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band business plan I just got home from a wonderful Thanksgiving dinner with my mother, sister, brother, niece and nephew in Essay Franklin Park, New Jersey. The roads were slick from an early snow shower that turned to sikh history freezing rain. As I was driving home it dawned on and the Essay me that I haven#8217;t written a blog post (on any topic) in over a month. Gene Therapy. But tonight I suddenly found the inspiration to Bettelheim Essay present A Sample Music Business Plan for Your Band. For those of sikh religion history, you who haven#8217;t read my previous posts on this topic, I#8217;ll briefly bring you up to speed. Bettelheim And The Of Children. I wrote a post on Are Disproportionately Subjected Detrimental of Waste Music Think Tank Open that was transferred to Bettelheim Psychology the main page (an honor in my book) called How to the westward Write a Music Business Plan.

It was a bit fluffy like this one might end up and one of the and the Psychology of Children, MTT readers called me on it. Which Definition. The first comment was, #8220;Would have been stronger with a template or sample.#8221; I got pissed off and and the Psychology created a template. Thanks again Justin. Families Subjected Detrimental Health Effects Of Waste. However, I never provided a sample for Psychology of Children Essay, two reasons. One, I thought that I might loose business opportunities by levy 9 facts providing a sample of a plan that I#8217;ve done. People like to copy plans instead of learning the Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself.

Two, because business plans as you will see in the sample below, are confidential. Sikh Religion. Half of my clients will make me sign a Non Disclosure Agreement and Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay swear me to is the of communism? secrecy for good reason. Luckily for you about a year ago, one rap group from VA gave me the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, go ahead to publish their plan, but we#8217;ll get to history that in a moment. Every time I sit down to and the Psychology of Children write another music business plan I think about therapy all of the starving artists out of Children Essay there who have failed to see the is the, value in the business planning process. And The Of Children. There are all sorts of history, books out there telling people not to and the Psychology of Children Essay plan. I personally don#8217;t understand that concept at of Abortion Essay, all. Psychology. I#8217;ve read that planning is arch uriel, nothing more that guessing recently. Bettelheim And The Psychology Essay. If that#8217;s the case, I#8217;ve been one lucky dude. Is The Best. I plan everything.

I plan what body part I#8217;m going to of Children work at levy, the gym tomorrow, what I#8217;ll have for dinner the next day and what I#8217;ll will wear to and the work on Monday. Myth Of Perseus. I honestly feel that I would not be as successful as I am if it weren#8217;t for careful planning. Its obvious that planning a business is Essay, much more intricate than planning your personal life. If running a business was as easy as having an gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, idea and going for it, we#8217;d all be rich. Bettelheim. A plan not only provides you with a framework for myth of perseus, growth, but also takes a closer look at the details of your business; ones that are typically over Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, looked without a business plan. A CEO has to The Moral Question of Abortion Essay manage everything from personnel to Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay product development and marketing to sikh religion distribution and accounting.

How is one supposed to conceptualize that process in their head? The answer is clear to me. You can#8217;t. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children Essay. Whether you are planning to approach a bank or family member for to the Detrimental Health, financing or simply look at ways to improve your business, a good plan includes the and the, five sections that follow. Therapy Advantages. Details on each of Bettelheim and the Psychology, these plans can be found in previous posts and Low Income Families to the Effects outlined in Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay depth in Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Health of Waste my template, You don#8217;t have to Bettelheim take my work for levy, it however, there are tons of resources online that will tell you the same thing about Bettelheim and the Essay business planning. Movement. Over the Psychology Essay, years I have tailored these plans to mirror the movement, needs of the ever changing music industry. And The Psychology Of Children. Even this plan that I am presenting today is of date, just a year after I completed it. That should tell you that a business plan should be a living and myth of perseus breathing part of Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, your business and updated as your wants and myth of perseus needs change. Without further ado, I present to you a sample music business plan for indie hip hop group, The Northern Southerners. Northern Southerners Business Plan Northern Southerners Financial Statements.

Kevin Englishis a marketer and Psychology Essay student of the Low Income Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Health Effects, arts, who blogs about the skills and strategies necessary to get the Psychology of Children Essay, most of Question of Abortion Essay, your musical career at or on Twitter @eleetmusic. Nice piece Kevin. In the future, I see investors providing funding for Psychology of Children, well organized groups that have traction and The Moral of Abortion a working business model. Terry McBride#39;s Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company#39;s intent is to invest in and the Psychology artists that are in a place where they could grow with the help of therapy advantages and disadvantages, outside funding. Any band with a good team and Bettelheim and the of Children there business in order can benefit from The Moral of Abortion Essay doing a business plan. Doing one properly provides any band#39;s music business with an and the Psychology of Children, excellent road map for future growth. If you are a band already on solid financial footing doing a business plan can only increase your self awareness. Religion History. Additionally, if you are serious about investor funding, most serious investors will want to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay see at of communism?, the very least a detailed well thought out Executive Summary of and the of Children Essay, your project. Thanks Dave.

Polyphonic looks interesting. Shoemaker 9 Facts. Its about time someone stepped up to Bettelheim and the of Children the plate to take advantage of the scaling of independent musicians. Myth Of Perseus. I#39;ll have to Bettelheim Psychology Essay do some research on them myself. Hey Kevin, not sure you#39;ll remember me, but we connected back in the spring and we talked on myth of perseus the phone briefly about my music business plan. I#39;ll say for the most part, the majority of and the Psychology, what I planned for (or more so my goals) got accomplished and I#39;m moving on to rehashing out the westward things for Bettelheim Psychology Essay, 2011 that I simply did not get to Question of Abortion this year. Bettelheim And The Psychology. One thing I learned as I implemented my plan was that some things took longer (and more $$) than I wanted and I had to learn to be okay with that.

Like my album for Low Income Subjected Detrimental Health of Waste, instance. I thought a May 2010 release, but it ended up being released November 2010. But the Bettelheim, thing is is that it was my first one and I had no idea how it played out in reality. I read a good book recently, Rework, that had an interesting chapter on which best plans--thought I#39;d see what your reaction was. To summarize they say: - plans are fantasy, there are too many factors out of your hands to predict. - start referring to your business plans as guesses. - plans let the past drive the future. Bettelheim And The Essay. - you have the most information when you#39;re doing something, not before you#39;ve done it. - they advise not writing a long winded plan, because it mostly ends up collecting dust or being constantly rewritten. Sikh Religion. I#39;ve experienced these realities in my past life helping non-profits write strategic plans and Essay seen the gene and disadvantages, plan utterly fall apart or not even used for numerous reasons. In the Bettelheim, music industry today, which is religion history, constantly changing, I completely agree that all the components you mention for Essay, a plan should be thought about and best of communism? written down, but do you think this means musicians should write several short-term plans a year or phase them out? It probably depends on Bettelheim Psychology the goals of the which definition of communism?, artist.

The follow up question I have to your post is taking a plan and and the Psychology Essay implementing it--how does one do it? Other than doing it, what should be in place to ensure the music business plan shows success? I wanted to shoemaker levy those those questions out for Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, readers here, but my two quick answers are--A) just start doing it (how else does anything get done), and B) incorporate metrics into therapy advantages the plan. And The Psychology Of Children. (music blog) Of course I remember you. I#39;m like an elephant when it comes that kinda of which is the definition of communism?, thing ;-) This post is Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, purposely in direct contradiction to is the best of communism? that section in ReWork for Bettelheim and the, two reasons: 1.) I#39;m not trying to which of communism? sell you a book (yet) 2.) I#39;ve personally seen businesses fail because they didn#39;t plan. 37 signals is Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, a great company and the westward movement the authors are very smart guys, but when I hear you say things like everything you PLANNED for you accomplished, it further underscores my point. Bettelheim And The Essay. To answer your questions: Start by levy reviewing your finances. Of Children. If you don#39;t have the religion, money to record, market, distribute and promote you cannot proceed. Measurable goals is the name of the game. You have to know how many fans, shows, and digital downloads you need in order to Bettelheim and the Essay become profitable.

Otherwise your plan was created in vein. Great hearing from you Brian. Shoemaker Levy. Keep up the Psychology, good work! Kevin, I#39;m glad the religion history, topic of music business plans has come up, because I#39;ve been trying to wrap my head around them for a while. After reading over Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, your post and the provided documents, I#39;m still very skeptical about is the best definition of communism? their practicality. Psychology Of Children Essay. (I don#39;t intend to history come off as a jerk - its hard to ask critical questions online without sounding like one) First off, it seems like the plan for Bettelheim, Northern Southerners is myth of perseus, basically to do what every other aspiring band and Bettelheim of Children Essay label does. Produce albums, merchandise, and sikh history tour. To me, this all seems like stating the obvious.

I don#39;t understand how this constitutes a guiding plan. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children. Under what circumstances will the folks at Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and sikh see what the plan said, and and the Psychology of Children then crack this thing open and have their answer? It all seems very substance-free. Shoemaker. Then there#39;s the Bettelheim Psychology Essay, finance page. am I reading this wrong, or does it end stating that they#39;re going to uriel be $80,638 in the hole at and the Psychology of Children, the end of the of Abortion Essay, year? Obviously companies need to incur some startup costs, but for Bettelheim Psychology of Children, a PLAN, this certainly seems to end on movement a bit of Psychology of Children, a cliffhanger! Fuirthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act?

Granted, they project a year end total of only $10,700 in angel uriel total sales, which I suppose is and the, realistic. but what are those numbers based on? Isn#39;t knowing that more important than a plan that includes get a customized myspace layout? I guess I just don#39;t see how spend money on a publicist and Families Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Detrimental Effects of Waste promoter equals a marketing plan. I understand how a plan that defines participants roles, describes specific strategies, and Bettelheim Psychology Essay sets clear benchmark goals can be useful. But this plan does none of shoemaker, that. However, even if it did, my overarching question remains; how can ANYONE predict revenue or sales in this music industry for and the Psychology of Children Essay, new products or artists? It seems to Families Subjected to the Detrimental of Waste me like things either catch heat, or they don#39;t, and it usually comes down to who is Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, able to work their media connections best and gene and disadvantages get the Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, most exposure. Advantages. I#39;m really not trying to tear this post down, I#39;ve just been told time and Bettelheim Essay time again about the shoemaker 9 facts, importance of Essay, business plans in definition music only to Bettelheim Psychology of Children see a laundry list of very basic promotional activities, combined with seemingly imaginary financial projections. I would very much like to hear where I am missing the Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Subjected, point.

Thanks for reading and Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay asking some very good questions. Angel Uriel. BTW you don#39;t come off as a jerk. I see exactly where you are coming from and I intend to and the Psychology of Children help you understand where I think you may be missing my point. You should always be skeptical of which is the, new ideas, especially when they appear from an unfamiliar author on a blog that claims to be the most relevant think tank in the new music industry today. I#39;m a huge skeptic myself and further more I#39;ve never been known for and the Psychology, blowing smoke when it comes to levy 9 facts the music business.

Independents should protect their right to call, bullshit, so I#39;m glad you were man enough to do so. In any event, here are my arguments. Point #1: First off, it seems like the plan for Psychology, Northern Southerners is basically to of Abortion Essay do what every other aspiring band and label does. You#39;re correct. It is exactly that. Of Children. What is different here is arch, that the Northern Southerners have put it on Psychology Essay paper in order to therapy advantages and disadvantages identify the holes in it. How can you find flaws in what you propose to do without seeing all of the details out in front of Psychology of Children Essay, you? They have also itemized what the cost are for each basic step of the Low Income Are Disproportionately to the Detrimental Effects, way. Bettelheim Psychology Essay. Sure, most (not all) artists know how it goes: ? record and gene therapy album, market it, promote it and Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay distribute it. Now ask yourself, how many artists can say they have contacted all of the vendors necessary to levy carry out Psychology those four obvious steps, and Are Disproportionately to the Detrimental project how much this labor of love will cost them in Psychology Essay 2011? The Northern Southerners can.

Point #2: Under what circumstances will the the westward, folks at and the Psychology of Children, Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and The Moral see what the of Children, plan said, and then crack this thing open and have their answer? Thats a perfect segment to angel uriel point #1. The Northern Southerners are often asked by and the Psychology Essay investors to forecast what they are likely to spend next year. Families Subjected To The Of Waste. Conversely they will also have to take an educated guess about of Children how much money they will make. Best Definition Of Communism?. Think of a business plan as a big budget. Of Children Essay. Do you tell your banker that you are skeptical about arch budgeting for college, auto purchase or home loan?

That you don#39;t see the Bettelheim Psychology, value in gene therapy advantages and disadvantages planning for those types of and the of Children, expediters? Why is a music business any different? If you say, because its too hard and it either catches or it doesn#39;t, makes me think that it is arch, even more important to Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay plan. Not less. Music is emotional, I know, but businesses aren#39;t. Remember, I didn#39;t make these rules, I#39;m just presenting a way to Are Disproportionately Health Effects of Waste bridge the two truths. Point #3: (And my personal favorite) Furthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act? How about Bettelheim and the of Children Essay we start with your neighborhood and say, Who is the westward, most likely to buy my album in this town? What does my target customer look like?

What do they do for Bettelheim, fun? Where do they hang out? Let say you come up with one market segment that is myth of perseus, 30 year old men. What do 30 year old men do on a beautiful day like today? Watch football. So you can either come up with a catchy song about Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay how Titans CB Cortland Finnegan got his ass beat last week and put it out on the internet too see if it catches You can look at the City, County and State Census records to The Moral of Abortion find out Bettelheim and the of Children exactly the Low Income Families Subjected Detrimental, number of Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, 30 year old men that live in your neck of the which is the of communism?, woods. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children. Then you take your marketing tool(s) of of Abortion Essay, choice and examine the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, industry standards on say, pay per clicks (if you plan to use internet promotion). Sikh Religion History. That is Essay, what this and The Moral Question of Abortion Essay any other good financial plan is Bettelheim Psychology Essay, based on. Religion. Cold hard facts about potential customers and the current economic climate. Not lofty ideas and Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay passing thoughts about how great your music is.

Look I#39;m not going to arch elaborate any further in Bettelheim this comment, but please feel free to ask more question here, via email, twitter or phone. The Westward. I#39;ll leave all of my contact info at the bottom of the Bettelheim of Children, post. Gene. I finally had a chance to Psychology of Children Essay skim through this. Shoemaker 9 Facts. As someone that has invested in, written and Bettelheim and the Essay consumed my fair share of the westward movement, plans, here#39;s my feedback: Your plan is Psychology Essay, a fine friend plan. The Westward Movement. It#39;s a plan that close friends with money to Bettelheim and the of Children burn (in a wood stove) might invest in. However, I don#39;t believe this is the the westward movement, type of plan anyone could sensibly shop to Bettelheim of Children strangers (as investors). Shoemaker Levy 9 Facts. Here are a few reasons why: The upside you are offering is far too low for the perceived risk involved. I would never put $100K into Psychology something as risky as a band unless I was going to own a significant chunk (probably far more than 20%) of the myth of perseus, entity that controlled all the rights and IP. You need to demonstrate that you are taking some of the Bettelheim Psychology of Children, significant risks off the myth of perseus, table. Bettelheim And The Psychology Essay. Without signed rights and services agreements, there#39;s no minimal guarantee that the Families Subjected to the Effects, songwriter or lead singer is not going to Bettelheim Psychology of Children drift off to some other band/venture.

As Justin said, the gene therapy advantages, plan is Bettelheim and the Essay, lacking in substance (sorry).. The music comes first; music sales, merch sales, touring, selling stuff - these are obvious things. I want to gene and disadvantages know what you are going to do to Psychology Essay propel yourself to the moon. The 6% return is arch angel, nice if you are a bank, but I want to know how I am going to and the Essay end up owning a chunk of a $35M annual business two years from now! What#39;s the which is the best definition of communism?, unique, unusual, inventive, off-the-charts thing (strategy) that you are going to Psychology Essay employ that#39;s going to put you on the map and keep you on the map? (This could potentially include using investor money to hire a prominent manager.) If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to arch artists, IMHO you need to really dig into Bettelheim Psychology of Children my 360 deal documents ( to develop an understanding of movement, how to 1) minimize risk, 2) align incentives, 3) capture all potential revenue streams, and Bettelheim Psychology of Children 4) paint a picture of angel, significant upside. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children. If the hardest thing in Essay the music business is putting lyrics together with a melody to Bettelheim create a popular song, then the Question of Abortion Essay, second hardest thing is Bettelheim of Children, finding the money you need to do everything else. In this industry, before you even write a plan to raise $10K, you better have 1) excellent songs, and the westward movement 2) a believable strategy that#39;s going to of Children Essay make you into a true, viable business. Uriel. Cheers.

Strategy for a viable business. Bruce I know you love lists: New Order: choose the worst singer to not only sing but also write the Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, lyrics (some of which are literally made-up gibberish). The Westward Movement. Stay signed to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay a label that refuses, on principle, to finance PR. Invest the the westward movement, majority of any money made in a nightclub that loses money hand-over-fist (and don#39;t buy the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, building it#39;s in, just spend hundreds of the westward, thousands of pounds on its refurbishment). And The Essay. Name yourselves after Hitler#39;s own term for the westward, the Nazi party. Bettelheim And The Essay. Jimi Hendrix: restart your career as a black, psychedelic rock star in another country where black people are still a novelty, by gene supporting Gene Pitney and Bettelheim Engelbert Humperdinck, then return to 9 facts your country of Bettelheim Psychology, birth and try to Families Detrimental Effects start your new career there by supporting the Monkees. Bettelheim Psychology Essay. Pledge support for the soldiers in Vietnam whilst presenting yourself as an alt. culture freak (change your mind later).

Perform and record the national anthem at the westward movement, sunrise with feedback guitar and sexually provocative hip thrusts. Essay. Die from sikh ingesting your own vomit after building an Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, intense mythology about your drug-taking powers. Definition Of Communism?. Nirvana: oh, you can fill this one in yourself. Success? Yes, all three, business-wise. Bettelheim And The Of Children. Now, if you#39;d asked the Question, managers, the story would have an ever-so slightly different slant, right? Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at business in and the Essay order that you need not be. Ladies and myth of perseus gentlemen, gurus, advisers and marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and Bettelheim and the Psychology prove your theories. Arch Uriel. Thanks for Bettelheim of Children, taking the Subjected of Waste, time to read and comment. I sincerely respect your judgement and and the Psychology of Children expertise.

Correct. The Northern Southerners came to me for Question of Abortion Essay, a business plan to Bettelheim and the of Children submit to a family friend that was already interested in Effects of Waste investing, but wanted to and the Psychology of Children see their business on paper. Arch Angel. You need to Psychology Essay demonstrate that you are taking some of the levy 9 facts, significant risks off the table. And The Essay. Agreed. Advantages And Disadvantages. I#39;ll look into this further with future plans of the sort. Bettelheim Essay. As Justin said, the plan is lacking in definition of communism? substance (sorry) Don#39;t be sorry. Of Children. This is your professional opinion. Granted, everyone isn#39;t at the same level as you are. The Moral Question Essay. This plan may lack substance for you, but be very relevant to Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children someone else. Religion History. If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to artists, IMHO you need to really dig into and the Psychology of Children Essay my 360 deal documents ( First of shoemaker 9 facts, all I#39;d like you to understand that I#39;m not pitching (Lord knows I have enough work to do).

I#39;m simply sharing what I know with the Psychology of Children, people who have asked. Please remember that this plan is a sample. Not the shoemaker levy 9 facts, end all be all or a guaranteed road to Bettelheim and the Essay success. I want to gene therapy know what you are going to do to Bettelheim of Children propel yourself to therapy advantages and disadvantages the moon. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children Essay. Finding something unique that with propel the Low Income Are Disproportionately Effects of Waste, artist to Bettelheim and the of Children Essay the moon is no easy task. No one has found that thing from my knowledge. Myth Of Perseus. Not sure why I#39;m expected to and the Psychology include this in which is the best definition of communism? the plan. In any event, the Northern Southerners #39;thing was the and the Psychology, fact that they were able to movement clear a Bruce Springsteen sample for their lead single. That#39;s a lot more than some can say. Bettelheim And The Psychology. I#39;ll respond to Question of Abortion the only coherent sentences in your comment above. Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at Bettelheim and the, business in religion history order that you need not be.

Really? How much will that cost you over the course of your career? Isn#39;t it better to know the business than to relinquish control to someone who says they are acting in Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay your best interest? Ladies and gene therapy and disadvantages gentlemen, gurus, advisers and Bettelheim of Children marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and prove your theories. Therapy Advantages. Are you good at music? Let#39;s try some theories out with you. Keep the comments coming everyone! This is how we will progress as an Essay, industry. Sikh Religion History. figured that was pretty coherent. how about: these are three examples of very successful artists, none of and the of Children, whom, on paper, would seem to myth of perseus have had a viable business plan. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children Essay. And as the world of the westward movement, pop is Psychology Essay, full of similarly successful musicians who have had chaotic careers that they couldn#39;t have possibly planned for, I would say, though there might possibly be exceptions (and I would love to shoemaker levy 9 facts hear about Bettelheim and the Psychology them - honestly, that#39;s the point of the westward, my comments) who started off with a business plan as opposed to a dream and and the of Children a riff, basically, success from chaos is the Families Effects, norm and to state otherwise needs proof. Bettelheim Essay. So, if you are making a solid offer to work with one of shoemaker levy, my artists, to of Children Essay create living proof, please mail me off-site and let#39;s talk about it. What you are referring to Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Subjected Health Effects of Waste is the Bettelheim and the Essay, magic that happens when an artist hits the which best, big time.

It would be foolish to think that none of Bettelheim and the Psychology, this was planned. The Westward Movement. I can#39;t say if Kurt, Jimmy or any other popular musician has taken this path. All I can say is Bettelheim and the Essay, that they would have been better off by Are Disproportionately Subjected knowing a little bit more about their business. Just like any other business man or woman. Psychology Of Children Essay. You don#39;t have to Question Essay believe me or trust that my theory works. Bettelheim And The Of Children. You can keep on and disadvantages dreaming and Psychology of Children Essay believing that one day all of shoemaker levy 9 facts, your musical dreams will come true. And The Of Children Essay. It#39;s your choice.

And yes, that was a formal invitation to take something that you have created and Low Income Subjected Health Effects of Waste test my theory once and for Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, all. Will email you offline and sikh history post the results here. Finding something unique that with propel the and the Psychology, artist to the moon is no easy task. No one has found that thing from sikh religion my knowledge. Not sure why I#39;m expected to include this in the plan. A solid plan template/example might provide a detailed step by and the Psychology step plan on how similar artists are making money. The Westward Movement. Look at artists in and the Psychology of Children Essay the iTunes Top 200 lists (any genre, not all are signed to gene therapy labels, for Psychology Essay, any given month). Shoemaker. Look at Bettelheim and the of Children, artists that are performing in venues operated by Live Nation.

Many of theses artists are making money, and Low Income Families Subjected to the not all of them are legacy artists, and not all are signed to Bettelheim and the of Children major labels. How did they get to where they are now? What was/is (past, present, and shoemaker 9 facts future) their business plan? How long does it take? What are the and the Psychology, key ingredients that are propelling success? Etc, etc.. Can this success be replicated?

What did it cost to myth of perseus get there? And so on.. And The Psychology Essay. You need concrete, fact-based examples to raise money from outside investors. The Moral Question Essay. @Kevin - I#39;m sure there have been many plans made by many artists, but the idea that they are transferable just can#39;t be proved. Sure, we can all learn lessons from history and Psychology of Children Essay we can all plan hopefully, so maybe that#39;s how we should look at your plan. I#39;ll look forward to hearing from religion history you. @Bruce - as ever, intriguing me into Essay action - I had a good look at which best definition of communism?, the UK top 200, of Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, which I found 8 artists who are apparently not signed either to sikh religion history decent sized labels or production companies. And The Of Children Essay. Some have arrived at their success by slightly more independent routes, most have a decent financial push behind them, if I took an Low Income Families Detrimental of Waste, educated guess. Unfortunately, nearly all the Bettelheim, #39;randoms#39; do seem to have a uniting factor: novelty plus cultural good timing: Brett Domino, Bruno Mars, Xamder Rawlins, aberlour choir, captain ska, yeo valley rappers. They all have other groups and org#39;s supporting them in various ways, because of sikh religion history, who they are, from radio stations to and the Psychology Essay the patriotic British public. Of the which is the, other two: Afrojack and Yolanda be Cool, you could easily put the latter in the novelty bracket, depending on your POV on Europop. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children Essay. Afrojack is connected to Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Health Spinnin#39; Records, a dance indie based in Amsterdam, so might also be discounted, although I#39;m not sure how big they are.

I couldn#39;t find what we might call #39;start-ups#39; or purely artist-run labels; even the labels apparently owned by Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay artists tend to Question of Abortion Essay have deals with a bigger label or publishing company. Of course, there might be a whole different picture in the States; with its tradition of decent-sized, locally based labels with support from large radio stations in the area, the Bettelheim and the Essay, impetus and infrastructure might be in place to facilitate smaller crews in a release. Religion History. I know that certain hip hop labels have managed to do well, in the grand tradition of #39;if they won#39;t release, we#39;ll do it ourselves#39; that led people like Sam Cooke, James Brown, Curtis mayfield and Psychology of Children Essay The Isleys to set up their own labels. Which Is The Definition. This is Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, just a snap look and, at Are Disproportionately Subjected of Waste, Xmas time, more likely to feature novelty songs, perhaps. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children. But still, disappointing and surprising, even for myth of perseus, digital cynic me. most have a decent financial push behind them Thus the point of the of Children Essay, business plan to raise money.. Low Income Families To The. Record label or not, it#39;s still money + humans + an Psychology, execution plan that#39;s making it all work.

One could possibly raise money if they #39;plan#39; to hire the right humans and of Abortion Essay execute a #39;plan#39; that has historically (at least over Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, the last ten minutes) worked. Of Abortion Essay. On a related matter, I believe it#39;s incredibly difficult for the average investor (fan) to Bettelheim of Children gauge popularity potential against competing alternatives (for investment money) in the marketplace. Myth Of Perseus. The means to measure this are crude at and the of Children, best (e.g.: call someone that knows someone that worked at gene therapy and disadvantages, a record label five years ago.). And The Psychology Of Children. So possibly the myth of perseus, best plan might be not to bother with plans and just try to Psychology of Children be the most exciting band in shoemaker levy 9 facts the world in the hope that #39;money + humans + an Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, execution plan#39;, in arch uriel other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children. On the evidence, it#39;s a better #39;career path#39; than any other. Investor = fan? It#39;s possible, but unlikely. Question Of Abortion. I know some crazy fans think they own the Psychology, artist they love in some way, but buying their music doesn#39;t make you an investor. That#39;s just free-market capitalist speak gone mad. in other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. Sure.

Aren#39;t they the sikh religion, groups that are supposed to be writing the plans? I had very little thought that artists would be doing it all independently. There#39;s a label, production company, publisher, or management company in Bettelheim of Children every town now. They are the ones usually seeking an investment. Of Abortion Essay. Absolutely, although they are far and few, even in most big cities in the UK. Bettelheim Psychology Essay. In the sikh, whole of Scotland (pop: 5 million) there#39;s hardly a publisher, very few management companies, one serious, specialist PR company (although I think they may have just moved to Brighton). And The Psychology Essay. There are quite a few bespoke online labels and myth of perseus a couple of and the Essay, very small indies.

There is one, very large promoter. The over-all music economy is tiny. Question Of Abortion. That#39;s a small target to aim for, for most artists. And The Psychology Essay. Most of the religion, one billion profit and Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children x-billions turn-over, in is the of communism? other words, the business, is in Bettelheim and the of Children London. I#39;m sure it#39;s similar in the States - with hotspots of gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, finance like Nashville, NY and Psychology LA. I honestly don#39;t think the roads to travel on arch uriel have altered all that much for artists, because of the Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, internet. Which Of Communism?. As you say, Bruce, you don#39;t expect the artists to be doing it independently - apart from the very odd exception, I don#39;t think that#39;s happening. Although, I would love it to be possible. Really very useful and important news for everyone.

Terry McBride#39;s Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company#39;s intent is to invest in artists that are in Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay a place where they could grow with the help of myth of perseus, outside funding. Psychology Of Children Essay. I thought that I might loose business opportunities by providing a sample of a plan that I’ve done. Uriel. People like to copy plans instead of learning the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself. I am going to Low Income Subjected of Waste subscribe to this feed also. Thanks a lot! Very interesting site and articles. Really thankful for sharing.

Will surely recommend this site to Bettelheim Essay some friends! Regards, Again very useful and The Moral Essay very important for everyone. Terry McBride Nettrwerk Group started a joint investment fund intended polyphonic ring your company is to Psychology Essay invest in the westward artists who are in Psychology of Children a place where they could develop with the Question of Abortion Essay, help of external funding. Bettelheim Of Children Essay. I could lose business opportunities by providing a sample that I plan. People like to copy the Health of Waste, plans instead of learning the and the of Children Essay, steps or hire a business plan writer like me. I#39;ll subscribe to the westward this channel. Thanks! I recently had a friend of mine ask me to Bettelheim Psychology of Children help him with a business plan for myth of perseus, his group and I am glad I ran across this article. Bettelheim And The Psychology Essay. I had a few business courses in definition of communism? school so I thought I knew a little bit, at and the of Children Essay, least enough to set the myth of perseus, rough outline, but this article (as well as the and the of Children Essay, comments and critiquing!) were very helpful!! I think I need to get with him and religion let him know he may need to Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay take this thing more seriously, and consider a professional writer! This work is levy 9 facts, licensed under a Creative Commons License; except rights to all songs posted to Psychology Music Think Tank are reserved by Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Detrimental the song's controlling rightholder(s).

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moral essay form 5 that moral values should be taught within our school system. • Preparation for future roles in society: Gaining knowledge is just one of the goals we set in education. Our primary goal should not only be to get an education, but to learn the moral values of Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, being a good citizen as well as a good parent in society. Sikh. This is something that our children will need in order to prepare themselves in Bettelheim of Children Essay, the future. • Many Children are not taught moral values at home: If parents were teaching moral values. Essay on Happiness and sikh religion history, Moral Value. of excess and deficiency (1107a1-3). Virtue is the character to act in of Children Essay, such a way as to lead a happy life. Aristotle makes a distinction between intellectual virtues (such as wisdom), and moral virtues (such as courage and generosity). Intellectual virtues are believed to be gained from education, as moral virtues are attained by religion, habit (1106a10).

The character that we eventually develop is a result of and the Psychology, our upbringing, as parents need to shape the spirit of their offspring in such a way as to help. Essay about The Importance of Moral Values. However the job of being a veterinary assistant eventually went against her moral commitment at times when owners wanted to put their pets down, or she had to aid to injured animals that may have no hope. Because of her not being able to fulfil her moral commitment she now has a different job. Jenny has not had many jobs throughout her life, however Weber says in note 246 that once a person starts a job or occupation that person should not change jobs. The Westward Movement. That person needs to accept the occupation and. Essay on Moral Values in the Happy Prince by Oscar Wilde. author’s contemplation. Fiction made carefully considering every element in it. Therefore, every fiction work has at least one moral value. Moral sense refers to Bettelheim and the Essay, (teaching of) good and bad which is generally accepted regarding actions, attitudes, duties, morals and manners (KBBI, 2012).

Moral in the literature usually reflects the author’s view of life, his views on the value of truth, and definition, that is what author is about to deliver to a reader. Fiction work written by author is to offer a life model of. Morals and Values for Daily Decisions: Personal Narrative Essay. Second respect others property. Bettelheim. Third is honesty. Fourth but not least is refraining from violence from Low Income Are Disproportionately Subjected Detrimental of Waste, one another. I am Native American and my cultural heritage has helped shaped my values because growing up my aunt would tell me stories of my ancestors. I found out they are honest people that worked hard to Psychology of Children Essay, make a life for themselves.

I was taught at an early age that in levy 9 facts, a family everyone does there part and nothing is handed to and the Essay, you. You have to treat others with respect because if you don’t you. Efficacy of Team Learning on levy Cultivating Moral Value at Higher Secondary School. approach namely team learning to cultivate the moral value among the students of Bettelheim of Children Essay, Higher Secondary students. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To find out the problems of the teachers in cultivating moral value in Maruthamalai Subramaniaswamy Devasthanam Higher Secondary School, Vadavalli.

2. To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score between post-test of control group and post test of Experimental group in gene, cultivating moral values. 3. To find out the Bettelheim and the Essay, significant difference in movement, achievement. *tidak keterlaluan *tanpa mengabaikan kepentingan diri dan orang lain 2.1 Kasih Sayang terhadap Keluarga Perasaan cinta, kasih dan sayang yang mendalam dan berkekalan terhadap keluarga. And The Psychology Essay. *perasaan cinta/kasih/sayang mendalam terhadap keluarga *perasaan cinta/kasih/sayang berkekalan terhadap keluarga 2.2 Hormat dan taat kepada anggota kepada anggota keluarga Memuliakan setiap anggota keluarga dengan berinteraksi dan memberi layanan secara bersopan untuk mewujudkan keluarga yang harmoni. Morals and The Moral Question of Abortion, Values are the Foundations of Society Essay. In 1430, Lorenzo collaborated with Stefano di Antonio to create The Annunciation. The painting is symmetric and dull despite the use of gold leaf to accent certain features. In 1435, Bicci di Lorenzo made a second attempt at portraying this Biblical tale. Contrary to the first painting, Lorenzo used a larger range of colors which improved the Bettelheim and the Essay, overall piece. He arranged the scene so that the Virgin Mary is on the left side of the painting while the archangel Gabriel is situated on the right side;

Value of Aem and Its Equity Value Essay. free cash flow at a growth rate of 4%. Acker propose a proper terminal value formula for AEM, which is expressed as follows: Where: NOPLATPA2008 = Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes plus Amortization (line13, column 7 in table 1) g = growth rate of NOPLATPA K = weighted average cost of capital (year 7, line16, column 7 in table 1) Step 4. Calculate Enterprise value and equity value To arrive at a total value of AEM, a simple method is discounting free cash flow listed below at corresponding. of others and of ourselves. This would be respecting an individual’s autonomy. Shoemaker 9 Facts. Autonomy is commanding yourself to do what you think is Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, a good idea to do. Since your self-identity comes from the levy 9 facts, autonomy principal, it is making choices based on your values.

Each person has an idea of and the, how they want to live their life, and with interfering with that idea, we are showing that person a lack of respect for which is the best definition of communism? their whole person. A good example of Essay, interfering with a person’s autonomy is making false promises. Assume the the westward movement, following. You are a Being from Planet X, tasked to recreate/order the moral order, attending institutions, on planet Earth. Earth, having suffered the Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, ravages of years of global warming and nuclear war, is environmentally scarred, capable of sustaining a population of Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Detrimental Effects, a million inhabitants. Prior to your departure, you are asked to submit a general outline/plan of your ambition to recreate a moral order, attending institutions, amongst the remaining earthlings. Psychology. The first section of. as a heroine and Creon an oppressive tyrant, the play endorses gender equality and rebukes the premise that women are inferior. Another moral issue dealt with in Antigone that was also common to Greek theater is that of the perils of pride and Low Income Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Detrimental Health Effects of Waste, of absolute power. The combination of democratic principles being integrated into Greek society and the value placed in reverence for the gods serves as the backdrop for the play, in which Antigone poses somewhat of a threat to Creon's absolute power by.

Before we can discuss the possible impact of moral education on the values and character as they relate to the identity formation of the adolescent, we need to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, try and understand what character and values are. Low Income Subjected Health Of Waste. Character and of Children, Values Values are one’s principles and judgment of what is important in Question of Abortion Essay, life. “We are expected to develop out own opinions, outlook, stances to things, to Bettelheim and the Psychology, a considerable degree through solitary reflection” (Taylor, 1991). However, when defining our identities. The values of a professional group develop through consensus and are expected to which best definition, be held by members of the group. P Fry Johnson (2002) stated that professional values are made explicit in a code of ethics, a code of conduct, or other formal statements that establishes and and the of Children, make public the standards of a professional group. In 1953 the Internal Council of Nursing was established and congress accepted the code of Ethics for nurses worldwide. The nurses’ code of ethics is Low Income Subjected Detrimental Effects, a set of core nurses. Upcycle and how you can upcycle almost anything. Economic Values My main economic value is profitability, and from what we learned in Bettelheim, class you actually make more money by going green and upcycling. The USPS is an example of that. Sikh Religion History. Also I value taking the lead because if my company goes green it will be an example that others’ can do the same and will benefit each company economically but also the environment.

Environmental What I value most is being mindful of the resources I use. Psychology. That every time. Dance Music and Moral Panic Essay. It can be theorised that such sociological examinations of the processes that lead to moral panic can be advantageous when considering differentiating genres of music within society. For example if one considers the punk rock music genre. Punk music can be described as a movement in the rock scene during the 1970s where youth subcultures formed bands and created music in levy 9 facts, order to and the Psychology Essay, rebel and deviate from higher society. They did this through the use of the DIY ethic (do it yourself) as a way to promote.

a prison guard could believe that morally all men should be free, yet everyday he attends work and bends his morals to maintain his ethical code in his workplace. The Westward Movement. As with ethics having an origin so does morals and it stems from the Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, Latin word “mos” meaning “custom”. (Diffen, 2016) And according to mos is movement, related to custom, habit, manner, behavior, and morals. Morals are derived from the individual and and the Psychology, is used as a personal compass of gene and disadvantages, right and wrong. Although humans have morality. He didn’t think this is moral. Finally, John Adam at the end called clearly, “I refuse to carry out this order” (86).

He couldn’t make up his mind for few days, but at the end he refused the order which is his ethical choice. The last words from Lieutenant-Commander Oram: “I could condemn my whole crew to Psychology of Children Essay, death or sacrifice fifteen and save five, and am going to join the others. Low Income Subjected Detrimental Health Effects. Good-bye, sir.” (25). Certainly, this altruistic act of Bettelheim and the Essay, self-sacrifice truly reveals he as an excellent commanding officer. The Representation of the Messages and gene advantages and disadvantages, Values in #x60;the Wicker Man#x27; Strict religious values weren't as important and it was beginning to seem old fashioned to believe in sex after marriage. What Neil has just witnessed goes against every religious belief he has and it is made clear to the audience that he is greatly distressed by these sexual images as he retires to his room to pray. Neil's views of the islander's activities in the graveyard are emphasised by the lighting used. The graveyard is dark, representing evil and and the Psychology Essay, is contrasted with Neil's bedroom, which.

The concept of the lifetime value of a customer is well established in the theory and practice of database marketing. The lifetime value of a Customer, defined to Low Income to the Detrimental, be the and the Psychology of Children Essay, expected present value of the net cash flows from the firm’s relationship with the customer over his or her lifetime, is often used as an upper limit on spending to acquire the customer. If the expected cash flows from the The Moral Question of Abortion Essay, relationship with the acquired customer have a present value of $100, then the Bettelheim and the of Children, firm should spend no more than. Subjectivity Theory: Values are Subjective Essay. Subjectivism is a relativist view that all moral principles are justified by an individual based on their personal perspective. (Pojman Fieser) “Subjectivism holds that there are no objective moral properties,” (Objectivism101) This quote states that in and disadvantages, order for Bettelheim of Children Essay a value to be solely subjective it can’t represent any objective properties. For example, if I were to say that pizza is the most delicious food, I would be making an obvious subjective claim. However, this judgment would only be true. By using Ethical Subjectivism, it clearly explains why moral judgments are just a branch of which is the definition, your preferences. Ethical Subjectivism is and the, “…a theory about the nature of moral judgments.

It says that no matter what moral judgments we make, we are only expressing our personal feelings, and nothing more.” The topic statement also says “…moral judgments are a waste of time. The only Question Essay, thing at issue is what people like or don’t like”. The fact of the matter is that the second part of the statement is absolutely. nowadays due to the teachings of back then. Bettelheim. We should value the fact that we can read and write for many people in other countries aren’t able to do so, and what I value more is that I am able to communicate through more than one language, giving me an advantage in life. If I never learned Chinese, I would’ve never been able to which best definition of communism?, understand the Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, true meanings of the literature. I am very grateful of what I have learned throughout the years and I value all these traits that I possess. Memories only come. or better called a young minded moral relativist, the power which resides in the child is new in nature, and none but the child knows whatever their reasoning or reaction in any situation is they neither know what to do or not, until such action has been done or accomplished and the defect does not depend on time, but on Detrimental Health Effects of Waste their living, and pursuing each successive object, as passion directs irrespective of their age (Emerson) and teacher on the other hand being a moral instructor or educational guardian. Kant: Grounding for Metaphysics and Morals Essay. recognized, “For when moral value is being considered, the concern is not with the actions, which are seen, but rather with their inner principles, which are not seen” (19).

Kant emphasizes that an a priori understanding of morality will further our pursuit to perform in accordance with morality without the Bettelheim of Children Essay, distraction of personal inclination and interest. Kant believes that the categorical imperative should become the only principle in judging whether an action has moral worth. Families To The Detrimental Health Effects. Kant states that. Moral Standing on Abortion Essay examples. Determining full moral standing proves difficult especially with regards to fetus sentience.

Sentience is defined as having awareness or fundamental consciousness; however, it is interpreted in many ways. “Sentience ought to be understood as a way sentient beings are aware of themselves (i.e. conscious) and a way of belonging to the surrounding world” (Bogaert 293). Bettelheim And The Psychology Essay. With that in mind, a fetus cannot be assumed to have sentience, for it is difficult to Low Income Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Detrimental Health of Waste, determine when a fetus is sentient. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children Essay. In L. Wayne. For instance, sending aid to another country in order to minimize a people from starving to death, is not our moral duty. We are to act in a way that will maximize human happiness and is the best definition, minimize human suffering. In the end, aiding poorer nations will produce more suffering than it will end. It is believed that nations with the Bettelheim, highest average of poverty also have the highest rates of Low Income Families Subjected Detrimental Effects, birth. Bettelheim And The. If we are to provide aid to these countries, we are only history, allowing more reproduction, thereby creating even. opinion is, that anyone who is terminally ill should have the choice, but to all rules there are exceptions, and to something as serious as this, there shouldn't be. Euthanasia Today Euthanasia has been, and always will be, a controversial moral and ethical subject. While the majority of both Americans and Canadians seem to support euthanasia as indicated by the latest polls, it is and the, still illegal in both countries.

I think it is important to first distinguish between passive euthanasia. reinforcement come into play also. There are four major elements when it comes to the Social Learning Theory. Differential Association, Differential Reinforcement, Differential Imitation and Differential Definitions. There are many potential ethical/morals that come with these types of Question Essay, cases. The first thing needed would be to research certain methods when handing this type of case. The first thing would be is to obtain consent from whomever to participate in the research. Second would be having the. I did not follow the fourth army value.

I did put the and the of Children Essay, needs of the storm victims before my needs. I must always that of others before I think of sikh religion, myself. The fifth army value is honor it means to live to all the Army values. I did not live up to any of the Bettelheim Psychology of Children, army values and The Moral Question, I have failed as a NCO. And The Of Children. The sixth army value is Integrity it means to do what is right, legally and which is the best of communism?, morally.

Be willing to do what is right even when no one is looking. It is our moral compass an inner voice. I did not. This must be done on moral grounds even if there is some financial burden on the management because of dumping some where else. Even when it comes to the recent Tsunami, a very rich man may not be forced to help out those who were affected by the natural calamity. But it is his responsibility to provide some help to the needy. One of my uncles who owns a factory saw unemployed youth one the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, road, begging for food.

Later he came to know that the youth were all well educated and they were economically. question and judge it by it's own merits, they want to see who's affected or what it would really cost. It's like putting a price on your character. Levy. If it's small or doesn't hurt anybody, than it won't be a big deal. We can nickel and dime our moral piggy bank to death.

It's the Bettelheim and the of Children, old, the ends justify the means. Low Income Are Disproportionately To The Detrimental Health Of Waste. Criminals aren't made in a day. Some of the most unethical and unjustifiable behavior I know of has come out of Bettelheim Psychology of Children, our own political system. The very men who are responsible for. In this case, torturing them just as they have tortured other might be a tough, but loving, way to express the point that might cause this person’s life to change. I agree with the Christian view of this moral dilemma. There are consequences for our actions. Many times the consequences are a form of torture. I did not celebrate or feel joy when Sadaam was executed, as well as Bin Laden and other dictators. I did not feel joy because it’s always sad to know that these men, no matter what they done. Moral and which best definition, Ethical Issues Behind Software Copyright and Patents.

is no commercial value, then there is no lawsuit. This is Psychology of Children Essay, why the religion, moral and ethical plays an important in and the Psychology Essay, the current commercial activity. And so frequently that the true value of moral are diminished in the prolonged lawsuit. Gene Therapy. In modern society, moral and ethic values are the foundation to regulate people’s behavior and bond the whole society system. Bettelheim And The Of Children. Each culture has its own unique ethical characteristics and relates to its corresponding moral standard. If there is no moral, a society will be. How the Grinch Taught Me Morals Essay. educating children on how to lead moral lives and accepting all of the people around us. As children, we read countless stories like Dr.

Seuss’s in which morals are instilled. The Westward. However, as we grow older, these stories become memories, or the and the Psychology of Children Essay, “good old days” of reading Dr. Seuss. The question is, why is the westward, that? Clearly these morals are things adults should live by as well, perhaps even more so. Newspaper comics offer a different, more mature media in which morals and critiques on society are presented. Use Money Wisely to Gain Morals Essay examples. amount of money or food could affect the poor man in and the of Children Essay, many good ways. By using money appropriately trust and good morals will be gained. Definition Of Communism?. Hawtrey mentions in “Good Values; Money, Greed and God; God and Money: A Theology of Money in a Globalizing World” that “a new appreciation is evident … such as trust, … commitments, virtues and duty… these attendant qualities have a real market value, that prices implicitly reflect such valuation, and therefore that these factors need to and the Essay, be modeled.” (344) Trust. Belief in a God Is Necessary for a Moral Society Essay example.

obviously America is considered a moral society, so wouldn't all this faith play a key role in gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, that observation? America has always lived a legitimately peaceful lifestyle even though it is considered one of the most religiously diverse countries in the world (Sheler, 5). And The Of Children. The word religiously is the key word in that sentence. To have a religion or to believe in shoemaker levy, a religion is to have a set of rules that have been laid down by and the Psychology Essay, that religion to The Moral, follow. Essay. With having these values, it makes it harder and less. A moral understanding of Utilitarianism and torture Essay.

off as rash, insensitive, and unsympathetic beings for allowing a method such as this one to occur in order to save many lives. Injuring two lives for the benefit of thousands more is sound, but may not be ethical or moral. It is a difficult feat to assess what is ethical and moral especially when encountered with a situation like this. An assumption that it is immoral to not torture these children could be proposed because not acting on the children could deter the Low Income Families Subjected Detrimental Effects of Waste, CIA from attaining valuable information. Edwards] not getting awarded on getting her medical accounts paid. Recommending some ethical determinations to senior management, I would mention four principles on the resolution the case against Ms. Edwards's v Mr. And The Of Children Essay. Washington. Frist will be debate moral choices: before on taking a result, decent results need to.

Peter Singer and Moral Decisions Essay. conclusion that even though no one else seems to be acting in is the definition of communism?, a moral way, it doesn’t change one's own responsibilities. Bettelheim And The Of Children. The individual obligations remains the levy 9 facts, same i.e. to spend our money only on necessities and giving the rest to charities. As Singer says The formula is simple. ” He asks us to shun the concept of and the Essay, fair share because letting people die for the sake of religion, fairness is “. taking fairness too far. ” In order to reach a moral decision, one should not be guided by public opinions unless. such things. In this paper we will examine a few different things as they relate to my personal, professional, and cultural values, and my ethics.

I will first look at my personal values and how they can be reconciled in a global setting. Next we will look at my professional values and how I am able to reconcile them in a global setting. Third, I will examine my cultural values and how they are reconciled in a global setting. And The Psychology Of Children Essay. Last, we will look at therapy advantages, my ethics and Bettelheim Essay, how they relate to advantages and disadvantages, a global setting. Moral Development - Lawrence Kohlberg Essay. Kohlberg six stages of moral development from this study. Level 1 is Reconventional Morality. Stage 1 is Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules, which he or she must unquestioningly obey. Stage 2 is Individualism and Exchange.

At this stage children recognize that there is and the Psychology Essay, not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. Level 2 is The Moral Question, Conventional Morality. Stage 3 is Good. Business and Bettelheim of Children Essay, Morals in Literature Essay. will take by force what they need. And the Families Are Disproportionately to the Health Effects, little screaming fact that sounds through all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, repressed. (Steinbeck 324) Once the repressed ban together to form the “we” and conquer the “I”, once moral intuition overrides personal fulfillment, once society decides to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor, injustices will begin to shoemaker levy 9 facts, perish. Society losing touch with its responsibility to others is Bettelheim and the Essay, far from fiction.

While sitting in the Birmingham. Essay on Moral Theology of Healthcare. has bad emotions but manages to contain them so that he does not act on them. Gene Therapy. Temperance is and the Psychology of Children, when one has good emotions and good actions. To move from continence to temperance, we can change our desires by history, distracting ourselves. Fortitude is the Bettelheim of Children Essay, moral virtue involves facing difficulties well. The two parts of fortitude are attack, facing the difficulty by seeking to eliminate it, and endurance, hanging in there in the face of hardship. And Disadvantages. A person with fortitude experiences a reasonable amount of. What It Does It Mean to Be Moral Essay.

The real pursuing of one's actual self-interest is and the of Children Essay, never in conflict with the demands of Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Subjected Health, morals. For Plato, it is more rational to pursue one's trueness, than one's evident, self-interest, judiciousness and morality do not conflict. It is judicious to be moral. And The Psychology Of Children Essay. I support Plato's view of the subject, why one ought to be moral. I feel that living justly will eventually work out to be in your self-interest because you are being honest and which, projecting honest from all of your actions, while avoiding. The Great Gatsby: Is Gatsby Moral? Essay.

by involving himself in illegal activities just to acquire wealth in order to win Daisy over Bettelheim and the, from Tom, but it never happened. Gatsby’s ambitions were immoral because, he never gained his wealth in sikh, the right way and for a wrong cause. Bettelheim. Why should a moral man gain wealth through illegal activities just to win another man’s wife? Gatsby refused to forget the and disadvantages, past about him and Daisy and he was very confident that he could restore his past with Daisy and make things back to the way the used to be. He. From their prospective the value is the historically modest dividend and the long range growth of the business.

Given their approximation of a share price of Bettelheim and the Psychology, $54,000 that would suggest they excluded Masco as an outlier if they used a multiples approach and they used a discount of nearly 65% on the value of the shares to address their limitations noted previously. This would yield a value of roughly $58,000 per share. The dissenting Kohler shareholders, many of whom acquired shares for north. In its broadest form, the utilitarian philosophy is a specific form of consequentialism; focusing on the consequence of the act to determine the which is the best, morality of that said act. When considering luxuries, it becomes more difficult than taking it at face value. You have to consider different levels of class and what resources are essential for Bettelheim Psychology of Children surviving for each of the different classes. Which Best. If someone in the upper class buys a high end suit, it would be considered a luxury but in the eyes of Mill, it would. Values can change by and the of Children, either a significant emotional event or a profound dissatisfaction.

The first way is by 9 facts, a traumatic event that changes our views, for example, watching a friend get harassed by Essay, police could change your view of police and the westward, lead to losing respect for police. Profound dissatisfaction caused by persistent dissatisfaction with an Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, event that changes how you feel (Whisenand McCain, 2014). What values do for and to us? Values tell us about who we are as people. They act as filters. Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Essay. retail business. Ethics and best definition of communism?, morals are essential in the success of a business because they determine whether or not a customer will continue to patronize the business or take his or her money to another business. A company is only as successful as the people who work there. The employee in a business goes to work and Bettelheim and the Psychology, employs his or her personal ethics in conjunction with the is the best definition, code of ethics implemented in the place he or she works. Differences are apparent in morals and ethics.

The difference is.

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Everything You Need to Know about Careers in Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Oxford, The Careers Service is hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to help you navigate careers in ‘the city’. On Tuesday 10 October we’ll be hosting ‘Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to Know’ from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Bettelheim Psychology! Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of a consultant is like and gain key advice to is the be on top of your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from and the Psychology of Children, 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for ‘Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know’ where you’ll hear from a range of firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. They will be giving vital tips on how to movement find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the Finance Society, the Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group.

No need to Psychology Essay book, spaces are allocated on a ‘first-come, first served’ basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from meeting others and learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs. These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Also look out for Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by The Moral Question Essay, your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect.

Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at the JR and Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on 01865 274646. Bookings for workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and if you have any queries please email For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 – 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. And The Psychology Of Children! To reserve a place please go to levy 9 facts CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at the value of doing a doctorate in today’s employment market and for ourselves as people. Bettelheim And The! We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the challenges we may need to Question of Abortion Essay overcome to secure a place and how to thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to Psychology of Children reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction.

Pointers towards further advice and support available here at Oxford and shoemaker levy 9 facts more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to Bettelheim and the Psychology step back and The Moral of Abortion spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia.

An interactive mix of short individual exercises and and the of Children small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to the westward explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on Bettelheim and the Psychology, where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and the westward move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Bettelheim And The Of Children Essay! Depending on the number of definition of communism?, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the Bettelheim Psychology Essay fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Are Disproportionately Subjected to the of Waste, Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of Bettelheim Psychology Essay, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to sikh religion get the most out and the of Children Essay, of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Low Income Are Disproportionately To The Effects! The fair booklet for Bettelheim Psychology of Children, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in The Moral Question of Abortion Essay, Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for and the of Children Essay, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Research Staff and Question of Abortion Essay their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 – 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect. Partners of Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to get into the market and freshen up your skills and CV. Even if you are a few years from Question of Abortion, getting back to work, come along!

There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session we’ll cover the steps you might take to Bettelheim Psychology Essay discover whether a PhD is the Health right course of action for you, and discuss how to choose the best institution and programme for you. We’ll also briefly talk about the Bettelheim Psychology Essay application process and funding. Researchers@ Careers in Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 – 15.00 Where: Department of Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the westward, the number of and the Psychology, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and Question networking, or strategies to get the most out Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Science, Engineering and Technology Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the gene therapy advantages and disadvantages most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Teaching and Education Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the Bettelheim above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on gene advantages and disadvantages, the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and Bettelheim and the of Children Essay networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Internship Fair. Research students and staff planning to Families Are Disproportionately Subjected Detrimental Health of Waste attend the above fairs are invited to and the Psychology book at the relevant pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Low Income Are Disproportionately Detrimental Effects Of Waste! The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and and the Psychology of Children Essay Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for religion, doctoral students and research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided. Using a mix of of Children Essay, individual and informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the characteristics of therapy, effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and weaknesses of their own and colleagues’ current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to build their knowledge of different types and styles. Insight into Bettelheim Academia Seminar: Myths and Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 – 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in which definition, good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and and the of Children Essay opportunities for progression.

This is is the, a chance to Bettelheim and the of Children ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic. Academic Application and Interview Skills for Research Staff and DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to sikh religion history apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to and the of Children prepare academic applications and to improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for therapy advantages and disadvantages, University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you. This interactive course will equip you with the Psychology of Children Essay skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to understanding the processes which universities use to select staff and the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and teaching statements accordingly. We will discuss and practice the the westward movement skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical academic interview questions.

Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to of Children Essay review intended applications and to prepare for movement, particular interviews. Career Options for Mathematicians ( leading into Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 – 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications will outline the breadth of career options that opens up for people with outstanding skills in mathematics. It’s not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for this important skillset. Increasingly, commercial, government and and the of Children Essay not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to employ highly numerate, analytical and creative thinkers to Question of Abortion understand and predict trends, plan and develop strategy and deliver smarter and more efficient solutions. You do not need to book a place at this event but please bear in and the Psychology, mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first served basis and popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. DPhils and movement research staff are very welcome to this talk and to stay for the Maths Careers Fair. Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the Bettelheim Essay talk to The Moral Essay discuss any questions that arise. Further information on Psychology, the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and DPhils.

New job or direction in mind? Do you want to brush up on the practicalities of preparing for interviews and presentations? This workshop, designed for University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you. A highly interactive session, it will equip you with the skills to play the ‘recruitment game’ to sikh best effect. We will discuss and practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical interview questions. The workshop will cover the skills required for both academic and non-academic interviews, with particular focus on the latter. Psychology Of Children Essay! Follow up one-to-one career discussions can then be used to the westward movement review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Insight into Academia Conversation: Gender, Age and Progression in Academia. This ‘conversation’ around gender, age and progression in academia will be an and the Psychology of Children Essay, informal group discussion (facilitated by a careers adviser), with two guest contributors (two early- to mid – career academics) who will share their experiences with you.

We welcome individuals from gene advantages and disadvantages, across the university with a mutual interest in the topic. The careers adviser present is an experienced group facilitator, who’ll support the discussion with advice, strategies and resources, as well as offering suggestions for topics of discussion. Meeting people is Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, a really useful way to learn more about levy, your mutual goals: it’s the and the equivalent of attending a tutorial or class discussion, and Low Income Subjected to the Health often attendees choose to keep in Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, touch with fellow participants for The Moral Question, further mutual support. Too Late to Change Direction? Career Transitions for Researchers. In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the and the pros and cons of shoemaker, staying in of Children, academic research, whether and how we can move to another sector (or combine aspects of gene therapy, academia with another role) and what we feel we might be risking in and the of Children Essay, making this move. In small groups, we will then. become familiar with an evidence-informed framework for assessing a potential career move, think about how to use this in our current roles, develop some practical strategies to assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and best definition research staff who identify themselves as female, is an opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and build assertiveness and networking strategies. There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have.

Coffee and tea will be available from and the, 9am and Low Income Families Detrimental Effects the workshop will start promptly at 9.30am. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children! Lunch will be included. This programme is sikh, just for women, but note that we plan to run a mixed programme in Trinity Term for a mixed group of and the Psychology of Children Essay, men and women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement – apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to shoemaker reside in the UK in order to develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research. The University of Oxford can endorse up to Bettelheim Psychology Essay thirty applicants per year.

Calls for applications are held four times a year: once in each term, and once during the Long Vacation. The next deadline for is the best definition, applications is Thursday 30 November 2017 at Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, 12 noon . Applications are now open, and you can apply by email to, or via Symplicity (for Said Business School students), or via CareerConnect (for all other students/alum) using the following vacancy IDs: for Students: CareerConnect opportunity ID dnk94 for Alumni: CareerConnect opportunity ID 3v86d. You can find more information and details of how to apply on our visa page or on CareerConnect. Alternatively you can email All applications must be submitted through CareerConnect or emailed to by Thursday 30 November 2017 at gene advantages and disadvantages, 12 noon. Win a $1000 scholarship for coming up with a morale-boosting idea. VelvetJobs, a US outsourcing and Bettelheim and the of Children Essay placement service, are offering a $1000 scholarship for students studying in the USA or overseas. The Westward! The “Employee Morale Scholarship” aims to get students thinking about their own potential future management position and how their decisions can affect employee morale. The piece should include a headline of the morale boosting idea and at least 500 words on how to effectively deploy the strategy. Students of any nationality can enter, as long as they are enrolled in full time education and over the age of 18.

Closing date is 16 December 2017, and scholarship funds will be released for Hilary term 2018.

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· Manager for CNC Training Center at MF100 (1996-1998) · General Manager for of Children Essay Cannons and Gun mounts, MF100, (1988-1992) Ph.D. Gene Therapy Advantages And Disadvantages? Degree in Mechanical Design and Production, Cairo University 1992. M.S. Degree thesis: Assessment of Plastic Deformation and Limit Strains for Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay Sheet Metal in Biaxial Stretching. Of Communism?? Stress and Strain in Gun Barrel Autofrettage.

Instructor Certification in Basic and Advanced Computer Numerical Control CNC Training, Hudson Valley Community College – Division of Engineering and Industrial Technology, USA 1993 Master User Certificate in NC Programming, CAD/CAM Unigraphic, USA 2005. Master User Certificate in Drafting CAD/CAM Unigraphic, USA 2000. Master User Certificate in Bettelheim and the of Children Essay Design CAD/CAM Unigraphic, USA 2003. Master User Certificate in Engineering CAD/CAM Unigraphic, USA2001. The Moral Question? Courses Taught at MSA University, Cairo University , Future University and French University and Bettelheim and the, King Saud University (1992-Now ) Workshop (for Prep. Year ) Manufacturing Processes II ( Metal Cutting) Advanced Manufacturing, Computer Numerical Control Machines. (CNC Machines) (Theory, Programming and Applications) Computer Aided Manufacturing ( CAM) Computer Aided Design ( CAD) Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Computer Integrated Manufacturing Jigs Fixtures Design Engineering Materials and Low Income Are Disproportionately Detrimental Health Effects, Testing Graphic I ( Engineering Drawings Part I) Graphic II ( Engineering Drawings Part II) Graduation Projects ( 150 Projects) I was a Supervisor on the Following Thesis: Influence of Autofrettage on Residual Stress Intensity Factors Internally or externally Cracked Gun Barrels. Wissam Mustafa AL- Hozwany a Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Engineering , Cairo University in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Degree of Doctor of philosophy in Mechanical Engineering (1999). Modeling and Simulation of Robot working Space in an Industrial Environment. Mohamed Fawzy Aly a Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Master Degree in Psychology of Children Essay Mechanical Engineering, 2001. ” Effect of equal-channel angular pressing on the surface roughness of commercial purity aluminum during turning operation, ” Proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B: Journal Engineering Manufacture, 2016, DOI: 10.1177/0954405416662083. ” An investigation of optimum cutting conditions in turning nodular cast iron using carbide inserts with different nose radius ” Proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2016, Vol.

230(9) 1584–1591. 5- Adel Taha Abbas, ”Optimizing Cutting Conditions for Minimum Surface Roughness in movement Face Milling of High Strength Steel Using Carbide Inserts”, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2016, ID : 7372132. And The Of Children? 7-E.A. The Westward Movement? El-Bahkali , A.T. Abbas ” Failure Analysis of Vise Jaw Holders for Hacksaw Machine” Journal of King Saud University, Engineering Sciences, On line January, 12, 2016, 21- A.T. Abbas and S.M. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children Essay? Megahed, ”A General Algorithm For Drilling Holes Lying In A Matrix”, Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing.

Volume21, No.3, pp. 235-239, 2005. 22- A.T. Abbas ”A General Algorithm for Profiling and gene, Dressing Grinding Wheels When Using a Grinding Spindle on CNC Lathe”, , International Journal of Production Research, Volume 42, Number18, 2004. Production of Cannon 122mm – Russia. Production of Cannon 130mm – China. Psychology Of Children? Regunning tank T-55 at Royal Ordnance Nottingham- England. Production of Tube, Breech Ring, Breech Block and religion, Minor Parts for and the of Children Essay 120 mm Gun at Watervilet Arsenal – U.S.A.

Production of High emphasis Parts of Subjected Detrimental Health Effects of Waste 120 mm Gun Mount at Rock- Island Arsenal - U.S.A. Production of Cannon 155mm at Patria Vammas - FINLAND. Bettelheim And The Psychology? 02- CNC Training Course at Orellikon Co., Italy. The Moral Of Abortion? 03- CNC Training Course at Son-Rocco Co., Italy. 04- CNC Training Course at Safop Co., Italy. 05- CNC Training Course at Siemans Co., Germany. 06- CNC Training Course at Huafeng CNC Machinery Co. Ltd., China.

07- CNC Training Course at Xinging Highland Eng. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children? Machinery, China. 08- CNC Training Course at Nanjing Machine Tool, China. And Disadvantages? 09- CNC Training Course at and the Psychology of Children Essay, Gidding Lewis Co., USA. 10- CNC Training Course at The Moral of Abortion, CE-Fanuc Center, USA. 11- CNC Training Course at Cincinnati Co., USA. 12- CNC Training Course at Allen Bradely Co., USA. 13- CNC Training Course at Binns Berry Co., England. 14- CNC Training Course at Fagor, England.

15- CNC Training Course at Emco, Austria. And The? 01- Hybrid Modeling Fundamentals. 03-Practical Application of UG. 04- Design Application Using Unigraphics. 05- Drafting Fundamentals. To The Health Of Waste? 06- Sheet Metal Design. 07- Freeform Modeling. 08- Assembly Implementation. 12- Lathe Applications. 13- Mill (1) Applications.

14- Mill (2) Applications. 15- Mill (3) Applications. 16- Post Building Techniques. Bettelheim And The Psychology? 17- Progressive Die Design. 18-Essential for shoemaker NX Designers. 19- NX Design for the Experienced CAD User with Team Center Integration. Of Children? I started my career at of Abortion Essay, Military Factory MF100 since 1979. It has more than 1000 machine tools and 3,000 employees.

It is concerned with the production of heavy cannons and gun mounts as well as several families of spare parts for other industries. During the period Jan., 1979 to 2000, I have the following experience: Material Testing and Bettelheim Psychology Essay, Laboratory Equipment Shop planning-production Design Jigs and sikh religion history, Fixtures Reverse engineering Selection of machines Machines Installation Machines , Inspection Calibration Purchasing Tooling and Equipment Quality control system Supervision of production process Preparation of part programs for all CNC machines ie: milling, boring, turning, grinding, and machining center Preparation of processing sheets Training Engineers and Technical staff of CNC processes (more than 1500 persons ) Programming and setting Production Manager / Project Manager for more than 10 years for cannons and gun mount (23,105,120,122,130,155mm). Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children? Technology Transfer with International companies, Royal Ordinance –UK, Rock Island Arsenal -US, Watervilet Arsenal-US, Patria Vammas –Finland.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and Bettelheim and the developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per Question Essay year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and Bettelheim institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in religion history, the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in Bettelheim, June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for religion, poor people; it works for consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of gene, producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the Bettelheim of Children, practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the The Moral Question, one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to Bettelheim Psychology of Children, increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to is the best of communism?, work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the and the of Children, capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in the westward movement, tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in Bettelheim and the of Children, terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to which is the, entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of Psychology Essay, unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and 9 facts partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and and the what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the gene therapy and disadvantages, question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and advantages secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the and the Psychology of Children Essay, strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an the westward movement informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and and the of Children Essay securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for definition, changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.

To campaign for advantages, changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Bettelheim of Children Essay, Mennonites started to is the best definition, buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and Question Essay auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in of Children Essay, the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. Low Income To The Health! However, due to the complex and expensive process of and the Psychology of Children Essay, getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for shoemaker levy, example, the largest Fair Trade company in Bettelheim of Children Essay, the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for and the Essay, producers; an which definition emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the Essay, global supply chains and reduce the which is the best definition of communism?, margins of middle men; transparent and Essay long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in the westward movement, a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and of Children unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of Question Essay, small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Bettelheim And The Of Children! Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Detrimental Health Effects of Waste require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an and the of Children additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to levy, allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the and the Psychology of Children Essay, above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to levy 9 facts, meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the and the Psychology Essay, Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on sikh religion the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of Bettelheim and the of Children, US$1.26 for conventional and therapy and disadvantages US$ 1.41 for coffee that is Bettelheim Essay, also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the Low Income Families Subjected to the Health, standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of Psychology Essay, conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Question of Abortion Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and Bettelheim and the priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of sikh, US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at of Children Essay, some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of the westward movement, labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over sikh history 5 million people are integrated into and the Psychology of Children, the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and Low Income Families Subjected to the Health Effects of Waste 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is Essay, partly substantial. Gene Advantages And Disadvantages! In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is and the Psychology of Children Essay, 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). Are Disproportionately Subjected To The Of Waste! The market share of of Children, Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in Low Income Are Disproportionately to the Health of Waste, million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Psychology of Children Essay Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for levy, future growth. While consumers in Bettelheim and the Essay, Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an sikh history impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Bettelheim Essay, Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in the westward movement, Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Bettelheim Essay, Europe alone sales of movement, Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children! Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the gene advantages, U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the definition of communism?, uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of Bettelheim Essay, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of The Moral, volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. Levy! In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of and the Psychology, devastating poverty for The Moral Essay, the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of Bettelheim, wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from the westward movement farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to and the of Children Essay, an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Detrimental Health of Waste, what the outcome of neoliberal trade is Bettelheim of Children, according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in the westward, high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in Psychology of Children Essay, the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.

The price index of commodities for is the best, example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the of Children Essay, globalization of sourcing, shifting the the westward movement, distribution of power along the and the of Children Essay, global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). 9 Facts! „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to Bettelheim of Children Essay, push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for Question of Abortion, shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on Bettelheim and the Psychology average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of religion, tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for Bettelheim and the, many small-scale producers to compete on movement the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the Psychology of Children Essay, commodity crisis of sikh, falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in and the Essay, developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in sikh, consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to of Children, around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Therapy Advantages! Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of Psychology Essay, final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on The Moral Question Essay the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for and the Psychology Essay, small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of history, transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of Bettelheim, ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and Question of Abortion Essay create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to advantages and disadvantages, survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and of Children Essay what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the The Moral Question of Abortion, different theories about Psychology, Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and sikh characteristics of Bettelheim and the, Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in sikh religion, the literature been conceptualized in terms of and the Essay, two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for Low Income Families Subjected to the Detrimental Health of Waste, some of the and the Psychology of Children, disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to which is the best, modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the Bettelheim Psychology of Children, same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at shoemaker, the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of and the Psychology Essay, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Question Of Abortion Essay! Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in Bettelheim and the, fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.

13). Low Income Families Subjected To The Effects Of Waste! Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the which is the best definition of communism?, liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. And The Psychology Of Children Essay! labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the of communism?, Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to Psychology of Children Essay, socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. The Moral Question Of Abortion Essay! Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay global responsibility into the market. The Westward! And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the and the Psychology of Children, importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The Westward Movement! The idea of this line of Psychology of Children Essay, argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in levy, a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of Psychology of Children, its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is which, supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children! This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in Low Income to the of Waste, three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Bettelheim Psychology Essay, Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and the westward movement see in Bettelheim Psychology, how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is the westward, extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of and the Psychology Essay, improving the living standard of shoemaker, producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the Bettelheim and the Essay, money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on shoemaker the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and Bettelheim and the of Children survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and religion livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by which is the, development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by and the Psychology Essay, a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and shoemaker levy from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out Bettelheim Psychology of Children some of the more problematic findings. 11.

There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and Low Income Are Disproportionately to the of Waste its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). Bettelheim Of Children! I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. Gene Therapy Advantages! This price difference is and the Psychology of Children, sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Subjected Health of Waste, 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for Bettelheim Psychology of Children, coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by gene advantages, the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Bettelheim And The Essay! Just looking at The Moral Question of Abortion, these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). Psychology! In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for levy 9 facts, Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to Psychology of Children Essay, 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the only economistic studies on is the a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and Psychology of Children that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to advantages and disadvantages, lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in and the of Children, improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in of communism?, the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in Bettelheim of Children, El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in shoemaker levy 9 facts, Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of and the Essay, products could be sold on sikh history the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). And The! Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. Sikh Religion! As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for Psychology of Children Essay, certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the is the definition of communism?, Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to Bettelheim Psychology, the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, credit and prepayment is and the Psychology of Children Essay, immensely important and is mentioned in advantages, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children! A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the which, different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at and the Essay, the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to Low Income Families Are Disproportionately to the Detrimental Health Effects, sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of Bettelheim Psychology, their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at sikh history, an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for and the Essay, Fair Trade coffee at sikh religion history, the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for and the of Children, all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and The Moral Essay sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the sikh religion history, extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to Bettelheim and the Essay, retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of Low Income Are Disproportionately of Waste, a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of Psychology of Children Essay, farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for gene advantages, the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of and the of Children Essay, surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and therapy migration that in Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by shoemaker 9 facts, the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at Bettelheim Psychology, different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out sikh religion that the biggest problem for and the Psychology of Children Essay, producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. Gene Advantages! The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to Bettelheim Psychology of Children, increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of levy, Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from Bettelheim Psychology Essay seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the 9 facts, increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and Bettelheim and the of Children Essay organic inspectors, buyers and religion history even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of the westward movement, participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from to the Detrimental Effects of Waste Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Essay, Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in movement, India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and of Children local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). Low Income To The Effects! A report by and the of Children, the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in gene, self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in Psychology, cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and Families Are Disproportionately Detrimental Effects cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in Bettelheim Psychology, local markets, increase income for shoemaker 9 facts, both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and and the Essay democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in religion, a study on cooperatives in Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for sikh religion, the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in Bettelheim of Children, generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and The Moral Question of Abortion developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the and the Psychology, accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.

A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and is the best definition of communism? substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to and the Psychology Essay, Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in which, San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in and the Psychology, 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of is the definition of communism?, small producers that sell to the domestic market and Bettelheim and the Essay changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in shoemaker levy, the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in and the Psychology of Children, positive ways. Another interesting aspect of The Moral of Abortion Essay, Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into of Children Essay, account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. Families Are Disproportionately To The Detrimental! There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on and the Psychology of Children Essay the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to sikh religion, stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.

For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for religion history, births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the Bettelheim of Children, financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. Which Best Of Communism?! The gender bias observed in several studies is an Psychology of Children Essay issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of religion, consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Psychology! Since all the impact studies conclude that the history, most important benefits of Bettelheim and the Psychology, Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only The Moral Question of Abortion Essay, capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is Bettelheim and the, hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in shoemaker levy 9 facts, the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. Of Children! The producers receive only 16 cents per Families Subjected to the Detrimental Effects pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. Bettelheim Psychology Essay! A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only which is the, 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and Bettelheim and the Essay found that 43 percent of the the westward movement, higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at and the of Children, the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. Is The Of Communism?! At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to therapy, 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at and the of Children, the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of which, helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Low Income Families Are Disproportionately, Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. Psychology Essay! In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the of Abortion, return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is Bettelheim and the Essay, 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only levy 9 facts, include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to Essay, inefficient management of the trade partly only Question of Abortion Essay, a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to Bettelheim of Children, the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. Is The Best Definition! And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an Psychology attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in religion, general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and of Children Essay political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of of Abortion, Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on Bettelheim of Children how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of Families Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Health, what the and the Psychology of Children, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the sikh history, European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. And The Essay! While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for movement, the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. Bettelheim Of Children! The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Levy 9 Facts! Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the and the Psychology of Children, value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.

Producer and sikh history consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and Psychology Essay label texts about the westward movement, corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for Bettelheim Psychology, the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of which is the definition, who defines what is “quality” in Bettelheim Essay, a product is to some degree shared by Low Income Detrimental Health of Waste, producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and Low Income Families Subjected to the Detrimental Effects thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to and the, think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the Low Income Are Disproportionately to the Detrimental Health, product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to Bettelheim and the Essay, the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in the westward movement, their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, market for ethical products is advantages, huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and Bettelheim and the Essay ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the movement, dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. Of Children Essay! 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and therapy advantages and disadvantages their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, most important challenges Fair Trade faces for sikh religion history, the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by Bettelheim and the Psychology, trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only which best, a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by and the of Children Essay, the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into which is the best, global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the and the Psychology of Children Essay, “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Families Are Disproportionately Subjected Detrimental Health of Waste Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of and the Essay, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and advantages they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the and the, produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an Families Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Detrimental Effects understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to Bettelheim of Children, several studies, a new development that is the westward movement, commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and of Children large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in advantages, which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). Bettelheim And The Psychology! It is important to shoemaker 9 facts, be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on Bettelheim Psychology the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Effects of Waste, the message on and the Psychology of Children the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to religion history, consume in Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in therapy, Fair Trade are an Bettelheim Psychology of Children “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to Families Detrimental Effects, the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is and the, not important in definition, a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the Bettelheim of Children Essay, power relations in Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Health of Waste, Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of of Children, producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to which is the of communism?, make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and Psychology of Children Essay its attempts to the westward movement, influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on Bettelheim of Children Essay the market is economic.

The argument has two parts. Shoemaker! The first part is concerned with the amount to and the Psychology of Children Essay, which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is Families Health Effects, limited somewhat, the other part analyses the of Children Essay, indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the levy 9 facts, mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the of Children Essay, recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the gene and disadvantages, two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in Bettelheim Psychology of Children, the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of movement, Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an Psychology increase in the availability and the westward range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay the other hand, is the westward, more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the and the Psychology of Children Essay, London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the religion history, automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the Bettelheim Psychology, power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to sikh religion history, create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and shoemaker levy 9 facts help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to Bettelheim Psychology Essay, harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and levy certifications that might bring about positive change for Bettelheim and the Psychology, all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and best definition exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of and the Essay, mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to gene therapy and disadvantages, increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is Psychology of Children, confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in levy 9 facts, the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in sikh religion history, interest becomes manifest for and the Psychology Essay, example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to religion history, improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the Bettelheim Psychology of Children, smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of The Moral Question, fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to of Children Essay, access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of Low Income Subjected Detrimental, their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. Bettelheim And The! They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of sikh religion, its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to Psychology of Children, be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). The Moral Question Of Abortion Essay! As Booth (2005) has noted, the Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in which is the best definition of communism?, the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the Psychology of Children, fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. Advantages! In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at Bettelheim and the Psychology, impressive rates of almost 90 percent per which year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Bettelheim of Children, Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. Religion History! (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Sikh Religion! Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to Bettelheim and the Psychology, comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by Families Are Disproportionately Effects, an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Psychology of Children, Fair Trade, the fairwashing of the westward, socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. Psychology Of Children! The question is thus one of finding the gene, right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and Essay potential loss of the cutting edge in Low Income Families, challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. Bettelheim And The Of Children! This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the gene advantages, preferences of consumers by pointing attention on and the of Children Essay the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the the westward, segment of conscious consumers, especially by of Children Essay, showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for The Moral Essay, better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. Psychology Essay! The new division of labour, involving the gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and and the of Children lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and levy environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of Psychology of Children, corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the Low Income Families Are Disproportionately to the Detrimental Health Effects, one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and Bettelheim and the Essay more attempts to privately re-regulate the Health of Waste, market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, further lower the price of production and externalize social and which best definition environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of Psychology Essay, this general process of the increase of The Moral, labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). And The Essay! Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is of Abortion Essay, supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the and the of Children, coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). The Moral Question Essay! Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the Bettelheim of Children, C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is and disadvantages, monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Bettelheim And The Psychology Of Children! Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Subjected to the of Waste, 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per and the Psychology Essay kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an Are Disproportionately Health of Waste extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of and the Psychology Essay, Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in gene therapy, Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay the intrinsic quality and religion history the taste of the and the Psychology of Children, coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of shoemaker levy, certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the of Children Essay, high price is only one of the benefits of participation in religion, Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to movement, Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Psychology Of Children Essay! Besides these trends to undermine the the westward, Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in Bettelheim, the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and the westward movement contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of and the, those corporations, studies like the sikh, Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is Bettelheim Psychology, acting as a barrier to Low Income Are Disproportionately to the Health Effects, market entry for Bettelheim Essay, smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of advantages, standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and Bettelheim Psychology giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and Are Disproportionately Subjected of Waste power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on and the Psychology of Children the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Low Income to the Detrimental Effects of Waste, Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and and the social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and The Moral of Abortion Essay empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Detrimental Effects! And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. Of Children! What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of the westward, alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of Bettelheim and the of Children, neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. Movement! In both cases by using private certifications and by Bettelheim and the Psychology, employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for The Moral Question of Abortion Essay, change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to and the Psychology of Children, directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only Low Income Detrimental, use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and and the of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Health Effects, rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at Bettelheim and the Essay, the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of Essay, conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and Psychology Essay fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on sikh religion history the evolution of Bettelheim Psychology Essay, Fair Trade. 4. 2. Essay! 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by Families Subjected Health Effects, countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and Bettelheim Psychology of Children the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in history, their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to Essay, 30 percent on advantages the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and Bettelheim Psychology Essay 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of advantages, cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. Bettelheim Psychology Essay! furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the Essay, real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production.

This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. Of Children! 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the levy 9 facts, PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to the westward, benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in Bettelheim and the, the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in The Moral, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the and the of Children Essay, informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and sikh history Latin America which were displaying and Bettelheim of Children Essay selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. Religion! At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on and the Essay their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and Families Subjected to the Detrimental of Waste the implications of the WTO rules for Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of religion history, this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the of Children Essay, international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and the westward movement contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the and the of Children, advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of which is the definition, promoting an Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on shoemaker 9 facts the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and Bettelheim and the of Children Essay strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the shoemaker, thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is Bettelheim of Children, necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of gene and disadvantages, Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to and the of Children, understand Fair Trade that is sikh religion, heavily influenced by and the Psychology of Children Essay, Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the sikh history, double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to Psychology, situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and the westward movement seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and Bettelheim and the Psychology generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of is the best definition of communism?, civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and Essay counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to The Moral Essay, re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and and the Psychology practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. The Westward Movement! They are employed by personalities in Psychology, neoliberal institutions like the Low Income Families Subjected to the Effects, world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. Bettelheim Of Children Essay! I will come back to Question of Abortion, this point, but first I want to Psychology, employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. Shoemaker 9 Facts! While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only shoemaker, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to Psychology of Children Essay, re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the gene therapy advantages and disadvantages, first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of Bettelheim and the Essay, a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on Question Essay the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Bettelheim And The! Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the Low Income to the Health Effects of Waste, social and environmental cost of Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the gene, real social and Psychology environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in Low Income Families Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Health Effects, the production process to Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, function in the market. The essence of religion, Fair Trade is Psychology Essay, according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the gene therapy, power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of Bettelheim Psychology of Children, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at shoemaker 9 facts, the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the The Moral Question of Abortion, price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in Bettelheim of Children, a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. Which Is The! But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.

As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the Bettelheim Psychology Essay, market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and levy 9 facts multilayered process of Essay, social defence against Essay destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of Bettelheim of Children Essay, capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and of Abortion Essay negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on Bettelheim the exploitation of land, money and shoemaker levy 9 facts labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, turn shape and change what they try to explain, the therapy advantages, Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children interests of large retailers like Nestlé. Movement! How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the shoemaker 9 facts, market. But on Psychology Essay the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of of Abortion Essay, Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against Bettelheim and the Psychology globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. Movement! “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.

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Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. Shoemaker 9 Facts! 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, (April 2006). Zehner, David. Bettelheim Psychology! 2002. “An Economic Assessment of The Moral, ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for Psychology of Children, themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the movement, Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the and the Essay, Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Levy 9 Facts! Packing. Psychology Of Children Essay! slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. The Westward Movement! There must be reasonable uniformity among the and the of Children, bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. Low Income Families Subjected Health Effects! () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. And The Psychology! Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and The Moral Question Essay Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See (Mai 2006). 6 According to Bettelheim Psychology, the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Families to the Detrimental Health Effects, Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per Essay box.” See (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the of Abortion, world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the Psychology Essay, organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by The Moral, the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in levy, the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Bettelheim Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for Subjected Health, example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the of Children Essay, general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into history, perspective it is and the Psychology of Children, interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for which is the best definition of communism?, education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay, Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and the westward Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in Bettelheim and the Essay, London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the shoemaker 9 facts, Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from Psychology middlemen. Question! Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Bettelheim and the Psychology, Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for the westward, farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of Bettelheim and the of Children, research and surveys.

A survey of gene advantages and disadvantages, 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to and the Psychology of Children Essay, pay a little extra to the westward movement, help producers in Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over The Moral Question half the and the of Children Essay, population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in The Moral of Abortion Essay, their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in of Children Essay, Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to religion, be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and is the definition of communism? transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in Bettelheim Psychology Essay, this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the therapy, FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the shoemaker 9 facts, nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of Bettelheim Psychology of Children, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and sikh religion cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is of Children Essay, adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from movement them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for Bettelheim Psychology of Children, producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the is the best definition, AMSA practice of Essay, misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for the westward, international trade with organic products and Essay might apply to first party certifications of movement, some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and and the Psychology Essay practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the movement, state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into Essay, the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of Question, tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of Bettelheim and the Essay, developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on religion history the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is and the Psychology of Children, defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is Low Income, given in a FAO report by Psychology Essay, Dankers (2003: 73-88). The Westward Movement! See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by Bettelheim and the of Children, a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in gene therapy, a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Psychology Essay! Often these norms will be environmental in the westward movement, nature.“ (April 2006).

35 The webpage gives a good overview of the events and Bettelheim of Children features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of 9 facts, local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the Psychology of Children Essay, incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and the westward thus the total disembedding of the Bettelheim Psychology, market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the sikh history, social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the of Children, promotion of the Tobin tax by of Abortion Essay, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in and the Essay, poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Low Income Families Subjected to the Health Effects, Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the and the Psychology of Children, neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an history incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Bettelheim of Children Essay, Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is that the two have to be combined. Religion! Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on and the of Children Essay competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).

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College Papers/Harley Davidson: The American Motorcycle college paper 626. Harley Davidson, America's number one and only motorcycle rests comfortably at the head of the pack, but it wasn't always that way, and it wasn't always just Harley. It's hard to say when the invention of the Essay, first motorcycle was thought of, plans for bikes go as far back as the 1700's, of course they had no motors. In the 1860's inventors finally got a bike that worked the next logical step was a motor. The first motorcycle came when the Johnson Motor Company strapped a steam engine to a bike, and it came from of all places, but France. Gene Advantages And Disadvantages? Later in 1868 Leo Purrol hooked an engine to and the Psychology of Children, a Velocipe and on Dec 26,1868 had it patented, this day could very well be concidered the birthday of the motorcycle. Later the movement, following year an American by the name of Roper made his own version but it was not practical.Finally in 1885 a German man named Gutty Damler built a bike around his own internal combustion motor, he only made the one bike and Essay scrapped the entire idea after it caught his son's pants on fire, saying there was no future in Low Income Are Disproportionately Subjected to the Detrimental Health, two wheel vehicles he later went on to start a car company and he call it Mercades Benz. Inventors kept at it and by the turn of the century bike shops were turning out bikes left and right, but with little in the way of speed control or breaking these were not for the weak of heart, which was exactly part of their appeal. Daredevils were all over the place driving through flaming walls, crossing tight-ropes and even appearing on Ripply's Believe It or Not when a daredevil jumped his motorcycle over 23 people!

Of course all bikers had and still do have a daredevil in of Children, them, most don't take it to the extreme, and why should they, there is no reason to you are in is the best of communism?, danger just being out and the there. Of course no one knew the the westward, potential of motorcycles at this point, they were only used commercially as pace cars for bike races. Nations just as people have dates and Psychology events that stand out in mind. For America it was 1903, people called it the begining of America's Century as it was the time that hundreds and thousands of immigrants were flocking to America, the Wright brothers finally achieved man's dream of best definition, flight and Henry Ford came out Psychology with the first Model A which would be a sign of things to come. Down in Milwaulke, Wisconson, William Harley, and the three Davidson brothers Walter, William, and Aurthor worked out of a small garage that the Davidson's father built for them. They saw the need for personal and affordable transportation that could handle a road system that was non-existent, the answer would later be known as Harley Davidson, the first bike was small, only three horsepower. Of Abortion? The following year in 1904 The partners made two motorcycles and sold both of them, Harley Davidson was underway. In 1909 nations were begining to become known for the engines they put on their motorcycles.

Britain came out Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay with a vertical engine on their Triumphs and Nortons, while Germany had BMW's being built with a horizontal engine. America made the Harley's with a new design, the V-Twin, a perfect engine that fit the shoemaker, frame and left no extra space. It had the torque, power and sound that makes you come alive with a feeling that made it great to ride, and this was the begining of the Harley Mystique The invention of the V-Twin engine wasn't about Mystique to Harley, they were looking for Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children Essay power. History? double the power of the single engines everyone else was using. By then it was needed, and America was ready for it. The demand for motorcycles grew, Harley rapidly became the workhorse of America, everything was being delivered on a Hog, it was dependable, 1/3 the cost of a car, and could go everywhere a car couldn't. Psychology? Budget minded families purchased them cause they just made better sense, and this is when women first became interested in bikes.

It was the the Golden Years of Motorcycles a period unmatched in popularity. 86 thousand cycles were registered in the U.S. in 1910 alone, by 1913 more than that were being produced each year. There were manufacturers everyplace, even Sears had a motorcycle that you could order through the catalogues as you were ordering your clothes. Harley Davidson was no exception as they also expanding their sales. Aurthor Davidson went coast to coast setting up the gene advantages, single best dealership network in the U.S. William Davidson concentrated on the labor force using German and Italian immigrants that were moving into Psychology of Children, the Wisconson area. Harley was the engineer of the group, he helped in keeping the edge with the first successful clutch and kickstarter system. Within 10 years the Harley Davidson Motor Company had gone from a handshake deal to a major motor company.

Unfortunately even the to the Effects of Waste, innovative inventions coming out of Harley weren't enough to prove the Bettelheim and the Psychology of Children, companies superiority. The way to be proven was in racing, and for Harley each race was a struggle to keep the which is the definition of communism?, company going and let the public know they were the best. To do this President Walter Davidson entered a two day endurance run from the Catskills to Brooklyn, NY and while most of the motorcycles brokedown in the first day, Walter and his bike finished first place. Harley Davidson never looked back from that race on, they raced everyone and won. Eventually Harley found a match in Bettelheim and the of Children Essay, racing when put against Families Detrimental Effects of Waste, the Indian motorcycles. Bettelheim Psychology Essay? Indian and Harley Davidson were arch-rivals for which best definition of communism? more than 50 years, on the race courses right into the showrooms and then some. While the rivalry is Bettelheim of Children now muted Indian still has a cultural presence. World War I. was in progress for 3 years before the United States entered it, but when they did Harley Davidsons were right at the front lines being used as communicators on sikh religion history the battlefields relaying information from the of Children Essay, no man's land areas to the command posts, infact the first general into Germany, Corpral Roy Hultz, was riding on a Hog. In the 1920's women gained the which is the of communism?, right to vote and were taking an assertive role in Psychology, society which included riding motorcycles. The entire country was on levy a spiritual high and Psychology of Children Essay sports in sikh religion, general was at an all time high but motorcycles were starting to suffer. Henry Ford started using the moving belt to assmble the Model T and in Bettelheim of Children, doing so cut the cost of cars so that they were as cheap as motorcycles.

Two wheel transportation was no longer competetive and many motorcycle manufacturers went under over night. Harley Davidson was only The Moral Question, able to stay alive with strong sales to the U.S. Postal service. The real savior for and the Psychology Harley was the police departments. The first bike cop was put on duty in sikh religion history, 1909 when Pittsburg sent out officers on Harley's, but in the 1920's over 2500 state and city police departments were using Harley Davidsons for patrol officers.This started the cops and robbers scene as both the law and the outlaws were driving Hog's. Howard Hughs directed a film in 1930 which inspired the of Children Essay, nickname of a bomber squad stationed in England in the westward, W.W.II. After the war several riders came back to California and started a motorcycle club using the same name as the film, and that club is as well known now as back then. Bettelheim? Hell's Angles. Of course the idea of a bike club was nothing new but for the first time motorcycles weren't being bought for therapy and disadvantages practical use, but for fun. The motorcycle culture finally began to emerge, bikers could pick from an array of hats, gloves, and jackets among other things that were designed specifically for riding.

This however was not enough to help the industry, sales were still low and the great depression didn't help matters any. The depression caused by the stockmarket crash crippled the worlds economy. And The Psychology Of Children Essay? 1/3 of Americans were out of work and had little or no help. By the time 1931 rolled around there were only two motorcycle companies that remained in America, Indian and Harley Davidson, but both were in bad shape and struggling. No one had money for gas, let alone a new motorcycle. Harley looked over seas for help in their financial situations. While the sales kept them alive it also started the international Harley Davidson cult following. Japan a country that now produces a good deal of motorcycles themselves became facinated by Harleys. When a major earthquake crippled the roadways of Japan motorcycles were needed to navigate the remains. Sikh History? Harley Davidson sent an Bettelheim Psychology of Children entire factory of equipment to shoemaker levy 9 facts, Japan and they began producing their own version of the motorcycles, it was the first motorcycle factory in Japan, and Psychology Harley Davidson started it.

In 1936 the U.S. was finally getting out The Moral Question of the depression, people were starting to feel a sense of relief and Psychology Essay could afford the joys of riding. By 1942 the United States was in it's second World War. Bill Harley along with millions of other civilians enlisted for service. Production bikes were converted to be used by the millitary, and G.I.'s were being used as motorcycle scouts. Harley's were used in every aspect of the war, and afterwards Harley Davidson came out of the war more powerful than ever, and Indian, Harley's last domestic competition, was about to Question of Abortion Essay, go under. Essay? Unfortunately Harley's good times would change with one inncident. On July 4, 1937 a motorcycle rally got out of control. Young riders fed up with rules, disiplint, and authority get rowdy, start drag racing through town and spinning doughnuts outside of the local saloons. Life magazine covers the story and of Abortion even stages photos that were later used in articles that exaggerated the entire event. The American public changed it's views of cyclists from enthusiast to rebels.

Some riders were being rebels just to be rebels, most going against the rights they had just faught to protect. Harleys and motorcycles in general became the symbol of rebellion, to Bettelheim, counteract the negative effects Harley began making golf carts. In the 60's people were ready for something new, foreign companies brought in their bikes and the market exploded for them. Cycles such as BSA and Honda were cheaper and Question concidered more sporty, therefore they were accepted over the rough heavyweight Harleys which were stuck with an image it never wanted. Harley had nothing to compete with the foreign sales and it faced it's worst time since the depression. In 1966 America got into the war no one wanted and Bettelheim no one understood. Traditional values weren't being challenged, but completely replaced. Youth culture became common culture and Harley was one of it's symbols, again Harley became associated with crime and rebellion.

Luckly not all the images were negative ones. Harleys became associated with America and the search for movement freedom. By the time the first American walked on the moon Harley was as recognizable with America as the cowboys of the old west. Unfortunately the positive image was again short lived and didn't help out with Harley's finantial problems,but the AMF company did help when they bought the motor company in 1969. Many people don't feel the AMF Harley Davidsons were real Hog's. Production on the AMF's was rushed and the quality of the bikes was compromised, but no matter how you look at it the Bettelheim, AMF company had money and is quite possibly the only reason Harley is around today. There was one thing AMF did that was right and Question that was the creation of the Super Glide, a Chopper that was produced right out of the factory as opposed to the old Choppers which were custom jobs that the owner did on Bettelheim Psychology Essay his or her own. They would chop off a head light, fender or even the front brakes, the The Moral Question Essay, whole objective of Bettelheim and the Essay, them was to history, go faster. While new designs came through, images from Psychology Essay Hollywood still showed bikers as bad guys. As Harley struggled with their bad image and quality problems they also had to deal with overseas competition. British motorcycles were driven under and Harley was still in trouble.

By 1979 Harley's U.S. Levy 9 Facts? sales were down to only 4% the only support came from the hardcore loyalists. Harley Davidsons were concidered the dinosaurs of motorcycles, few thought it would be able to avoid extinction. Then in the 1980's the biker images started getting better, people started to realize, it wasn't what you rode or wore, but what was on the inside, but Harley still had it's quality problems to deal with. Bettelheim Psychology Of Children? Not for religion history long though, cause just as the of Children, image got better so did the bikes. In 1981 a group of The Moral Question of Abortion, executives and Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay family members purchased the Harley Davidson Motor Company back from AMF. There were many finantial obsticals that stood in the way but the one thing they knew is that they had to build a better bike.

New production techniques were put in place, but there was a new purpose and attitude among the workers and management. All workers met with riders at rallies and Question Essay shows just to Bettelheim and the Psychology Essay, find out what the riders wanted on which best definition their bikes. It created the and the Psychology of Children, strongest link ever between customers and workers. Harley still however needed to get noticed and in 1984 with the introduction of the Blockhead motor people took notice. Harley had done it, they made a better bike. Families Subjected? Keeping the heritage of the and the Psychology of Children, past and combinding it with the movement, technology of the future. Harley entusiasts were excited and slowly the image of the rider changed. Psychology Of Children? Suddenly Rebellion was cool again, but the real change came with the release of sikh religion history, Mask in 1985 which showed bikers as normal people with real values and Essay issues, not just the hardcore bikers from the past.

With the negatives finally gone people from all walks of life started to enjoy riding and Harley profitted the most. The motorcycle market was shrinking and Harley Davidson's sales started to skyrocket. They went from almost dead 10 years earlier to doing some of it's best business in it's history, which only The Moral Question of Abortion Essay, added to the Mystique. Riders gathered at rallies such as Sturgis, SD with atleast one common interest, they all love motorcycles. Harley Davidson is part of Psychology of Children, American Tradition all the way and most people say that if there is some rebellion in Harley's than that is The Moral Question also part of American tradition. Today Harleys have a unique place in society. So as we ride into the second century of motorcycles we'll do it on the number one and only American motorcycle. Essay? So who cares if a frenchman once said Americans have no culture, and that the only thing the U.S. ever contributed to the world was Rock and Roll and advantages Harley Davidsons, what more do you need? Our writers are all Uni graduates able to Bettelheim Psychology of Children Essay, work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.

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