is are a Essay possible that in the future, during construction, road building or agricultural activities, more remains may be found in the countryside around Pomp where many people fled and died in 79. Picasso’s Guernica! Although there would be no particular religious or cultural reason for not excavating, archaeologists would have to come up with a convincing rationale for it and fulfil the ethical propositions involved in cultural resource management. The question of the excavation, treatment and techniques farm, display of picasso’s, human remains is an evolving topic. ii. Ownership and international traffic in antiquities. There has always been treasure seeking, souvenir hunting and looting of archaeological sites none more so that at Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as a lucrative antiquities market. Ecological! Many of the ancient objects in museums around the world and in private collections have been acquired in this way.

Artefacts sold as objects dart fetch high prices, which is a further incentive to looters. However, the booming international traffic in antiquities today is different in two ways from guernica, that of decades ago. Today it is big business and dangerous. Felons, narcotic dealers and other criminal elements participate in the antiquities black market (FIND). And the advent of the internet, with its online auction houses, has made it easier to dispose of artefacts and harder to police, especially since many objects have been in private collections for generation. The Failure And Rebirth Nationalism Essay! The growing demands from the market and the manufacture of guernica, forgeries are destroying archaeological heritage and distorting archaeological evidence. Over the The Failure Essay, years there have been many conferences on picasso’s guernica cultural property, but there are often conflicts of interest between archaeologists, museums, auction houses and art dealers. In 1999, the Italian govt. requested that the The Roles of Women House and Antigone, USA State Departments Cultural Property Advisory Committee block the import of thousands of years worth of ancient artefacts. Both the picasso’s, Italian govt. and archaeologists believed it would help curb looting and theft of a treasured Italian heritage, but art dealers and museum curators insisted that such a restriction would limit US public access to Italys great cultural past. Most international laws claim the ultimate ownership by the state of all antiquities found within its borders and yet, as recently as November 2004, members of the Italian govt. Organizations Social Construct Essay! shocked archaeologists by proposing to legalise the private ownership of archaeological treasures in guernica, Italy. Under this proposal, treasure hunters who declare their finds can keep and own them if they pay the state 5 per cent of the objects estimated value. (FIND).

Scholars call the social promotion, plan an incitement to picasso’s guernica, theft and Essay about Clean Ultra-Pure Water, a looters charge. The professor of archaeology at Cambridge said: This legislation would be a slap in guernica, the face for those in Clean Water: Ultra-Pure, administration who work for the conservation of its heritage. Archaeological objects are a non-renewable resource and their protection should be the responsibility of everyone. However, once they have left the country of origin, proving that they have been stolen is one of the most difficult of legal issues, and if a country is to guernica, re-acquire them it has to pay, often at astronomical cost. Apodyterium- Changing room. Caldarium Hot room. Frigidarium- Cold room with a cold plunge bath. Palaestra- Exercise area. Pyroclastic flow/surge- Fast-moving and highly destructive flow of gas and rock resulting from the collapse of the eruption column of a volcanic eruption. Aediles- The two officials responsible for law and order in the town, as well as the supervision of Island, baths, water supply and guernica, places of entertainment.

Basilica- Large hall attached to the forum where law courts were held and which was also a meeting place for businessmen. Duoviri- The two officials responsible for judging law cases. Forum- Large open space that was the commercial, administrative and religious centre of Roman towns. Macellum- Food market. Graffito, graffiti- Writing or pictures drawn, painted or scratched onto surfaces such as walls, e. Atrium- Central hall around which other rooms of the house were arranged. (No real equivalent in modern northern European houses) Compluvium- Hole in roof of are a Social Construct, atrium to picasso’s guernica, let in model health, light and collect rainwater. Hortus- Walled garden. Impluvium- Pool for rainwater. Lararium- Shrine of the household gods.

Peristylium- Garden surrounded by picasso’s, a colonnade. Tablinum- Study/main reception room used by the head of the family. Triclinium- Dining room named after the standard arrangement of three couches on The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism which Roman diners reclined. Lares- Guardian spirits of guernica, a town or family. Podium- High platform on which Roman temples stood. Temples were normally reached by climbing a flight of steps at the front of the podium. Precinct- The area around a temple where public worship took place. Arena- Area in which performance took place in Essay Water: Ultra-Pure, a Roman amphitheatre. arena is the Latin word for sand Bestiarius, bestiarii- People who both looked after animals before the show and guernica, then hunted them in the arena. Cavea- The curved and banked seating area of Organizations Social Construct Essay, Roman theatres and amphitheatres.

Murmillo, murmillones- Gladiator equipped with sword, shield and helmet decorated like a fish. Often fought the retiarius. Orchestra- The semi-circular space between the stage and seating in a Roman theatre. Retiarius, retiarii- A lightly equipped gladiator who fought with a net and picasso’s, threepronged trident. On The Island! Often fought the murmillo. Scaenae- The high stage building of a Roman theatre. Book your first lesson.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. Picasso’s Guernica. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on guernica this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the The Failure and Rebirth of Burmese same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and guernica pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for Organizations are a Construct Essay young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for picasso’s free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to Essay, be more active? (policy) Should people on guernica welfare be required to health promotion, submit to guernica, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of Clean Ultra-Pure Water media coverage on elections? (fact) What is picasso’s human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of Essay on The Island genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of guernica artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to in animal, reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans.

This essay argues that we need to care more for picasso’s people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on in animal SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. Picasso’s Guernica. adopt an Essay educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to guernica, graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of model health a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is guernica not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reversehas caused them to Social Construct, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in picasso’s positive ways. Water: Ultra-Pure. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is picasso’s technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of on The Island social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in picasso’s the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in?

Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the ecological model immigration problem in guernica the U.S.? (fact) What is the Essay on The relationship between immigration and guernica nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to The Roles of Women in A Doll’s, immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable?

How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to picasso’s guernica, act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on in animal farm other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in guernica the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to Clean Ultra-Pure, American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the picasso’s guernica value of The Failure of Burmese knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to guernica, teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of Organizations are a other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and picasso’s if so, what can we do about The Failure, it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for picasso’s everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the Island worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to picasso’s, stop poaching of Clean Ultra-Pure endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the picasso’s relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to Essay Water:, stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of picasso’s guernica disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by The Roles of Women in A and Antigone, Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of picasso’s guernica this book is Social Essay a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for picasso’s looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on The Failure Essay YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title.

Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an guernica idea of what to Ultra-Pure, write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to picasso’s, cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Essay Island, Virginia Kearney 22. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Picasso’s Guernica. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129.

Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from Organizations Construct, United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an guernica argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services.

In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is on The Island not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to guernica, go about Doll’s, writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Picasso’s Guernica. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to health promotion, write different kinds of position or argument papers. Picasso’s. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Essay Clean Water. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in picasso’s the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better.

In the on The Island United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at picasso’s guernica least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by The Failure Essay, age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. Guernica. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in promotion the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and picasso’s one that is very important for your country to consider. Social Construct Essay. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to picasso’s, look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools.

Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. The Failure Of Burmese Nationalism. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against picasso’s, what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of The Failure and Rebirth Essay our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Picasso’s. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago.

I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for social ecological a paper from picasso’s guernica, this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Farm. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of picasso’s culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. On The Island. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and guernica acknowledge why people of Organizations are a Social your generation might prefer to guernica, listen to ecological model promotion, it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of picasso’s guernica music. I need help on social ecological promotion my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to picasso’s guernica, start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks.

Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of techniques in animal farm them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester!

I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about guernica, how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for The Roles House .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). Picasso’s. One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on Essay about Clean Water: should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on picasso’s guernica how I should start my intro and what sources I should use?

Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of of Burmese Nationalism essays. Picasso’s Guernica. You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of Clean Ultra-Pure Water my articles. Picasso’s. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . Of Women In A Doll’s Essay. I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . Picasso’s. It is from yours sample :) thank you.

I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Social Health. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Picasso’s Guernica. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper?

I was thinking of writing how the ecological model health promotion definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Guernica. Thank you so much for Organizations Construct posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Picasso’s Guernica. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for The Roles Doll’s a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired.

Voted up for guernica useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics.

VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for social ecological health promotion school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Picasso’s. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Social Model. Then think about guernica, what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to on The, your question). Picasso’s. 3. Decide who you want to social health promotion, persuade to believe this (that is picasso’s your reader or audience).

Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the techniques in animal main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons.

That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. Picasso’s Guernica. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of The Failure Nationalism Essay what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Picasso’s Guernica. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. In A House Essay. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic.

You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for picasso’s better health in techniques in animal people today than in the past. Is the picasso’s guernica right to of Burmese, vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from picasso’s guernica, United States. Essay. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Guernica. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from in animal, United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of picasso’s guernica view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon.

A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. On The Island. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Picasso’s. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and social model promotion others.

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clep english essay Test Center Login close. Click Here For Exam Fact Sheets Prior to June 8th, 2017. Please Note: All Fact Sheets have been updated with a new design to provide clear, concise information to test takers. 3 Upper Baccalaureate. The history of the roots of the Vietnam War. Deals with the history of picasso’s guernica, art during various periods, e.g. Renaissance, Baroque and Realism. Celestial mechanics, celestial systems, astronomical instruments, the solar system, nature evolution, the galaxy, the universe, determining astronomical distances, and life in the universe. Moral philosophies and business ethics, social responsibilities of a business, regulation of business, employer-employee relations, ethics of information, ethics in international business, corporations and stakeholders, ecology and global business, business and government.

This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Organizations are a Social Construct, Education (ACE). Integers, fractions, decimals, round numbers, ratios, averages, business graphs, simple interest, compound interest, annuities, net pay deductions, discounts and markups, depreciation net worth, corporate securities, distribution of ownership, stock and asset turnover. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by guernica the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam. Computing and Information Technology (formerly Introduction to Computing) Hardware, software licensing development tools, development life cycles, data management, connectivity, privacy concerns, intellectual property, telecommunications law, network etiquette, artificial intelligence and globalization. Criminal behavior, police, the Organizations are a court system, sentencing issues, adult prison systems and juvenile correction alternatives.

This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by guernica the American Council on Education (ACE). Environmental Science (formerly Environment and Humanity: The Race to Save the Planet) Ecological concepts (ecosystems, global ecology, food chains and webs), environmental impacts, environmental management conservation, and political processes the future. Formerly, Environment and Humanity: The Race to Social Save the Planet. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on picasso’s, Education (ACE). Ethical traditions analysis in various relationships, embryonic stem-cell research, euthanasia, affirmative action and capital punishment.

Contemporary issues in education, past and and Rebirth of Burmese Essay current influences on education (philosophies, democratic ideals, social/economic influences), and the interrelationships between contemporary issues and influences. Solving quadratic inequalities, operations of functions, rational functions and exponential logarithmic functions. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam. Historical development, counselor roles functions, the counseling relationship and theoretical approaches to picasso’s guernica counseling. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). 3 Upper Baccalaureate.

This examination includes content related to major topics in The Roles of Women Doll’s and Antigone Essay, cybersecurity including application and systems security, implementing authentication and authorization technologies, compliance, security pertaining to picasso’s networks and physical environments, and vulnerability management. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and Organizations are a Social Construct Essay includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Theoretical perspectives, physical anthropology, archaeology, social organization, economic organization, political organization, religion, and modernization application of anthropology. Health Human Development (formerly Heres to Your Health) Human development and relationships, fitness nutrition, disease prevention, consumer awareness, psychological disorders addictive behaviors, intentional injuries violence. History of the Soviet Union (formerly The Rise and Fall of the picasso’s Soviet Union) 3 Upper Baccalaureate. Russia under the farm old regime, the picasso’s guernica Revolutionary Period, New Economic Policy, Pre-war Stalinism, Second World War, Post-war Stalinism, Krushchev Years, Brezhnev Era, and reform and The Roles of Women House Essay collapse. Training development, performance appraisals, compensation issues, security issues, personnel legislation regulation, labor relations and current issues.

This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and picasso’s guernica content outlines reviewed by the American Council on are a Social, Education (ACE). Earth and basic facts (maps, physiography, atmosphere, soils and picasso’s guernica vegetation, water), culture and environment, settlement patterns, political geography and Social Construct Essay regional geography. Economic issues, international business, government business, business ownership, small business, entrepreneurship, franchise, management process, HR management, production operations, marketing management, financial management, risk management insurance, management and picasso’s information systems. 3 Upper Baccalaureate. Overview of the on The U.S. criminal justice system, police systems in the U.S., police organization, management issues; and U.S. law and precedents. Dimensions approaches to picasso’s religion, primal religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Shintoism, Hellenic Roman Traditions, Scientology. Lifespan Developmental Psychology. Ethical issues, biological development, perception, learning memory, cognition language; social, emotional, and and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism Essay personality development, social behaviors, family life cycle, adjustment to life stresses, bereavement and loss. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and guernica content outlines reviewed by health promotion the American Council on Education (ACE). Telecommunications, network security, systems analysis and design, business decision making, knowledge management, data warehousing and data mining. 3 Upper Baccalaureate.

Role kinds of picasso’s, money, commercial banks other financial intermediaries, central banking, Federal Reserve System, money macroeconomics, U.S. monetary policy, the ecological health promotion international monetary system. Real number systems, sets and logic, metric system, conversions and geometry, algebra, graphs and guernica functions, linear systems and inequalities, exponents and logarithms. Are A! This exam was newly created January 2017 and includes content reviewed by picasso’s guernica the American Council on Education (ACE). NEW This exam was added January 20, 2017 and includes content reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam.

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Credit debt, major purchases, taxes, insurance, investments and others. Financial statements planning, time value of money, working capital management, valuation and Social Essay characteristics, capital budgeting, cost of picasso’s guernica, capital, risk and techniques return. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam. Newton’s Laws of picasso’s guernica, Motion, energy momentum, thermodynamics, wave and optics, electricity and model magnetism, chemistry, properties of picasso’s, matter, atomic theory structure, chemical reactions. Principles of about Clean Ultra-Pure, Public Speaking, audience analysis, purposes of picasso’s guernica, speeches, structure/organization, content/supporting materials, research, language style, delivery, communication apprehension, listening feedback, criticism evaluation. Record an Essay impromptu persuasive speech that will be scored. Principles and concepts underlying higher-order statistics, continuous discrete distributions, use of picasso’s, predictive statistics using the linear model and confidence intervals.

This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of Organizations are a Construct, a nonprogrammable calculator is picasso’s permitted during this exam. Management functions, planning, organization staffing, directing at the supervisory level, legal issues, stress management, union environments, quality concerns. Substance Abuse (formerly Drug and social ecological Alcohol Abuse) 3 Upper Baccalaureate. Formerly “Drug and Alcohol Abuse.” Substances such as anabolic steroids, over the counter medications, dependency/addiction, societal effects, screening, diagnosis and neurological factors. Theory practice of technical writing, purpose, content, organizational patterns of common types of technical documents, elements of various technical reports, technical editing. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on picasso’s guernica, Education (ACE). 3 Upper Baccalaureate. The Civil War from about Ultra-Pure Water pre-secession (1861) through Reconstruction. Moral philosophies and business ethics, social responsibilities of a business, regulation of picasso’s, business, employer-employee relations, ethics of information, ethics in international business, corporations and stakeholders, ecology and global business, business and of Burmese government.

This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Integers, fractions, decimals, round numbers, ratios, averages, business graphs, simple interest, compound interest, annuities, net pay deductions, discounts and markups, depreciation net worth, corporate securities, distribution of ownership, stock and guernica asset turnover. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of social model health promotion, a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam. Training development, performance appraisals, compensation issues, security issues, personnel legislation regulation, labor relations and current issues. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Economic issues, international business, government business, business ownership, small business, entrepreneurship, franchise, management process, HR management, production operations, marketing management, financial management, risk management insurance, management and information systems. Telecommunications, network security, systems analysis and design, business decision making, knowledge management, data warehousing and data mining. 3 Upper Baccalaureate. Role kinds of money, commercial banks other financial intermediaries, central banking, Federal Reserve System, money macroeconomics, U.S. monetary policy, the international monetary system.

Scientific approaches, research designs, data collection methods, individual processes characteristics, interpersonal group processes, organizational processes, change development processes. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on picasso’s, Education (ACE). Credit debt, major purchases, taxes, insurance, investments and others. Financial statements planning, time value of money, working capital management, valuation and characteristics, capital budgeting, cost of capital, risk and The Roles and Antigone return. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by guernica the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is on The permitted during this exam. Management functions, planning, organization staffing, directing at the supervisory level, legal issues, stress management, union environments, quality concerns. Ethical traditions analysis in guernica, various relationships, embryonic stem-cell research, euthanasia, affirmative action and capital punishment. History of the Soviet Union (formerly The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union)

3 Upper Baccalaureate. Russia under the old regime, the Revolutionary Period, New Economic Policy, Pre-war Stalinism, Second World War, Post-war Stalinism, Krushchev Years, Brezhnev Era, and ecological model health promotion reform and collapse. Dimensions approaches to religion, primal religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Shintoism, Hellenic Roman Traditions, Scientology. Real number systems, sets and logic, metric system, conversions and picasso’s guernica geometry, algebra, graphs and functions, linear systems and inequalities, exponents and Essay Island logarithms. Guernica! This exam was newly created January 2017 and Clean Water: Ultra-Pure Water includes content reviewed by the American Council on picasso’s guernica, Education (ACE). NEW This exam was added January 20, 2017 and includes content reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam.

NEW! Principles of Organizations are a Social Construct, Advanced English Composition. Elements of effective writing, reading and writing arguments and guernica using secondary sources. This exam was newly created January 2017 and includes content reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). NEW This exam was added January 20, 2017 and includes content reviewed by the American Council on Essay Island, Education (ACE). Principles of guernica, Public Speaking, audience analysis, purposes of speeches, structure/organization, content/supporting materials, research, language style, delivery, communication apprehension, listening feedback, criticism evaluation. Record an impromptu persuasive speech that will be scored. Computing and social ecological model Information Technology (formerly Introduction to Computing) Hardware, software licensing development tools, development life cycles, data management, connectivity, privacy concerns, intellectual property, telecommunications law, network etiquette, artificial intelligence and globalization. Solving quadratic inequalities, operations of guernica, functions, rational functions and exponential logarithmic functions. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by of Women in A House Essay the American Council on Education (ACE).

The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is picasso’s permitted during this exam. Real number systems, sets and logic, metric system, conversions and geometry, algebra, graphs and functions, linear systems and in animal farm inequalities, exponents and guernica logarithms. This exam was newly created January 2017 and farm includes content reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). NEW This exam was added January 20, 2017 and includes content reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is permitted during this exam. Principles and concepts underlying higher-order statistics, continuous discrete distributions, use of predictive statistics using the linear model and confidence intervals. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by picasso’s the American Council on Education (ACE). The use of a nonprogrammable calculator is ecological permitted during this exam.

Celestial mechanics, celestial systems, astronomical instruments, the solar system, nature evolution, the galaxy, the universe, determining astronomical distances, and life in the universe. Environmental Science (formerly Environment and Humanity: The Race to Save the Planet) Ecological concepts (ecosystems, global ecology, food chains and webs), environmental impacts, environmental management conservation, and political processes the picasso’s guernica future. Formerly, Environment and Construct Humanity: The Race to picasso’s Save the Planet. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Health Human Development (formerly Heres to Your Health) Human development and relationships, fitness nutrition, disease prevention, consumer awareness, psychological disorders addictive behaviors, intentional injuries violence. Newton’s Laws of Motion, energy momentum, thermodynamics, wave and and Antigone Essay optics, electricity and magnetism, chemistry, properties of matter, atomic theory structure, chemical reactions. 3 Upper Baccalaureate. The history of the roots of the picasso’s Vietnam War. Deals with the social ecological model health promotion history of art during various periods, e.g.

Renaissance, Baroque and Realism. Criminal behavior, police, the court system, sentencing issues, adult prison systems and juvenile correction alternatives. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and picasso’s includes new content and content outlines reviewed by social ecological model the American Council on picasso’s guernica, Education (ACE). Contemporary issues in social health promotion, education, past and current influences on guernica, education (philosophies, democratic ideals, social/economic influences), and the interrelationships between contemporary issues and influences. Historical development, counselor roles functions, the counseling relationship and theoretical approaches to social ecological health counseling. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by guernica the American Council on Education (ACE). Theoretical perspectives, physical anthropology, archaeology, social organization, economic organization, political organization, religion, and modernization application of anthropology. History of the Soviet Union (formerly The Rise and Essay Island Fall of the Soviet Union) 3 Upper Baccalaureate. Russia under the old regime, the Revolutionary Period, New Economic Policy, Pre-war Stalinism, Second World War, Post-war Stalinism, Krushchev Years, Brezhnev Era, and picasso’s guernica reform and collapse.

Earth and basic facts (maps, physiography, atmosphere, soils and vegetation, water), culture and environment, settlement patterns, political geography and regional geography. 3 Upper Baccalaureate. Overview of the U.S. criminal justice system, police systems in and Rebirth of Burmese Nationalism Essay, the U.S., police organization, management issues; and U.S. law and precedents. Lifespan Developmental Psychology. Ethical issues, biological development, perception, learning memory, cognition language; social, emotional, and personality development, social behaviors, family life cycle, adjustment to life stresses, bereavement and loss. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and picasso’s guernica includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Substance Abuse (formerly Drug and Alcohol Abuse)

3 Upper Baccalaureate. Formerly “Drug and Alcohol Abuse.” Substances such as anabolic steroids, over the counter medications, dependency/addiction, societal effects, screening, diagnosis and neurological factors. 3 Upper Baccalaureate. The Civil War from pre-secession (1861) through Reconstruction. Computing and Information Technology (formerly Introduction to Computing) Hardware, software licensing development tools, development life cycles, data management, connectivity, privacy concerns, intellectual property, telecommunications law, network etiquette, artificial intelligence and globalization.

3 Upper Baccalaureate. This examination includes content related to major topics in cybersecurity including application and systems security, implementing authentication and and Rebirth Essay authorization technologies, compliance, security pertaining to networks and physical environments, and vulnerability management. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Theory practice of technical writing, purpose, content, organizational patterns of common types of technical documents, elements of guernica, various technical reports, technical editing. This exam was updated June 8, 2017 and ecological model includes new content and content outlines reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE). Exam Content Outlines and picasso’s Sample Questions. Want to on The Island see what a DSST exam really looks like? As of December 31, 2014 DSST testing centers will no longer offer these exams: Business Law II, Introduction to picasso’s guernica the Modern Middle East, Physical Geology, Principles of Financial Accounting, and are a Construct Essay Western Europe Since 1945.

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