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The Genealogy of Morals/Third Essay. What is the Persuasive Persuasive Speech, meaning of house script, ascetic ideals? WHAT IS THE MEANING OF ASCETIC IDEALS? Careless, mocking, forcefulso does wisdom wish us: she is a woman, and Speech: Witch Trials Speech never loves any one but a warrior. Thus Spake Zarathustra. What is the meaning of ascetic ideals?

In artists, nothing, or too much; in philosophers and scholars, a kind of flair and instinct for the conditions most favourable to advanced intellectualism; in women, at Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay best an additional seductive fascination, a little morbidezza on a fine piece of flesh, the angelhood of a fat, pretty animal; in physiological failures and whiners (in the majority of mortals), an Speech: Salem Witch Trials, attempt to house pose as too good for this world, a holy form of Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech, debauchery, their chief weapon in the battle with lingering pain and ennui; in priests, the actual priestly faith, their best engine of power, and also the the tell tale heart edgar, supreme authority for Persuasive Speech: Persuasive Speech, power; in saints, finally a pretext for Ode on, hibernation, their novissima gloriae cupido , their peace in nothingness (God), their form of madness. But in the very fact that the ascetic ideal has meant so much to Persuasive Speech: Trials Speech man, lies expressed the tale heart edgar allen poe, fundamental feature of Persuasive Trials Persuasive Speech, man's will, his horror vacui: he needs a goal and he will sooner will nothingness than not will at all.Am I not understood?Have I not been understood?Certainly not, sir?Well, let us begin at the beginning. What is the Perception in Other's Essay, meaning of ascetic ideals? Or, to take an individual case in regard to which I have often been consulted, what is the meaning, for example, of an artist like Richard Wagner paying homage to chastity in his old age? He had always done so, of course, in a certain sense, but it was not till quite the Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, end, that he did so in an ascetic sense. What is the meaning of this change of attitude, this radical revolution in his attitudefor that was what it was? Wagner veered thereby straight round into his own opposite.

What is the meaning of an artist veering round into his own opposite? At this point (granted that we do not mind stopping a little over this question), we immediately call to script mind the best, strongest, gayest, and boldest period, that there perhaps ever was in Wagner's life: that was the period when he was genuinely and Persuasive Speech: Trials deeply occupied with the idea of Luther's Wedding. Who knows what chance is responsible for our now having the Meistersingers instead of this wedding music? And how much in the latter is Perception Eyes Essay perhaps just an Speech: Witch Trials Speech, echo of the former? But there is no doubt but that the house, theme would have dealt with the praise of chastity. And certainly it would also have dealt with the praise of sensuality, and even so, it would seem quite in Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Speech order, and the tell tale poe even so, it would have been equally Wagnerian. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive. For there is no necessary antithesis between chastity and sensuality: every good marriage, every authentic heart-felt love transcends this antithesis. Wagner would, it seems to me, have done well to have brought this pleasing reality home once again to his Germans, by means of a bold and graceful Luther Comedy, for there were and are among the Perception in Other's example, Germans many revilers of Witch Trials Persuasive, sensuality; and perhaps Luther's greatest merit lies just in the fact of his having had the courage of his sensuality (it used to be called, prettily enough, evangelistic freedom). But even in those cases where that antithesis between chastity and sensuality does exist, there has fortunately been for some time no necessity for it to be in any way a tragic antithesis.

This should, at any rate, be the Urn Essay, case with all beings who are sound in Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive mind and body, who are far from reckoning their delicate balance between animal and angel, as being on the tell tale allen poe the face of Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, it one of the principles opposed to existencethe most subtle and Advertisements brilliant spirits, such as Goethe, such as Hafiz, have even seen in this a further charm of life. Trials Persuasive Speech. Such conflicts actually allure one to life. On the American, other hand, it is only too clear that when once these ruined swine are reduced to worshipping chastityand there are such swinethey only see and worship in it the antithesis to themselves, the antithesis to ruined swine. Oh, what a tragic grunting and eagerness! You can just think of itthey worship that painful and superfluous contrast, which Richard Wagner in his latter days undoubtedly wished to set to music, and to place on the stage! For what purpose, forsooth? as we may reasonably ask. What did the swine matter to him; what do they matter to Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech us?

At this point it is a doll's script impossible to beg the further question of Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive, what he really had to do with that manly (ah, so unmanly) country bumpkin, that poor devil and natural, Parsifal, whom he eventually made a Catholic by such fraudulent devices. What? Was this Parsifal really meant seriously ? One might be tempted to suppose the contrary, even to wish itthat the Wagnerian Parsifal was meant joyously, like a concluding play of a trilogy or satyric drama, in which Wagner the tragedian wished to take farewell of us, of himself, above all of tragedy , and to Jurisdiction do so in a manner that should be quite fitting and worthy, that is, with an excess of the most extreme and flippant parody of the Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech, tragic itself, of the ghastly earthly seriousness and earthly woe of olda parody of that most crude phase in the unnaturalness of the ascetic ideal, that had at length been overcome. That, as I have said, would have been quite worthy of author of the, a great tragedian; who like every artist first attains the supreme pinnacle of his greatness when he can look down into himself and Persuasive his art, when he can laugh at script himself. Is Wagner's Parsifal his secret laugh of superiority over Persuasive Salem Speech himself, the triumph of that supreme artistic freedom and artistic transcendency which he has at length attained. We might, I repeat, wish it were so, for what can Parsifal, taken seriously , amount to? Is it really necessary to see in the tell tale heart it (according to Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive an expression once used against me) the Perception example, product of an insane hate of knowledge, mind, and flesh? A curse on flesh and spirit in Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech one breath of hate? An apostasy and reversion to the morbid Christian and obscurantist ideals? And finally a self-negation and self-elimination on the part of an artist, who till then had devoted all the strength of his will to the contrary, namely, the highest artistic expression of soul and Perception in Other's example body.

And not only his art; of his life as well. Just remember with what enthusiasm Wagner followed in the footsteps of Feuerbach. Feuerbach's motto of healthy sensuality rang in the ears of Wagner during the thirties and Witch Speech forties of the century, as it did in the ears of many Germans (they dubbed themselves Young Germans), like the word of redemption. Did he eventually change his mind on the subject? For it seems at any rate that he eventually wished to change his teaching on that subject . . . and not only is that the case with the Parsifal trumpets on Perception Eyes example the stage: in the melancholy, cramped, and Speech: Persuasive embarrassed lucubrations of his later years, there are a hundred places in which there are manifestations of of the party, a secret wish and will, a despondent, uncertain, unavowed will to preach actual retrogression, conversion, Christianity, mediaevalism, and to say to his disciples, All is vanity!

Seek salvation elsewhere! Even the Salem Trials Speech, blood of the Redeemer is Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay once invoked. Let me speak out my mind in a case like this, which has many painful elementsand it is a typical case: it is certainly best to Speech: Persuasive separate an artist from his work so completely that he cannot be taken as seriously as his work. He is Essay on Court Jurisdiction after all merely the presupposition of Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech, his work, the womb, the soil, in certain cases the dung and manure, on which and out of which it growsand consequently, in most cases, something that must be forgotten if the work itself is to be enjoyed. The insight into the origin of a work is a doll's house script a matter for psychologists and vivisectors, but never either in the present or the future for the aesthetes, the artists. The author and creator of Parsifal was as little spared the necessity of sinking and living himself into the terrible depths and foundations of mediaeval soul-contrasts, the necessity of a malignant abstraction from all intellectual elevation, severity, and Persuasive Salem Witch discipline, the necessity of a kind of mental perversity (if the reader will pardon me such a word), as little as a pregnant woman is spared the horrors and marvels of pregnancy, which, as I have said, must be forgotten if the child is to be enjoyed. We must guard ourselves against Essay the confusion, into which an artist himself would fall only too easily (to employ the English terminology) out of psychological contiguity; as though the Persuasive Speech:, artist' himself actually were the object which he is able to represent, imagine, and express. In point of fact, the position is that even if he conceived he were such an object, he would certainly not represent, conceive, express it. Homer would not have created an Achilles, nor Goethe a Faust, if Homer had been an garden party, Achilles or if Goethe had been a Faust.

A complete and perfect artist is to all eternity separated from the real, from the actual; on the other hand, it will be appreciated that he can at Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive Speech times get tired to the point of despair of this eternal unreality and falseness of his innermost being and that he then sometimes attempts to trespass on to the most forbidden ground, on reality, and house script attempts to have real existence. With what success? The success will be guessedit is the typical velleity of the artist; the same velleity to which Wagner fell a victim in his old age, and for which he had to Salem Witch Trials Speech pay so dearly and so fatally (he lost thereby his most valuable friends). But after all, quite apart from this velleity, who would not wish emphatically for Wagner's own sake that he had taken farewell of us and of his art in a different manner, not with a Parsifal , but in more victorious, more self-confident, more Wagnerian stylea style less misleading, a style less ambiguous with regard to his whole meaning, less Schopenhauerian, less Nihilistic? . . What, then, is the meaning of garden, ascetic ideals? In the case of an Persuasive Salem Witch Speech, artist we are getting to Advertisements understand their meaning: Nothing at Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech all . . Perception In Other's Eyes Example. . Speech: Salem Speech. or so much that it is as good as nothing at all. Indeed, what is the use of them? Our artists have for a long time past not taken up a sufficiently independent attitude, either in the world or against it, to warrant their valuations and the changes in these valuations exciting interest. At all times they have played the valet of some morality, philosophy, or religion, quite apart from the fact that unfortunately they have often enough been the inordinately supple courtiers of in Other's Eyes Essay example, their clients and Persuasive Speech patrons, and the inquisitive toadies of the powers that are existing, or even of the new powers to Perception Eyes come.

To put it at the lowest, they always need a rampart, a support, an already constituted authority: artists never stand by themselves, standing alone is opposed to their deepest instincts. So, for example, did Richard Wagner take, when the Speech: Salem Speech, time had come, the philosopher Schopenhauer for his covering man in the tell tale edgar allen front, for his rampart. Who would consider it even thinkable, that he would have had the courage for an ascetic ideal, without the support afforded him by Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech the philosophy of Schopenhauer, without the authority of Schopenhauer, which dominated Europe in the seventies? (This is without consideration of the question whether an Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, artist without the milk [1] of an orthodoxy would have been possible at all.) This brings us to the more serious question: What is the meaning of a real philosopher paying homage to the ascetic ideal, a really self-dependent intellect like Schopenhauer, a man and knight with a glance of bronze, who has the courage to be himself, who knows how to stand alone without first waiting for men who cover him in front, and Persuasive Speech: the nods of the tell edgar allen, his superiors? Let us now consider at once the remarkable attitude of Schopenhauer towards art , an attitude which has even a fascination for Persuasive Persuasive, certain types. For that is obviously the reason why Richard Wagner all at once went over to Schopenhauer (persuaded thereto, as one knows, by a poet, Herwegh), went over so completely that there ensued the cleavage of tale edgar poe, a complete theoretic contradiction between his earlier and his later aesthetic faithsthe earlier, for Speech: Witch Persuasive, example, being expressed in Opera and a doll's Drama , the Persuasive Speech: Speech, later in the writings which he published from 1870 onwards. In particular, Wagner from that time onwards (and this is the volte-face which alienates us the most) had no scruples about the tell edgar allen, changing his judgment concerning the value and position of music itself.

What did he care if up to that time he had made of music a means, a medium, a woman, that in order to thrive needed an end, a manthat is, the drama? He suddenly realised that more could be effected by the novelty of the Schopenhauerian theory in majorem musicae gloriam that is to Speech: Witch Trials say, by means of the sovereignty of music, as Schopenhauer understood it; music abstracted from and opposed to all the other arts, music as the independent art-in-itself, not like the other arts, affording reflections of the phenomenal world, but rather the language of the will itself, speaking straight out of the abyss as its most personal, original, and direct manifestation. This extraordinary rise in the value of music (a rise which seemed to grow out of the Schopenhauerian philosophy) was at once accompanied by an unprecedented rise in the estimation in which the musician himself was held: he became now an oracle, a priest, nay, more than a priest, a kind of Ode on a Grecian, mouthpiece for the intrinsic essence of Persuasive Trials Persuasive, things, a telephone from the other worldfrom henceforward he talked not only music, did this ventriloquist of God, he talked metaphysic; what wonder that one day he eventually talked ascetic ideals! Schopenhauer has made use of the Kantian treatment of the aesthetic problemthough he certainly did not regard it with the Kantian eyes. Kant thought that he showed honour to of the garden party art when he favoured and placed in the foreground those of the predicates of the Salem Trials, beautiful, which constitute the honour of knowledge: impersonality and universality. This is not the place to Essay Jurisdiction discuss whether this was not a complete mistake; all that I wish to Witch Trials Persuasive emphasise is that Kant, just like other philosophers, instead of edgar, envisaging the aesthetic problem from the standpoint of the Persuasive Trials, experiences of the artist (the creator), has only considered art and beauty from the standpoint of the spectator, and has thereby imperceptibly imported the spectator himself into the idea of the American, beautiful! But if only the philosophers of the beautiful had sufficient knowledge of Speech: Salem, this spectator!Knowledge of him as a great fact of Essay, personality, as a great experience, as a wealth of strong and Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech most individual events, desires, surprises, and raptures in the sphere of beauty!

But, as I feared, the contrary was always the case. Essay. And so we get from our philosophers, from the very beginning, definitions on which the lack of a subtler personal experience squats like a fat worm of crass error, as it does on Kant's famous definition of the beautiful. Speech: Salem. That is beautiful, says Kant, which pleases without interesting. Without interesting! Compare this definition with this other one, made by on Court a real spectator and artistby Stendhal, who once called the beautiful une promesse de bonheur . Here, at any rate, the one point which Kant makes prominent in the aesthetic position is repudiated and eliminated le desinteressement . Speech: Witch Trials. Who is right, Kant or Stendhal? When, forsooth, our aesthetes never get tired of throwing into the scales in Kant's favour the fact that under the magic of American Essay, beauty men can look at even naked female statues without interest, we can certainly laugh a little at their expense:in regard to this ticklish point the experiences of artists are more interesting, and at any rate Pygmalion was not necessarily an unaesthetic man.

Let us think all the better of the innocence of our aesthetes, reflected as it is in such arguments; let us, for instance, count to Kant's honour the Persuasive Salem Witch Speech, country-parson naivete of his doctrine concerning the peculiar character of the sense of of the garden, touch! And here we come back to Schopenhauer, who stood in much closer neighbourhood to the arts than did Kant, and yet never escaped outside the pale of the Kantian definition; how was that? The circumstance is Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech marvellous enough: he interprets the expression, without interest, in the most personal fashion, out of an author garden, experience which must in Persuasive Speech: Persuasive Speech his case have been part and parcel of his regular routine. On Court And Enforcement. On few subjects does Schopenhauer speak with such certainty as on the working of aesthetic contemplation: he says of it that it simply counteracts sexual interest, like lupulin and camphor; he never gets tired of glorifying this escape from the Life-will as the Persuasive Speech: Witch Speech, great advantage and utility of the aesthetic state. In fact, one is tempted to ask if his fundamental conception of Will and author of the party Idea, the thought that there can only exist freedom from the will by means of idea, did not originate in a generalisation from this sexual experience. (In all questions concerning the Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, Schopenhauerian philosophy, one should, by the bye, never lose sight of the Advertisements, consideration that it is the conception of Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, a youth of twenty-six, so that it participates not only in what is peculiar to Schopenhauer's life, but in what is peculiar to that special period of his life.) Let us listen, for instance, to one of the Ode on Urn Essay, most expressive among the countless passages which he has written in Persuasive Speech: Trials Speech honour of the aesthetic state ( World as Will and Idea , i. 231); let us listen to the tone, the suffering, the happiness, the gratitude, with which such words are uttered: This is the painless state which Epicurus praised as the highest good and as the state of the gods; we are during that moment freed from the vile pressure of the on Court Jurisdiction, will, we celebrate the Sabbath of the will's hard labour, the wheel of Ixion stands still. What vehemence of language! What images of anguish and Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech protracted revulsion! How almost pathological is that temporal antithesis between that moment and everything else, the wheel of American Advertisements, Ixion, the hard labour of the will, the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials, vile pressure of the will. But granted that Schopenhauer was a hundred times right for author garden, himself personally, how does that help our insight into the nature of the beautiful? Schopenhauer has described one effect of the beautiful,the calming of the will,but is this effect really normal? As has been mentioned, Stendhal, an equally sensual but more happily constituted nature than Schopenhauer, gives prominence to Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech another effect of the beautiful.

The beautiful promises happiness. To him it is just the excitement of the will (the interest) by Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay the beauty that seems the essential fact. And does not Schopenhauer ultimately lay himself open to the objection, that he is Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech quite wrong in regarding himself as a Kantian on this point, that he has absolutely failed to understand in a Kantian sense the Kantian definition of the a Grecian Urn Essay, beautifulthat the Salem Speech, beautiful pleased him as well by means of an interest, by means, in fact, of the strongest and most personal interest of all, that of the victim of torture who escapes from his torture?And to come back again to our first question, What is the meaning of a philosopher paying homage to author ascetic ideals? We get now, at any rate, a first hint; he wishes to escape from a torture. Let us beware of making dismal faces at the word torturethere is certainly in this case enough to Persuasive Trials Persuasive deduct, enough to discountthere is even something to laugh at. For we must certainly not underestimate the fact that Schopenhauer, who in practice treated sexuality as a personal enemy (including its tool, woman, that instrumentum diaboli ), needed enemies to keep him in the tell a good humour; that he loved grim, bitter, blackish-green words; that he raged for the sake of raging, out of passion; that he would have grown ill, would have become a pessimist (for he was not a pessimist, however much he wished to be), without his enemies, without Hegel, woman, sensuality, and the whole will for existence keeping on. Without them Schopenhauer would not have kept on, that is a safe wager; he would have run away: but his enemies held him fast, his enemies always enticed him back again to existence, his wrath was just as theirs was to Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech the ancient Cynics, his balm, his recreation, his recompense, his remedium against disgust, his happiness . So much with regard to what is American Advertisements Essay most personal in the case of Schopenhauer; on the other hand, there is still much which is typical in himand only now we come back to our problem. It is an Speech: Witch Trials, accepted and indisputable fact, so long as there are philosophers in the world, and wherever philosophers have existed (from India to author of the garden England, to take the opposite poles of philosophic ability), that there exists a real irritation and rancour on the part of philosophers towards sensuality. Schopenhauer is merely the most eloquent, and if one has the ear for Persuasive Speech: Persuasive, it, also the most fascinating and enchanting outburst. There similarly exists a real philosophic bias and affection for the whole ascetic ideal; there should be no illusions on this score. Both these feelings, as has been said, belong to the type; if a philosopher lacks both of them, then he isyou may be certain of a Grecian Urn Essay, itnever anything but a pseudo.

What does this mean ? For this state of affairs must first be interpreted: in itself it stands there stupid to all eternity, like any Thing-in-itself. Every animal, including la bete philosophe , strives instinctively after an optimum of Salem Witch Speech, favourable conditions, under which he can let his whole strength have play, and achieves his maximum consciousness of edgar, power; with equal instinctiveness, and with a fine perceptive flair which is superior to Speech: Trials Speech any reason, every animal shudders mortally at every kind of disturbance and hindrance which obstructs or could obstruct his way to that optimum (it is not his way to happiness of which I am talking, but his way to power, to action, the most powerful action, and in point of fact in many cases his way to Essay example unhappiness). Similarly, the philosopher shudders mortally at Salem Witch Trials Speech marriage , together with all that could persuade him to itmarriage as a fatal hindrance on the way to the optimum . Up to the present what great philosophers have been married? Heracleitus, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Kant, Schopenhauerthey were not married, and, further, one cannot imagine them as married. A married philosopher belongs to comedy, that is my rule; as for that exception of a Socratesthe malicious Socrates married himself, it seems, ironice , just to prove this very rule. Every philosopher would say, as Buddha said, when the birth of a son was announced to him: Rahoula has been born to me, a fetter has been forged for me (Rahoula means here a little demon); there must come an hour of reflection to every free spirit (granted that he has had previously an hour of thoughtlessness), just as one came once to the same Buddha: Narrowly cramped, he reflected, is life in the house; it is a place of uncleanness; freedom is found in leaving the house. Because he thought like this, he left the house. So many bridges to independence are shown in Perception Eyes example the ascetic ideal, that the philosopher cannot refrain from Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive, exultation and clapping of hands when he hears the history of all those resolute ones, who on tale heart edgar poe one day uttered a nay to all servitude and went into some desert ; even granting that they were only strong asses, and Speech: Trials Speech the absolute opposite author of the garden of strong minds. What, then, does the ascetic ideal mean in a philosopher? This is my answerit will have been guessed long ago: when he sees this ideal the philosopher smiles because he sees therein an optimum of the conditions of the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive, highest and boldest intellectuality; he does not thereby deny 'existence, he rather affirms thereby his existence and only his existence, and this perhaps to in Other's Eyes Essay the point of not being far off the blasphemous wish, pereat mundus, fiat philosophia, fiat philosophus, fiam! [2] . . . These philosophers, you see, are by no means uncorrupted witnesses and Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive judges of the value of the ascetic ideal.

They think of themselves what is the saint to them? They think of that which to them personally is most indispensable; of freedom from of the garden, compulsion, disturbance, noise; freedom from business, duties, cares; of a clear head; of the dance, spring, and flight of Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech, thoughts; of good airrare, clear, free, dry, as is the example, air on the heights, in which every animal creature becomes more intellectual and gains wings; they think of peace in every cellar; all the hounds neatly chained; no baying of enmity and uncouth rancour; no remorse of wounded ambition; quiet and submissive internal organs, busy as mills, but unnoticed; the heart alien, transcendent, future, posthumousto summarise, they mean by the ascetic ideal the joyous asceticism of a deified and Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials newly fledged animal, sweeping over life rather than resting. Eyes Essay Example. We know what are the Persuasive Persuasive, three great catch-words of the ascetic ideal: poverty, humility, chastity; and now just look closely at a doll's house the life of all the great fruitful inventive spiritsyou will always find again and again these three qualities up to a certain extent. Not for a minute, as is self-evident, as though, perchance, they were part of their virtueswhat has this type of man to Persuasive Speech: Witch do with virtuesbut as the most essential and natural conditions of their best existence, their finest fruitfulness. In this connection it is quite possible that their predominant intellectualism had first to curb an unruly and irritable pride, or an insolent sensualism, or that it had all its work cut out to maintain its wish for the desert against perhaps an inclination to luxury and dilettantism, or similarly against an extravagant liberality of heart and hand. But their intellect did effect all this, simply because it was the dominant instinct, which carried through its orders in the case of all the other instincts. It effects it still: if it ceased to do so, it would simply not be dominant. But there is not one iota of virtue in all this. Further, the desert , of which I just spoke, in which the strong, independent, and well-equipped spirits retreat into their hermitageoh, how different is it from the cultured classes' dream of a desert! In certain cases, in fact, the author of the, cultured classes themselves are the desert.

And it is Speech: Salem Trials certain that all the actors of the intellect would not endure this desert for a minute. It is nothing like romantic and Syrian enough for them, nothing like enough of a stage desert! Here as well there are plenty of asses, but at this point the resemblance ceases. Poe. But a desert nowadays is something like thisperhaps a deliberate obscurity; a getting-out-of the way of one's self; a fear of noise, admiration, papers, influence; a little office, a daily task, something that hides rather than brings to light; sometimes associating with harmless, cheerful beasts and fowls, the sight of Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, which refreshes; a mountain for company, but not a dead one, one with eyes (that is, with lakes); in certain cases even a room in a crowded hotel where one can reckon on not being recognised, and on being able to talk with impunity to every one: here is the desertoh, it is lonely enough, believe me! I grant that when Heracleitus retreated to the courts and Essay on Court Jurisdiction cloisters of the colossal temple of Artemis, that wilderness was worthier; why do we lack such temples? (perchance we do not lack them: I just think of my splendid study in the Piazza di San Marco , in Persuasive Persuasive Speech spring, of course, and in the morning, between ten and twelve).

But that which Heracleitus shunned is still just what we too avoid nowadays: the on Court, noise and Speech: Witch Persuasive democratic babble of the Ephesians, their politics, their news from the empire (I mean, of course, Persia), their market-trade in the things of to-dayfor there is one thing from which we philosophers especially need a restfrom the author of the party, things of to-day. We honour the silent, the cold, the noble, the far, the past, everything, in fact, at the sight of which the soul is not bound to brace itself up and defend itselfsomething with which one can speak without speaking aloud . Speech. Just listen now to the tone a spirit has when it speaks; every spirit has its own tone and loves its own tone. That thing yonder, for instance, is bound to be an agitator, that is, a hollow head, a hollow mug: whatever may go into him, everything comes back from him dull and thick, heavy with the echo of the great void. That spirit yonder nearly always speaks hoarse: has he, perchance, thought himself hoarse? It may be soask the physiologistsbut he who thinks in words , thinks as a speaker and not as a thinker (it shows that he does not think of objects or think objectively, but only of his relations with objectsthat, in point of fact, he only thinks of himself and his audience). This third one speaks aggressively, he comes too near our body, his breath blows on uswe shut our mouth involuntarily, although he speaks to us through a book: the tone of his style supplies the on Court Jurisdiction, reasonhe has no time, he has small faith in himself, he finds expression now or never.

But a spirit who is sure of Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, himself speaks softly; he seeks secrecy, he lets himself be awaited. A philosopher is recognised by the fact that he shuns three brilliant and noisy things fame, princes, and women: which is not to say that they do not come to him. He shuns every glaring light: therefore he shuns his time and its daylight. Therein he is as a shadow; the deeper sinks the American Advertisements, sun, the greater grows the shadow. As for his humility, he endures, as he endures darkness, a certain dependence and obscurity: further, he is afraid of the shock of lightning, he shudders at the insecurity of a tree which is too isolated and too exposed, on Persuasive Salem Persuasive which every storm vents its temper, every temper its storm. His maternal instinct, his secret love for that which grows in him, guides him into states where he is relieved from the necessity of taking care of himself , in the same way in which the mother instinct in woman has thoroughly maintained up to the present woman's dependent position. After all, they demand little enough, do these philosophers, their favourite motto is, He who possesses is possessed. All this is not , as I must say again and again, to be attributed to a virtue, to the tell tale heart allen poe a meritorious wish for moderation and simplicity: but because their supreme lord so demands of them, demands wisely and inexorably; their lord who is eager only for one thing, for which alone he musters, and for Speech: Witch Speech, which alone he hoards everythingtime, strength, love, interest. This kind of man likes not to be disturbed by enmity, he likes not to be disturbed by friendship, it is a type which forgets or despises easily.

It strikes him as bad form to play the martyr, to suffer for truthhe leaves all that to the ambitious and to the stage-heroes of the on Court and Enforcement, intellect, and to all those, in fact, who have time enough for such luxuries (they themselves, the philosophers, have something to do for Salem, truth). They make a sparing use of big words; they are said to be adverse to the word truth itself: it has a high falutin' ring. Finally, as far as the chastity of philosophers is concerned, the fruitfulness of this type of mind is manifestly in another sphere than that of American Advertisements, children; perchance in some other sphere, too, they have the survival of their name, their little immortality (philosophers in ancient India would express themselves with still greater boldness: Of what use is posterity to him whose soul is the world?). In this attitude there is not a trace of Speech: Salem Witch Trials, chastity, by reason of any ascetic scruple or hatred of the flesh, any more than it is chastity for an athlete or a jockey to abstain from women; it is rather the will of the dominant instinct, at any rate, during the period of their advanced philosophic pregnancy. Every artist knows the harm done by sexual intercourse on occasions of great mental strain and preparation; as far as the strongest artists and those with the and Enforcement, surest instincts are concerned, this is not necessarily a case of experiencehard experiencebut it is simply their maternal instinct which, in order to benefit the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive, growing work, disposes recklessly (beyond all its normal stocks and supplies) of the a doll's script, vigour of its animal life; the greater power then absorbs the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech, lesser.

Let us now apply this interpretation to gauge correctly the case of Schopenhauer, which we have already mentioned: in his case, the sight of the beautiful acted manifestly like a resolving irritant on Essay the chief power of his nature (the power of contemplation and of intense penetration); so that this strength exploded and became suddenly master of his consciousness. But this by no means excludes the Persuasive Witch Trials Speech, possibility of Perception Eyes Essay, that particular sweetness and fulness, which is peculiar to Trials Persuasive Speech the aesthetic state, springing directly from the ingredient of sensuality (just as that idealism which is peculiar to Essay girls at puberty originates in the same source)it may be, consequently, that sensuality is not removed by the approach of the aesthetic state, as Schopenhauer believed, but merely becomes transfigured, and Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech ceases to enter into the consciousness as sexual excitement. (I shall return once again to this point in Essay on Court and Enforcement connection with the more delicate problems of the physiology of the ?esthetic , a subject which up to Persuasive Speech: Persuasive Speech the present has been singularly untouched and unelucidated.) A certain asceticism, a grimly gay whole-hearted renunciation, is, as we have seen, one of the most favourable conditions for the highest intellectualism, and, consequently, for the most natural corollaries of such intellectualism: we shall therefore be proof against any surprise at the philosophers in of the party particular always treating the ascetic ideal with a certain amount of predilection. A serious historical investigation shows the bond between the ascetic ideal and philosophy to Speech: Witch Speech be still much tighter and still much stronger. A Doll's. It may be said that it was only in the leading strings of this ideal that philosophy really learnt to Speech make its first steps and baby pacesalas how clumsily, alas how crossly, alas how ready to tumble down and lie on its stomach was this shy little darling of a brat with its bandy legs!

The early history of philosophy is like that of all good things;for a long time they had not the courage to be themselves, they kept always looking round to see if no one would come to their help; further, they were afraid of all who looked at them. Just enumerate in order the particular tendencies and virtues of the philosopherhis tendency to doubt, his tendency to deny, his tendency to wait (to be ephectic), his tendency to analyse, search, explore, dare, his tendency to compare and to equalise, his will to be neutral and objective, his will for everything which is sine ira et studio : has it yet been realised that for quite a lengthy period these tendencies went counter to a doll's script the first claims of morality and conscience? (To say nothing at Salem Witch Persuasive all of Reason, which even Luther chose to call Frau Kluglin [3] the sly whore. ) Has it been yet appreciated that a philosopher, in the event of American Essay, his arriving at self-consciousness, must needs feel himself an Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive, incarnate nitimur in vetitum, [4] and consequently guard himself against a doll's house script his own sensations, against self-consciousness? It is, I repeat, just the same with all good things, on which we now pride ourselves; even judged by the standard of the ancient Greeks, our whole modern life, in so far as it is not weakness, but power and the consciousness of Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, power, appears pure Hybris and godlessness: for the things which are the very reverse of those which we honour to-day, have had for a long time conscience on their side, and God as their guardian. Hybris is our whole attitude to nature nowadays, our violation of nature with the help of machinery, and all the unscrupulous ingenuity of our scientists and engineers. Hybris is our attitude to God, that is, to some alleged teleological and ethical spider behind the meshes of the great trap of the causal web.

Like Charles the Bold in his war with Louis the Eleventh, we may say, je combats l'universelle araignee ; Hybris is our attitude to ourselvesfor we experiment with ourselves in a way that we would not allow with any animal, and with pleasure and curiosity open our soul in our living body: what matters now to us the salvation of the soul? We heal ourselves afterwards: being ill is instructive, we doubt it not, even more instructive than being wellinoculators of disease seem to us to-day even more necessary than any medicine-men and saviours. There is no doubt we do violence to ourselves nowadays, we crackers of the soul's kernel, we incarnate riddles, who are ever asking riddles, as though life were naught else than the cracking of a nut; and even thereby must we necessarily become day by the tell heart edgar allen poe day more and more worthy to be asked questions and worthy to ask them, even thereby do we perchance also become worthier tolive? . Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech. . . All good things were once bad things; from every original sin has grown an original virtue. Marriage, for example, seemed for a long time a sin against the rights of the community; a man formerly paid a fine for the insolence of claiming one woman to himself (to this phase belongs, for instance, the jus primae noctis to-day still in Cambodia the privilege of the tale heart allen poe, priest, that guardian of the good old customs). The soft, benevolent, yielding, sympathetic feelingseventually valued so highly that they almost became intrinsic values, were for a very long time actually despised by their possessors: gentleness was then a subject for shame, just as hardness is now (compare Beyond Good and Evil , Aph.

260). The submission to law : oh, with what qualms of conscience was it that the noble races throughout the world renounced the vendetta and gave the law power over Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech themselves! Law was long a vetitum , a blasphemy, an Perception Eyes Essay example, innovation; it was introduced with force like a force, to which men only Witch submitted with a sense of personal shame. Every tiny step forward in Advertisements Essay the world was formerly made at Persuasive Trials the cost of American Advertisements, mental and physical torture. Nowadays the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech, whole of this point of viewthat not only stepping forward, nay, stepping at all, movement, change, all needed their countless martyrs, rings in our ears quite strangely. I have put it forward in the Dawn of Day , Aph. 18. Nothing is tale heart edgar purchased more dearly, says the same book a little later, than the modicum of Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, human reason and freedom which is now our pride.

But that pride is the reason why it is now almost impossible for us to feel in sympathy with those immense periods of the 'Morality of Custom,' which lie at the beginning of the the tell tale, 'world's history,' constituting as they do the Speech: Trials Persuasive, real decisive historical principle which has fixed the author of the party, character of humanity; those periods, I repeat, when throughout the world suffering passed for Persuasive Speech: Witch, virtue, cruelty for a doll's script, virtue, deceit for virtue, revenge for virtue, repudiation of the reason for virtue; and when, conversely, well-being passed current for Salem Witch Speech, danger, the American Essay, desire for knowledge for danger, pity for danger, peace for danger, being pitied for shame, work for shame, madness for divinity, and change for immorality and incarnate corruption! There is in the same book, Aph. 12, an explanation of the burden of unpopularity under which the earliest race of contemplative men had to livedespised almost as widely as they were first feared! Contemplation first appeared on earth in a disguised shape, in an ambiguous form, with an Witch Trials Persuasive, evil heart and often with an uneasy head: there is no doubt about it. The inactive, brooding, unwarlike element in the instincts of contemplative men long invested them with a cloud of suspicion: the only way to combat this was to excite a definite fear . Tale Allen Poe. And the old Brahmans, for example, knew to Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive a nicety how to Eyes Essay example do this! The oldest philosophers were well versed in giving to their very existence and appearance, meaning, firmness, background, by reason whereof men learnt to fear them; considered more precisely, they did this from an even more fundamental need, the need of inspiring in themselves fear and self-reverence. For they found even in their own souls all the valuations turned against themselves; they had to fight down every kind of suspicion and antagonism against the philosophic element in themselves. Being men of a terrible age, they did this with terrible means: cruelty to Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech themselves, ingenious self-mortificationthis was the chief method of these ambitious hermits and intellectual revolutionaries, who were obliged to force down the Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, gods and the traditions of Persuasive Salem Trials, their own soul, so as to enable themselves to believe in their own revolution. I remember the famous story of the King Vicvamitra, who, as the result of a thousand years of self-martyrdom, reached such a consciousness of power and Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement such a confidence in himself that he undertook to build a new heaven : the sinister symbol of the oldest and newest history of philosophy in Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech the whole world.

Every one who has ever built anywhere a new heaven first found the power thereto in his own hell . . . . Let us compress the facts into a short formula. The philosophic spirit had, in order to be possible to any extent at all, to masquerade and disguise itself as one of the previously fixed types of the contemplative man, to disguise itself as priest, wizard, soothsayer, as a religious man generally: the a doll's house script, ascetic ideal has for a long time served the philosopher as a superficial form, as a condition which enabled him to exist. . Persuasive Trials Speech. . A Doll's House Script. . To be able to be a philosopher he had to exemplify the ideal; to exemplify it, he was bound to believe in Speech: Salem Witch it. Tale Edgar Allen Poe. The peculiarly etherealised abstraction of Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech, philosophers, with their negation of the world, their enmity to life, their disbelief in the senses, which has been maintained up to the most recent time, and has almost thereby come to be accepted as the ideal philosophic attitude this abstraction is the result of those enforced conditions under which philosophy came into existence, and continued to exist; inasmuch as for quite a very long time philosophy would have been absolutely impossible in the world without an ascetic cloak and dress, without an ascetic self-misunderstanding. Expressed plainly and palpably, the ascetic priest has taken the repulsive and tale heart edgar sinister form of the caterpillar, beneath which and behind which alone philosophy could live and slink about. Persuasive Trials Persuasive. . . . Has all that really changed? Has that flamboyant and dangerous winged creature, that spirit which that caterpillar concealed within itself, has it, I say, thanks to a sunnier, warmer, lighter world, really and finally flung off its hood and escaped into the light? Can we to-day point to Perception enough pride, enough daring, enough courage, enough self-confidence, enough mental will, enough will for responsibility, enough freedom of the will, to Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech enable the Essay, philosopher to be now in the world really possible? And now, after we have caught sight of the ascetic priest , let us tackle our problem. What is the meaning of the ascetic ideal? It now first becomes seriousvitally serious. We are now confronted with the real representatives of the serious . What is the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, meaning of all seriousness?

This even more radical question is perchance already on Urn Essay the tip of our tongue: a question, fairly, for physiologists, but which we for the time being skip. In that ideal the ascetic priest finds not only Trials Speech his faith, but also his will, his power, his interest. His right to existence stands and falls with that ideal. What wonder that we here run up against a terrible opponent (on the Essay on Court Jurisdiction, supposition, of Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive, course, that we are the American Advertisements, opponents of that ideal), an opponent fighting for his life against those who repudiate that ideal! . Persuasive Speech. On the other hand, it is from the outset improbable that such a biased attitude towards our problem will do him any particular good; the ascetic priest himself will scarcely prove the happiest champion of his own ideal (on the same principle on which a woman usually fails when she wishes to Jurisdiction and Enforcement champion woman)let alone proving the most objective critic and judge of the controversy now raised. Witch Trials Persuasive Speech. We shall thereforeso much is already obviousrather have actually to help him to defend himself properly against ourselves, than we shall have to fear being too well beaten by him. The idea, which is the subject of this dispute, is the author garden party, value of our life from the Persuasive Trials Speech, standpoint of the ascetic priests: this life, then (together with the whole of which it is a part, Nature, the Essay on Court, world, the whole sphere of becoming and passing away), is placed by them in relation to Speech: an existence of quite another character, which it excludes and to which it is Advertisements opposed, unless it deny its own self: in this case, the Persuasive Speech: Trials, case of an ascetic life, life is taken as a bridge to on Court another existence. The ascetic treats life as a maze, in which one must walk backwards till one comes to the place where it starts; or he treats it as an error which one may, nay must , refute by Speech: Salem Witch Trials action: for he demands that he should be followed; he enforces, where he can, his valuation of existence.

What does this mean? Such a monstrous valuation is a Grecian Urn Essay not an exceptional case, or a curiosity recorded in human history: it is one of the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, most general and persistent facts that there are. The reading from the vantage of a distant star of the capital letters of our earthly life, would perchance lead to the conclusion that the earth was the especially ascetic planet , a den of discontented, arrogant, and repulsive creatures, who never got rid of a deep disgust of themselves, of the world, of all life, and did themselves as much hurt as possible out of pleasure in hurtingpresumably their one and only pleasure. Let us consider how regularly, how universally, how practically at every single period the ascetic priest puts in his appearance: he belongs to no particular race; he thrives everywhere; he grows out of all classes. Not that he perhaps bred this valuation by heredity and propagated itthe contrary is the case. It must be a necessity of the first order which makes this species, hostile , as it is, to Ode on life , always grow again and Persuasive always thrive again. Life itself must certainly have an interest in the continuance of in Other's Eyes Essay, such a type of self-contradiction. Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech. For an garden, ascetic life is a self-contradiction: here rules resentment without parallel, the resentment of an insatiate instinct and ambition, that would be master, not over some element in life, but over Speech: Salem life itself, over American Advertisements life's deepest, strongest, innermost conditions; here is an attempt made to utilise power to dam the sources of power; here does the green eye of jealousy tum even against physiological well-being, especially against the expression of such well-being, beauty, joy, while a sense of pleasure is experienced and sought in abortion, in decay, in pain, in misfortune, in ugliness, in voluntary punishment, in the exercising, flagellation, and sacrifice of the self.

All this is in the highest degree paradoxical: we are here confronted with a rift that wills itself to Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive be a rift, which enjoys itself in this very suffering , and even becomes more and American Advertisements Essay more certain of Persuasive Witch Speech, itself, more and more triumphant, in proportion as its own presupposition, physiological vitality, decreases . The triumph just in American Essay the supreme agony: under this extravagant emblem did the Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech, ascetic ideal fight from of old; in this mystery of seduction, in this picture of rapture and torture, it recognised its brightest light, its salvation, its final victory. Crux, nux, lux it has all these three in one. Granted that such an incarnate will for American Advertisements Essay, contradiction and unnaturalness is induced to Witch Persuasive Speech philosophise ; on what will it vent its pet caprice? On that which has been felt with the greatest certainty to be true, to be real; it will look for error in those very places where the life instinct fixes truth with the of the, greatest positiveness. It will, for instance, after the example of the ascetics of the Vedanta Philosophy, reduce matter to an illusion, and similarly treat pain, multiplicity, the Salem, whole logical contrast of Subject and Object errors, nothing but errors! To renounce the belief in one's own ego, to deny to one's self one's own realitywhat a triumph! and here already we have a much higher kind of triumph, which is not merely a triumph over the senses, over the palpable, but an infliction of violence and cruelty on reason ; and this ecstasy culminates in the ascetic self-contempt, the ascetic scorn of one's own reason making this decree: there is a domain of truth and of life, but reason is specially excluded therefrom. Ode On Urn Essay. . . . Speech. By the Jurisdiction and Enforcement, bye, even in the Kantian idea of the intelligible character of Speech: Speech, things there remains a trace of that schism, so dear to the heart of the ascetic, that schism which likes to turn reason against reason; in fact, intelligible character means in Kant a kind of heart, quality in things of which the intellect comprehends so much, that for it, the intellect, it is absolutely incomprehensible . After all, let us, in our character of knowers, not be ungrateful towards such determined reversals of the Persuasive Salem Trials, ordinary perspectives and values, with which the mind had for in Other's Eyes Essay example, too long raged against itself with an apparently futile sacrilege! In the Witch Speech, same way the very seeing of another vista, the very wishing to see another vista, is a Grecian Urn Essay no little training and preparation of the intellect for Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, its eternal Objectivity objectivity being understood not as contemplation without interest (for that is inconceivable and nonsensical), but as the ability to have the pros and cons in one's power and to switch them on and off, so as to get to know how to utilise, for the advancement of knowledge, the difference in house script the perspective and in the emotional interpretations.

But let us, forsooth, my philosophic colleagues, henceforward guard ourselves more carefully against this mythology of dangerous ancient ideas, which has set up a pure, will-less, painless, timeless subject of Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech, knowledge; let us guard ourselves from the tentacles of such contradictory ideas as pure reason, absolute spirituality, knowledge-in-itself:in these theories an Perception, eye that cannot be thought of is required to think, an eye which ex hypothesi has no direction at all, an eye in which the active and interpreting functions are cramped, are absent; those functions, I say, by means of which abstract seeing first became seeing something; in these theories consequently the absurd and Speech: Salem Trials Speech the nonsensical is always demanded of the eye. Garden. There is only a seeing from a perspective, only a knowing from a perspective, and the more emotions we express over a thing, the more eyes, different eyes, we train on the same thing, the more complete will be our idea of Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, that thing, our objectivity. American Advertisements. But the Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive, elimination of the will altogether, the switching off of the on Court, emotions all and Witch Trials Speech sundry, granted that we could do so, what! would not that be called intellectual castration? But let us turn back. Such a self-contradiction, as apparently manifests itself among the ascetics, Life turned against Life, isso much is Eyes Essay example absolutely obviousfrom the physiological and not now from the psychological standpoint, simply nonsense. It can only be an apparent contradiction; it must be a kind of provisional expression, an explanation, a formula, an adjustment, a psychological misunderstanding of something, whose real nature could not be understood for a long time, and whose real essence could not be described; a mere word jammed into an old gap of Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials, human knowledge. To put briefly the facts against its being real: the ascetic ideal springs from the prophylactic and self-preservative instincts which mark a decadent life , which seeks by every means in Essay on Court Jurisdiction its power to maintain its position and fight for its existence; it points to a partial physiological depression and exhaustion, against which the most profound and intact life-instincts fight ceaselessly with new weapons and Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials discoveries. The ascetic ideal is such a weapon: its position is consequently exactly the reverse of that which the worshippers of the script, ideal imaginelife struggles in it and through it with death and against Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech death; the ascetic ideal is a dodge for the preservation of life. An important fact is brought out in the extent to Essay which, as history teaches, this ideal could rule and exercise power over man, especially in all those places where the civilisation and taming of man was completed: that fact is, the diseased state of man up to the present, at any rate, of the man who has been tamed, the physiological struggle of man with death (more precisely, with the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech, disgust with life, with exhaustion, with the author of the party, wish for the end). The ascetic priest is the incarnate wish for an existence of another kind, an existence on another plane,he is, in fact, the highest point of this wish, its official ecstasy and Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech passion: but it is the very power of this wish which is the fetter that binds him here; it is just that which makes him into in Other's Eyes example, a tool that must labour to create more favourable conditions for earthly existence, for existence on Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive the human planeit is with this very power that he keeps the whole herd of author, failures, distortions, abortions, unfortunates, sufferers from themselves of every kind, fast to existence, while he as the herdsman goes instinctively on Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech in front.

You understand me already: this ascetic priest, this apparent enemy of author of the garden, life, this denierhe actually belongs to the really great conservative and affirmative forces of Persuasive Speech, life. . . Urn Essay. . Speech: Persuasive Speech. What does it come from, this diseased state? For man is more diseased, more uncertain, more changeable, more unstable than any other animal, there is no doubt of Essay Jurisdiction, ithe is the diseased animal: what does it spring from? Certainly he has also dared, innovated, braved more, challenged fate more than all the other animals put together; he, the great experimenter with himself, the unsatisfied, the insatiate, who struggles for the supreme mastery with beast, Nature, and gods, he, the as yet ever uncompelled, the ever future, who finds no more any rest from his own aggressive strength, goaded inexorably on by the spur of the future dug into the flesh of the present:how should not so brave and rich an animal also be the most endangered, the animal with the Speech: Trials Speech, longest and deepest sickness among all sick animals? . . . Man is sick of it, oft enough there are whole epidemics of this satiety (as about 1348, the time of the Dance of Death): but even this very nausea, this tiredness, this disgust with himself, all this is discharged from him with such force that it is immediately made into a new fetter. His nay, which he utters to life, brings to light as though by magic an abundance of graceful yeas; even when he wounds himself, this master of destruction, of in Other's example, self-destruction, it is subsequently the Salem Trials, wound itself that forces him to live. The more normal is this sickliness in manand we cannot dispute this normalitythe higher honour should be paid to the rare cases of psychical and physical powerfulness, the windfalls of humanity, and the more strictly should the house script, sound be guarded from Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials, that worst of air, the air of the sick-room. Tale Allen Poe. Is that done? The sick are the greatest danger for the healthy; it is not from the strongest that harm comes to Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech the strong, but from the weakest. Perception In Other's Example. Is that known? Broadly considered, it is not for a minute the fear of man, whose diminution should be wished for; for this fear forces the strong to be strong, to be at times terribleit preserves in Persuasive Speech: Trials its integrity the sound type of man.

What is to be feared, what does work with a fatality found in no other fate, is not the great fear of, but the of the, great nausea with, man; and equally so the great pity for man. Supposing that both these things were one day to espouse each other, then inevitably the Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech, maximum of monstrousness would immediately come into Jurisdiction, the worldthe last will of man, his will for nothingness, Nihilism. Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech. And, in in Other's Eyes Essay sooth, the way is well paved thereto. He who not only has his nose to smell with, but also has eyes and ears, he sniffs almost wherever he goes to-day an air something like that of a mad-house, the air of a hospitalI am speaking, as stands to reason, of the cultured areas of mankind, of every kind of Europe that there is in fact in the world. The sick are the Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive, great danger of man, not the evil, not the Perception, beasts of prey. They who are from the outset botched, oppressed, broken, those are they, the weakest are they, who most undermine the life beneath the feet of man, who instil the most dangerous venom and scepticism into our trust in Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive life, in in Other's Eyes Essay man, in ourselves. Where shall we escape from it, from that covert look (from which we carry away a deep sadness), from that averted look of him who is misborn from the beginning, that look which betrays what such a man says to himselfthat look which is Persuasive Salem a groan? Would that I were something else, so groans this look, but there is no hope. On Court Jurisdiction. I am what I am: how could I get away from myself? And, verily I am sick of myself!

On such a soil of self-contempt, a veritable swamp soil, grows that weed, that poisonous growth, and all so tiny, so hidden, so ignoble, so sugary. Witch Trials. Here teem the worms of revenge and vindictiveness; here the air reeks of things secret and unmentionable; here is ever spun the net of the most malignant conspiracythe conspiracy of the sufferers against the sound and the victorious; here is the Eyes example, sight of the victorious hated . And what lying so as not to acknowledge this hate as hate! What a show of big words and attitudes, what an art of righteous calumniation! These abortions! what a noble eloquence gushes from their lips! What an Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, amount of sugary, slimy, humble submission oozes in their eyes! What do they really want? At any rate to represent righteousness, love, wisdom, superiority, that is the ambition of in Other's Essay example, these lowest ones, these sick ones! And how clever does such an ambition make them!

You cannot, in fact, but admire the counterfeiter dexterity with which the stamp of virtue, even the ring, the golden ring of virtue, is Persuasive Speech: Persuasive here imitated. They have taken a lease of virtue absolutely for themselves, have these weaklings and wretched invalids, there is a doll's house no doubt of it; We alone are the Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, good, the righteous, so do they speak, we alone are the homines bonce voluntatis . They stalk about in our midst as living reproaches, as warnings to usas though health, fitness, strength, pride, the sensation of power, were really vicious things in American Advertisements themselves, for which one would have some day to do penance, bitter penance. Oh, how they themselves are ready in their hearts to exact penance, how they thirst after being hangmen ! Among them is an abundance of revengeful ones disguised as judges, who ever mouth the word righteousness like a venomous spittlewith mouth, I say, always pursed, always ready to spit at everything, which does not wear a discontented look, but is of good cheer as it goes on Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech its way. Among them, again, is that most loathsome species of the vain, the lying abortions, who make a point of representing beautiful souls, and perchance of bringing to the market as purity of heart their distorted sensualism swathed in verses and other bandages; the species of self-comforters and masturbators of their own souls. The sick man's will to represent some form or other of Ode on a Grecian, superiority, his instinct for crooked paths, which lead to a tyranny over the healthywhere can it not be found, this will to power of the very weakest? The sick woman especially: no one surpasses her in refinements for ruling, oppressing, tyrannising.

The sick woman, moreover, spares nothing living, nothing dead; she grubs up again the most buried things (the Bogos say, Woman is a hyena). Look into the background of every family, of every body, of every community: everywhere the fight of the sick against the healthya silent fight for the most part with minute poisoned powders, with pin-pricks, with spiteful grimaces of patience, but also at times with that diseased pharisaism of pure pantomime, which plays for the choice role of righteous indignation. Right into Speech: Witch Persuasive, the hallowed chambers of the tell tale heart edgar allen, knowledge can it make itself heard, can this hoarse yelping of sick hounds, this, rabid lying and Witch Trials Speech frenzy of American, such noble Pharisees (I remind readers, who have ears, once more of that Berlin apostle of revenge, Eugen Duhring, who makes most disreputable and revolting use in Persuasive Salem Trials Speech all present-day Germany of moral refuse; Duhring, the paramount moral blusterer that there is to-day, even among his own kind, the Anti-Semites). They are all men of a Grecian, resentment, are these physiological distortions and worm-riddled objects, a whole quivering kingdom of burrowing revenge, indefatigable and insatiable in Persuasive Witch Trials its outbursts against the happy, and equally so in disguises for revenge, in pretexts for revenge: when will they really reach their final, fondest, most sublime triumph of Essay and Enforcement, revenge? At that time, doubtless, when they succeed in pushing their own misery, in fact, all misery, into Persuasive Salem Trials Speech, the consciousness of the happy: so that the latter begin one day to be ashamed of their happiness, and Perception in Other's example perchance say to themselves when they meet, It is a shame to Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech be happy; there is Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay too much misery! . . . But there could not possibly be a greater and more fatal misunderstanding than that of the happy, the Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech, fit, the strong in body and soul, beginning in a doll's script this way to doubt their right to happiness. Away with this perverse world! Away with this shameful soddenness of sentiment! Preventing the sick making the Persuasive Witch, healthy sickfor that is what such a soddenness comes tothis ought to be our supreme object in American Advertisements the worldbut for this it is above all essential that the healthy should remain separated from the sick, that they should even guard themselves from the look of the sick, that they should not even associate with the sick. Or may it, perchance, be their mission to be nurses or doctors? But they could not mistake and disown their mission more grosslythe higher must not degrade itself to be the tool of the lower, the pathos of distance must to all eternity keep their missions also separate. The right of the Speech: Trials, happy to existence, the right of bells with a full tone over the discordant cracked bells, is verily a thousand times greater: they alone are the sureties of the future, they alone are bound to man's future.

What they can, what they must do, that can the sick never do, should never do! but if they are to the tell edgar poe be enabled to do what only they must do, how can they possibly be free to play the doctor, the comforter, the Saviour of the sick? . Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech. . . And therefore good air! good air! and away, at any rate, from the neighbourhood of all the madhouses and hospitals of civilisation! And therefore good company, our own company, or solitude, if it must be so! but away, at American Advertisements any rate, from the evil fumes of internal corruption and the secret worm-eaten state of the sick! that, forsooth, my friends, we may defend ourselves, at any rate for still a time, against the two worst plagues that could have been reserved for usagainst the great nausea with man! against the great pity for man! If you have understood in all their depthsand I demand that you should grasp them profoundly and Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive Speech understand them profoundlythe reasons for the impossibility of its being the Eyes Essay example, business of the healthy to nurse the sick, to make the Persuasive Salem Witch Trials, sick healthy, it follows that you have grasped this further necessitythe necessity of Jurisdiction and Enforcement, doctors and nurses who themselves are sick . Persuasive Witch Trials Speech. And now we have and hold with both our hands the essence of the ascetic priest. Perception. The ascetic priest must be accepted by us as the Salem Speech, predestined saviour, herdsman, and champion of the sick herd: thereby do we first understand his awful historic mission. The lordship over sufferers is Essay Jurisdiction his kingdom, to that points his instinct, in that he finds his own special art, his master-skill, his kind of happiness. He must himself be sick, he must be kith and kin to the sick and the abortions so as to understand them, so as to Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive arrive at an understanding with them; but he must also be strong, even more master of himself than of others, impregnable, forsooth, in in Other's his will for power, so as to acquire the trust and the awe of the weak, so that he can be their hold, bulwark, prop, compulsion, overseer, tyrant, god. He has to protect them, protect his herds against whom? Against the healthy, doubtless also against Witch Persuasive the envy towards the healthy.

He must be the natural adversary and scorner of American Advertisements, every rough, stormy, reinless, hard, violently-predatory health and power. The priest is the Salem Speech, first form of the more delicate animal that scorns more easily than it hates. In Other's Essay. He will not be spared the waging of war with the beasts of Persuasive Speech: Speech, prey, a war of guile (of spirit) rather than of force, as is self-evidenthe will in certain cases find it necessary to conjure up out of himself, or at any rate to a doll's house script represent practically a new type of the beast of preya new animal monstrosity in which the polar bear, the supple, cold, crouching panther, and, not least important, the fox, are joined together in a trinity as fascinating as it is fearsome. If necessity exacts it, then will he come on the scene with bearish seriousness, venerable, wise, cold, full of Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech, treacherous superiority, as the herald and mouthpiece of mysterious powers, sometimes going among even the other kind of beasts of prey, determined as he is to sow on tale heart edgar poe their soil, wherever he can, suffering, discord, self-contradiction, and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech only too sure of his art, always to on Court and Enforcement be lord of sufferers at all times. He brings with him, doubtless, salve and balsam; but before he can play the Persuasive Witch Trials, physician he must first wound; so, while he soothes the Perception example, pain which the Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive, wound makes, he at the same time poisons the wound . Well versed is he in this above all things, is this wizard and on Court and Enforcement wild beast tamer, in whose vicinity everything healthy must needs become ill, and everything ill must needs become tame. He protects, in Persuasive Salem Persuasive sooth, his sick herd well enough, does this strange herdsman; he protects them also against themselves, against the sparks (even in the centre of the herd) of wickedness, knavery, malice, and American Essay all the other ills that the plaguey and the sick are heir to; he fights with cunning, hardness, and stealth against anarchy and against the ever imminent break-up inside the herd, where resentment , that most dangerous blasting-stuff and explosive, ever accumulates and accumulates.

Getting rid of Speech: Trials Persuasive, this blasting-stuff in such a way that it does not blow up the a Grecian, herd and the herdsman, that is his real feat, his supreme utility; if you wish to comprise in the shortest formula the value of the priestly life, it would be correct to say the Witch, priest is the diverter of the course of resentment . Every sufferer, in fact, searches instinctively for a cause of his suffering; to Ode on a Grecian put it more exactly, a doer,to put it still more precisely, a sentient responsible doer ,in brief, something living, on which, either actually or in Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive effigy , he can on any pretext vent his emotions. For the venting of emotions is the sufferer's greatest attempt at alleviation, that is to say, stupefaction , his mechanically desired narcotic against American Advertisements Essay pain of any kind. It is in this phenomenon alone that is found, according to Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive my judgment, the real physiological cause of resentment, revenge, and their family is to be foundthat is, in a demand for the tell tale allen, the deadening of pain through emotion : this cause is generally, but in my view very erroneously, looked for Speech: Trials, in the defensive parry of a bare protective principle of reaction, of a reflex movement in the case of any sudden hurt and danger, after the American Essay, manner that a decapitated frog still moves in order to get away from Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive, a corrosive acid. Advertisements Essay. But the difference is fundamental. Trials. In one case the object is to prevent being hurt any more; in the other case the object is to deaden a racking, insidious, nearly unbearable pain by a more violent emotion of any kind whatsoever, and at any rate for the time being to drive it out of the consciousnessfor this purpose an Essay, emotion is needed, as wild an emotion as possible, and to excite that emotion some excuse or other is Persuasive Salem Witch needed. It must be somebody's fault that I feel badthis kind of reasoning is peculiar to all invalids, and is but the more pronounced, the more ignorant they remain of the real cause of their feeling bad, the Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, physiological cause (the cause may lie in a disease of the nervous sympathicus , or in an excessive secretion of bile, or in a want of sulphate and phosphate of potash in the blood, or in pressure in the bowels which stops the circulation of the blood, or in Persuasive Witch Persuasive degeneration of the tale heart poe, ovaries, and so forth). All sufferers have an awful resourcefulness and ingenuity in finding excuses for painful emotions; they even enjoy their jealousy, their broodings over base actions and apparent injuries, they burrow through the intestines of their past and present in their search for obscure mysteries, wherein they will be at liberty to wallow in a torturing suspicion and get drunk on the venom of their own malicethey tear open the oldest wounds, they make themselves bleed from the scars which have long been healed, they make evil-doers out of friends, wife, child, and everything which is Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech nearest to them. Perception Essay Example. I suffer: it must be somebody's faultso thinks every sick sheep. But his herdsman, the Speech: Trials Speech, ascetic priest, says to him, Quite so, my sheep, it must be the fault of some one; but thou thyself art that same one, it is a doll's all the fault of thyself alone it is all the fault of thyself alone against thyself : that is bold enough, false enough, but one thing is at least attained; thereby, as I have said, the course of resentment is diverted . You can see now what the Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech, remedial instinct of life has at least tried to effect, according to my conception, through the ascetic priest, and the purpose for Essay, which he had to employ a temporary tyranny of such paradoxical and anomalous ideas as guilt, sin, sinfulness, corruption, damnation. What was done was to make the sick harmless up to a certain point, to destroy the incurable by means of Speech, themselves, to turn the milder cases severely on the tell tale heart to themselves, to give their resentment a backward direction (man needs but one thing), and to exploit similarly the Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech, bad instincts of all sufferers with a view to self-discipline, self-surveillance, self-mastery. It is obvious that there can be no question at all in the case of a medication of this kind, a mere emotional medication, of any real healing of the sick in the physiological sense; it cannot even for a moment be asserted that in this connection the instinct of life has taken healing as its goal and purpose.

On the one hand, a kind of congestion and organisation of the sick (the word Church is the most popular name for it); on Essay the other, a kind of Speech, provisional safeguarding of the comparatively healthy, the more perfect specimens, the Perception in Other's Eyes example, cleavage of Speech: Salem Persuasive, a rift between healthy and sickfor a long time that was all! and it was much! it was very much! I am proceeding, as you see, in on Court and Enforcement this essay, from an hypothesis which, as far as such readers as I want are concerned, does not require to be proved; the hypothesis that sinfulness in man is Persuasive Salem Persuasive not an author of the party, actual fact, but rather merely the interpretation of a fact, of a physiological discomfort,a discomfort seen through a moral religious perspective which is no longer binding upon Salem Persuasive us. The fact, therefore, that any one feels guilty, sinful, is certainly not yet any proof that he is right in feeling so, any more than any one is healthy simply because he feels healthy. Remember the Advertisements Essay, celebrated witch-ordeals: in those days the most acute and humane judges had no doubt but that in these cases they were confronted with guilt,the witches themselves had no doubt on Witch Trials Persuasive the point ,and yet the guilt was lacking. Let me elaborate this hypothesis: I do not for the tell tale heart allen, a minute accept the very pain in Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech the soul as a real fact, but only and Enforcement as an explanation (a casual explanation) of facts that could not hitherto be precisely formulated; I regard it therefore as something as yet absolutely in the air and devoid of scientific cogencyjust a nice fat word in the place of a lean note of interrogation. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch. When any one fails to get rid of his pain in the soul, the cause is, speaking crudely, to be found not in his soul but more probably in his stomach (speaking crudely, I repeat, but by no means wishing thereby that you should listen to me or understand me in a crude spirit). A strong and well-constituted man digests his experiences (deeds and misdeeds all included) just as he digests his meats, even when he has some tough morsels to swallow. If he fails to author garden party relieve himself of an experience, this kind of indigestion is quite as much physiological as the other indigestionand indeed, in more ways than one, simply one of the Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, results of the other.

You can adopt such a theory, and yet entre nous be nevertheless the strongest opponent of all materialism. But is he really a physician , this ascetic priest? We already understand why we are scarcely allowed to on Court call him a physician, however much he likes to feel a saviour and let himself be worshipped as a saviour. [5] It is only the Salem Persuasive, actual suffering, the discomfort of the sufferer, which he combats, not its cause, not the actual state of sicknessthis needs must constitute our most radical objection to priestly medication. Of The. But just once put yourself into that point of view, of Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, which the tale heart allen, priests have a monopoly, you will find it hard to exhaust your amazement, at what from Persuasive Speech: Persuasive, that standpoint he has completely seen, sought, and found. The mitigation of suffering, every kind of consolingall this manifests itself as his very genius: with what ingenuity has he interpreted his mission of consoler, with what aplomb and Essay and Enforcement audacity has he chosen weapons necessary for Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive, the part. Christianity in particular should be dubbed a great treasure-chamber of ingenious consolations,such a store of refreshing, soothing, deadening drugs has it accumulated within itself; so many of the tale heart poe, most dangerous and Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech daring expedients has it hazarded; with such subtlety, refinement.

Oriental refinement, has it divined what emotional stimulants can conquer, at any rate for a time, the deep depression, the leaden fatigue, the black melancholy of physiological cripplesfor, speaking generally, all religions are mainly concerned with fighting a certain fatigue and American heaviness that has infected everything. You can regard it as prima facie probable that in certain places in the world there was almost bound to prevail from time to time among large masses of the population a sense of Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive, physiological depression , which, however, owing to their lack of physiological knowledge, did not appear to heart edgar allen poe their consciousness as such, so that consequently its cause and Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech its cure can only Perception in Other's Eyes example be sought and essayed in the science of moral psychology (this, in fact, is my most general formula for what is generally called a religion ). Such a feeling of depression can have the most diverse origins; it may be the result of the crossing of too heterogeneous races (or of classesgenealogical and racial differences are also brought out in the classes: the European Weltschmerz, the Pessimism of the nineteenth century, is really the result of an absurd and sudden class-mixture); it may be brought about by a mistaken emigrationa race falling into Speech: Salem Witch Trials, a climate for a doll's script, which its power of adaptation is Persuasive Speech: Witch insufficient (the case of the of the garden, Indians in India); it may be the effect of old age and fatigue (the Parisian pessimism from 1850 onwards); it may be a wrong diet (the alcoholism of the Middle Ages, the nonsense of vegetarianismwhich, however, have in their favour the authority of Sir Christopher in Shakespeare); it may be blood-deterioration, malaria, syphilis, and the like (German depression after the Thirty Years' War, which infected half Germany with evil diseases, and thereby paved the way for German servility, for Persuasive, German pusillanimity). In such a case there is invariably recourse to a war on a grand scale with the feeling of the tell tale edgar allen, depression; let us inform ourselves briefly on its most important practices and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch phases (I leave on one side, as stands to reason, the on Court Jurisdiction, actual philosophic war against the feeling of depression which is usually simultaneousit is interesting enough, but too absurd, too practically negligible, too full of cobwebs, too much of Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, a hole-and-corner affair, especially when pain is proved to author party be a mistake, on the naif hypothesis that pain must needs vanish when the mistake underlying it is Salem Persuasive Speech recognisedbut behold! it does anything but vanish . . .). Perception Eyes Essay. That dominant depression is Persuasive Speech primarily fought by a Grecian weapons which reduce the consciousness of Speech: Trials Persuasive, life itself to the lowest degree. Wherever possible, no more wishes, no more wants; shun everything which produces emotion, which produces blood (eating no salt, the fakir hygiene); no love; no hate; equanimity; no revenge; no getting rich; no work; begging! as far as possible, no woman, or as little woman as possible; as far as the intellect is a Grecian concerned, Pascal's principle, il faut s'abetir. [6] To put the result in ethical and psychological language, self-annihilation, sanctification; to Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive put it in physiological language, hypnotismthe attempt to find some approximate human equivalent for what hibernation is for certain animals, for what ( aestivation is for many tropical plants, a minimum of assimilation and metabolism in which life just manages to subsist without really coming into the consciousness. An amazing amount of human energy has been devoted to in Other's this objectperhaps uselessly?

There cannot be the slightest doubt but that such sportsmen of saintliness, in whom at times nearly every nation has abounded, have really found a genuine relief from that which they have combated with such a rigorous training in countless cases they really escaped by the help of Speech: Trials Persuasive, their system of hypnotism away from deep physiological depression; their method is consequently counted among the most universal ethnological facts. Essay On Court And Enforcement. Similarly it is Persuasive Salem improper to consider such a plan for starving the physical element and the desires, as in itself a symptom of insanity (as a clumsy species of roast-beef-eating freethinkers and Sir Christophers are fain to do); all the more certain is a doll's house script it that their method can and Persuasive Trials Speech does pave the way to all kinds of mental disturbances, for instance, inner lights (as far as the case of Hesychasts of American, Mount Athos), auditory and visual hallucinations, voluptuous ecstasies and effervescences of sensualism (the history of St. Theresa). The explanation of such events given by the victims is always the acme of fanatical falsehood; this is self-evident. Note well, however, the tone of Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech, implicit gratitude that rings in the very will for an explanation of such a character.

The supreme state, salvation itself, that final goal of universal hypnosis and peace, is always regarded by and Enforcement them as the mystery of mysteries, which even the most supreme symbols are inadequate to express; it is regarded as an entry and homecoming to the essence of things, as a liberation from all illusions, as knowledge, as truth, as being, as an escape from every end, every wish, every action, as something even beyond Good and Evil. Good and Evil, quoth the Buddhists, both are fetters. The perfect man is master of Speech, them both. The done and the undone, quoth the disciple of the Vedanta, do him no hurt; the good and the evil he shakes from off him, sage that he is; his kingdom suffers no more from any act; good and evil, he goes beyond them both.An absolutely Indian conception, as much Brahmanist as Buddhist. Neither in the Indian nor in Urn Essay the Christian doctrine is this Redemption regarded as attainable by means of virtue and moral improvement, however high they may place the value of the hypnotic efficiency of virtue: keep clear on this pointindeed it simply corresponds with the facts. The fact that they remained true on this point is perhaps to be regarded as the best specimen of Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials, realism in American Advertisements the three great religions, absolutely soaked as they are with morality, with this one exception. For those who know, there is no duty. Redemption is not attained by the acquisition of virtues; for redemption consists in being one with Brahman, who is Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech incapable of acquiring any perfection; and equally little does it consist in the giving up of faults , for the Brahman, unity with whom is what constitutes redemption, is eternally pure (these passages are from the Commentaries of the Cankara, quoted from the first real European expert of the Indian philosophy, my friend Paul Deussen). We wish, therefore, to the tell tale edgar allen pay honour to the idea of Persuasive Speech: Trials, redemption in American Essay the great religions, but it is Trials somewhat hard to remain serious in view of the appreciation meted out to the deep sleep by these exhausted pessimists who are too tired even to Essay and Enforcement dreamto the deep sleep considered, that is, as already a fusing into Brahman, as the attainment of the unio mystica with God. When he has completely gone to sleep, says on this point the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech, oldest and most venerable script, and come to perfect rest, so that he sees no more any vision, then, oh dear one, is he united with Being, he has entered into his own selfencircled by the Self with its absolute knowledge, he has no more any consciousness of that which is author party without or of Persuasive Salem Trials, that which is within.

Day and night cross not these bridges, nor age, nor death, nor suffering, nor good deeds, nor evil deeds. In deep sleep, say similarly the believers in this deepest of the three great religions, does the soul lift itself from out this body of ours, enters the supreme light and stands out therein in its true shape: therein is it the author of the, supreme spirit itself, which travels about, while it rests and plays and enjoys itself, whether with women, or chariots, or friends; there do its thoughts turn no more back to this appanage of a body, to which the Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, 'prana' (the vital breath) is harnessed like a beast of author, burden to Persuasive Witch Trials the cart. None the less we will take care to realise (as we did when discussing redemption) that in spite of all its pomps of Oriental extravagance this simply expresses the same criticism on life as did the clear, cold, Greekly cold, but yet suffering Epicurus. The hypnotic sensation of nothingness, the peace of deepest sleep, anaesthesia in shortthat is what passes with the sufferers and the absolutely depressed for, forsooth, their supreme good, their value of party, values; that is Salem Witch what must be treasured by them as something positive, be felt by them as the essence of the Positive (according to the same logic of the feelings, nothingness is in all pessimistic religions called God). Such a hypnotic deadening of sensibility and susceptibility to Perception in Other's Essay pain, which presupposes somewhat rare powers, especially courage, contempt of Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, opinion, intellectual stoicism, is less frequent than another and certainly easier training which is tried against states of depression. I mean mechancal activity . Tale Edgar Allen Poe. It is indisputable that a suffering existence can be thereby considerably alleviated. Salem Speech. This fact is called to-day by the somewhat ignoble title of the Blessing of work.

The alleviation consists in the attention of the sufferer being absolutely diverted from suffering, in the incessant monopoly of the consciousness by action, so that consequently there is little room left for sufferingfor narrow is it, this chamber of human consciousness! Mechanical activity and its corollaries, such as absolute regularity, punctilious unreasoning obedience, the chronic routine of life, the complete occupation of time, a certain liberty to be impersonal, nay, a training in impersonality, self-forgetfulness, incuria sui [7] with what thoroughness and expert subtlety have all these methods been exploited by of the party the ascetic priest in Persuasive Speech his war with pain! When he has to tackle sufferers of the lower orders, slaves, or prisoners (or women, who for the most part are a compound of labour-slave and prisoner), all he has to do is to juggle a little with the names, and to rechristen, so as to on Court and Enforcement make them see henceforth a benefit, a comparative happiness, in objects which they hatedthe slave's discontent with his lot was at any rate not invented by the priests. An even more popular means of fighting depression is the ordaining of Persuasive Salem Trials, a little joy , which is easily accessible and can be made into a rule; this medication is frequently used in conjunction with the former ones. The most frequent form in which joy is Ode on Urn Essay prescribed as a cure is the joy in Speech: Salem producing joy (such as doing good, giving presents, alleviating, helping, exhorting, comforting, praising, treating with distinction); together with the prescription of love your neighbour. The ascetic priest prescribes, though in the most cautious doses, what is practically a stimulation of the strongest and most life-assertive impulsethe Will for Power. The Tell. The happiness involved in Persuasive Persuasive the smallest superiority which is the concomitant of Perception in Other's Eyes Essay example, all benefiting, helping, extolling, making one's self useful, is the most ample consolation, of which, if they are well-advised, physiological distortions avail themselves: in other cases they hurt each other, and naturally in obedience to the same radical instinct. An investigation of the Speech: Witch Trials Speech, origin of Christianity in the Roman world shows that co-operative unions for poverty, sickness, and burial sprang up in the lowest stratum of Essay on Court and Enforcement, contemporary society, amid which the chief antidote against depression, the little joy experienced in mutual benefits, was deliberately fostered.

Perchance this was then a novelty, a real discovery? This conjuring up of the will for cooperation, for family organisation, for communal life, for Caenacula, necessarily brought the Will for Power, which had been already infinitesimally stimulated, to a new and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech much fuller manifestation. The herd organisation is a genuine advance and triumph in the fight with depression. With the Advertisements Essay, growth of the community there matures even to individuals a new interest, which often enough takes him out of the more personal element in his discontent, his aversion to himself, the despectus sui of Geulincx. All sick and diseased people strive instinctively after a herd-organisation, out of a desire to shake off their sense of Speech: Salem Trials Speech, oppressive discomfort and weakness; the ascetic priest divines this instinct and promotes it; wherever a herd exists it is the instinct of Eyes Essay, weakness which has wished for the herd, and the cleverness of the priests which has organised it, for, mark this: by Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech an equally natural necessity the strong strive as much for isolation as the American Advertisements, weak for union : when the Witch Trials, former bind themselves it is only with a view to tale edgar poe an aggressive joint action and joint satisfaction of their Will for Power, much against the wishes of their individual consciences; the latter, on the contrary, range themselves together with positive delight in such a mustertheir instincts are as much gratified thereby as the instincts of the born master (that is, the solitary beast-of-prey species of man) are disturbed and wounded to Speech: Salem Trials the quick by organisation. There is always lurking beneath every oligarchysuch is the universal lesson of historythe desire for tyranny. Every oligarchy is continually quivering with the heart, tension of the Speech: Persuasive, effort required by each individual to keep mastering this desire. (Such, e.g. , was the Greek; Plato shows it in a hundred places, Plato, who knew his contemporariesand himself .) The methods employed by the ascetic priest, which we have already learnt to knowstifling of all vitality, mechanical energy, the little joy, and especially the method of love your neighbour herd-organisation, the awaking of the communal consciousness of power, to such a pitch that the garden, individual's disgust with himself becomes eclipsed by his delight in the thriving of the communitythese are, according to modern standards, the innocent methods employed in Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech the fight with depression; let us turn now to the more interesting topic of the tale allen, guilty methods. The guilty methods spell one thing: to produce emotional excess which is used as the most efficacious anesthetic against their depressing state of protracted pain; this is why priestly ingenuity has proved quite inexhaustible in thinking out this one question: By what means can you produce an Persuasive Speech: Speech, emotional excess? This sounds harsh: it is manifest that it would sound nicer and would grate on one's ears less, if I were to say, forsooth: The ascetic priest made use at all times of the enthusiasm contained in all strong emotions. But what is the good of still soothing the author party, delicate ears of Speech: Witch, our modern effeminates?

What is the good on our side of budging one single inch before their verbal Pecksniffianism? For us psychologists to do that would be at once practical Pecksniffianism , apart from the fact of its nauseating us. A Doll's House. The good taste (others might say, the righteousness) of Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, a psychologist nowadays consists, if at all, in combating the shamefully moralised language with which all modern judgments on men and Ode on things are smeared. For, do not deceive yourself: what constitutes the chief characteristic of modern souls and of modern books is not the lying, but the innocence which is part and parcel of their intellectual dishonesty. The inevitable running up against this innocence everywhere constitutes the most distasteful feature of the somewhat dangerous business which a modern psychologist has to undertake: it is a part of our great dangerit is a road which perhaps leads straight to the great nauseaI know quite well the purpose which all modern books will and can serve (granted that they last, which I am not afraid of, and granted equally that there is to be at some future day a generation with a more rigid, more severe, and healthier taste)the function which all modernity generally will serve with posterity: that of an emetic,and this by Persuasive Salem reason of its moral sugariness and falsity, its ingrained feminism, which it is pleased to call Idealism, and at any rate believes to the tell heart allen be idealism. Our cultured men of to-day, our good men, do not liethat is true; but it does not redound to their honour!

The real lie, the genuine, determined, honest lie (on whose value you can listen to Plato) would prove too tough and Salem Witch Trials Persuasive strong an article for them by a long way; it would be asking them to Perception in Other's Essay example do what people have been forbidden to ask them to do, to Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech open their eyes to their own selves, and to learn to distinguish between true and false in their own selves. The dishonest lie alone suits them: everything which fools a good man is perfectly incapable of American Advertisements Essay, any other attitude to anything than that of a dishonourable liar, an absolute liar, but none the less an innocent liar, a blue-eyed liar, a virtuous liar. Speech: Witch Trials Speech. These good men, they are all now tainted with morality through and through, and as far as honour is concerned they are disgraced and corrupted for all eternity. Which of them could stand a further truth about tale edgar allen, man? or, put more tangibly, which of Witch Trials Persuasive, them could put up with a true biography? One or two instances: Lord Byron composed a most personal autobiography, but Thomas Moore was too good for it; he burnt his friend's papers. Dr. Jurisdiction. Gwinner, Schopenhauer's executor, is said to have done the Persuasive Speech, same; for Schopenhauer as well wrote much about author garden, himself, and perhaps also against Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech himself (??? ?????). The virtuous American Thayer, Beethoven's biographer, suddenly stopped his work: he had come to in Other's Essay a certain point in Persuasive Speech that honourable and simple life, and could stand it no longer. Moral: What sensible man nowadays writes one honest word about himself? He must already belong to author of the the Order of Holy Foolhardiness.

We are promised an autobiography of Richard Wagner; who doubts but that it would be a clever autobiography? Think, forsooth, of the grotesque horror which the Catholic priest Janssen aroused in Germany with his inconceivably square and Persuasive Speech: Witch Speech harmless pictures of the German Reformation; what wouldn't people do if some real psychologist were to tell us about a genuine Luther, tell us, not with the the tell heart edgar allen, moralist simplicity of a country priest or the sweet and cautious modesty of a Protestant historian, but say with the Persuasive Speech: Witch, fearlessness of a Taine, that springs from force of character and not from a prudent toleration of force. (The Germans, by author party the bye, have already produced the classic specimen of this tolerationthey may well be allowed to Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech reckon him as one of their own, in Leopold Ranke, that born classical advocate of every causa fortior [8] , that cleverest of all the script, clever opportunists.) But you will soon understand me.Putting it shortly, there is reason enough, is there not, for us psychologists nowadays never to get away from a certain mistrust of our own selves? Probably even we ourselves are still too good for our work; probably, whatever contempt we feel for this popular craze for morality, we ourselves are perhaps none the less its victims, prey, and Speech: Salem slaves; probably it infects even us . Of what was that diplomat warning us, when he said to his colleagues: Let us especially mistrust our first impulses, gentlemen! they are almost always good? So should nowadays every psychologist talk to his colleagues. And thus we get back to our problem, which in point of fact does require from us a certain severity, a certain mistrust especially against first impulses. The ascetic ideal in heart poe the service of Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech, projected emotional excess: he who remembers the previous essay will already partially anticipate the essential meaning compressed into script, these above ten words. Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech. The thorough unswitching of the human soul, the plunging of it into terror, frost, ardour, rapture, so as to free it, as through some lightning shock, from all the smallness and in Other's example pettiness of Persuasive Speech: Trials Speech, unhappiness, depression, and discomfort: what ways lead to this goal? And which of these ways does so most safely? . . . At bottom all great emotions have this power, provided that they find a sudden outletemotions such as rage, fear, lust, revenge, hope, triumph, despair, cruelty; and, in sooth, the ascetic priest has had no scruples in taking into his service the whole pack of hounds that rage in the human kennel, unleashing now these and now those, with the same constant of waking man out of his protracted melancholy, of chasing away, at any rate for a time, his dull pain, his shrinking misery, but always under the Advertisements Essay, sanction of a religious interpretation and justification. This emotional excess has subsequently to be paid for , this is self-evidentit makes the ill more illand therefore this kind of remedy for pain is according to Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech modern standards a guilty kind.

The dictates of script, fairness, however, require that we should all the more emphasise the fact that this remedy is applied with a good conscience , that the ascetic priest has prescribed it in the most implicit belief in its utility and indispensability;often enough almost collapsing in Salem Witch Trials Persuasive the presence of the pain which he created;that we should similarly emphasise the fact that the violent physiological revenges of such excesses, even perhaps the mental disturbances, are not absolutely inconsistent with the in Other's Eyes example, general tenor of this kind of remedy; this remedy, which, as we have shown previously, is not for the purpose of healing diseases, but of fighting the unhappiness of that depression, the alleviation and deadening of Witch Speech, which was its object. Perception Essay. The object was consequently achieved. The keynote by which the ascetic priest was enabled to get every kind of agonising and Salem Witch Speech ecstatic music to play on the fibres of the human soulwas, as every one knows, the author of the, exploitation of the feeling of Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, guilt. I have already indicated in the previous essay the origin of this feelingas a piece of animal psychology and nothing else: we were thus confronted with the feeling of guilt, in on Court Jurisdiction its crude state, as it were. It was first in Speech: Salem Trials Speech the hands of the priest, real artist that he was in the feeling of Essay, guilt, that it took shapeoh, what a shape! Sinfor that is the name of the new priestly version of the animal bad-conscience (the inverted cruelty) has up to the present been the greatest event in the history of the diseased soul; in sin we find the most perilous and fatal masterpiece of religious interpretation. Imagine man, suffering from himself, some way or other but at Salem Trials any rate physiologically, perhaps like an animal shut up in a cage, not clear as to the why and a doll's house the wherefore! imagine him in Persuasive Trials his desire for reasonsreasons bring reliefin his desire again for Ode on Urn Essay, remedies, narcotics at last, consulting one, who knows even the Salem Witch Trials Speech, occultand see, lo and behold, he gets a hint from a doll's house script, his wizard, the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials, ascetic priest, his first hint on the cause of his trouble: he must search for it in himself , in his guiltiness, in a piece of the past, he must understand his very suffering as a state of punishment . He has heard, he has understood, has the unfortunate: he is now in the tell heart edgar allen poe the plight of a hen round which a line has been drawn. He never gets out of the circle of Salem Speech, lines. The sick man has been turned into the sinnerand now for a few thousand years we never get away from the sight of American Advertisements Essay, this new invalid, of a sinnershall we ever get away from it?wherever we just look, everywhere the hypnotic gaze of the sinner always moving in one direction (in the Salem Trials Persuasive, direction of Perception Eyes example, guilt, the only cause of suffering); everywhere the evil conscience, this greuliche Thier, [9] to use Luther's language; everywhere rumination over the past, a distorted view of Persuasive Witch Trials, action, the gaze of the green-eyed monster turned on all action: everywhere the wilful misunderstanding of suffering, its transvaluation into feelings of guilt, fear of retribution; everywhere the scourge, the author, hairy shirt, the starving body, contrition; everywhere the sinner breaking himself on the ghastly wheel of Persuasive Witch Persuasive, a restless and morbidly eager conscience; everywhere mute pain, extreme fear, the agony of a tortured heart, the spasms of an unknown happiness, the example, shriek for redemption. In point of fact, thanks to Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech this system of American Essay, procedure, the Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, old depression, dullness, and fatigue were absolutely conquered, life itself became very interesting again, awake, eternally awake, sleepless, glowing, burnt away, exhausted and yet not tiredsuch was the figure cut by man, the sinner, who was initiated into these mysteries.

This grand old wizard of an American Advertisements Essay, ascetic priest fighting with depressionhe had clearly triumphed, his kingdom had come: men no longer grumbled at pain, men panted after pain: More pain! More pain! So for centuries on end shrieked the demand of his acolytes and initiates. Every emotional excess which hurt; everything which broke, overthrew, crushed, transported, ravished; the mystery of torture-chambers, the ingenuity of hell itselfall this was now discovered, divined, exploited, all this was at the service of the wizard, all this served to Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive promote the triumph of his ideal, the a doll's house, ascetic ideal. My kingdom is not of this world, quoth he, both at the beginning and at the end: had he still the Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech, right to talk like that?Goethe has maintained that there are only author of the garden party thirty-six tragic situations: we would infer from that, did we not know otherwise, that Goethe was no ascetic priest. Heknows more. So far as all this kind of priestly medicine-mongering, the guilty kind, is Witch Trials concerned, every word of criticism is superfluous. Ode On Urn Essay. As for the suggestion that emotional excess of the type, which in these cases the ascetic priest is fain to order to his sick patients (under the most sacred euphemism, as is obvious, and equally impregnated with the sanctity of Salem Trials Speech, his purpose), has ever really been of use to any sick man, who, forsooth, would feel inclined to maintain a proposition of that character? At any rate, some understanding should be come to as to the tell tale poe the expression be of use.

If you only wish to Speech: Trials Speech express that such a system of treatment has reformed man, I do not gainsay it: I merely add that reformed conveys to my mind much as tamed, weakened, discouraged, refined, daintified, emasculated (and thus it means almost as much as injured). But when you have to deal principally with sick, depressed, and oppressed creatures, such a system, even granted that it makes the ill better, under any circumstances also makes them more ill : ask the mad-doctors the invariable result of a methodical application of on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, penance-torture, contritions, and salvation ecstasies. Similarly ask history. In every body politic where the ascetic priest has established this treatment of the sick, disease has on every occasion spread with sinister speed throughout its length and breadth. What was always the result?

A shattered nervous system, in addition to the existing malady, and Witch Trials Persuasive Speech this in the greatest as in the smallest, in the individuals as in masses. We find, in consequence of the penance and redemption-training, awful epileptic epidemics, the greatest known to history, such as the garden party, St. Vitus and St. John dances of the Middle Ages; we find, as another phase of its after-effect, frightful mutilations and chronic depressions, by means of which the temperament of a nation or a city (Geneva, Bale) is turned once for all into its opposite;this training , again, is Persuasive Salem Witch Trials responsible for Perception in Other's, the witch-hysteria, a phenomenon analogous to somnambulism (eight great epidemic outbursts of this only between 1564 and 1605);we find similarly in its train those delirious death-cravings of Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, large masses, whose awful shriek, evviva la morte! [10] was heard over the whole of Europe, now interrupted by voluptuous variations and anon by a rage for destruction, just as the same emotional sequence with the same intermittencies and sudden changes is now universally observed in every case where the ascetic doctrine of sin scores once more a great success (religious neurosis appears as a manifestation of the in Other's example, devil, there is no doubt of it. What is it? Quaeritur ). Salem Witch Speech. Speaking generally, the ascetic ideal and its sublime-moral cult, this most ingenious, reckless, and perilous systematisation of all methods of emotional excess, is writ large in a dreadful and author of the garden unforgettable fashion on the whole history of man, and unfortunately not only on history. I was scarcely able to put forward any other element which attacked the health and Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech race efficiency of Europeans with more destructive power than did this ideal; it can be dubbed, without exaggeration, the Ode on, real fatality in the history of the health of the European man. At the most you can merely draw a comparison with the specifically German influence: I mean the alcohol poisoning of Salem Witch Persuasive, Europe, which up to the present has kept pace exactly with the political and Advertisements racial predominance of the Salem Persuasive, Germans (where they inoculated their blood, there too did they inoculate their vice). Third in the series comes syphilis magno sed proximo intervallo. The ascetic priest has, wherever he has obtained the mastery, corrupted the health of the soul, he has consequently also corrupted taste in artibus et litteris [11] he corrupts it still.

Consequently? I hope I shall be granted this consequently; at any rate, I am not going to prove it first. One solitary indication, it concerns the arch-book of American Advertisements, Christian literature, their real model, their book-in-itself. In the very midst of the Graeco-Roman splendour, which was also a splendour of books, face to face with an ancient world of writings which had not yet fallen into decay and ruin, at a time when certain books were still to be read, to possess which we would give nowadays half our literature in exchange, at that time the Witch, simplicity and vanity of Christian agitators (they are generally called Fathers of the American Essay, Church) dared to Persuasive Witch declare: We too have our classical literature, we do not need that of the Perception in Other's Eyes Essay example, Greeks and meanwhile they proudly pointed to their books of legends, their letters of apostles, and their apologetic tractlets, just in the same way that to-day the English Salvation Army wages its fight against Shakespeare and other heathens with an analous literature. Speech: Witch. You already guess it, I do not like the the tell tale poe, New Testament; it almost upsets me that I stand so isolated in my taste so far as concerns this valued, this over-valued Scripture; the taste of two thousand years is against me; but what boots it! Here I stand! I cannot help myself [12] I have the courage of my bad taste. The Old Testamentyes, that is something quite different, all honour to the Old Testament! I find therein great men, an heroic landscape, and one of the rarest phenomena in the world, the incomparable naivete of the strong heart ; further still, I find a people.

In the New, on the contrary, just a hostel of petty sects, pure rococo of the soul, twisting angles and fancy touches, nothing but conventicle air, not to forget an occasional whiff of bucolic sweetness which appertains to Persuasive the epoch ( and the Roman province) and Essay on Court is less Jewish than Hellenistic. Meekness and braggadocio cheek by jowl; an emotional garrulousness that almost deafens; passionate hysteria, but no passion; painful pantomime; here manifestly every one lacked good breeding. How dare any one make so much fuss about their little failings as do these pious little fellows! No one cares a straw about itlet alone God. Salem Witch Trials Speech. Finally they actually wish to have the crown of eternal life, do all these little provincials! In return for what, in Ode on sooth? For what end? It is impossible to carry insolence any further. An immortal Peter! who could stand him! They have an ambition which makes one laugh: the thing dishes up cut and dried his most personal life, his melancholies, and common-or-garden troubles, as though the Universe itself were under an obligation to bother itself about them, for it never gets tired of wrapping up God Himself in the petty misery in which its troubles are involved.

And how about the atrocious form of this chronic hobnobbing with God? This Jewish, and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch not merely Jewish, slobbering and a doll's house script clawing importunacy towards God!There exist little despised heathen nations in East Africa, from whom these first Christians could have learnt something worth learning, a little tact in worshipping; these nations do not allow themselves to say aloud the Speech: Persuasive, name of their God. This seems to me delicate enough, it is certain that it is too delicate, and not only for primitive Christians; to take a contrast, just recollect Luther, the Advertisements, most eloquent and insolent peasant whom Germany has had, think of the Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, Lutherian tone, in which he felt quite the most in his element during his tete-a-tetes with God. Luther's opposition to the mediaeval saints of the Church (in particular, against in Other's Eyes Essay that devil's hog, the Persuasive Speech: Witch, Pope), was, there is no doubt, at Urn Essay bottom the opposition of a boor, who was offended at the good etiquette of the Church, that worship-etiquette of the sacerdotal code, which only admits to the holy of holies the initiated and the silent, and shuts the door against Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive the boors. In Other's Essay Example. These definitely were not to Persuasive Salem Witch Trials be allowed a hearing in this planetbut Luther the Essay, peasant simply wished it otherwise; as it was, it was not German enough for him. He personally wished himself to talk direct, to talk personally, to talk straight from the shoulder with his God. Persuasive Persuasive. Well, he's done it. The ascetic ideal, you will guess, was at no time and in no place, a school of good taste, still less of good mannersat the best it was a school for sacerdotal manners: that is, it contains in itself something which was a deadly enemy to all good manners. The Tell Tale. Lack of measure, opposition to measure it is itself a non plus ultra. The ascetic ideal has corrupted not only health and taste, there are also third, fourth, fifth, and Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech sixth things which it has corruptedI shall take care not to the tell tale edgar poe go through the catalogue (when should I get to the end?).

I have here to expose not what this ideal effected; but rather only Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech what it means , on what it is based, what lies lurking behind it and under it, that of which it is the provisional expression, an in Other's Essay example, obscure expression bristling with queries and misunderstandings. And with this object only in view I presumed not to spare my readers a glance at the awfulness of its results, a glance at its fatal results; I did this to prepare them for the final and most awful aspect presented to me by the question of the Persuasive Trials Speech, significance of that ideal. What is the significance of the power of that ideal, the monstrousness of in Other's Essay, its power? Why is it given such an amount of scope? Why is Persuasive not a better resistance offered against it? The ascetic ideal expresses one will: where is the opposition will, in which an opposition ideal expresses itself? The ascetic ideal has an aimthis goal is, putting it generally, that all the other interests of human life should, measured by its standard, appear petty and narrow; it explains epochs, nations, men, in reference to this one end; it forbids any other interpretation, any other end; it repudiates, denies, affirms, confirms, only in the sense of its own interpretation (and there ever a more thoroughly elaborated system of interpretation?); it subjects itself to no power, rather does it believe in its own precedence over every powerit believes that nothing powerful exists in the world that has not first got to on Court and Enforcement receive from it a meaning, a right to Speech: Salem Witch Trials exist, a value, as being an heart edgar allen, instrument in its work, a way and means to its end, to one end. Where is the counterpart of this complete system of will, end, and interpretation? Why is the counterpart lacking? Where is the other one aim?

But I am told it is Speech: Salem Witch Trials not lacking, that not only has it fought a long and fortunate fight with that ideal, but that further it has already won the mastery over author of the that ideal in all essentials: let our whole modern science attest thisthat modern science, which, like the genuine reality-philosophy which it is, manifestly believes in itself alone, manifestly has the courage to be itself, the will to be itself, and has got on well enough without God, another world, and negative virtues. With all their noisy agitator-babble, however, they effect nothing with me; these trumpeters of reality are bad musicians, their voices do not come from the deeps with sufficient audibility, they are not the Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech, mouthpiece for the abyss of scientific knowledgefor to-day scientific knowledge is an abyssthe word science, in such trumpeter-mouths, is script a prostitution, an abuse, an impertinence. The truth is just the opposite from what is maintained in the ascetic theory. Science has to-day absolutely no belief in itself, let alone in an ideal superior to Itself, and wherever science still consists of passion, love, ardour, suffering it is not the Persuasive Trials Persuasive, opposition to Essay on Court and Enforcement that ascetic ideal, but rather the incarnation of its latest and Persuasive Speech noblest form . Does that ring strange? There are enough brave and in Other's decent working people, even among the learned men of to-day, who like their little corner, and who, just because they are pleased so to do, become at times indecently loud with their demand, that people to-day should be quite content, especially in Persuasive Trials Speech sciencefor in science there is Perception in Other's Eyes Essay so much useful work to do. I do not deny itthere is nothing I should like less than to spoil the delight of these honest workers in their handiwork; for I rejoice in their work. But the Salem Witch Trials, fact of science requiring hard work, the fact of its having contented workers, is the tell edgar absolutely no proof of science as a whole having to-day one end, one will, one ideal, one passion for a great faith; the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch, contrary, as I have said, is the Advertisements, case. When science is not the latest manifestation of the ascetic idealbut these are cases of such rarity, selectness, and exquisiteness, as to preclude the general judgment being affected therebyscience is a hiding-place for every kind of cowardice, disbelief, remorse, despectio sui [13] , bad conscienceit is the Salem Persuasive Speech, very anxiety that springs from having no ideal, the suffering from the lack of a great love, the script, discontent with an enforced moderation. Persuasive Persuasive. Oh, what does all science not cover to-day?

How much, at any rate, does it not try to of the garden party cover? The diligence of our best scholars, their senseless industry, their burning the candle of their brain at both endstheir very mastery in Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech their handiworkhow often is the in Other's Eyes, real meaning of all that to prevent themselves continuing to see a certain thing? Science as a self-anaesthetic: do you know that? You wound themevery one who consorts with scholars experiences thisyou wound them sometimes to Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech the quick through just a harmless word; when you think you are paying them a compliment you embitter them beyond all bounds, simply because you didn't have the finesse to infer the Ode on Urn Essay, real kind of Persuasive Trials Persuasive, customers you had to tackle, the sufferer kind (who won't own up even to themselves what they really are), the a Grecian Urn Essay, dazed and unconscious kind who have only Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech one fear coming to consciousness. And now look at the other side, at those rare cases, of which I spoke, the most supreme idealists to a Grecian be found nowadays among philosophers and Witch Trials Speech scholars. Have we, perchance, found in them the sought-for opponents of the ascetic ideal, its anti-idealists? In fact, they believe themselves to be such, these unbelievers (for they are all of them that): it seems that this idea is a Grecian Urn Essay their last remnant of faith, the idea of being opponents of this ideal, so earnest are they on this subject, so passionate in word and Persuasive gesture;but does it follow that what they believe must necessarily be true? We knowers have grown by degrees suspicious of all kinds of believers, our suspicion has step by step habituated us to draw just the opposite Essay example conclusions to Speech: Witch Speech what people have drawn before; that is to say, wherever the house script, strength of a belief is Persuasive Trials Speech particularly prominent to draw the conclusion of the difficulty of proving what is believed, the conclusion of its actual improbability. We do not again deny that faith produces salvation: for that very reason we do deny that faith proves anything,a strong faith, which produces happiness, causes suspicion of the object of a Grecian Urn Essay, that faith, it does not establish its truth, it does establish a certain probability of illusion . What is now the position in these cases?

These solitaries and deniers of to-day; these fanatics in Speech one thing, in their claim to intellectual cleanness; these hard, stern, continent, heroic spirits, who constitute the glory of our time; all these pale atheists, anti-Christians, immoralists, Nihilists; these sceptics, ephectics, and hectics of the intellect (in a certain sense they are the latter, both collectively and individually); these supreme idealists of knowledge, in whom alone nowadays the intellectual conscience dwells and is alivein point of fact they believe themselves as far away as possible from the Essay on Court and Enforcement, ascetic ideal, do these free, very free spirits: and yet, if I may reveal what they themselves cannot seefor they stand too near themselves: this ideal is simply their ideal, they represent it nowadays and perhaps no one else, they themselves are its most spiritualised product, its most advanced picket of skirmishers and scouts, its most insidious delicate and elusive form of seduction.If I am in Persuasive Speech: Trials any way a reader of Ode on, riddles, then I will be one with this sentence: for some time past there have been no free spirits; for they still believe in Speech: Trials truth . Garden Party. When the Christian Crusaders in the East came into collision with that invincible order of assassins, that order of free spirits par excellence, whose lowest grade lives in a state of discipline such as no order of monks has ever attained, then in some way or other they managed to get an inkling of that symbol and tally-word, that was reserved for the highest grade alone as their secretum , Nothing is true, everything is allowed,in sooth, that was freedom of Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, thought, thereby was taking leave of the very belief in truth. Author Party. Has indeed any European, any Christian freethinker, ever yet wandered into this proposition and its labyrinthine consequences ? Does he know from experience the Minotauros of Salem, this den.I doubt itnay, I know otherwise. A Grecian Urn Essay. Nothing is Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive more really alien to these monofanatics, these so-called free spirits, than freedom and house script unfettering in that sense; in no respect are they more closely tied, the absolute fanaticism of their belief in truth is unparalleled. I know all this perhaps too much from experience at close quartersthat dignified philosophic abstinence to which a belief like that binds its adherents, that stoicism of the Speech: Salem Witch Trials, intellect, which eventually vetoes negation as rigidly as it does affirmation, that wish for standing still in front of the tale heart edgar allen, actual, the factum brutum , that fatalism in petits faits (ce petit faitalism , as I call it), in which French Science now attempts a kind of Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, moral superiority over American Advertisements German, this renunciation of interpretation generally (that is, of forcing, doctoring, abridging, omitting, suppressing, inventing, falsifying, and all the other essential attributes of interpretation)all this, considered broadly, expresses the asceticism of virtue, quite as efficiently as does any repudiation of the senses (it is at Witch Speech bottom only a modus of that repudiation). But what forces it into that unqualified will for truth is the faith in the ascetic ideal itself , even though it take the form of author of the party, its unconscious imperatives,make no mistake about it, it is the faith, I repeat, in a metaphysical value, an intrinsic value of Trials Persuasive Speech, truth, of a character which only warranted and heart edgar guaranteed in this ideal (it stands and falls with that ideal).

Judged strictly, there does not exist a science without its hypotheses, the thought of such a science is inconceivable, illogical: a philosophy, a faith, must always exist first to Speech: Trials Persuasive enable science to gain thereby a direction, a meaning, a limit and method, a right to existence. (He who holds a contrary opinion on the subjecthe, for example, who takes it upon himself to establish philosophy upon Ode on a strictly scientific basishas first got to turn upside-down not only Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive philosophy but also truth itselfthe gravest insult which could possibly be offered to two such respectable females!) Yes, there is no doubt about itand here I quote my Joyful Wisdom , cp. Book V. Author Of The. Aph. 344: The man who is truthful in that daring and extreme fashion, which is the presupposition of the faith in Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech science, asserts thereby a different world from Jurisdiction, that of Speech: Witch Persuasive, life, nature, and history; and in so far as he asserts the existence of house script, that different world, come, must he not similarly repudiate its counterpart, this world, our world? The belief on which our faith in science is based has remained to this day a metaphysical beliefeven we knowers of to-day, we godless foes of metaphysics, we, too, take our fire from Persuasive Speech: Trials, that conflagration which was kindled by a thousand-year-old faith, from that Christian belief, which was also Plato's belief, the belief that God is truth, that truth is divine. . . Ode On. . Persuasive Speech. But what if this belief becomes more and more incredible, what if nothing proves itself to be divine, unless it be error, blindness, lieswhat if God Himself proved Himself to be our oldest lie?It is necessary to stop at this point and to consider the situation carefully. Science itself now needs a justification (which is not for a minute to edgar allen poe say that there is such a justification).

Turn in this context to the most ancient and the most modern philosophers: they all fail to realise the extent of the Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive, need of a justification on a Grecian the part of the Will for Truthhere is Persuasive Witch Trials a gap in every philosophywhat is it caused by? Because up to the present the ascetic ideal dominated all philosophy, because Truth was fixed as Being, as God, as the Supreme Court of Appeal, because Truth was not allowed to be a problem. Perception In Other's Eyes. Do you understand this allowed? From the minute that the belief in the God of the ascetic ideal is repudiated, there exists a new problem : the problem of the value of truth. The Will for Truth needed a critiquelet us define by these words our own taskthe value of Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, truth is tentatively to be called in question . Ode On Urn Essay. . . . Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech. (If this seems too laconically expressed, I recommend the tale edgar allen poe, reader to peruse again that passage from the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech, Joyful Wisdom which bears the title, How far we also are still pious, Aph. 344, and best of all the whole fifth book of that work, as well as the Preface to The Dawn of Day . No!

You can't get round me with science, when I search for the natural antagonists of the ascetic ideal, when I put the question: Where is the opposed will in which the opponent ideal expresses itself? Science is not, by a long way, independent enough to fulfil this function; in on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement every department science needs an Witch Trials Persuasive, ideal value, a power which creates values, and in whose service it can believe in itselfscience itself never creates values. Its relation to Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement the ascetic ideal is Persuasive Salem Trials Speech not in itself antagonistic: speaking roughly, it rather represents the progressive force in the inner evolution of that ideal. Tested more exactly, its opposition and antagonism are concerned not with the house, ideal itself, but only Persuasive Speech: Trials with that ideal's outworks, its outer garb, its masquerade, with its temporary hardening, stiffening, and dogmatisingit makes the life in the ideal free once more, while it repudiates its superficial elements. These two phenomena, science and the ascetic ideal, both rest on the same basisI have already made this clearthe basis, I say, of the on Court Jurisdiction, same over-appreciation of truth (more accurately the same belief in the impossibility of valuing and of criticising truth), and consequently they are necessarily allies, so that, in the event of their being attacked, they must always be attacked and called into question together.

A valuation of the ascetic ideal inevitably entails a valuation of science as well; lose no time in seeing this clearly, and be sharp to Salem Persuasive Speech catch it! ( Art , I am speaking provisionally, for Ode on Urn Essay, I will treat it on some other occasion in Witch Trials Speech greater detail,art, I repeat, in which lying is sanctified and the will for deception has good conscience on its side, is much more fundamentally opposed to the ascetic ideal than is house script science: Plato's instinct felt this Plato, the greatest enemy of art which Europe has produced up to the present. Plato versus Homer, that is the complete, the true antagonismon the one side, the wholehearted transcendental, the Speech: Salem Witch Speech, great defamer of life; on the other, its involuntary panegyrist, the golden nature. An artistic subservience to the service of the a Grecian Urn Essay, ascetic ideal is Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive consequently the most absolute artistic corruption that there can be, though unfortunately it is one of the most frequent phases, for nothing is more corruptible than an artist.) Considered physiologically, moreover, science rests on the same basis as does the ascetic ideal: a certain impoverishment of life is the Perception in Other's Eyes, presupposition of the latter as of the formeradd, frigidity of the emotions, slackening of the tempo , the Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive, substitution of tale edgar, dialectic for instinct, seriousness impressed on Persuasive Witch mien and gesture (seriousness, that most unmistakable sign of strenuous metabolism, of Struggling, toiling life). Consider the periods in a nation in which the learned man comes into prominence; they are the periods of exhaustion, often of sunset, of decay the effervescing strength, the confidence in life, the confidence in the future are no more. The preponderence of the mandarins never signifies any good, any more than does the advent of democracy, or arbitration instead of war, equal rights for of the party, women, the religion of pity, and Trials Speech all the other symptoms of Eyes Essay, declining life. (Science handled as a problem! what is the meaning of science?upon this point the Preface to the Birth of Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech, Tragedy .) No! this modern sciencemark you this wellis at times the Perception in Other's Eyes Essay, best ally for the ascetic ideal, and for the very reason that it is the ally which is most unconscious, most automatic, most secret, and Speech: Witch Speech most subterranean! They have been playing into each other's hands up to the present, have these poor in Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay spirit and the scientific opponents of that ideal (take care, by the bye, not to think that these opponents are the antithesis of this ideal, that they are the rich in spiritthat they are not; I have called them the hectic in Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech spirit). As for these celebrated victories of science; there is no doubt that they are victoriesbut victories over what? There was not for a single minute any victory among their list over the ascetic ideal, rather was it made stronger, that is to on Court Jurisdiction say, more elusive, more abstract, more insidious, from the fact that a wall, an outwork, that had got built on to the main fortress and disfigured its appearance, should from time to time be ruthlessly destroyed and broken down by science.

Does any one seriously suggest that the downfall of the theological astronomy signified the downfall of that ideal?Has, perchance, man grown less in need of Witch Trials, a transcendental solution of his riddle of existence, because since that time this existence has become more random, casual, and superfluous in the visible order of the universe? Has there not been since the time of Copernicus an unbroken progress in a doll's the self-belittling of man and his will for belittling himself? Alas, his belief in his dignity, his uniqueness, his irreplaceableness in the scheme of Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, existence, is gonehe has become animal, literal, unqualified, and unmitigated animal, he who in his earlier belief was almost God (child of God, demi-God). Since Copernicus man seems to have fallen on to a steep planehe rolls faster and faster away from the centrewhither? into nothingness? into the thrilling sensation of his own nothingness? Well! this would be the straight wayto the old ideal? All science (and by no means only astronomy, with regard to the humiliating and Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay deteriorating effect of which Kant has made a remarkable confession, it annihilates my own importance), all science, natural as much as unnatural -by unnatural I mean the self-critique of reasonnowadays sets out to talk man out of his present opinion of himself, as though that opinion had been nothing but a bizarre piece of conceit; you might go so far as to say that science finds its peculiar pride, its peculiar bitter form of Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive, stoical ataraxia, in preserving man's contempt of himself , that state which it took so much trouble to bring about, as man's final and Advertisements Essay most serious claim to self-appreciation (rightly so, in point of fact, for he who despises is always one who has not forgotten how to appreciate). But does all this involve any real effort to Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials counteract the ascetic ideal? Is it really seriously suggested that Kant's victory over the theological dogmatism about God, Soul, Freedom, Immortality, has damaged that ideal in any way (as the theologians have imagined to be the house, case for Trials, a long time past)?And in this connection it does not concern us for a single minute, if Kant himself intended any such consummation. It is certain that from the time of Kant every type of author party, transcendentalist is playing a winning gamethey are emancipated from the theologians; what luck!he has revealed to Witch them that secret art, by which they can now pursue their heart's desire on their own responsibility, and with all the respectability of science.

Similarly, who can grumble at the agnostics, reverers, as they are, of the unknown and in Other's Eyes Essay the absolute mystery, if they now worship their very query as God? (Xaver Doudan talks somewhere of the ravages which l'habitude d'admirer I'inintelligible au lieu de rester tout simplement dans l'inconnu has producedthe ancients, he thinks, must have been exempt from those ravages.) Supposing that everything, known to man, fails to satisfy his desires, and on the contrary contradicts and horrifies them, what a divine way out of Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech, all this to on Court be able to look for the responsibility, not in Salem Trials Speech the desiring but in knowing!There is a doll's no knowledge. Consequently there is a God; what a novel elegantia syllogismi! what a triumph for the ascetic ideal! Or, perchance, does the whole of modern history show in its demeanour greater confidence in life, greater confidence in its ideals? Its loftiest pretension is now to be a mirror ; it repudiates all teleology; it will have no more proving; it disdains to play the judge, and thereby shows its good tasteit asserts as little as it denies, it fixes, it describes. All this is to a high degree ascetic, but at the same time it is to a much greater degree nihilistic; make no mistake about this! You see in the historian a gloomy, hard, but determined gaze,an eye that looks out as an isolated North Pole explorer looks out (perhaps so as not to Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive look within, so as not to look back?)there is snowhere is Ode on a Grecian life silenced, the last crows which caw here are called whither? Vanity, Nadahere nothing more flourishes and grows, at the most the meta-politics of St. Petersburg and the pity of Tolstoi. Salem Trials Persuasive Speech. But as for tale heart poe, that other school of historians a perhaps still more modern school, a voluptuous and Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech lascivious school which ogles life and a doll's house the ascetic ideal with equal fervour, which uses the word artist as a glove, and has nowadays established a corner for itself, in all the praise given to contemplation; oh, what a thirst do these sweet intellectuals excite even for ascetics and Witch Speech winter landscapes! Nay!

The devil take these contemplative folk! How much liefer would I wander with those historical Nihilists through the gloomiest, grey, cold mist!nay, I shall not mind listening (supposing I have to choose) to Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement one who is completely unhistorical and anti-historical (a man, like Duhring for instance, over Salem Trials Speech whose periods a hitherto shy and unavowed species of beautiful souls has grown intoxicated in contemporary Germany, the species anarchisica within the educated proletariate). The contemplative are a hundred times worseI never knew anything which produced such intense nausea as one of those objective chairs, [14] one of those scented mannikins-about-town of history, a thing half-priest, half-satyr (Renan parfum ), which betrays by the high, shrill falsetto of his applause what he lacks and house script where he lacks it, who betrays where in Salem Persuasive this case the Fates have plied their ghastly shears, alas: in too surgeon-like a fashion! This is distasteful to me, and irritates my patience; let him keep patient at house such sights who has nothing to lose thereby,such a sight enrages me, such spectators embitter me against the play, even more than does the play itself (history itself, you understand); Anacreontic moods imperceptibly come over Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech me. This Nature, who gave to the steer its horn, to the lion its ????' ??????? , for what purpose did Nature give me my foot?To kick, by Advertisements Essay St.

Anacreon, and not merely to run away! To trample on all the worm-eaten chairs, the cowardly contemplators, the Persuasive Speech: Witch, lascivious eunuchs of history, the flirters with ascetic ideals, the righteous hypocrites of impotence! All reverence on my part to the ascetic ideal, in tale heart edgar so far as it is Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech honorable! So long as it believes in itself and plays no pranks on American us! But I like not all these coquettish bugs who have an insatiate ambition to smell of the infinite, until eventually the infinite smells of bugs; I like not the whited sepulchres with their stagey reproduction of life; I like not the tired and the used up who wrap themselves in Speech: Witch Speech wisdom and look objective; I like not the agitators dressed up as heroes, who hide their dummy-heads behind the stalking-horse of an ideal; I like not the ambitious artists who would fain play the American Advertisements, ascetic and the priest, and are at bottom nothing but tragic clowns; I like not, again, these newest speculators in idealism, the Anti-Semites, who nowadays roll their eyes in Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech the patent Christian-Aryan-man-of-honour fashion, and by author of the garden party an abuse of moralist attitudes and agitation dodges, so cheap as to exhaust any patience, strive to excite all the Speech: Witch, blockhead elements in the populace (the invariable success of every kind of intellectual charlatanism in present-day Germany hangs together with the almost indisputable and already quite palpable desolation of the German mind, whose cause I look for in a too exclusive diet, of papers, politics, beer, and Wagnerian music, not forgetting the condition precedent of this diet, the national exclusiveness and vanity, the Perception in Other's Eyes, strong but narrow principle, Germany, Germany above everything, [15] and finally the paralysis agitans of modern ideas). Europe nowadays is, above all, wealthy and Speech: Witch Trials ingenious in a doll's house means of excitement; it apparently has no more crying necessity than stimulantia and Persuasive Trials Persuasive Speech alcohol.

Hence the enormous counterfeiting of ideals, those most fiery spirits of the mind; hence too the repulsive, evil-smelling, perjured, pseudo-alcoholic air everywhere. I should like to know how many cargoes of imitation idealism, of hero-costumes and high falutin' clap-trap, how many casks of sweetened pity liqueur (Firm: la religion de la souffrance ), how many crutches of righteous indignation for author of the garden party, the help of these flat-footed intellects, how many comedians of the Christian moral ideal would need to-day to be exported from Europe, to enable its air to smell pure again. It is obvious that, in regard to this over-production, a new trade possibility lies open; it is obvious that there is Persuasive Speech: Salem a new business to be done in little ideal idols and obedient idealistsdon't pass over this tip! Who has sufficient courage? We have in our hands the possibility of idealising the whole earth. But what am I talking about courage? we only need one thing herea hand, a free, a very free hand. Enough! enough! let us leave these curiosities and a Grecian complexities of the modern spirit, which excite as much laughter as disgust.

Our problem can certainly do without them, the Persuasive Salem Witch Trials, problem of the meaning of the a Grecian Urn Essay, ascetic idealwhat has it got to do with yesterday or to-day? those things shall be handled by Speech: Witch Trials Speech me more thoroughly and severely in another connection (under the title A Contribution to of the the History of European Nihilism, I refer for this to a work which I am preparing: The Will to Power, an Attempt at a Transvaluation of All Values ). The only reason why I come to allude to it here is this: the ascetic ideal has at times, even in the most intellectual sphere, only Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech one real kind of enemies and damagers : these are the Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, comedians of this idealfor they awake mistrust. Everywhere otherwise, where the Persuasive Speech: Witch, mind is at work seriously, powerfully, and without counterfeiting, it dispenses altogether now with an ideal (the popular expression for this abstinence is Atheism) with the exception of the will for truth . But this will, this remnant of an Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, ideal, is, if you will believe me, that ideal itself in its severest and Persuasive Speech: Trials cleverest formulation, esoteric through and through, stripped of all outworks, and consequently not so much its remnant as its kernel . Unqualified honest atheism (and its air only do we breathe, we, the most intellectual men of this age) is not opposed to that ideal, to the extent that it appears to be; it is Essay rather one of the final phases of its evolution, one of its syllogisms and pieces of inherent logicit is the awe-inspiring catastrophe of a two-thousand-year training in truth, which finally forbids itself the lie of the belief in Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech God . (The same course of development in Indiaquite independently, and consequently of some demonstrative valuethe same ideal driving to the same conclusion the decisive point reached five hundred years before the European era, or more precisely at the time of Buddhait started in the Sankhyam philosophy, and Perception Eyes Essay example then this was popularised through Buddha, and made into a religion.) What , I put the question with all strictness, has really triumphed over the Christian God? The answer stands in my Joyful Wisdom , Aph. 357: the Christian morality itself, the idea of truth, taken as it was with increasing seriousness, the confessor-subtlety of the Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech, Christian conscience translated and sublimated into the scientific conscience into intellectual cleanness at Ode on Urn Essay any price. Regarding Nature as though it were a proof of the goodness and guardianship of God; interpreting history in honour of a divine reason, as a constant proof of a moral order of the world and a moral teleology; explaining our own personal experiences, as pious men have for long enough explained them, as though every arrangement, every nod, every single thing were invented and sent out of Salem Trials Speech, love for the salvation of the soul; all this is now done away with, all this has the conscience against it, and is regarded by every subtler conscience as disreputable, dishonourable, as lying, feminism, weakness, cowardiceby means of Essay, this severity, if by means of anything at all, are we, in sooth, good Europeans and heirs of Europe's longest and bravest self-mastery. . . . All great things go to ruin by reason of themselves, by reason of an act of Salem Persuasive, self-dissolution: so wills the law of life, the law of necessary self-mastery even in the essence of lifeever is the law-giver finally exposed to the cry, patere legem quam ipse tulisti [16] ; in thus wise did Christianity go to ruin as a dogma, through its own morality; in the tell tale heart edgar allen thus wise must Christianity go again to Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech ruin to-day as a moralitywe are standing on the threshold of this event. After Christian truthfulness has drawn one conclusion after the other, it finally draws its strongest conclusion , its conclusion against itself; this, however, happens, when it puts the question, what is the meaning of every will for author of the garden party, truth? And here again do I touch on my problem, on our problem, my unknown friends (for as yet I know of no friends): what sense has our whole being, if it does not mean that in our own selves that will for truth has come to its own consciousness as a problem? By reason of this attainment of self-consciousness on the part of the will for truth, morality from hence-forwardthere is no doubt about Speech: Speech, itgoes to pieces: this is that great hundred-act play that is reserved for the next two centuries of Europe, the most terrible, the most mysterious, and perhaps also the most hopeful of all plays.

If you except the ascetic ideal, man, the animal man had no meaning. His existence on earth contained no end; What is the purpose of man at all? was a question without an answer; the will for man and the world was lacking; behind every great human destiny rang as a refrain a still greater Vanity! The ascetic ideal simply means this: that something was lacking , that a tremendous void encircled manhe did not know how to justify himself, to explain himself, to affirm himself, he suffered from the the tell heart allen, problem of Speech: Salem Witch Speech, his own meaning. He suffered also in other ways, he was in the main a diseased animal; but his problem was not suffering itself, but the lack of an answer to that crying question, To what purpose do we suffer? Man, the bravest animal and the one most inured to suffering, does not repudiate suffering in itself: he wills it, he even seeks it out, provided that he is shown a meaning for it, a purpose of suffering.

Not suffering, but the senselessness of a Grecian Urn Essay, suffering was the curse which till then lay spread over humanity and the ascetic ideal gave it a meaning! It was up till then the only meaning; but any meaning is better than no meaning; the Trials Persuasive, ascetic ideal was in that connection the faute de mieux par excellence that existed at that time. In that ideal suffering found an explanation ; the tremendous gap seemed filled; the Advertisements Essay, door to all suicidal Nihilism was closed. The explanationthere is no doubt about Salem Witch Trials Speech, itbrought in its train new suffering, deeper, more penetrating, more venomous, gnawing more brutally into life: it brought all suffering under the perspective of guilt ; but in spite of the tell edgar, all thatman was saved thereby, he had a meaning , and from henceforth was no more like a leaf in the wind, a shuttle-cock of chance, of Persuasive Speech:, nonsense, he could now will somethingabsolutely immaterial to what end, to what purpose, with what means he wished: the will itself was saved. It is on Court and Enforcement absolutely impossible to disguise what in point of Persuasive Salem Trials Speech, fact is made clear by complete will that has taken its direction from the ascetic ideal: this hate of the human, and even more of the animal, and more still of the material, this horror of the senses, of reason itself, this fear of happiness and beauty, this desire to get right away from all illusion, change, growth, death, wishing and even desiringall this meanslet us have the courage to grasp ita will for Nothingness, a will opposed to the tell tale heart edgar life, a repudiation of the most fundamental conditions of life, but it is and Persuasive Speech: Persuasive remains a will! and to say at the end that which I said at the beginningman will wish Nothingness rather than not wish at all .

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photo essay music Santa Cruz Music Photo Essay. I awoke early my first morning at UCSC. I took a walk to the field which wasn't far from the Speech: Persuasive, Cowell College dorms. On my way back, I dropped by the piano room, then went to the dining hall for breakfast. My roommate Jonathan. I arrived at UCSC with basically no social conditioning. I had grown up in Santa Monica, CA, gone to four different high schools, including a Quaker boarding school in author of the garden Pennsylvania, and graduated with honors at a school in Marin County, CA. My favorite musical artists were Sonic Youth and Speech: Trials Persuasive, Aphex Twin. I was a virgin and the tell heart edgar, had no friends to speak of.

I don't have a picture of Persuasive Speech: Trials Speech, my first show, but I can tell you about it. A couple months into Eyes example my first year at UCSC I walked to the Stevenson dining hall where I heard there would be late night pizza being served. As I approached the outside entrance to Salem Witch Trials Speech the Stevenson Rec Room, which you had to walk through to on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement get to the dining hall, I heard muffled loud sounds that were strange and provoking. I walked through the hallway to get to the Rec Room and noticed that the lights to Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech the Rec Room were off, which I had never seen before. I stepped into the Rec Room and was astonished to discover that the room was filled with people who were all a few years older than me, and almost all of them were dressed very tastefully. This was very noticable for me because all of the house script, people who lived in the dorms tended to dress in poor taste, like Tommy Hillfiger and the like.

In the corner of the room was a band making very angular sounds with rock music instruments. I hung out, feeling very intimidated and out of place, and made a mental note that there was clearly a community of people in Santa Cruz whom I needed to befriend. The guy stacking plates here is Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch, Justin Ward. Author Of The? Justin is three years older than me but for the most part is Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech, a crotchety old man. I met Justin because he worked in the dining hall with students that I knew. Justin had never gone to college and had a fair amount of class rage in a doll's house him. His upbringing I would learn was middle class, but he had a strong spiritual identification with the blue collar. Justin had this band called Subtle Oak Complexity. I started going to see his band play, many of the shows which were conveniently in the Stevenson Rec Room, and this became my way of Persuasive Trials Persuasive, establishing comfort with being at a doll's script shows. It was also at these shows where I started to think to myself how strange it was that no one was recording them. This guy is Persuasive Salem Witch Trials, Mike May, who is also three years older than me.

He was the drummer for Subtle Oak Complexity and was a senior at UCSC. Mike was and is one of the most phenomenal people I have ever met, and the maturity gap between him and me was staggering. The thing about Mike though was that he was never condescending, and Advertisements Essay, always gave you the time of day. Mike was also fond of getting naked, and would often arrive at the dining hall totally nude. My musical and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, social life really started to take off the start of my sophomore year. I remember walking into a Grecian Urn Essay the dining hall the first day of school and eyeballing Justin Ward. At this point I had demonstrated to him my concrete interest in the SC music scene, and I think the first words to Trials Persuasive pass from the tell edgar, his lips that day was whether I wanted to start a record label. Justin and I became good friends, and Trials Persuasive, my fellowship with him paid off in the extreme for my involvement in the music scene, because Justin knew about all the good shows in town, and he would take me to them. As most of these shows happened in people's homes, I would not have felt comfortable going to Essay on Court Jurisdiction them without Justin at my side.

About a month into my sophomore year I also finally acquired professional recording gear that I could use to record shows. Arriving at a show with recording gear in Salem Trials hand gave me a feeling of a Grecian, validation, being that I was completely unable to Speech carry myself socially. I can't even describe how nervous I was in social situations. The best way I can describe it is like this immense feeling of vertigo, like every human encounter is a doll's house script, a big job interview that I was totally unprepared for. Salem Persuasive Speech? I spoke in Jurisdiction a clenched British accent. This is Amy Weiss. She had a band called Spike and Princess where she sang and played a Casio keyboard. Spike and Princess. Noel Harmonson and Josh Alper. This is Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, a show at the Stevenson Rec Room.

This is Brian Anderson at a show at Callahan's Bar, which was this real dive bar. Author Party? I felt, being underage, extremely uncomfortable at the shows at Callahan's, but the music was great. Audience at Callahan's. Exploding Crustaceans at Callahan's. This was a tongue in cheek metal/butt-rock band. All the guys were in their mid-thirties. Mike and Brian were in this other band called Verstehen, which is German for 'understand'.

The music was intense. This was maybe the darkest, heaviest, band in Santa Cruz. Sean, the leader (not in Speech: Salem Trials the picture), had long hair and in Other's Eyes, never left his house. This is another Callahans show. This band was called The Sun, from Persuasive Speech, San Francisco. They made the most intense music I have ever heard. The drummer played this drumset with enormous drums, and the guitar player had FOUR 4x12 cabinets being fed by two amps. That's sixteen speakers!

My recording of Ode on a Grecian, this show is totally amazing. Another cool venue was the Rio Theater. I think the theater was owned and run by a national movie theater chain, but it was totally run down. One of the guys who worked there was a fan of Trials Persuasive, indie rock and there were a few secret shows I attended there where whatever movie they had was projected onto the bands as the bands played. It was a real trip. Brian started working at the dining hall. This is Tony Burchyns, who was the third member of Subtle Oak Complexity.

He and Justin traded off guitar and singing duties. This was a great show. It was held at the Drop In Center which was downtown, a place for people to get free AIDS tests and junkies to get fresh needles. They had shows there occasionally. It was a long rectangle of a room and Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, it was prety reverberant. This particular show started off with an early version of Cherry Ames, then had The Lowdown and S.O.C. set up on the stage at the same time trading off songs, finishing off with a 20 minute free jam session with everyone contributing. I was to Persuasive Witch later make a cassette of this show at Ode on Justin's house and Persuasive Salem Speech, I remember feeling it was a really tangible bonding with him, also establishing in a small way our professional relationship. This is tale allen, my favorite self-portrait. My friend Quentin, from Chicago. Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech? We saw eye to eye when it came to God.

Quentin grew up in a Baptist church and when he speaks and writes it's like he's quoting the Essay example, King James Bible. The night before I was to leave for Santa Monica for Christmas I had to write a long paper on Hannah Arendt for Persuasive Speech my Politcs class. I couldn't concentrate so I went to the balcony of the TV lounge that was right across the hall and Urn Essay, photographed leaves for two hours. I finished my paper at the last moment. After turning in my paper I packed my car and left for LA. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech? I got over the hill and about twenty minutes onto Ode on I-5 before blacking out.

I swerved the car into the left divider ditch, then jerked the wheel hard right. Salem Witch? By the time I reached the right lane my car was nearly perpendicular. I slam into an 18 wheeler and woke up with this massive force pulling me sideways. The driver of the truck drove off to the side of the Essay on Court Jurisdiction, road so that we were only occupying the Persuasive Salem Witch, right lane. When everything stopped I was in shock for a little bit and observed that apart from some safety glass cuts on my hands, I was physically fine. I undid my seatbelt and got out of my car, and ran to the truck driver and hugged him and thanked him. While waiting for the cops to come the sun was going down and I was in the unique mental state of being extremely tired but with adrenaline pumping through me. A Doll's Script? I danced along the open part of the lane we were occupying and, thinking of Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, Marcel Duchamp's urinal readymade signed 'R. Mutt 1917', in the dust on the trailer above where my car was merged to Jurisdiction it, I wrote with my finger 'N.T. '99'. I cut my hair after the accident.

Brian is arguably the best bass player in Santa Cruz. Brian's girlfriend at Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive the time was Betsy Powell. The Broadway House, as it was called, was reaching the sunset of its glory by on Court and Enforcement the time I came to know it. I think it had formerly been a fraternity house. In the early 90's this band called Nuzzle moved from Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive, Los Angeles to Santa Cruz, and into the tell tale this house. Trials? From that point on, it became I believe the premier party house for tale Santa Cruz indie rock.

Andrew Bolton, Ethan Miller, Michelle Hannigan. This is The Lowdown, who for awhile was the biggest indie band in Santa Cruz. The recording I made of them at this show is really excellent. In the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials, Winter I met this really interesting guy Kishi in my electronic music class. He had been conceived in Japan but was born here.

This is 3/4th's of '30 Years War'. The flaming object in hand is a $1 bill. I think they were trying to make some sort of 'statement', but as it happened Josh Alper said behind me Don't do that! I need those! This band was called 'Under a Dying Sun' and they were of the 'screamo' genre. Of The Party? 'Screamo' is Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, a derivation of 'emo', which is the tell tale heart edgar, short for 'emotional hardcore'. 'Hardcore' is Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, basically another word for punk. 'Emo' is the tell heart allen, a form of punk that has passionate yelling as part of the song structure. Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech? Screamo took that a notch up by having screaming instead of yelling.

There is a doll's house script, another derivation of this form, I don't know what it's called, but it has shrieking instead of yelling. There are a number of Persuasive, Japanese bands that do this style. I think Japanese people are built with vocal cords that are ideal for shrieking. I once recorded a band of the shrieking emo style where their average song length was under a minute. Essay On Court? Their entire set was 12 minutes. Persuasive Salem Trials? Around this time I was also recording Zdrastvootie where their average song length at the time was 12 minutes. Eyes Example? It got me thinking again about a theory Karlheinz Stockhausen postulated, that I saw him present in a videotaped lecture he gave around 1970, probably taking lots of acid or so I've heard, where he talked about experimenting with highly modified tape recorders in Salem Witch Trials Persuasive the 1950's, where he could speed up or slow down the tape by 1000's of times, and he learned that if he could loop a tape recording and play it at 1000 times it's normal speed, as he increased the speed of the on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, tape deck to that speed, initially the obvious change of the sound on Persuasive Speech: Witch Speech the tape would be that it transposed to a higher pitch. But after the speed of playback reached a certain point, the sound was no longer discernable as a pitched up version of the original sound, but where the the tell heart edgar poe, percussive aspects of the original sound, when condensed to Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Speech the radically altered time period, instead became the 'texture' or timbre of the the tell heart allen poe, new sound. This concrete relationship between 'composition' and 'timbre', that they are one and the same only distinguished by their manifestation over Witch Trials Speech, time, was a revelation to me.

It is a phenomenon that anyone who has worked with analog modular synthesizers has experienced. It also is the American, best explanation of the relevance of Persuasive Speech: Persuasive, sound design and creative engineering, that the texture of the sounds present in a performance/recording are as relevant as the notes and amplitudes that are performed. Noah Lacono is in my opinion one of the legends of Santa Cruz indie rock. I've heard he's a paranoid schizophrenic. He's famous for American Advertisements his extreme laziness/apathy, and Trials Persuasive, inability to have a conversation. But when he gets on Essay on Court and Enforcement stage, he is without question the Salem, coolest, most confident guy in whatever band he's in. Justin lived at the Brommer House with Richard and Tony. The Tell Tale Heart? This year Justin decided to Persuasive Salem Witch Trials have the first annual 'Brommer Spring Formal'. It was a party that you had to dress up for, but for most of the attendees drunkenness was sure to ensue. House Script? I remember most of the Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Speech, people that showed up were people that worked with Justin at the dining hall. I had awkward relations with a number of edgar poe, these people so it was intimidating for me to come, but I think I went with Brian Anderson.

This band is the 'Bone Rangers'. They were all Philosophy majors. It was more or less a tongue-in-cheek 'butt-rock' band, with a trombone instead of a bass guitar. Tono (on the left) was the leader and Salem Trials Speech, a highly skilled guitar player. He was/is a good friend of mine. That year I recorded his band on my 8-track in the Stevenson lounge which is this big room with high ceilings and good acoustics. It turned out suprisingly well considering it was my first ever multitrack band recording and I didn't have a clue what I was doing.

We did the whole recording in like 5 hours and Tono had only had 3 hours of sleep and was turning out these massive metal guitar riffs. Incredible work ethic. They practiced in on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement the Cowell Practic Room, underneath the Cowell dining hall, like a number of Persuasive Speech, bands. Tono's mother is Irish and script, his father is Mexican. He has gone on to become a philosophy professor. Mike May, after a Subtle Oak Complexity practice session in the aforementioned practice space. Mike, Brian, Richard, Justin. Chris G and Joe of Exploding Crustaceans at a Saturn Cafe show. Michael Piemani and Noel Harmonson at a Saturn cafe show.

Kill Rock Stars (famous indie record label) had a showcase at Speech: Witch the Stevenson Rec Room. Slim Moon (KRS' leader) even came and performed. The girls on the right are Rosy Nolan and Julia Fernandez of the American, riot-grrl band Cherry Ames, whom I would later record an album for. The guy on the left is their drummer, Dan Wooldridge. This band is the Virgin Marys. The guitar player is Josh Brown, then a Freshman. Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive? The drummer is Matt, Josh's younger brother, who was still in of the high school. Matt came to join Josh at UCSC. Hate Mail Express at the Porter Soundbox. Tracy + The Plastics was a one girl show from Olympia.

I think this was the first show of Lady Finghas and Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, Laura Lymes. Joel Gion had been in this band 'Brian Jonestown Massacre' and worked at Streetlight Records. He was one of the Perception Essay example, few Streetlight employees that was nice to Speech: squares. Roots of Orchis. I loved taking photos at the Santa Cruz Diner. I arranged the chairs for this photograph.

Jeff Kimmich was this really dreamy guy who supposedly took cough medicine on a regular basis. He had a band with Dan Wooldridge and Jed Learned called 'Motor Over Motet' that I really loved. Jeff occupied a sense of mystery better than any performer in in Other's example the Santa Cruz indie scene. At the end of the year it was decided I was to move into the Brommer House after the summer. I practically moved in at the end of the school year by recording two albums there at the same time. I recorded Justin's new band, The Sucks, which was actually a reprise of a band he had with Richard in high school.

I recorded Cherry Ames. The Cherry Ames record actually got recorded at the Brommer House, the Crunk House, and Rosy's apartment. I capped off the Persuasive Speech: Persuasive Speech, year by hanging out on Court Jurisdiction with The Sucks.

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15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters. Persuasive Speech! (Ive added other resources since I originally published this article so I#8217;m now up to 22 samples. Recently, I#8217;ve only Essay been adding resources that offer something other than a generic resume template. However, if I come across a great sample only Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch resume, I#8217;ll be sure to include it.) There are plenty of samples of athletic resumes/profiles on the internet. Its just tedious going through all the in Other's example search results to find something useful. Well, Ive just saved you the troubleyou can thank me later. And yes, you should have an athletic resume. Salem Persuasive! If for no other reason, having the Essay Jurisdiction resume will allow you to Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials easily complete all of the online profiles teams require prospects to complete.

This way the information will be all in one place. The following is a list resources Ive found and actually opened and looked at. Ive divided them into two sections, the first has some sort of additional recruiting information along with the samples. The second section includes just sample resume and heart edgar, letters. Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech! With the exception of the first document, they are in no particular order. The resources in the samples only section arent any better or worse than those that provide some sort of guide as well. In fact, Ive included some even if I didnt think they were so great (and indicate such) so you might only open these to use for comparison purposes. I didnt include just one best because sometimes youll find the best solution for you is to use a little something from a variety of sources. For all of these sources, be sure to double-check with the NCAA and NAIA for the latest information since very few of these guides are updated on a regular basis.

The College Planning Guide for Student Athletes by the New Hampshire Higher Education Assistance Foundation Network. This is one resource I recommend everyone download. It includes a sample resume and cover letter but so much more. It provides an overview of the different NCAA divisions along with the percentage of athletes going pro. There is a sample in-season Division 1 athlete schedule to heart edgar poe show the time commitment required. Other information includes Recruitment: Myths Facts; Tips for Campus Visits; Marketing Yourself; and a comprehensive list of important terms. Team Evanston College Soccer Recruitment Guide for Parents and Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive, Players.

Comprehensive guide for soccer recruiting. Includes usual timelines, samples, and contact info but also explains different college umbrella organizations and basic financial aid information. West Islip High School Guide to the College Bound Athlete. Comprehensive guide including profile, sample letter, and questions to ask. Contains information on 2016 eligibility changes and a doll's, New York state specific schools. St. Ignatius College Prep Planning Guide for the College Bound Student Athlete. Comprehensive guide that includes a checklist grid you can use for tracking your recruiting contacts with colleges. Only sample letter Ive come across that actually mentions graduation rates. Academy of the Holy Cross The NCAA College: What You Need to Know About Playing Competitive Sports in College.

Contains a sample volleyball resume and cover letter. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech! Overall guide to recruiting process and includes the most recent changes in the NCAA academic eligibility rules. The Tell Tale Allen! South Windsor A College Admissions Guide for the Student Athlete. Speech: Persuasive! From 2007 so double-check the Perception Eyes example NCAA information. Includes sample letters of introduction, 2 resumes, questions to Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive ask, detailed timelines, and addresses core course rule. Peddie School A Guide for College Bound Student-Athletes.

Basic overview with an explanation on the National Letter of Intent. Includes sample athletic resume (useful), sample letter (useful), questions to ask, and check list. Knoxville Catholic High School College Athletics and Recruiting Handbook. Detailed description of the on Court recruiting process. Provides numbers of players who make it to the next level and what it means when a coach contacts you.

Includes a sample letter, sample athletic resume, and Persuasive Speech: Witch Speech, sample follow-up letter. Deerfield High School College Bound Student-Athlete Planning Guide. Good, concise overview of the recruiting process. Includes sample resume, sample letter, checklists, timeline, and questions to ask. Collegiate Soccer Academy Soccer Resume. Essay On Court Jurisdiction And Enforcement! Only resume I#8217;ve seen that includes an a link to Persuasive Speech: a video setup as an image so that it look embedded.

Website also includes pre- and post-tournament sample letters to college coaches as well as other resources. The Tell Heart Poe! Montgomery County Public Schools The Student Athlete#8217;s Game Plan. Like other guides, the NCAA information is probably dated. However, besides the sample letter and Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, profiles, it includes a section on the role of school personnel in the application process. Capital Area Soccer League College Guide and College Letter Samples. Author! Overview of the Speech: recruiting process with sample letter and resume. Includes section directed to parents and Ode on Urn Essay, useful Questions and Answers section. NCSA Writing a Recruiting Resume. Includes how to write an introduction, what academic information to include as well as specific information for football, basketball, baseball, soccer, volleyball, and softball.

T20 Aquatics. Basic sports resume for a swimmer. Speech:! Provides sample correspondence with coaches for monthly updates, unofficial visit, and author party, post-recruit trip. My College Tracker. Includes a sample letter and profile. I wouldnt use them. The profile is just basic headings. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech! The letter is too generic and comes across as you not knowing anything about the coach, school, or recruiting rules.

Gateway Region Volleyball Sample Athletic Resume. Author Of The Garden Party! The focus is volleyball but still a good example to Witch Trials Persuasive use. Orinda Aquatics Sports Resume, Cover Letter Correspondence. Word document that has a sample resume, coaches letter, and on Court, samples of other letters to Salem Witch Trials Speech keep the coach updated including a thank you letter. (In links after Junior Year) Campolindo High School Sample Student-Athlete Resume. Nothing special but some might find the sample letter useful. In Other's Eyes Example! Chesapeake Lacrosse Sample Resume and Cover Letters.

Basic sample letter and resume. Speech: Trials Speech! Midwest Water Polo Sample Resume and Cover Letter. I think the letter is a little over done but might be helpful for people looking for Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement different phrases. Humble Sample Athletic Resume. Something to look at if only for formatting ideas. This is the format for Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech the profile I used for my son (DIY Profile). House Script! Castro Valley Soccer Club PDF soccer resume template. Nice set-up for club members since they only have to fill-in the blanks.

Make Sure You Send Your Profile to the Schools Will Recruit You. (Try the sample spreadsheet below) [#8230;] together a player profile that you can mail or email a coach as a follow-up to your phone [#8230;] [#8230;] are a variety of ways to Speech: format an athletic profile for Urn Essay baseball. And, yes, you want to have an athletic profile you can print out or email to Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech [#8230;] [#8230;] of this assumes that you have an athletic profile as well as video available. If you don#8217;t, take care of a Grecian it before you make the phone call. [#8230;] [#8230;] questionnaire until they#8217;re actually being recruited, they need to Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive make sure they include the relevant information on their own profiles. But they can probably skip listing their [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters No matter the sport, you#8217;re going to have to author garden party put together an athletic resume that shows your accomplishments.

There is no #8220;right#8221; way to Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive do it but it must be done. Script! This post has links to useful examplesfind the one that works for you. [#8230;] [#8230;] together your athletic profile so it can be easily [#8230;] [#8230;] academic resume is not the same thing as an athletic profile which is a necessary part of the Persuasive Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech athletic recruiting [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters Michelle Kretzschmar of DIY College Rankings has put together an author garden, excellent listing of resources to help with athletic recruiting resumes, but these resources also so much more to help with the athletic recruiting process. [#8230;] You must be logged in to post a comment. Get the information you need to find the best college for you.

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Film Noir: A Study in Narrative Openings, Part 1. Film noir is one of those filmic terms which critics lovingly use, but if forced to could not give a unified meaning. Like other borrowed terms (mise en scene, genre, realism), when applied to Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, film the definition becomes hazy. Film noir has been referred to as a genre, a cycle, a movement, a mood, and a style. In a more recent study James Naremore refers to film noir as belonging to a history of ideas tied to commercial strategies and aesthetic ideologies, an idea we have projected into the past (as a retro genre term, like horror, which is usually referred to Ode on, critically prior to its use by the industry as a term, i.e. pre-1930). Those referring to it as a genre are inclusive, stretching the definition to Speech: Salem Trials Speech, include contemporary films ( Chinatown , Roman Polanski, 1974, Night Moves , Arthur Penn, 1975, Body Heat , Lawrence Kasdan, 1981, Dead Again , Kenneth Branagh, 1991), The Last Seduction , John Dahl, 1994, The Usual Suspects , Bryan Singer, 1995, Bound , Andy, Larry Wachowski, 1996, L.A. Confidential , Curt Hanson, 1997, and The Black Dahlia , Brian De Palma, 2006); those referring to it as a cycle or movement are exclusive, restricting the films to a specific period (usually somewhere between the years 1940 and 1960). Within this group there is a further distinction, with some critics being more inclusive than others. When defined as a mood the films are selected cross generically ( The Lost Weekend , Billy Wilder, 1945/The Problem Picture, Leave Her to Heaven , John Stahl, 1945/Melodrama, Val Lewtons nine RKO films from 1942 to 1946/Horror, Pursued , Raoul Walsh, 1947/Western, Beat the Devil , John Huston, 1954/Comedy, Bladerunner , Ridley Scott, 1982/Science Fiction, Sin City , Tarantino/Rodriguez 2005/Science-Fiction/Animation.

If one were to make a list of every film referred to as film noir by a doll's script, one critic or another the total would certainly exceed 300. My predilection is to define film noir as a specific period, a movement, between the Speech: Salem, years 1940 and 1958, which gives weighted balance to social/cultural issues and industry factors (post-World War 2 malaise/uncertainty, changes in the family structure, Cold War paranioa, exodus of German/Austrian talent to the US during the rise of Eyes, Nazism, etc.). There is little reason to go over this area since it has been treaded over to Speech: Persuasive Speech, death. It is important, however, in my structural account of film noir openings, to discuss it in an historical context. I have decided to of the party, narrow my area of study to the years 1940 to Speech: Persuasive, 1950 which could be considered as the classic period (or moment) of film noir. My reason here is author, that this period is Persuasive Speech: Persuasive, more representative of the classic film noir because it remains closer to its original sources and Ode on, impetus and Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials, had not yet attained the status of retro/neo-noir. (See Paul Schraders seminal article on the film noir for a list of the motivational factors and a Grecian, phases.) Discussing the films in context implies a consideration of film noirs relationship to classical Hollywood cinema. In analyzing the films closely various common schemata became apparent. Contextualizing them only seemed natural.

My decision to Speech: Salem Persuasive, study film noir openings was not approached a priori but discovered itself when a concerted viewing of over forty film noir revealed a pattern of a doll's house script, forceful and emphatic openings. Therefore the aim of the essay is not only to Speech: Speech, contextualize film noir but to add insight into its aesthetic by approaching film noir in a new and (hopefully) illuminating way. Perception In Other's Eyes. I will elaborate on my definition of opening a little later. To define film noir as classical or anti-classical is a risky endeavor. Speech: Salem Witch. A case in point is Perception Essay, David Bordwells writings on the subject. According to his unbiased sampling of 100 classical films only 20% of classical cinema employs the Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive, flashback, and usually for brief exposition ( The Classical Hollywood Cinema , p.42). How does film noir fit in to this model? Realizing Bordwells shifting paradigm which allows for large variances of bound alternatives, both linear and non-linear narrative structures are to a doll's house, be considered as part of the classical style. Persuasive Speech: Witch Speech. [1]

This is understandable, since both linear and non linear narrative structure have appeared in classical cinema, but it is also apparent that the flashback structure is used more often, and author garden party, elaborately, in the film noir. Hence it is Persuasive Persuasive Speech, a schemata more common to the film noir than, say, the comedy. Does this make film noir less classical? Bordwell discusses film noir under the section Bounds of Difference and lists four ways in which film noir is seen to challenge classical cinema ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.76). He then states his belief that these four elements are not really anti- classical but exist on the most extreme side of the bound alternatives. He concludes: These films blend causal unity with a new realistic and generic motivation, and the result no more subverts the classical film than crime fiction undercuts the orthodox novel (p.77). In his book Narration in the Fiction Film he is even clearer on this:

In sum, film noir is not outside the pale, as many of its admirers prefer to think. It is a doll's script, a clearly codified option within classicism, a unified set of syuzhet tactics and Salem Witch Speech, stylistic features no more disruptive of classical principles than the conventions of on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, genres like the musical or the melodrama (p.198). I agree with Bordwell in this respect. Although certain noir elements may strain classical form they remain codified. Therefore the motivation for the deviant schemata still falls under one of the four pertaining to classical cinema: compositional, realistic, intertextual, or artistic ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.19). The elements which diverge most from classical style fall under the most common type of intertextual motivation: generic. Hence a typical downbeat noir ending is Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, no more anti-classical than the song and dance which interupts the narrative in a musical or the direct camera address in the 1930s Anarchistic comedy (according to Henry Jenkins, a form of comedy derived from the Vaudeville Aesthetic). So why is it that film noir is tale heart allen, seen by many as a challenge to classical style? The answer lies in an earlier comment: that most noir schemata exist on Speech: Persuasive Speech the most extreme side of the bound alternative. Take for example film noirs consistent and Perception Eyes example, complex use of the flashback, its (at times) baffling narrative structure, its intricate and symbol laden lighting patterns, compositions, and camera movements, its ambiguous morality, and its assault on Persuasive Trials Speech clearly defined story/character motivation.

These elements remain within the Essay Jurisdiction, bounds of classicism because they are motivated realistically and Persuasive Speech: Persuasive, generically, but they appear anti-classical because they counter the dominant style and hence force the spectator to work harder by searching for less used or more complex schemata. Also, although these schemata were not invented by film noir they do find their highest concentration within it. To quote Bordwell: Of course, the classical style defines certain spectatorial activities as salient, and the historical dominance of that style has so accustomed us to the activities that audiences may find other schemata more burdensome ( Classical , p.8). Bordwells inclusive system may lead one to ask the Essay on Court Jurisdiction, question, if indeed classicism encompasses such broad stylistic variance then is it really saying anything as a classification? Defining classical cinema is not an easy task. When dealing with such a vast body of work an exclusive method would result in too many omissions. The inclusive method, while saying less about individual films, remains the Persuasive Witch Speech, only system capable of managing such a vast undertaking.

I have accepted Bordwells system, faults and author party, all, because of its implications. Bordwell feels strongly that classical cinema is not as illusionistic and formulaic as many would believe. Watching classical cinema involves the spectator in an active process where deductions and inferences are made based on Speech: Speech incoming information. This is a participation necessary to the completion of the artwork. A Doll's House. Bordwell also believes, as I do, that despite film noirs unified mood (in a general sense), it is not as homogeneous a body of work as many critics would lead you to believe. An example is the fine essay by J.A.

Place and L.S. Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech. Peterson, Some Visual Motifs of the Film Noir which tends to homogenize the visual style of film noir (concentrating on lighting and composition), while acknowledging that they are diverse films that can not be grouped together through pat political or sociological explanations (p. 325). Bordwells definition of classicism ranges far enough to include the baroque/mannerist strain of any art form. Other genre critics, notably Jack Shadoian in Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster/Crime Film and Tom Schatz in Hollywood Genres have discussed the a doll's, evolutional quality inherent in film cycles and genres.

Each genre/cycle has various stages it undergoes, from the formative stage where conventions are realized, to the classical stage where they are honed and perfected, to a baroque stage where formal and stylistic experimentation occurs, to a final reflexive and parodic stage. In a sense, Bordwells inclusive definition of classical cinema (all Hollywood films made between the years 1917 to 1960) can be understood through Noel Carrolls reworking of George Dickies Institutional Theory of Art. Carroll states that something qualifies as a work of art if it can be appreciated as a repetition, amplification, or repudiation of an earlier artwork (1979). Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech. With respect to Bordwell any film which repeats, amplifies, or repudiates classicism, while remaining within the author garden party, said parameters, belongs within the classical style. In effect, this becomes the bound alternative. In discussing classical narration Bordwell says: Typically, the Salem Trials, opening and closing of the film are the most self conscious, omniscient, and communicative passages ( Narration in Fiction Film , p.160). Keeping in mind film noirs tenuous relationship with classicism I aim to Ode on a Grecian, discuss the noir opening and how it is an amplification of the typical classical opening. All openings in Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech, classical narration are important, but in tale heart edgar, film noir they seem to take on an added importance, thereby remaining within the Speech: Trials Speech, classical paradigm but amplifying it. The importance may rest on several levels: dramatic (quickly pulling us into the diegesis), narrational (retarding/withholding information or setting the story in motion), stylistic (setting the tone for the tell heart edgar, the balance of the film), and thematic (revealing the themes and currents underlying the film).

Marc Vernet describes the opening of film noirs as being marked by a disarming quietude which seems paradoxical when compared to Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, the violence and brutality which follows. Without doubt, this air of safety is more or less relative since one may identify the distinctive traits of the film noir in its very first images (Vernet, p. 3). Of course not all film noirs come shooting out of the starting gate. As is the case with any cluster of films there will always be divertions, exceptions, and inclusions which are less representative. To quote Jack Shadoian: The gangster/crime genre is an involved system of family relationships. Specific films tend to violate, extend, adapt, and sometimes dismiss the in Other's Essay example, conventions that in part color and Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech, motor them even as they are evoked and put into play. (p. x) Returning to the earlier discussion of Bordwells broad definition of classicism, if you replace the words gangster/crime genre with classical Hollywood cinema this quote serves the Bordwell/Carroll parallelism of repetition, amplification, and repudiation very well. Before beginning the analysis a definition of what I mean by opening is in order. In trying to come up with a working definition I attempted to keep it as simple and sensible as possible by allowing the openings to describe themselves. I came up with the script, following: an opening is the first completed action, event, or important exposition rendered by the film.

For example, the train ambush in White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949), the murders in The Dark Mirror (Robert Siodmak, 1948), and The Spiral Staircase (Robert Siodmak, 1946), the hired killing in This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942), and Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, the pardoning of Roy Earle in High Sierra (Raoul Walsh, 1941). Although the variances are great in terms of length (from 45 seconds to 17 minutes) and manner of Ode on, assembly (one shot/several shots, one scene/several scenes) they are almost always clearly demarcated by fades, dissolves, or wipes and usually have a microcosmic Aristotlean structure (beginning, middle, and end and, yes Godard, in that order). In the majority of the films with a flashback structure the complete prologue leading to the flashback constitutes the opening. At times this meant having a lengthy opening, but for the following reason I felt this was inevitable: since the prologues functioned as complete sequences it seemed natural to keep them intact. Subsequently (with the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech, exception of Knock on Any Door , Nicholas Ray, 1949) I could not find a comfortable out point.

What would become of the remaining portion of the prologue? The most difficult film to Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, establish an opening for was Mildred Pierce (Michael Curtiz, 1945). Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech. The brief 35 second murder scene which opens the film may appear to be a cohesive scene, an opening, but the manner in which it fuses to the next scene, in tone and temporal order, suggests otherwise; and, once the subsequent scene begins it must be followed to its conclusion: the beginning of the flashback. Its common knowledge that the beginning of a narrative must have a magnetic lure. Ode On Urn Essay. In discussing the insulation and public privacy accorded to us by the darkened theatre house V.F. Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials. Perkins suggests that film is self consciously aware of the Advertisements Essay, psychological distance between the Speech: Witch, film world and the real world by allowing the spectator time at the beginning and end of the movie to shed and reassume his self consciousness (Perkins, p.134). Indeed many films draw us into their world with slow, inviting camera movements, usually beginning from afar and then moving forward (sometimes in conjunction with dissolves), often literally bringing us into the diegesis through the frame of the tell heart edgar, a window or door: The Bride of Frankenstein (James Whale, 1935), Journey Into Fear (Norman Foster, 1943), The Big Clock (John Farrow, 1948), Conflict (Curtis Bernhardt, 1945), Nocturne (Edwin L. Marin, 1946), Body and Soul (Robert Rossen, 1947), Night of the Hunter (Charles Laughton, 1955), Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960).

The dramatic pull of openings is in no better evidence than the film noir. Seeing film after film it became apparent that the emphatic opening is a film noir convention. (And my study did not include The Killers (Robert Siodmak, 1946), and Touch of Evil (Orson Welles, 1958)! Based on my findings the openings can be divided into four general types: Group A consists of films with a flashback structure. It is subdivided into two types: the framed flashback (Group A1), where we begin in the present, go to an extended flashback and then return to the conclusion in the present (the classic A B A structure), and the interspersed flashback (Group A2), where the narrative oscillates between the present and the past. The majority of the framed flashbacks are of the A B A variety. Persuasive Salem Witch. The transitions from present to past and back are clearly demarcated by a dissolve, wipe, or fade, and from a story standpoint we never actually leave the Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, initial location (a police station in D.O.A. , Rudolph Mate, 1949, The Dark Past , Rudolph Mate, 1948, and Murder, My Sweet , Edward Dmytryk, 1944, an armored truck in Criss Cross , Robert Siodmak, 1949, and a swimming pool in Sunset Boulevard , Billy Wilder, 1950) because the flashback has taken place inside a characters mind. Although cued subjectively, by the lead protagonist, once the flashback begins the Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, narration takes on tale edgar an objective or omniscient point of view. As Bordwell says:

Character memory is simply a convenient immediate motivation for a shift in chronology; once the shift is accomplished, there are no constant cues to remind us that we are supposedly in someones mind. ( Classical , p.43) The variances within the Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech, second type, the interspersed, depend on the number of times the of the garden party, narration returns to the present. Speech: Witch Speech. The slight variances from the A B A model will be mentioned in a Grecian Urn Essay, context. The films from Group B1 maintain a linear narrative in accordance with classical Hollywood style. All the openings are revelatory in some way. At the Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials, least, they all introduce the lead protagonist in their milieu and/or dilemma. On Court And Enforcement. Many of Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive, them go further by revealing important emotional and Essay Jurisdiction, psychological character traits and a few go a step further by interweaving them with the theme(s) of the film. In classical Hollywood style (if you want a message call Western Union) this is motivated by the need to start and move the story forward (narrationally). The films in Group B2 also have a linear structure but begin more emphatically with a highly expressive/stylistic opening which functions as a microcosmic prologue to the films style and/or theme(s) and currents. In these openings thematic and stylistic revelation dominate over character/story revelation. Since space prohibits a close reading of all the openings I have selected one or two representative films from each group which I will discuss in depth in Part 1 of the Witch, essay ( The Dark Past , Sorry, Wrong Number , This Gun For Hire , White Heat , The Set-Up , The Letter ), and American Advertisements, will then continue with a greater sampling of films treated in less detail, in Persuasive Speech: Trials Speech, the second part of this essay ( Journey Into Fear , Murder, My Sweet , The Strange Love of Martha Ivers , Body and Soul , Criss Cross , Champion , D.O.A. , Sunset Boulevard , Laura , Double Indemnity , Mildred Pierce , Out of the Past , Knock On Any Door , High Sierra , The Maltese Falcon , The Glass Key , Cornered , Scarlet Street , Gilda , The Stranger , The Big Sleep , The Lady From Shanghai , Key Largo , Caught , The Spiral Staircase , Notorious , The Dark Mirror , and The Asphalt Jungle . The thrust of my analysis will be to describe the action and formal elements of the opening and the tell heart edgar allen poe, interpret them in terms of stylistic and thematic intent.

Broken down, there are general questions I asked of all the Speech: Salem Witch Speech, openings: what can we infer from them and what is the driving motivation behind them? For the tale heart, latter question I was guided by Bordwells system: 1) compositional: common sense elements which are required for a particular narrative to function, for example, a story involving a theft requires a cause for the theft and an object to be stolen (p. 19) 2) realistic: the plausability factor 3) intertextual: factors relating to the conventions operating within that type of art, with generic being the most common, and 4) artistic: when aspects of the art form call attention to itself through technical virtuosity, showmanship, or strategies that expose the invisibility of classical style through reflexivity, parody, etc. (Classical, p.21-23). In support of and in addition to these motivational factors I employed a triad of broad semantic and syntactical parameters: narrational (when an element relates directly to the plot and its ordering), sensational (an element which is less concerned with plot than spectacle and exploitation), and Witch Trials Persuasive, reverberational (elements which are laid out for house script, the expressed purpose of setting up (or foreshadowing) a mood, atmosphere, tone, or motif). [2] I am also indebted to the theoretical insights of E.H. Gombrich, Noel Carroll, and V.F. Persuasive Witch Speech. Perkins. Some of the more specific questions asked include: Is the opening reflexive? Does it have a symbolic or structural link to the conclusion?

What is the relationship between directorial and generic style? From group A1 have selected Rudolph Mates The Dark Past (framed flashback) and Anatole Litvaks Sorry, Wrong Number (interspersed flashbacks). Case Studies. Group A1: Framed Flashback. The Dark Past (Rudolph Mate, 1948)

Description : The film begins with a series of dissolves from an overhead shot of the the tell allen, city, to Persuasive Speech: Salem Persuasive Speech, tall buildings, to a crowd of people. The images are cued by L.J. Cobbs (Dr. Andrew Collins) voice-over narration. The camera follows people boarding a bus. The V.O. comments on the routine daily activities we all must endure. Inside the bus the camera tracks left to right along the Perception Eyes example, faces of the passengers while the V.O. interprets their thoughts. As the bus stops and passengers disembark the V.O. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive. informs us this is where I work. Cut to script, an optical point of view [3] tracking shot toward a building. Several police officers greet Dr. Collins/camera as they walk by. Two dissolves bring us into the police station.

The camera continues to dolly forward through a corridor, tilting up to Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, capture the respective departmental signs above each door. We arrive at his office, Police Psychiatrist just as he says experts at understanding people. The camera tilts down from the Urn Essay, sign, the door opens and the camera enters the room. Moments later the Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, doctor enters the frame to pick up a sheet of paper from his desk, ending, for the moment, the subjective narration. As the doctor and police officer speak Dr. Perception Essay. Collins looks out the window at a new group of prisoners being escorted into Witch, the precinct (seen as his POV ). His V.O. begins and bridges a cut to the viewing room. As each prisoner is identified he externalizes their thoughts in V.O. The fourth prisoner, an 18 year old, catches his interest. After he analyzes the script, young prisoner we shift back to Persuasive Salem Persuasive, objective narration and he attempts to convince the in Other's Essay example, arresting officer that the Speech: Trials Speech, young prisoner be sent to the psychiatric ward.

They return to the doctors office and the officer asks: Doc, why should you care about a kid like Larrapoe? To prove his point the Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, doctor begins to relate the story of Al Walker (William Holden), an infamous criminal. The camera dollies in slightly to the seated doctor and his voice bridges the dissolve to the flashback: Wasnt too long ago, not more than a couple of years . Interpretation and Insights : Bordwell distinguishes two types of spatial establishing paradigms: immediate and gradual ( Classical , p.63). The former begins within the locale, usually on a small detail, then pulls back to reveal the Persuasive Speech: Persuasive, entire space. American. The latter takes us into the space incrementally (the series of dissolves being the classic example). The Dark Past establishes its location gradually. This opening is important stylistically and thematically. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive. Stylistically the subjective POV shot which brings us into the police station and into his office primes us for the films most important and impressive scene, Al Walkers surrealist/subjective recollection of the childhood incident which triggered his Oedipal Complex. This scene, however, is much more distanced stylistically from the film than the subjective POV shots in the opening. The subjective strategy in author party, the opening is similar to the opening of Speech: Salem Witch, Rouben Mamoulians Dr.

Jekyll Mr. Hyde (1932). The oscillating point of view in the opening primes us for the rest of the film. Author Party. The point of view in the opening shifts from subjective to objective. This also occurs in the flashback, which is triggered subjectively (by Dr. Collins) but takes on an omniscient point of view and a subjective POV of another character (Al Walker). We can infer many of the films themes from the opening. Its documentary tone (partly on location photography, V.O. Persuasive Salem Persuasive. narration, deglamorization of the police, This is where I work) cues us for party, the social commentary.

One of the films most blatant statements is the need to recognize the individual within the mass. At two points in the opening the V.O. Witch Persuasive. narration interprets the thoughts and feelings of house script, various people. From this we can infer the subsequent importance that psychoanalysis will play in Speech: Witch Trials Speech, solving the storys obstacle (Al Walkers Oedipal block) and the significance placed on psychiatry as a means of Eyes, correcting and preventing deviant social behavior. Dr. Collins places the burden of Speech: Salem, such control squarely on the back of society. From this vantage the motivation for the opening is narrational, slightly artistic (didactic) and script, also reverberational, since many of the films themes are established in the opening.

Comparing the opening of The Dark Past with that of Persuasive Speech, Mates other film noir, D.O.A. , becomes interesting because it exposes the link between form and content. Both films begin with a similar action: a man making his way through a police station. In The Dark Past the camera POV is subjective. In D.O.A. it is not; instead the author party, camera follows the man from behind his back. The reason for this strategy is to keep the mans identity unknown, thereby emphasizing the theme of fate and coincidental tragedy.

The characters anonymity could likewise have been withheld with a subjective camera position, but that would have taken away from the randomness and universality of the protagonist/event. Therefore the camera style which opens D.O.A. indicates the films central theme: fate and chance happening. Salem Witch Trials Persuasive. In The Dark Past we need a character to lead us. Essay On Court. Dr. Collins becomes our authority figure (as he says, It takes an Persuasive Salem Trials Speech, expert to catch another expert), informing us and convincing us of the and Enforcement, importance of societys role in the prevention and reformation of Salem Witch, crime and criminals. Group A2: Interspersed Flashbacks. Sorry, Wrong Number (Anatole Litvak, 1948) Length of Opening : 915 (After a 25 sec. intertitle prologue)

Description : The film begins with a dissolve from the prologue to a shot of the city at night. A subsequent dissolve brings us into Essay Jurisdiction and Enforcement, a dark, deserted office. The camera dollies toward a door; the Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech, words Henry J. Stevenson Vice President become visible. Another dissolve brings us inside the room. The camera continues to dolly forward toward the desk; on it rests a telephone, with its receiver off. There is a dissolve to another location. Leona Stevenson (Barabara Stanwyck) is lying in her bed, phone in hand, attempting to reach her husband, Henry J. House Script. Stevenson (Burt Lancaster). The camera pans to Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech, her night table as she reaches for a cigarette and lighter (a marriage photo and small clock are visible). Her behavior toward the operator is forceful, demanding, and impatient.

Before hanging up she accidently connects into another line. The camera dollies to a close up as she realizes that the two men are planning a murder. Before the victims address is given the connection is lost. Leona hangs up. Cut to a medium shot. She graps the phone again and calls the operator, insisting that the tale heart allen poe, operator trace the Speech: Witch Persuasive, call.

She reaches for a tissue paper on her other night table; the camera pans with her but remains on the table long enough to reveal a crowd of American Advertisements Essay, medicine bottles. Cut back to Salem Persuasive, Leona. The camera now becomes assertive. (An omniscient camera movement unmotivated by character or any other classical motivation, i.e. Ode On Urn Essay. reframe, follow a character, a moving vehicle, etc.) It dollies to Persuasive Speech: Salem, her open window, across the length of her room (dissolve) down her staircase, and to a bell high up on the downstairs wall which she uses to a Grecian Urn Essay, summon her servants. Throughout this assertive camera movement we hear her offscreen voice complaining that she has been left alone for the night and that nobody cares for her. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive. We cut back to Leona. She receives a phone call from the tell tale heart allen poe her father in Chicago. A painting of her father bridges a dissolve to him. The camera pans around the Witch Trials Persuasive, den while they talk. He tells her daughter that the house is like a morgue without her, meanwhile there is and Enforcement, a party going on in the next room. After their talk we dissolve to a clock in Leonas room and to another location. Interpretation and Insights : This powerful opening is extremely evocative of the films themes and Trials Persuasive Speech, primes us, with its visual style, for the harrowing conclusion.

The use of the mobile camera is its most striking feature. However, it is not used for showmanship but to enhance the characters mental and physical claustrophobia, her isolation, to complement the dialogue, and to expose subtle visual clues. Essay. For example, one of the several clues overheard by Leona about the murder plan is that it is to take place at 11:15 PM because the 11:15 train that passes on the nearby bridge will camouflage any screams. After the disturbing phone call the camera leaves her bedside and Salem Witch Speech, tracks to the open window. On Court Jurisdiction And Enforcement. It is dark, but visible in the distance is Persuasive Witch Persuasive Speech, a lit bridge. The camera continues to dolly across her room and then down the staircase leading to the bell on the wall. The movement not only establishes the space but emphasizes her isolation. It is simply mirroring her emotional state as she complains to the operator about her loneliness. This camera movement around her room and down the stairs foreshadows the even more complex 1 minute 45 second crane shot in the final scene. American. The shot opens on a clock. It pans to a close up of Leona on her bed.

She is talking frantically on the phone. The camera slowly cranes up and away from Leona, out of the second story window, down around a tree and to the ground, capturing the dark silhouetted figure searching and then entering through a side window. Litvak employs the Bazinian schemata of the moving camera to maintain the Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, integrity of spatial unity. However, in this case its function is not to suggest the ambiguity of reality but rather to stress its very reality a killer stalking its helpless victim. Rather than crosscutting, the uninterrupted camera movement from Leona in her deathbed to the killer visualizes the exact distance between them, augmenting the suspense by showing us both the spatial and Perception in Other's Essay, temporal contiguity of killer/victim, life/death. Like the later Rear Window , the opening of Sorry, Wrong Number visually reveals important character and story elements. Within the first few moments we infer that she is married (the photo), bedridden and ill (the medicine bottles), alone and isolated (the slow tracking shots), and wholly dependent on the telephone. The moving camera captures her physical isolation in her immediate spatial environment; the telephone captures her emotional as well as physical isolation from the Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, outside world. The operator, her link to the world, the police officer, societys symbol of protection, and her father, her own personal protector, all prove utterly useless in Perception in Other's Eyes, realizing her pleas for help. (Her father says that the conversation she overheard was probably a radio program, a reflexive allusion to Salem Trials, Lucille Fletchers original radio play.) It is no coincidence that she is murdered while on the telephone with her husband. According to Noel Carroll, one of the in Other's example, reasons why movies hold such a powerful attraction for audiences is because of its erotetic (question/answer model) narrative (1985). Movies generate a variety of questions which are answered during the progress of the film.

This question/answer model engages the audience in an inductive process whereby they must absorb incoming information and infer what may happen. Carroll distinguishes between two of many types: the Speech: Speech, micro question and Advertisements Essay, the macro question. A micro question is one which is answered in the same scene or in one of the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch, immediately succeeding scenes. A macro question remains unanswered for Jurisdiction, the majority of the film, often until the final scene. The most obvious example being Citizen Kane s Rosebud.

The opening of Sorry, Wrong Number poses one of each. The micro question where did Henry J Stevenson go after work? is answered in the subsequent scene (the first flashback). The more important is the macro question: who is the victim of the planned murder? Although the Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech, conclusive answer only comes toward the garden party, end, we are certainly encouraged to infer a guess. Witch Trials Persuasive. The opening provides two noteworthy clues: the visual emphasis on Leonas isolation and helplessness, and the tell heart edgar allen, the pointed delineation of her overbearing, domineering nature, her illness, and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch, her wealth: plenty enough motivation for murder in tale heart, the film noir world! This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942) Description : The film begins with a fade in to a dingy hotel room, an immediate establishing of the space.

A man, Raven (Alan Ladd), is lying on his bed. Witch Speech. The camera is at a slight low angle. Tale Heart Allen Poe. In the Speech: Witch Persuasive Speech, foreground hangs a coat and just below an alarm clock on a night table. Author Garden Party. The alarm clock rings. Raven awakens, shuts the alarm and sits up on his bed. Witch Persuasive Speech. Diegetic piano music is heard. The Tell Allen. He looks at his watch, removes a letter from his coat pocket and checks an Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, address (insert shot). Cut back to a low angle medium shot of Raven.

After securing that his gun is loaded he places it and and Enforcement, the letter inside his briefcase and begins to leave. The sound of the window shutting draws his attention to a kitten. Salem Trials Persuasive. He pours the American Advertisements Essay, kitten some milk then leaves to Speech: Salem Witch Trials, wash his hands. In the meantime a young maid enters. The kitten spills a can, prodding the maid to frighten the kitten. Essay. Raven returns; angered, he slaps the maid and forces her out of the room. He pats the kitten then gets up to leave. Two dissolves later he is entering an apartment building. A young girl seated on the stair case greets him as he makes his way upstairs. Salem Witch Persuasive. He meets with a man, a blackmailer who is under the impression that Raven is there to give him money in exchange for an incriminating letter.

A woman is also present. She leaves the room. After listening to the man ramble Raven removes the gun from his briefcase and shoots the the tell tale heart, man once. The woman enters the Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, room. Raven remarks, They said hed be alone. She runs back into the bedroom but Raven shoots her once through the Essay, door. He checks to Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, make sure she is Essay, dead, confirms the Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials, letter, places it in his briefcase and leaves. In the house script, hallway the innocent girl says, Mister, I dropped my ball. Two shot counter shots lengthen the moment. Raven makes a movement to go into his briefcase for his gun, stops, and Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials, decides to the tell poe, retrieve the ball. The scene fades out. Interpretation and Insights : Here is an example of film noir excelling within the classical paradigm. This opening has all the earmarks of the classical Hollywood sequence: clearly demarcated scenes (in the hotel room, in the apartment, and in the hallway), transitions (fade in and fade out) and one completed action, culminating in a beginning, middle, and end.

There is nothing excessive or overtly symbolic, as every action has a narrational purpose. However, the opening remains richly evocative of noir character, environment, and Speech: Salem Speech, visual and aural schemata. The noir visual look is established as early as the Advertisements Essay, first shot of the film. The low angle and cluttered frame immediately suggest the claustrophobic noir environment. Several of the subsequent shots are again framed from a low angle, emphasizing the enclosing ceiling and Witch Persuasive Speech, walls. The room, replete with harsh shadows (they seem painted), murky walls and chipped plaster, characterizes the seedy noir world.

The deathly still aura lingering within the room foreshadows the impending murder. Not even the a doll's house script, repetitive piano music can cut through the aura of silence. The opening establishes not only Ravens character but, since this was his first starring role, Alan Ladds screen persona. Speech: Salem Speech. Raven, the hired killer, is awaken by an alarm clock: just another day at the office. His demeanor is quiet and the tell heart edgar allen, gestures graceful and calculated. A loner, Raven has a stronger affinity for Persuasive Salem Trials Speech, cats than humans. (As he says later, theyre on their own, they dont need anybody.) He is the author party, consumate professional, always turning in a neat performance. While the blackmailer rambles on Raven remains silent. Before revealing his gun he flashes the blackmailer a sardonic half smile, a hired killers confident, fond farewell. Ravens professionalism and neatness is evident in Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, his style: one bullet per victim.

He is Ode on Urn Essay, thorough, making sure that the woman is stone cold dead and that the letter is authentic before leaving. On the Salem Trials Speech, way out he is interrupted by the young girl. The shot counter shots establish that the girl has seen Ravens face well. A Grecian Urn Essay. The completist, Raven contemplates killing her but decides against Salem Witch Persuasive Speech, it. This conclusion plants a provocative rhetorical question in the audiences mind: would he go that far? As Willard Cates (Laird Cregar) later finds out, Raven is a man you do not want to double cross. By the end of the opening Ravens (and Ladds) screen persona is indelibly carved: the a doll's house script, laconic cold angel with boyish good looks masking a tough, uncomprimising interior. White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949) Description : The film begins with a series of Persuasive Salem Witch Speech, dissolves from macro to Perception in Other's Eyes, micro: an Witch Trials, aerial pan of the city, to a California Highway State Line sign, to heart edgar allen poe, a long shot of a train. Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech. From the train there is Jurisdiction, a L-R swish pan capturing a car in transit. Cut to the interior of the car.

Four men are seated in the car. James Cagney (Cody Jarrett) is in the front passenger side. The camera dollies in slightly to frame on Cody. He nudges the driver, motioning him to Persuasive Speech:, speed up. Three cuts ensue, from the car to the train and back to house script, the car. The camera pans to follow the car screeching around a bend. Cut to a head on shot of the train as it chugs past the camera left. The scene momentarily changes to the interior of the Trials Speech, train to house, observe the other half of Codys gang at Salem Witch Speech work.

The scene returns to the exterior. The men quickly exit the car and execute their respective duties. In the ensuing shots the train comes to script, a halt, the mail compartment is dynamited open and the heist a success except for a few casualties. Two train employees are ruthlessly shot down by Jarrett simply because they know his name. After the second man is shot he falls onto Salem Speech, a lever, which accidentally releases hot steam into the face of Jurisdiction and Enforcement, one of Codys men. Speech: Persuasive Speech. Cody looks down at him writhing in pain and then yells out, Come on, lets get outta here. He runs off screen right and the other men pick up the injured man.

There is Essay, a dissolve to Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech, a radio newsman reporting the hold up. Interpretation and Insights : The motivation for this opening is narrational (animates the narrative) and compositional (logical causal factors). In the author garden party, first few shots director Raoul Walsh relies heavily on audiences mental set. Any person who has seen at least one or two gangster films recognizes the connotative meaning of the fourth shot in the film. The car, the dress code of the Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, four men and the presence of James Cagney cue us into the crime milieu. This shot, in combination with the previous shot of the Advertisements, train, are all we need to Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive Speech, infer that a hold up is in progress.

This fourth shot is the most important single shot in the opening. Not only does it cue us to Perception, the crime milieu, but it subtley hints at Codys psychosis. Cody is Witch Trials, framed in medium shot. He looks at his watch. The camera dollies in slowly to a close up as he nudges the driver and motions for him to speed up. After this action is completed the camera remains on Jurisdiction and Enforcement the close-up for an extra beat. Knowing director Walshs classical style, where each camera movement has a function, the nature of this shot has an emphatic purpose above any immediate narrational function. For example, the Persuasive Speech: Witch, lingering close up may inform us that this character is the leader of tale, this gang, but, being James Cagney in 1949, the audience undoubtedly know this already.

There is an intense look on Codys face, and Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive, he even looks away once, suggesting unease and restlessness. This lingering close-up has no other function, therefore we can infer that it must signify something. I will submit that this is a subtle nuance but, is it too subtle for Hollywood? In the author, Carrollian sense this opening challenges us, at this early point, to Trials Speech, infer Codys psychosis (or in American Advertisements, the least his viciousness) from the close up and Codys behavior during the hold up. If interpreted in Salem Witch Persuasive, a certain way, the opening can be seen as a reflexive commentary. White Heat has as much in common, if not more, with the 1930s gangster cycle as with the film noir. Cody Jarrett, like Roy Earle in High Sierra , is author of the party, a throwback to the prohibition era: a man behind the times; it is 1949 and the gangster collective has given away to the individualistic noir anti-hero. The train hold up is reminiscent of the Persuasive Speech:, era of the Perception Essay, western, when train hold ups were common. Salem Witch Speech. If this allusion is conscious, then it is a reflection of the anachronistic current running throughout White Heat . I will now move on to the two examples from Perception in Other's Eyes Group B2 (linear/powerfully emphatic), The Set Up and The Letter . Group B2: Linear/Powerfully Emphatic.

The Set-Up (Robert Wise, 1949) Description : (There is a title sequence of a boxing fight. All that is visible are the boxers legs. One of the fighters collapses to the canvas. Speech: Trials Persuasive Speech. Fade out.) Fade in.

The opening shot begins high above street level, parallel to a street clock in the right foreground; it reads 9:05. On the extreme right we see a hotels neon sign. On the street level in the background is another huge sign: Paradise City (the wrestling/boxing arena). The camera cranes forward past the clock and toward street level. Another neon sign becomes visible: Dreamland. On the Advertisements Essay, soundtrack we hear jazz music and a loud teenager selling the evening paper complete with fight card. There is a cut to a man selling only Salem Witch fight cards. (From his drawl we can correctly infer that he is an ex-boxer.) The youngster walks in a Grecian Urn Essay, screen right, directly in front of the Speech:, man and continues selling his paper. A Grecian. The camera dollies in to a two shot.

The man pleads: Hey, I gotta make a buck too. The brash youngster replies: Ah, go take a walk. Cut to Speech: Salem Witch Speech, the dejected man. Camera pans with him as he exits frame right and fixes on American Advertisements Essay a group of people purchasing tickets. The central figures are a blind man and his male companion. Camera pans with them left as they enter the arena. Another man enters frame left and the camera follows him to another group of people. A quick reframe settles on a shot of two women. Persuasive Trials Persuasive. The following conversation takes place: First Woman (without hat): I dont know why I let George talk me into coming. Second Woman: (very sarcastically) Why Harriett, I thought you liked the fights. First Woman: Like them, last time I kept my hands over my eyes the whole time.

The camera reframes right (the corner of the building) to another shot of Essay, two men standing at the fight poster discussing who to place bets on. Speech: Salem Trials Persuasive. Stoker Thompsons (Robert Ryan) age is the butt of a joke. They exit frame left and the camera turns slightly and Essay and Enforcement, dollies in to the poster. The Stoker Thompson vs. Tiger Nelson fight line commands center frame.

An arm enters frame left and Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive, strikes a match over Thompsons name. Camera reframes left to follow the match to the cigarette. Another two shot, of a short, balding man and a taller, sweaty and unkept man. Perception Eyes. (The taller man is Tiny, Stokers manager and Persuasive Salem Trials Persuasive, the other Red, his corner man.) They enter the author of the, Ringside Cafe. Tiny meets alone with another man and in a series of shot reverse shots we discover that he has thrown the nights upcoming fight for Witch Trials Speech, the short money ($50.00). Tiny and Red leave the cafe. Tiny cheats Red on his cut by a Grecian, telling him that their share was only Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive $30.00.

We also find out that to save Stokers cut Tiny has not informed Stoker about the set up. Red remains unsettled at the idea of Stoker being kept in the dark. The camera follows them to American Essay, a point then dollies in Persuasive Speech: Witch Speech, quickly to Stoker Thompsons name on the fight poster. (The camera then pans 90 degrees to a hotel across the street, signalling the subsequent scene with Stoker and his girlfriend in the hotel room.) Interpretation and Insights : This impressive opening is motivated narrationally and reverberationally. It informs us of the major drama and poses a central macro question: will Stoker follow suit and lose as usual or will he upset the balance with a victory? One of the interesting features of this opening is that it introduces several minor but key characters.

The punch drunk vendor for example, who we later find out is one of Stokers biggest fans, remains a constant reminder of where Stoker may be heading. More importantly perhaps are the host of characters who will reappear during the fight scene as key spectators. Throughout the fight scene there are reaction cuts to Ode on Urn Essay, the spectators. Director Robert Wise does not paint a pretty picture of the boxing fan (or human nature). Wise portrays the fan as a blood thirsty savage who vicariously indulges his/her deep, primordial urges (catharsis?). For example, the blind man, who has the fight recounted to Persuasive Speech: Salem Speech, him blow by blow by his friend, remarks in a viscious tone: Why dont he work on that eye. The worse culprit is the hypocritical woman who in the opening laments going to the fights and then behaves like an animal during the fights. Whereas most of the a doll's, noir openings introduce the Salem Witch Trials Speech, lead character in the flesh, in The Set Up Stokers presence is felt equally strong through other means: his name on the fight poster, the people who discuss him, and the punch drunk vendor. The expositional nature of the opening goes beyond plot advancement (narrational motivation) to the more complex reverberational motivation.

Most of the a doll's script, films themes are echoed within the opening: corruption, lost dreams, father time, and the cruel and hypocritical side of human nature. The opening shot cranes past a large clock, establishing the real time structure while symbolizing the inevitable reality every aging boxer must face. Visible are the signs Paradise City and Trials, Dreamland, a not too subtle reference to American, the washed up boxers lost dreams. The punch drunk vendor trying to eke out a living selling fight cards is Witch Trials Persuasive, overshadowed by Jurisdiction and Enforcement, the aggressive youngster, exposing the Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech, capitalist version of Social Darwinism. Stokers manager Tiny has a highly dubious moral and Ode on a Grecian, ethical system.

Not only does he cheat Red, in all likelihood his only friend, but his fighter. The boxing world once again stands in as a micrososm of corruption in society. The first few shots establish the space of the film: hotel, fight arena, and cafe. Outside of a few scenes with Stokers girlfriend Julie, the Persuasive Salem Trials Speech, film is confined to this area. Metaphorically, Stokers own life has also been confined to a similar space: dingy hotel rooms, arenas, and bars/cafes. A recurring camera movement during this opening, the quick pan and/or reframe, will play a key role in another of the films great scenes. After winning the fight Stoker is left by himself to answer to the irate gamblers. On Court And Enforcement. He tries to elude them but is eventually cornered in a dark alley. He struggles but is pinned to Persuasive Speech: Trials Speech, the ground by several men. The leader, Little Boy, gives the signal to commence the savage beating and the camera quickly pans to a shadowed reflection of a jazz band on a nearby wall, the frenzied music standing in for the beating. (This exact same tactic is used in The Sweet Smell of edgar allen, Success (Alexander Mackendrick, 1957) and, with variation, by Sam Fuller in Underworld USA , 1961.) An unusual feature of the film is Persuasive Salem Trials, its strict accordance to real time. The film is 72 minutes.

The credits last just under one minute. The clock in the opening shot reads 9:05. Perception Essay Example. The final shot cranes back past the same clock, now reading 10:16, perfectly accounting for the remaining 71 minutes of screen/story time. There is a fade out at the end of the credit sequence, a fade in to the film and a final fade out at the end. (Since the credit sequence is bridged by fades it is temporally distanced from the film and hence its action a boxer being knocked out serves as a metaphor for Stokers less than successful boxing career.) Outside of these three fades all other transitions in the film are straight cuts. At that period in the evolution of the language of Speech: Witch Trials Persuasive, film style the a doll's script, fade/dissolve/wipe were common transitional schemata depicting varying time lapses. The unadorned cut was used to join shots which succeeded each other in continuous temporal order. This usually meant either shots within one established locale or scenes occurring simultaneously (crosscutting). Being a former editor Robert Wise was as conscious of this as anyone.

Therefore, to Persuasive Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, emphasize the temporal structure of the film (screen time=story time) Wise begins and ends on a clock and uses the straight cut exclusively. I can not be sure, but would be willing to bet that The Set-Up is the only Hollywood film of the 1940s not to employ a fade, dissolve, or wipe (excluding the beginning and end). What intrigues me the most about this realistically motivated aesthetic choice is the rhetorical question of garden party, whether or not the Salem Persuasive, audience at script that time consciously made the connection between the exclusive use of the cut and the temporal structure of the film. It is obvious that this was a conscious choice on the part of the filmmakers, but how did the Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech, audience react? The use of the fade/dissolve/wipe was a part of the 1940 audience mental set, but how closely attuned to their own mental sets were they? They could perceive their presence but how about their absence? Were they conscious of the lack of a fade, dissolve, and wipe and the tell poe, accord that to the strategy of real time, or was it something they felt intuitively? My guess is that the latter would be more likely, hence certain mental sets may be intuitively felt more than cognitively realized. In fact I would say that, on Persuasive Speech a cognitive level, the opening and closing shots of the clock trigger the temporal strategy of the film more than the exclusive use of the edgar, cut. Persuasive Witch Speech. (That is, to an average viewer.)

On one of my viewings of The Set-Up I kept track of the cuts and counted 630. Allowing for a margin of error, this works out to an approximate average shot length of 6.8 seconds, faster than the average of that period (9) but well within Bordwells bound alternative. On Court. My brief research reveals the limitations of such studies. Persuasive Trials Persuasive Speech. The 6.8 ASL might persuade someone who hasnt seen the film to infer that The Set-Up does not employ much mise en scene (long takes, depth of field, mobile camera, intricate blocking) but rather that it derives more of its stylistic meaning from the editing. Essay And Enforcement. The cutting in The Set-Up is excellent, and used for more than just moving the Salem Witch Trials, story along, but the ASL does not reveal that a great percentage of the cuts, (approx. 311) occur during the fight scene, which takes up approximately 24 minutes (one third) of screen/story time.

Away from the fight scene and fight scenes are always cut quickly the ASL is much higher. Indeed there are several intricate and important long takes in The Set-Up . A Doll's. Therefore the Persuasive Speech: Salem Trials Speech, ASL is Advertisements, not always an accurate indication of shooting style for Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, someone who has not seen the film in question. A better assessment of the films statistical measures would be a scene by scene average, which would then reveal precisely where and when the American, average shot length varies. The Letter (William Wyler, 1940) Description : Although the opening lasts 1545 I will only describe the most important section, the Witch Persuasive, first 545. The film begins with a night shot of the moon. The shot dissolve to Ode on, a sign Rubber Co. Singapore, Plantation No. 1 and then to a tree trunk.

The camera tilts down the trunk to a bucket collecting sap. The camera cranes up and away from the tree and Persuasive Witch, left to right across the workers sleeping area. Ode On. Workers are seen lying on hammocks, sleeping, resting, playing chess, etc. The camera cranes up to a second level and Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, continues over the straw roof; (Dissolve) the camera is still tracking L-R. A Grecian. A cottage is visible in Salem Witch Trials Speech, the background. A gunshot is heard. A man stumbles out of the Essay on Court and Enforcement, door onto the front porch; a woman is seen following behind him. A second gunshot is heard and (cut) to dogs awakening to the sound. Persuasive Salem Witch Persuasive Speech. Three shots of the workers ensue. The third gunshot is followed by a closer shot of the incident. The man, in the tell tale poe, the foreground, falls down below the frame while the woman (Bette Davis as Leslie Crosby), dressed in black, follows him down the stairs, emptying out the revolver.

She slowly brings her gun hand down and drops the Speech: Salem Trials Speech, gun. Essay Jurisdiction. The camera dollies in to Trials Persuasive, a close-up. Her face is still, emotionless. Cut to the disturbed workers. The fourth shot is a close-up of a man looking out from behind bamboo bars. He glances upward and there is a cut to his POV : the moon moving behind a dark cloud. Cut back to Essay on Court Jurisdiction and Enforcement, the close-up. The frame is now considerably darker and growing increasingly darker. Cut to a medium shot of Leslie, also in high angle and in partial darkness. Speech: Trials. Cut to a reverse shot above her left shoulder; Leslie looks down at Essay the corpse lying at the bottom of the steps. During the course of the shot the light pattern and intensity alters according to the position of the Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, moon and the clouds.

As the frame lightens Leslies harsh shadow becomes visible across the corpses back. She turns quickly and Ode on a Grecian, glances up to the sky. Cut to her POV of the moon coming out from behind the clouds, with a cut back to Leslie. She returns her attention to the corpse. Cut to a frontal shot. The back lighting casts her in a semi-silhouette. Cut back to Speech:, the reverse shot; Leslie exits frame left (up the stairs). On Court Jurisdiction. Cut to a servant running toward the cottage and stopping at the sight of the corpse. Leslie invites the servant into the cottage.

She orders the servant to send someone to inform her husband, working on a nearby plant, and the district officer about the incident. Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech. The servant remains in the living room. Leslie walks to her bedroom, opens the tale edgar allen, Venetian doors and calmly shuts them behind her. The camera remains fixed on Persuasive Salem Trials Speech the Venetian doors long enough to capture the Urn Essay, nuance as Leslie turns the lights on. This brings us up to the 345 mark of the opening. The next few shots are of her husband and district officer being summoned and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive, their arrival at the cottage. The husband, Robert Crosby (George Marshall) attempts to open the bedroom door but finds it still locked: Leslie darling, its Robert. Seconds later the Perception in Other's example, door slowly opens and Leslie cautiously exits the room. My reason for ending at this point will soon become apparent. Interpretation and Insights : This is one of the rare openings where reverberational motivation overpowers all else.

The murder, which triggers the story and Persuasive Speech: Trials Persuasive, sets the drama in gear, is the tell allen poe, secondary to the overlaying symbolism. The symbolism centers on the timeless theme of the doppelganger, a common motif in expressionism and Salem Witch Speech, film noir. It pervades the entire film and Perception in Other's Eyes Essay example, is animated in a variety of interesting ways (to varying degrees of originality and Persuasive Speech: Witch Trials Speech, subtlety). The moon, the image on which the film opens and closes, is a doll's script, used as a symbol of both oncoming death and the imminent duality of human nature. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Trials Speech. Its position in relation to the clouds establishes the light/dark, good/evil patterning which dominates the film in nearly every facet: actual shifts in lighting intensity, lighting patterns, chiaroscuro, clothing, characters, and the tell tale heart allen poe, narrative structure. Speech: Trials Speech. In one way or another these elements are established in the opening. The opening and closing scenes of the film mirror each other.

One begins and author of the garden party, the other ends with a shot of the Persuasive Salem Persuasive Speech, moon; also, the death of of the, Mr. Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Persuasive Speech. Hammond in the opening is visually linked to Leslies death in the final scene by the same moon/clouds lighting pattern. The shift in Advertisements Essay, light intensity within a continuous shot occurs several times in the opening (close-up of the worker behind the bamboo bars, the reverse shot of Leslie, the Salem Persuasive Speech, Venetian doors) and is repeated throughout the film. Symmetrical shadows are also used to reflect the splintering of the soul. The light/dark patterning is also reflected in the clothing. In Other's Eyes. This will become most evident later in the film but is cued in the opening. During the murder Leslie is wearing a long, dark dress. The victim, Mr. Hammond, is wearing a dark top and white trousers. Persuasive Speech: Persuasive Speech. All the other characters surrounding Leslie wear either all white (or light) or predominantly light clothing (her servant, the workers, the a doll's house, district officer, her husband, and Speech: Salem, the lawyer).

Allowing for obvious symbolism, what has been established thus far is that Leslie is all evil, Mr. Hammond grey and the others all good. This may seem too facile, obvious, or coincidental, until a subsequent event resoundingly confirms the symbolism. Moments after the murder Leslie sends for Perception example, her husband and district officer and Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech, waits inside her locked bedroom. We do not see her again for two minutes as the scene switches to the exterior. In story time this intervening period is not long, perhaps fifteen or twenty minutes.

Her husband arrives and she exits the bedroom. Leslie is now wearing a white blouse and house, a black skirt, the reversal of Persuasive Speech, Mr. Hammonds clothing pattern. Ode On A Grecian. I did not detect this subtle change until the fourth or fifth viewing. Speech:. The probable reason is author of the garden party, that the intervening two minutes obscures ones memory for such detail. The color coded symbolism becomes obvious in Witch Persuasive, the scenes between Leslie and Mrs. Hammond (Gale Sondergaard): Leslie dressed in white and Mrs. Hammond in black. Leslies shifting color pattern is an externalisation of her immediate mental state.

It is the tell tale heart poe, no coincidence that the final two shots of the film are of Persuasive Speech: Salem Witch Speech, a veil hanging over a chair and of the moon. The fact that there is only one micro/macro question in this opening (Is Leslie a murderess?) is Ode on a Grecian, emblematic of its motivational factor. A narrational or compositional motivation deposits salient questions. The more subtle reverberational motivation can also expose concrete questions, but when it dominates as strongly as in The Letter it establishes mood and foreshadowing elements, rather than obvious narrational/plot questions. It relies heavily on intuition, retroactive thinking, and, sometimes, repeated viewings. 1 For instance, in a Hollywood film you will never encounter a shooting style as radical as an Persuasive Witch Trials Persuasive Speech, Eisenstein (short shots) or Jansco (excessive long takes). Eyes Essay Example. The bound alternative Bordwell speaks of rests somewhere in between the extremes ( Classical , p.62). 2 This triad of semantic and syntactical parameters was developed in conversation with Ian Jarvie while a graduate student at York University.

3 A subjective camera shot is described by Edward Branigan as a shot in which the camera assumes the Salem, position of a subject in on Court and Enforcement, order to show us what the subject sees (p.103). Speech: Salem Witch Trials Persuasive Speech. There are many nuances when dealing with a subjective POV , but for my purposes this is fine. Branigan calls this an optical POV . Throughout the paper I will use subjective and optical interchangeably. For complete bibliographic references see end of Part 2. Donato Totaro has been the editor of the online film journal Offscreen since its inception in 1997. Totaro received his PhD in Film Television from the University of Warwick (UK), is on Court Jurisdiction, a part-time professor in Film Studies at Concordia University (Montreal, Canada) and a longstanding member of AQCC (Association quebecoise des critiques de cinema). A Left-Handed Form of Human Endeavour: Narrative Comparisons Contrasts Between the Noir Heist Films The Asphalt Jungle and The Killing.

Film Noir: A Study in Narrative Openings, Part 2. Singapore Sling : Postmodern Noir, Narrative, and Destructive Desire. History and Persuasive Salem Witch Speech, Time as a Fork in the Square. Notes on Essay Jurisdiction Notes on the Cinematographer. Susan Sontag: Against Interpretation?

1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.