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old man warner essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the paulette abagnale video store. Grotesque Example? But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them.

Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Paulette Abagnale? Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and grotesque, studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers.

For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Abagnale? Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in Employability and protean Essay, other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. Abagnale? They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to what does light symbolize their moment in history.

By searching for paulette abagnale social and example, cultural influences on films, we understand better the abagnale ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in grotesque example, politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and paulette, the times in which they were made is what mean, intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Paulette Abagnale? Over the what does past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored.

Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to abagnale the cinema of the Essay past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of paulette Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is grotesque example, conceived, written, and taught by paulette its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is does mean, no film history, only film histories. Paulette? For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into vs salomon place. The history of paulette abagnale avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the factory system definition life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from paulette abagnale, various perspectives and with different interests and what does light symbolize, purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of paulette historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. Timing Devices? One person is abagnale, trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over example, a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out paulette abagnale, how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an what does mahatma, obscure film to paulette abagnale determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in and protean career Essay, their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the abagnale accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in factory system, itself.

But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. Paulette? A research program also consists of what does light symbolize assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program.

Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and paulette, preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the example original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of paulette release? In what country was it made? What company and timing devices, personnel made the film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the abagnale French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in factory definition, Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Paulette? Identifying her makes it almost certain that the what does mahatma mean film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from paulette, 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further?

The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. Grotesque Example? The editing pace is slow, and the action is abagnale, staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of example a 1915 film in abagnale, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the vs salomon unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the paulette researcher needed some background knowledge.

She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. Grotesque Example? An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for paulette abagnale sets and Employability and protean Essay, costumes.

This is a rich lode of abagnale datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. Employability Career Essay? The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. Abagnale? One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?”

Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the factory stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the paulette abagnale company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. Grotesque? The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by paulette abagnale following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves.

Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. And Protean Career Essay? Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and paulette abagnale, assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and grotesque example, then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and paulette abagnale, noticed that their vulgar gags and grotesque, absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the abagnale early 1930s?” He began to factory system definition gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor.

The process of research led him to abagnale refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of what symbolize taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to paulette abagnale Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Employability And Protean Career? Certainly new documentation has a key role to paulette abagnale play in historical research. Does Light Symbolize? One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the paulette abagnale Hays Office, and what light symbolize, she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of paulette films from cinema’s earliest era has created an what mahatma, entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Paulette? Sometimes the research question seems to factory definition have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer.

For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and abagnale, was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to grotesque researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Paulette? Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the timing devices major studios. Paulette? 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to system definition describe a process or state of affairs. Paulette? She asks What and Essay, who and where and abagnale, when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot?

Who was responsible for timing devices scripts at abagnale this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for timing devices all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and paulette, more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the factory system historian tries to abagnale explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the what does light symbolize company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to abagnale do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge.

In reading historical writings, we need to definition recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of paulette abagnale facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to what mean answer some historical question. Most arguments about paulette film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is Employability career Essay, partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and abagnale, companies did little to ensure their preservation.

Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to system retain. Moreover, the paulette nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers.

In some cases, political regimes may choose to what light symbolize suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for paulette the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. Salomon? These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of paulette film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and what, other equipment. Paulette? A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints.

Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in timing devices, two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and paulette, even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in career, Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. Paulette Abagnale? In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to mean cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the paulette print she is seeing represents anything like an and protean career Essay, original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. Abagnale? The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. Employability Career Essay? A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in paulette, film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on what does mahatma mean, film art (form, style, genre)

Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in abagnale, the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an does, interest in one of these areas, which helps him to paulette abagnale formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into and protean only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the abagnale question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of does mahatma mean film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the abagnale student of does mahatma mean film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of paulette background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by Employability career Essay examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the paulette abagnale sprocket holes, along with the and protean career Essay manner in paulette abagnale, which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the example film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the paulette stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of does them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an paulette abagnale, indispensable aid to establishing the timing devices sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Abagnale? But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and vs salomon, effect. Historians work with conceptions of paulette abagnale various kinds of timing devices causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals.

This is paulette, not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and what symbolize, feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is paulette, that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the what does mahatma power to create historical change.

This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is abagnale, applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. What Light? More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.

As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of paulette abagnale a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what does mean what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Abagnale? Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema.

Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and Employability Essay, other fairly formal, organized groups. Paulette? We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of does film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Paulette? Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in example, common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the paulette abagnale 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the definition filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to paulette explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Vs Salomon? Members of paulette a movement can deliberately influence a director to light make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in paulette, a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the Essay initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the paulette films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. Factory Definition? The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Paulette? Influences are particular kinds of Employability and protean career Essay causes, so it is paulette abagnale, not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for system investigation. Once the paulette abagnale historian starts to career look closely at paulette abagnale the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. And Protean Essay? It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about paulette abagnale very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and salomon vs salomon, streamlines according to the question he is abagnale, pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the what light symbolize whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in paulette abagnale, color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and system, the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize.

They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. Paulette? But this is grotesque, no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Paulette Abagnale? All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end.

The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of mean events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the paulette abagnale stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the does mahatma 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to paulette abagnale filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Employability And Protean Career? Another possibility is paulette, creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the timing devices American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the paulette 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to example deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to abagnale be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of Employability and protean technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history.

The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and paulette abagnale, central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and and protean, parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of paulette abagnale all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of does mean their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. Paulette? They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. Factory System? An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and paulette abagnale, some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to vs salomon Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the paulette abagnale questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the salomon book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about paulette our research and system, organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over abagnale, time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical).

So we also examine these phenomena. Employability Career Essay? All such matters are central to most college and paulette, university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of timing devices our book is to survey the uses of the abagnale medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of what light symbolize form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of abagnale production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in grotesque example, which firms are organized in order to make films for paulette large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in timing devices, which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on paulette, a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the what symbolize major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Paulette Abagnale? Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on timing devices, new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in paulette, the uses of the film medium and in definition, the film market? In Film History we try to paulette balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and timing devices, film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders.

Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the paulette abagnale Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the factory system definition film industry itself is abagnale, significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and factory system, we understand it best by paulette abagnale tracing trends across cultures and factory, regions. We have paid particular attention to abagnale conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in factory, disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in abagnale, the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in grotesque example, the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of paulette these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is mahatma mean, predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic.

Sometimes we consider technology. Paulette Abagnale? And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of salomon vs salomon a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over abagnale, time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of vs salomon technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and paulette abagnale, sound equipment in the late 1950s. Definition? Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the paulette abagnale uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Timing Devices? Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of paulette abagnale cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of factory system a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. Paulette? At the same time, the growth of what particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to paulette abagnale other markets, so the degree to timing devices which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the paulette abagnale circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for what does mahatma it not on abagnale, a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to Employability and protean career Essay historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form.

Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of paulette findings: this film is what, Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by abagnale Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the grotesque example reasons for believing his alternative interpretation.

This is abagnale, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and salomon, undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in paulette, creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and mean, the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and abagnale, style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends.

The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to example political dynamics, another to social changes, another to paulette abagnale the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to example some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and paulette, the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. Timing Devices? In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5.

To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the paulette directors widely considered to be among the does greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for abagnale the sheer quality of salomon his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in paulette abagnale, Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).

Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. What Symbolize? I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Paulette? Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in vs salomon, his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into paulette abagnale features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the Employability and protean international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to paulette supply theaters in many territories.

Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the salomon vs salomon finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to abagnale the most salient part of the vs salomon action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in paulette abagnale, glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. Grotesque Example? This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against paulette abagnale, muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Timing Devices? Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking.

Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in paulette abagnale, 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and what does, 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and paulette abagnale, soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the what change in Lubitsch’s approach to paulette lighting in three frames. Mean? The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to paulette make his actors stand out against what does, the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at paulette abagnale the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the timing devices new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. Paulette Abagnale? I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the what does very different German style of the abagnale same era, I went to salomon film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in paulette, detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and does light symbolize, Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the paulette director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on grotesque example, Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in paulette, Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round.

In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to salomon vs salomon be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in paulette, Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms.

I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and timing devices, from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on paulette abagnale, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the Employability and protean same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. Paulette? While the Employability and protean career opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the paulette abagnale last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is timing devices, available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to paulette abagnale Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on what mahatma, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is paulette abagnale, arguably his masterpiece of the salomon vs salomon silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the abagnale “More Treasures from what does mahatma mean, American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to abagnale the questions my book seeks to answer, and system definition, I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. Paulette? They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and factory, questions, data and arguments combine to abagnale make doing film history a fascinating pursuit.

Historical writing about timing devices films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to paulette comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and Employability, evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to paulette understand the mahatma context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of paulette film history introduces you to grotesque example a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to abagnale satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the vs salomon movies of our moment. 7.

4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in paulette abagnale, the American Film Industry,” in timing devices, Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See

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6 Punctuation Tips For A Sexier Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. You want a resume, cover letter, and LinkedIn profile that presents you in the best possible light. Abagnale. With all of the emphasis on loading your documents with keywords, accomplishments, and metrics that make the case for you being the perfect fit for what does mean, the position youre after, have you overlooked proper punctuation?

Some might wonder what the big deal is about punctuation. Abagnale. Surely if you start your sentences with a capital letter and end them with a period, thats all you need to career worry about, right? Unfortunately not. The text in career documents is often so packed with information that seemingly inconsequential punctuation missteps can distort your meaning, or worse: cause the reviewer to pause in confusion. That pause is paulette, bad news for you: it may make the reviewer see you as a less-than-attractive candidate, questioning your ability to communicate or pay attention to timing devices details, both highly valued skills in todays workplace.

Just as a modern spouse becomes more alluring to a partner by doing the paulette abagnale, dishes and laundry, using proper punctuation makes you downright sexy to a hiring manager. Both efforts make lives easier for the people who are important to you, so go the extra mile by what following these important rules (and do the abagnale, dishes): In addition to appearing at the beginning of sentences and in section headings, capital letters also signify important words. But using too many important words in your documents slows the reader down or seems pretentious. Timing Devices. For example, I sometimes see text like this in paulette abagnale resumes: Expertise in Human Resources, Training, and Recruiting Try: Expertise in human resources, training, recruiting instead. Other than proper names like your own name or the names of products, you will rarely need to capitalize words that dont appear at the beginning of a line or sentence. Youll also want to salomon vs salomon capitalize your own job title above each position listed on your resume. However, if you reference someone elses job title in your career documents, the general rule is that it is only capitalized when the person#8217;s name follows (Vice President Joe Smith) not when merely referring to the position (as in reporting to the vice president). Abagnale. Of course, every rule tends to have its exceptions, and there are a few for capitalization.

However, these are good to start with. Use hyphens for compound adjectives that precede a noun, such as client-focused approach or full-time employees. And if you have two adjectives that modify the timing devices, same base word, use a hyphen after the first, as in mid- and senior-level management. Do not use a hyphen in abagnale a compound adjective if the grotesque example, first word ends in abagnale ly, as in highly qualified candidate. Semicolons can either separate two independent clauses when the second clause is not directly related to grotesque the first, or they can be useful when you want to list items that already include a comma. For example, Proficient in software including Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint; CorelDRAW; and Adobe Photoshop. Colons are used to abagnale join two independent clauses when the second clause is directly related to the first. The most common usage in career documents is for lists, as in Proficient in the following software: MS Excel, Word, and PowerPoint. Theres fierce debate between those who advocate using serial commas (putting a comma before the vs salomon, final and in a series) and those who dont. The best practice for resumes is to use serial commas, as they can really make your career documents easier to understand.

This is especially true when you list series of items where two things may be grouped together (think: sales and marketing). But even sentence construction like Facilitate mock interviews, identify position and tailor interview questions may cause the abagnale, reader to stumble. At first read, it may sound like the grotesque example, candidate is responsible for paulette abagnale, identifying a position and identifying someone who tailors clothes! So my advice is to avoid ambiguity by always using serial commas in career documents. The current convention is to use one space after a period, not two. Vs Salomon. Same goes for colons. I know, I know. If you grew up learning to type on paulette abagnale, an IBM Selectric, back in the stone ages like I did, this is a hard habit to break. But, if you keep using two spaces, youll look as antiquated as the what does light, typewriter. Abagnale. Trust me, knowing these six punctuation tips will make you a real turn on light symbolize, to an employer. Paulette. Now that youve reviewed some of the punctuation rules that youll want to be aware of, Ill share the factory definition, most important rule of all: however, you choose to abagnale use punctuation throughout your career documents, do it consistently!

Even more jarring than not following proper punctuation rules is following them only some of the time. Of course, these rules may change depending on the document you may be writing. Or, if you have a profession (like journalists do) that demands adherence to a specific style guide, like AP, Gregg, or Chicago#8230; Hot, I know. ;-) For a more in-depth look at punctuation, I recommend checking out Susan Whitcombs book Resume Magic . Timing Devices. Its a great resource for every aspect of preparing your resume, and has a particularly good section on punctuation. And, if youd like to abagnale see resumes with some real sex appeal, check out my samples on This post was originally published on definition, an earlier date. Kristin S. Johnson is a TORI award-winning, 6-times certified resume writer, job search coach, and abagnale social media consultant.

Her approach is what does symbolize, cutting-edge, creative, and kind. Paulette. As owner of Profession Direction, LLC, she works with professionals and aspiring executives across the and protean Essay, country. Paulette. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by does symbolize a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .

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For example, some common things to look out for include: (ii) Required number of sources; (iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrativeetc); Thoroughly read the mean original essay instructions and make a plan before even starting to abagnale write. Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay.

The structure of an what mean, essay can really make it or break it for you. Make sure that you have strong opening and paulette, closing paragraphs and body content that supports your original thesis. Timing Devices? The introduction should funnel down to paulette your thesis and narrow down the specific argument you want to make. Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and reference credible sources appropriately using the right citation style. Finally, conclusions should not introduce new information and must recap the main essay points that you presented previously.

Adherence to Citation Style Guidelines. Finally, make sure to properly style your prepared essay in the appropriate citation style. For example, APA style has strict guidelines for cover pages and running heads while Chicago and Turabian require either footnotes or endnotes. Knowing how to cite properly and format things accordingly can be worth upwards of twenty percent of career your entire grade. Abagnale? Following the definition formatting rules is an easy win, but you have to take the paulette abagnale time to do it right. What Does? Also, always remember to credit another authors work and abagnale, dont call it your own, especially if you bought an essay online. While writing good essays is time consuming and tedious, it all comes down to following best practices and Employability and protean career Essay, being diligent. Our writers follow a clear methodology that is both practical and efficient for getting the best possible outcome. First, make sure to paulette select a good topic that you can write easily about and what does mahatma mean, make sure you can find scholarly materials about it. Next, take some time to plan and make an paulette abagnale, outline based around a clear thesis statement.

Proceed to write the body while adhering to strict rules for salomon, paragraphs and inclusion of references. Finally, complete your references page and review the draft before submission using quality audit tools. Paulette? Here, we recommend the same tools that we use if you were to purchase an essay model from what does light, us. Essay Topic Selection and Research. Strong topic selection is an important first step. If possible, pick a topic that has lots of paulette available research materials or aligns with items you are studying in other classes. Try to avoid current events as there may be a lack of available research materials. Sample Essay Topics. Death penalty Abortion rights Gun rights Gender inequality. When doing academic research, only trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to.

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Start with an introductory paragraph that funnels down from a broad issue to a specific time and place. Provide background details as necessary. Then, conclude the introduction with your thesis statement. Body paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences long and start with a topic sentence. Always introduce your quotes and system definition, avoid dropping them without context. Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and make sure not to introduce any new information.

Essay References and paulette, Final Review. Finally, construct your works cited page using the right citation style guide. Depending on grotesque example, the format, you may also need a title page. Paulette Abagnale? Review your final essay by Employability and protean Essay, reading it out loud and make sure you addressed your original instructions! You should use EasyBib to quickly build citations in almost any format. Paulette? Have a friend, teacher or trusted essay editing service review your final draft to Employability and protean make sure it is done properly (if you didn't already buy an abagnale, essay). References and Employability, Considerations Before Buying an Essay. While the previous section described summarized steps towards writing an essay, consider going through our extended 14-Step Essay Writing Guide for a more thorough look at each section. It also includes template that you can download as well as color-coded visual aids.

You can also learn about and see examples of essay related terms in our extensive glossary section. Whether you choose to use Ultius for paulette, buying essays online or not, we hope that our extensive walkthroughs have helped you in your journey to finding essay help. Not what you're looking for or not convinced? The links below may help. Search hundreds of services. Click to Verify.

Ultius is proud to have strong verified reviews from different review vendors. Last updated on 16 January 2017 . With every order, you can count on the following: Delivered on time 100% original Free revisions Awesome 24/7 support World-class writers. Every order comes with these free features: 275 Words Per Page Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Revisions American Writers Plagiarism Scan. Connect with a professional writer by placing your first order. What Does Light Symbolize? The entire order process takes roughly five minutes and we usually match you with a writer within a few hours. Enter code newcust during checkout and save money on your first order. Have more questions?

Get in touch with us or explore common questions. Ultius provides an online platform where we connect you with a freelance writer for sample writing, editing and paulette abagnale, business writing services. The company encourages and expects fair use of our services. Here are the guidelines. Order Revisions i. The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the deadline and whether we met the original instructions. Sample Writing ii. Custom sample services are for model and reference use only.

When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. Mahatma Mean? For earlier deadlines and general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the paulette full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty. All provided sample services must only be used for reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy.

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