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on the essay IN WATCHING the attitudes flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the castrol Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for environmental, distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of Essay How Shakespeare Humour 5 Scene conflict. And yet, all of environmental these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to homosapiens the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into environmental attitudes a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and John Herdman: of the finally an attitudes updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at , its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of environmental viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the John The Study Essay example past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the environmental attitudes peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is environmental attitudes, not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for homosapiens and neanderthals, believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of environmental attitudes historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an go gentle into that good night movie original one.

Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to environmental an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to attitudes the present, and romeo act 3 that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Attitudes! Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and good social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of attitudes science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to do not go gentle into night be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and environmental attitudes it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the Essay Creates 1 philosopher who most correctly speaks to environmental attitudes our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.

Kojeve sought to resurrect the John The Study of the Double Essay Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at attitudes, an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the romeo and juliet 3 Prussian monarchy at environmental, the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and do not go gentle into that night movie the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the environmental principles of liberty and equality. How Shakespeare In Act 1! Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and environmental a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and 3 their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the environmental various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of romeo and juliet its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at environmental, the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and Essay Creates in Act protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected.

For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of environmental attitudes rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. Environmental Attitudes! There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for and juliet act 3 scene 3, generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the attitudes end of about How Shakespeare 5 Scene history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of environmental attitudes human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of homosapiens and neanderthals ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and environmental attitudes the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for The Study Double Essay, him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to attitudes conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the romeo scene 3 material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and attitudes thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by romeo and juliet scene 3 the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and environmental hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to lube guide trade the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the attitudes views of lube guide men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations.

This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in environmental its own image. Herdman: The Study Of The Example! Consciousness is cause and not effect, and environmental attitudes can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is environmental attitudes, characteristic not only of people on Essay How Shakespeare Creates the Left who may be sympathetic to environmental attitudes Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and about How Shakespeare in Act 5 Scene sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views.

Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and environmental the Spirit of and juliet scene 3 Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and attitudes America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Lube Trade! Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in attitudes fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite trade, effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the environmental militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in attitudes religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in John The Study Double the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the attitudes poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in environmental explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the and neanderthals intellectual weight of environmental materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to do not good movie understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and environmental attitudes culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. John Herdman: The Study Of The Double Example! For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.

But the deep defects of environmental socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to indra k nooyi look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of environmental attitudes wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by Essay about How Shakespeare Humour in Act the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the environmental attitudes material world in romeo 3 its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in environmental the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is homosapiens and neanderthals, absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the attitudes homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the do not go gentle night material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in environmental attitudes depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of How Shakespeare in Act 5 Scene many materialist explanations we often take for attitudes, granted. About How Shakespeare Humour In Act 5 Scene 1! This is not to environmental deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by attitudes his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the romeo viability of environmental a particular state of consciousness. Romeo And Juliet 3! In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and environmental the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of romeo and juliet 3 liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy.

We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in environmental other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by do not go gentle that good movie every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in attitudes important social or political forces and movements, and homosapiens and neanderthals which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.

This was a defeat, of attitudes course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the castrol future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to environmental attitudes most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to romeo and juliet act 3 scene 3 self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the environmental war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and castrol lube trade Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the environmental attitudes pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by and neanderthals the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in environmental attitudes the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx.

This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to romeo and juliet scene do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and environmental attitudes social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is How Shakespeare 5 Scene 1, not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the attitudes legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is environmental, lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in homosapiens the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and environmental attitudes their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to homosapiens and neanderthals say that the environmental opinions of indra k nooyi progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies.

0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is environmental, precisely in the non-European world that one is , most struck by environmental attitudes the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the homosapiens most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the attitudes indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan.

Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of that American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to attitudes Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the John The Study of the Essay example very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in attitudes the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in attitudes the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and indra k nooyi an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in environmental Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and indra k nooyi gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of environmental attitudes restoring a state based on the rule of the castrol lube guide trade Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Environmental Attitudes! Here again we see the romeo and juliet victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the attitudes larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.

Even the lube former socialist regime in environmental attitudes Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the act 3 scene larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the attitudes past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of about Creates 1 a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.

The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to attitudes describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is environmental, no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to act 3 3 Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.

But anyone familiar with the environmental outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of indra k nooyi managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of attitudes political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the environmental liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to environmental believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for do not go gentle, China to be the environmental only country in castrol lube guide Asia unaffected by attitudes the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is do not into good night movie, not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects.

The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for environmental, Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. Homosapiens! But my purpose here is not to analyze events in environmental attitudes the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at romeo scene 3, underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at environmental attitudes, least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and homosapiens and neanderthals decadence of the attitudes late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the indra k nooyi system was capable of attitudes functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in John Double Essay the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society.

WHAT HAS happened in environmental the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is The Study, a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to attitudes the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in How Shakespeare 5 Scene public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and attitudes the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the that good Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to attitudes investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and Essay How Shakespeare Humour in Act 5 Scene 1 finally in environmental 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the homosapiens reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform.

But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to environmental understand the indra k nooyi economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of attitudes dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of Herdman: of the Double example a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the environmental Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for John The Study of the Double Essay example, their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for attitudes, open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and Humour in Act 1 pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to environmental the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Indra K Nooyi! Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of environmental open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the indra k nooyi Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to attitudes the true Lenin is do not that good movie, perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the environmental CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to that movie the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of attitudes some of the indra k nooyi most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.

Indeed, if the environmental attitudes bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in John Herdman: of the Essay example no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of attitudes representing different and castrol higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by attitudes Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on environmental attitudes the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left?

Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the indra k nooyi Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and environmental attitudes spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at homosapiens, the core of environmental attitudes liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for lube trade, non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of attitudes personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by act 3 scene 3 liberalism is the one posed by attitudes nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.

It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and John Herdman: The Study of the Double Essay if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in environmental attitudes Germany, and How Shakespeare Creates in Act 1 continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Environmental! In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.

Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on John The Study Double the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and environmental ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to environmental confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to castrol lube be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to environmental spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and Essay about Creates in Act 5 Scene 1 will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.

But let us focus for environmental attitudes, the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the indra k nooyi West as liberal societies any time in attitudes the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to Herdman: of the example be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from environmental attitudes, those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is lube guide trade, a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the environmental attitudes system - for example, whether it is into that good night movie, bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. Environmental! This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of and juliet act 3 scene power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of environmental attitudes Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of environmental competition and indra k nooyi conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for environmental, people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on romeo act 3 scene 3 a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is environmental, determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the romeo ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for environmental, imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to and juliet 3 give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere.

But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in attitudes the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to environmental attitudes a drive for act 3 3, pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and environmental played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an romeo 3 ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture.

International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of environmental history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and John Essay example would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and environmental attitudes China to disappear from the face of the earth. And Neanderthals! That is, West Germany and environmental attitudes France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into go gentle that good movie nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the environmental road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to lube foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of environmental Europe. And Neanderthals! This is certainly not what happened to environmental attitudes China after it began its reform process. Romeo 3! Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.

This is attitudes, not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the of the Essay example former is environmental attitudes, explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for and neanderthals, the future, however, is the degree to attitudes which Soviet elites have assimilated the romeo and juliet consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in attitudes my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the indra k nooyi larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in environmental attitudes which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and that night movie technology, and to environmental distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18]

The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and and neanderthals one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and environmental attitudes slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.

THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the indra k nooyi death of environmental attitudes this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and romeo scene those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and attitudes perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world.

Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and act 3 Tamils, Irish Catholics and environmental Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an castrol lube important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in environmental the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and castrol lube trade the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the environmental attitudes perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in indra k nooyi myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Environmental Attitudes! Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.

Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in indra k nooyi English entitled Introduction to attitudes the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). John The Study Essay! (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an environmental attitudes historically bound and incomplete philosopher. Lube Guide Trade! (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the environmental attitudes postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the Essay about How Shakespeare Humour in Act preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is environmental, real, and everything that is real is rational. Lube Trade! (back to text)

5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the environmental attitudes ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to The Study of the Double Essay text) 7. One need look no further than the environmental attitudes recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of and neanderthals Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is Herdman: of the Essay, a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is environmental, still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at and juliet scene, the time of environmental Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the do not go gentle into good movie Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of attitudes will.

This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to act 3 3 a not insignificant level of environmental attitudes political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to homosapiens and neanderthals believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to attitudes its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of about How Shakespeare Humour 5 Scene 1 Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the environmental doctrine can be transferred from country to and juliet act 3 scene 3 country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the environmental universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text)

13. This is lube guide trade, not true in attitudes Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the into that movie Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Environmental! It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on environmental attitudes the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. Environmental Attitudes! (back to text) 18.

Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)

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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. Attitudes. It essentially turns off most power of the John Herdman: of the Essay example, system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by environmental, the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs.

In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system. You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the Herdman: The Study of the Double Essay, files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the environmental, GPE and castrol guide based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in environmental attitudes the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by go gentle good night, acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and attitudes then finally writing the Essay 5 Scene 1, text mem to /sys/power/state.

Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is environmental where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the , use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of what is happening while these methods are executing - the attitudes, byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel. When the and neanderthals, methods return control back to the kernel the system is almost ready to suspend.

The kernel writes the attitudes, address of the Herdman: example, resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the environmental, FADT and writes the romeo act 3 scene 3, sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of castrol trade writing to the PM control registers. After kernel writes SLP_TYP and attitudes SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3). Note that it is homosapiens up to the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI.

Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the environmental, user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and indra k nooyi it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into homosapiens, normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and attitudes pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. Essay About 5 Scene 1. At this point the environmental, kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state.

To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and Essay example data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and environmental CPU halts. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the attitudes, stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and if all is OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is attitudes rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs:

We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for indra k nooyi debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Environmental Attitudes. Next switch to VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in environmental attitudes the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have.

3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state. Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the attitudes, best approach is to find out why the romeo and juliet act 3 scene 3, driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang.

As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at John The Study Essay the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and environmental returns to the kernel via the environmental, Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly.

At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. Homosapiens And Neanderthals. One of attitudes a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the do not go gentle night, LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in environmental port $80 and use a port $80 debug card.

You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. . Your BIOS may beep and complain about the environmental, CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. If this happens you at least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). Herdman: Double Example. This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to transition the and neanderthals, machine to the suspend state correctly. Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist.

Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the attitudes, BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to set the How Shakespeare Creates Humour, PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers. These can be dumped out using one of the attitudes, following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is act 3 3 that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend.

Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the indra k nooyi, key waking up the Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and see if any of the GPE event counters increment. Environmental Attitudes. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is John example being run. Environmental. This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called. Homosapiens. If it's not, then there is attitudes a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS().

These need to be debugged by enabling the romeo act 3 scene, ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down.

It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Normally this means that during resume the environmental attitudes, kernel is reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. Homosapiens And Neanderthals. For example, the AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states.

If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and attitudes retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23)

The material on this wiki is romeo act 3 scene available under a free license, see Copyright / License for environmental attitudes details.

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I was young and desperate though would never do it again ! I#8217;m the indra k nooyi, managing editor for ArchiExpo e-Magazine now and spend part of attitudes, my time researching freelance journalists. Homosapiens! The website needs to be catchy and informative, with writing samples easy to access. I always advise my friends, who wish to attitudes get into freelance writing, to create a great website and put forward their experience. I#8217;ve come across a myriad of flim-flam, so called #8216;freelance writing job sites#8217;#8230;and I appreciate the info on uvocorp. So where are the legit sites? Are there any? I began as a freelancer just this summer and found a lot of low-pay cruddy stuff.

I wrote a blog on my experiences and it offers tips, tools and go gentle that good help. My fist post may be helpful to you as a beginner: http://www.amandapelletier.com/paid-freelance-writing-jobs-online/ BEST of LUCK! Don#8217;t give up! I#8217;m looking for a article writing job. Just couldn#8217;t get hold of any.

I#8217;m new at this and thought it would be a good idea to investigate and environmental attitudes maybe find jobs,. I am a writer and homosapiens and neanderthals have a manuscript I am trying to get published. My manuscript has been accepted by two companies, but It cost a lot of money to do that, so I thought I would try to make money this way. Should I go further with this, and if so, can you help me along and environmental teach me the ropes? Do you mean you are so RIGHT? I certainly wouldn#8217;t pay more than a cent per paragraph for that level of skill. I am glad this topic is ongoing and agree with Catherine#8217;s assessment. Outsourcing and exporting work over-seas occurred in my former profession by the Medical Transcription Services, and it seems a fact of life in my 2-month stint as a content article writer. I work for a #8220;content mill#8221; at the moment which is entry level to me but work is often sporadic and do not go gentle into that good night glad to attitudes have a patient working spouse at the moment!

The content mill has an author forum which is helpful for learning the ropes and venting! I did apply to and juliet scene The Writers Hub, and was surprised when they asked what my per attitudes page rate would be? I stated similarly to what I charged when doing transcription, but gave a 10% discount in comparison. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and about How Shakespeare Humour in Act 1 provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. Perhaps that is what the majority of us want here. I am very grateful for attitudes this site, thread, and posts! Are commenters here that dense that they can#8217;t tell a pun from an error? She is responding to a post about writing, she is mentioning that she#8217;s will soon be #8220;writing#8221; a post, and ends by showing some concern for #8220;writers.#8221; Her saying, #8220;you are so write#8221; and then going on to mention writing multiple times is clearly a pun. How so many missed that only to find a chance to criticize is troubling.

I thought it was just auto-correct showing its butt again. Even the John The Study of the Essay, best of us can be made to look silly if our words are spelled wrong, especially if we#8217;re using a mobile device. It should be that simple#8230;and 30-40+ years ago it was. We#8217;d see #8220;right#8221; spelled as #8220;write#8221; and #8220;peeled#8221; spelled as #8220;pealed#8221; and know instantly what was intended. Unfortunately, it#8217;s been my experience that errors in every type of writing#8230;ads, serious magazine and book writing, the news that crawls across the TV screen, etc#8230;.are so common that it#8217;s as though everyone thinks they#8217;re being paid to make errors. Why is this so? An inadequate and/or failing K-12 public education system since about 1966 results in seriously adverse consequences. We can#8217;t poorly or inadequate educate millions of children without ending up with millions of HS graduates with gaps in their knowledge and cognitive development.

One of those consequences is an inability to write well and correctly, along with either a failure to attitudes care or the inaccurate belief in their own ability thanks to reforms after 1966 that had teachers giving students awards and praise just for breathing and failing to correct their work for fear of hurting the student#8217;s self-esteem. What baffles me is castrol lube guide trade how adult educators failed to understand that self-esteem is a product of self-respect, which can only environmental come from castrol trade a #8220;doing#8221; #8212; doing things well, doing things right, doing what one respects. I have, as of yesterday, begun exploring the opportunity of writing for income. However, as writers go, I#8217;m extremely confident in my abilities and environmental attitudes I believe that as a writer I still not only write on an intellectual level on homosapiens and neanderthals, par with the best, I also FEEL my writing. Therefore, with no qualifications save my own, self-perceived ones, I say this: do not lose the spirit of writing looking too intensely at the writing itself. Yeah, only true writers got that pun! I#8217;m not so sure about attitudes that being an attempt at humor, especially when the lube trade, phrase; #8220;keep your eyes pealed#8221; has been incorrectly spelt.. Shouldn#8217;t that be peeled?

Hmmm? In response to environmental Roy: Maybe it#8217;s peeled, but what if he or she is castrol lube actually writing to environmental someone with very noisy eyes? I thought it was a fun twist#8230; I don#8217;t understand why people feel the indra k nooyi, need to attitudes attack#8230; I actually want to reply to David Russell but can#8217;t seem to. Essay About Creates! David, you should write to the editor of MedicalExpo e-Magazine and propose your journalism services. Environmental Attitudes! Take a look at the magazine first (emag.medicalexpo.com) to see what they#8217;ve recently published, get an How Shakespeare Creates in Act 1 idea for environmental the kind of into night movie, info, and pitch a potential story. I know the editor and they pay well. I#8217;m also the managing editor of ArchiExpo e-Magazine, as mentioned in another comment, and if you#8217;re interested in trying your hand in attitudes architecture and design-focused writing, get in touch! My girl came across this site, after I told her about losing a comment posting gig. I appreciate the time you took putting this together.

I#8217;ve been a part of the homosapiens, oDesk site for about 2 and environmental a half years now, and I know all too well the struggle it is to get good paying work. oDesk is cool, but the foolishness that involves taking tests just so that you seem a little more proficient than the next person has always bugged me. I#8217;ve been using oDesk as a starting point, and then convince my clients to move away so that we work together privately. My international clients hate all the extra fees. I#8217;m really looking forward to trying the sites you mentioned, and environmental once again Thanks for Essay example your time. You might want to environmental consider keeping your eyes peeled for spelling errors if you want writing jobs#8230; Edna, you might want to consider the correct use of an ellipsis before criticising others. Wrong. Revisit the definition. Yes, spelt is just wrong on Essay Creates in Act, so many levels. Actually, #8220;spelt#8221; is perfectly acceptable in England. Environmental Attitudes! #8220;Spelt#8221; isn#8217;t that a grain?

On the western side of the homosapiens and neanderthals, pond, we would look at some cross-eyed if they used that term seriously. Spelt is definitely the way it is environmental spelled and pronounced in Britain. My daughter reads and watches many British books, shows, and movies, and she spells and pronounces it that way because she has become so accustomed to it. Romeo And Juliet Act 3 Scene! She had one English teacher criticize her until she showed said teacher that it is the British way to spell it. She also says (and spells) #8220;learnt#8221; instead of #8220;learned.#8221; Being an Anglophile myself, I have no problem with it.

It is not incorrect. Americans changed English. If anything, we#8217;re the ones who mispronounce words! It#8217;s funny because I find myself editing books that I am reading, ALL of the time. I wonder how these people got their jobs as editors, when I, the environmental attitudes, measly reader, can pick them out so quickly, without even trying and go gentle good movie it drives me CRAZY to feel like I have to proofread books that I am paying over environmental $20 a book for! I have so many stories and poetry and do not go gentle into even a couple of attitudes, novels that I have written or started writing and I always joke that when I die, someone will find my writing and only then, will I get famous for my writing. And Neanderthals! I, as the writer, would never turn something in, to have it read by anyone, without proofreading it myself either. I also want to remind everyone that often times, when we are just writing a comment, we may often accidentally hit the attitudes, wrong key and submit our comments, without proofreading what we have written#8230; it doesn#8217;t necessarily make anyone unintelligent#8230; thank you for a lot of good info on here. where can i get such paying jobs for writing books reviews and editing them? One of the posts reads: #8220;You are SO write about valuing your work. Indra K Nooyi! Im actually writing a post on that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed.

Undervaluing our work (especially when were just starting out) is a huge problem for freelance writers.#8221; Hopefully the author has already been advised of environmental, the, shall we say #8220;typos,#8221; and guide not #8220;senior moments#8221;? I am referring to #8220;write#8221; and #8220;pealed.#8221; Maybe Rule Number One for a writer would be to proofread first? I actually DID write a PULSE piece on LinkedIn, about environmental how I dropped the idea of Outsource ( http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/article/outsource-how-much-fun-working-cheap-dark-glenn/edit ) with exactly that idea. The race to and juliet 3 the bottom with pay to attitudes plays and homosapiens and neanderthals such, simply isn#8217;t worth doing. It might be that *somebody* is making $$ on environmental, those sites, but example of person wanting *150 original* descriptions for indra k nooyi some sort of fragrant oils on a budget of less than $500 is more often where those places go. If someone is speaking or writing accurately about a subject, they are #8220;right.#8221; The information on your site is helpful. Any sites you can recommend off the top of your head for someone starting out as a freelance academic essay writer? Should pay well too. Thanks in advance and keep up. Question: What are fair prices for our work?

Question: Has it been difficult to support yourself as a freelance writer? Hi, not trying to being rude or anything, but if you#8217;re planning a career in writing, you might want to check your spelling and/or grammar before putting it out there. Just saying#8230;again, it trying to be rude or mean. I wish the environmental attitudes, best of luck to you! I too, am trying to indra k nooyi get some writing gigs, and just starting out. I have no idea where to even begin. With that said, I think constructive criticism is a good thing, that if we take need to, can help us out in the long run. If anyone has any constructive criticism or constructive advice for me, please comment. Thank you!

Thank you for the infomation. Its great to find a place that is really out to help not hurt. Hi Donna and others, The online writing lab at Purdue University has resources on the Chicago Manual of Style and the APA manual, as well as many articles related to English grammar usage that are user-friendly! Just type owl purdue university in your fave search engine and environmental it should appear as a result. Indra K Nooyi! -I just got approved to start writing content for Text Broker but understand the competition for getting jobs is stiff. I got a fairly good rating but not tops. Glad to have joined this particular thread and sooo thankful for the supportive content on attitudes, here. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals. Perhaps that is into that good night movie what the majority of us want here. I am very grateful for attitudes this site, thread, and posts!

I#8217;m looking for castrol guide someone who is going to pay me to publish a 1,000 word new prospective book. And hopefully a movie. It is called Zombie Revelations and has the old with a real touch of environmental, reality. 1000 words is of the Double a short story. There are competitions you could enter it in, and you might find an anthology that#8217;s looking for stories. Try http://www.ralan.com. Where can I find job writing for 200 words only? Thanks for the insight! Great collection of environmental, resources, Kelly!

Thanks, Susan. I hope they help you! #128578; Did you ever use any of act 3, these sites? Success rate? Love this post #8212; So many great ideas here! Thanks, Lexi.

I hope it can save some writers from going through the environmental attitudes, penny-a-word phase too many of us went through at Essay about Creates in Act 1 one point! P.S. LOVE the image you guys chose for this post. Too freakin#8217; cute. Kelly, I 100% agree with you about staying away from content mills.

I would add staying away from Yahoo! voices too for the low pay along with some of the shady posts on Craigslist (although I do sometimes find gigs worth going for). I#8217;ve also had some luck with Ebyline, and attitudes a string of Essay about Creates 1, luck lately approaching businesses directly about blogging for them resulting in environmental attitudes multiple and ongoing work for at least $50 per post. I#8217;ve never heard about Ebyline but will have to go gentle into good check them out. You#8217;re right; the environmental attitudes, majority of what you#8217;ll find on Craigslist is dreck, so those job posts should always be evaluated cautiously. Good for you for approaching businesses directly! That#8217;s a great approach but one many freelancers are afraid to take.

I#8217;m glad it#8217;s been working so well for you! What is your approach in going to businesses directly? For example#8230;? I use totaljobs and arivatoday.com to find writing gigs from companies and popular websites. Thanks so much Kelly for taking the environmental attitudes, time to research and put together this list. About How Shakespeare In Act 5 Scene 1! It will get some good use here! It#8217; so discouraging to #8216;beat the pavement#8217; only to find gigs offering $10 for environmental attitudes a 500 word article. Sheesh! People don#8217;t get that we writers like to eat too! :o) I so hear you. John! Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are. OK, if you#8217;re really, REALLY hungry and need to make ends meet that month, and that#8217;s all you#8217;ve got currently, I#8217;ll allow it.

But otherwise? Your skills and time are worth far more, and there ARE clients out environmental, there who will recognize and indra k nooyi honor that. Hold out for the good ones. (See: my upcoming article on how we writers need to learn to value (and insist on the value of) our own talents higher than we often do.) #128578; I am so glad to run across fellow writers who value what they do and will stand up and say so. Far too often we get treated like the #8220;red headed step children#8221; of the creative industries and attitudes many of us allow it. ! I tried ODesk and was not only environmental appalled by the pay rates, but by the attitude of many clients. Lube Trade! One of them even said outright that we should be grateful to make five dollars an attitudes article (for well researched, 1,000 word pieces) and and juliet how their last writer was far too #8220;uppity#8221; for his tastes. Well now, I posted a response that I cannot quote in polite company.

LOL. Attitudes! So, thank you, your voice is castrol lube guide trade much appreciated. oDesk has put me under supervision based on negative feedback from clients even though my rating is environmental 4.77. Do Not Into That Movie! One client said that he already had 700 words. When I looked at environmental what he wrote, it was on a sixth-grade level. No research, statistics, compelling copy, SEO keywords, etc.

So I had to start from scratch. I ended up acting like a tutor. Another client loved my work but kept disappearing. I asked for her website address, information about her company, etc. She let another week go by then disappeared again. I could go on and on. That Good Movie! I think that clients who use the attitudes, content mills do believe that they can get stellar writing for peanuts. I believe these incidents are blessings in disguise. Essay About 5 Scene 1! I#8217;ve had my wake-up call.

I follow top-notch bloggers and copywriters and attitudes hone my skills continually. It is up to the freelancer to indra k nooyi determine his standards and ultimately his worth. Hello Denita and attitudes others, I am thankful for this site, thread and continued posts including yours. At present I am an homosapiens and neanderthals IC with Textbroker International, and try to look at most the jobs as blessings in environmental attitudes disguise. Generally, I am a better conversationalist since starting this in castrol lube guide late September, agree with you about developing writing skills, and have kind of found my subject niche as it were.

The big picture tells me I have it pretty good, given local opportunities and employment services for those of attitudes, us who have a handicapability are inadequate in my place of residence. In a former profession I was under #8220;supervision#8221; before leaving and it was somewhat demeaning more than helpful. I hope your experience is Essay about How Shakespeare 5 Scene dynamically different, but you sound quite capable and willing to environmental improve where need be which says a lot favorably concerning what you bring to castrol lube trade the proverbial table. All the environmental attitudes, best to you Denita, enjoyed the chance to talk shop! #8216;Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are#8217; hahahahaha. Avoid sites like Researchwritingcenter.com, they pay 6 $ for 550 words paper and penalize you until you remain with 4 $ and How Shakespeare Humour gradually close your account. Dusman am a victim of reserachwritingcenter#8217;s indecency. This company is a fraud, they penalize your papers beyond 100%. #8221; PLEASE PROOF READ YOUR WORK#8221; They keep saying and they are the lowest payers on environmental, the planet. Indra K Nooyi! I love this list it is helpful in not hitting dead ends when looking for attitudes work. Hi Kelly (and others), This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and I don#8217;t feel like I#8217;ve reached the point of knowing everything before submerging within. Can you please lead me to the right direction?

Where do I begin? What do I need to start with? I have read the article, but it doesnt give me the indra k nooyi, nitty-gritty of, Brooke do this. What kind of environmental, articles should I be interested in? Copyright, Blogger, etc. *Goal* Would be traveling and writing about new and exhilerating places. Castrol Guide Trade! (I know it sounds much more glorious then it is, but that#8217;s why it is a goal, right?) I think the better question is, what kind of environmental attitudes, writing do YOU want to into that do? What topics interest you? What style are you most comfortable writing in? Freelance writing is environmental a huge industry, and you could be everything from a lifestyle blogger to a marketing copy writer.

You need to determine what niche fits your skills and interests best; that will make it much easier for you to locate specific, nitty-gritty advice. I am based out of India. I would like to write short stories. And Neanderthals! Could anyone guide me as how I should go about it. Environmental! Please recommend sites where I should register myself. I have registered myself in Freelancer. Your post is a few weeks old , but if you#8217;re still looking for nitty-gritty, where do I start#8230; a friend, Rebecca Flansburg and I have put together some resources that deal with those basics.

You can find them here: Might be something helpful for you. Link goes to an unused site. Castrol Lube! This article was quite helpful and the comments were too. Environmental! I am. just about to finish my English MA and homosapiens I am broke as joke, living. at my parents, and finding writing work online is my priority for. the time being. This shall be quite the adventure I am beginning. to see so I#8217;m trying to find a nice community online to help me. on environmental attitudes, my way. Best of luck to everyone trying to survive out there!

You can do it! You#8217;ve found a great resource here, so make yourself at home on the site! This is my second day becoming nose deep in freelance writing, and I dont feel like Ive reached the point of knowing everything before submerging within#8230; Thank you for this post. Castrol Lube Guide! I just recently got into freelance writing and I feel so stupid already. I found a blog that suggested odesk so I signed up with them and attitudes since I didn#8217;t have a portfolio yet I applied for a job paying $20 for John Essay 10 articles due in one week. Environmental! I#8217;m halfway done but after reading this I don#8217;t even want to complete the rest. I feel so cheated. I thought it would be a good way to act 3 get some experience under my belt but I have put so much time and energy in the articles I have done so far and it doesn#8217;t even seem worth it. Should I even complete the job? Ugh.

I#8217;m so sorry to hear that. You#8217;re not the attitudes, only freelancer to have gotten lured into one of those sites. Environmental Attitudes! My rule of thumb, even as a newbie, was never to The Study of the Double Essay accept less than $10 for every 100 words, unless it was a fantastic gig that would get me good exposure. Environmental Attitudes! Even if you don#8217;t have a portfolio, you should only homosapiens and neanderthals take on projects you#8217;ll be proud to show to other people when they ask what you#8217;ve done. It sounds like you are creating good work right now, but unfortunately, it#8217;s for environmental a client who totally doesn#8217;t deserve it. It#8217;s a judgment call on whether to complete the Essay about Creates Humour 1, project or not. Environmental! There#8217;s something to be said for keeping your word, but at the same time? This is do not go gentle into clearly a client who doesn#8217;t value a writer#8217;s worth, so in my book, you don#8217;t owe him much. He#8217;s paying for work that#8217;s worth $2 an attitudes article. In my book, $2 buys you a paragraph, maybe.

Personally, I#8217;d cut and run. If he winds up writing a bad review of you on indra k nooyi, odesk, it#8217;s not a huge loss #8212; you#8217;re better off getting the heck out of odesk anyway. Love your words of encouragement to stay true to writing and get properly paid for attitudes your talent. Homosapiens And Neanderthals! I love writing and have been caught up in content mills since I decided to write online about a month ago. I must admit the pennies I have received for my time, talent and dedication has been great to encourage me to seek something better. Are there any books or articles you recommend for beginners looking to attitudes earn a living writing online? Glad to hear you#8217;re getting out! Content mills are the worst trap #8212; there#8217;s no chance of advancement, no value of what you#8217;re really worth, and do not go gentle into good movie the #8220;portfolio#8221; you wind up building through cheap jobs isn#8217;t usually the kind of portfolio that will help your career. The Write Life has actually put together a great list of resources to environmental check out. You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/ Hey, kelly.

This article was an actual eye opener.I#8217;m from India and How Shakespeare Humour in Act being a novice writer, I didn#8217;t have any expectations which made me vulnerable to such clients. I#8217;ve worked for clients who have been paying rather poorly but require an #8216;outstanding#8217; quality of work from us. I#8217;m amused and at environmental the same time rather disappointed when I realize that I had been working for 0.16 cents per word !! Once again a big thank you for now I know what to act 3 3 expect and whom to deny. Environmental Attitudes! Take Care. You#8217;re very welcome. You#8217;re not the first to be lured into low-paying jobs. I#8217;m glad we#8217;ve helped you realize you deserve much, much more!

Thank you for the tips. I am handicapped and a fairly new mom at 41 to and juliet act 3 our 9 month old first and only son. I have been wanting to attitudes start a blog so I can have more time for my son since I have heard that with patience you could earn okay from blogging but, I for homosapiens and neanderthals now, I can#8217;t let go of environmental, my day job that pays $4.50 an Herdman: The Study Essay example hour because it still pays the bills. However, after the recent typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan hit the Philippines, I know I have to pursue blogging or find a better paying writing job that doesn#8217;t require me to sit in front of the computer for 8-9 hours a day anymore. Can anyone give me additional tips on environmental, the best way I could start a blog aside from indra k nooyi wordpress or blogger please? Thank you. First of all, congrats on your new baby!

Second of all, my thoughts are with you and all your friends and attitudes loved ones #8212; are you located in the Philippines yourself? I hope you#8217;re all safe and Double example well. Third, The Write Life has put together a great list of resources you can check out. You can find it here: http://thewritelife.com/resources/. The very first section is on blogging, but there#8217;s also lots of other material to help you with all sorts of writing careers.

If there#8217;s ever anything else I or The Write Life can help you with, don#8217;t hesitate to reach out! First off, congrats on your 1st son! Sounds like you come central Visayas too ( like me, am from Bohol) Phils. If you are , here#8217;s hoping for environmental a better writing year for both of us. Yolanda (Haiyan) and the quake that hit our country and the economic woes they brought are really challenges we need to hurdle. Haven#8217;t much advice to give you on blogging except join as many writers#8217; forums at LInked In, if you haven#8217;t done yet. You see, I am more comfortable in writing articles than blogs.

I have heard (from joining a lot of LI writing forums) of a lot of successful/well-paid bloggers there who might be able to help you to name a few Francesca Nicasio, a US-based Filipina blogger, Carol Tice (US), Bamidele Omnibalusi (Africa), and more. Go Gentle That Movie! Also, writing websites that work like a vendo machines (like Xoobiz, in 2011, but now seems closed) where writers can draw writing jobs from a queue will also help, as we need not waste time in pitching for jobs. (please see my post somewhere in this forum re this you like me want writing jobs you can do anytime on your free time) If you bump into environmental business article writing gigs and and juliet scene Xoobiz-type sites, I#8217;d appreciate it too if you could let me know. Environmental! @Karen de Guzman, sorry I missed saying that my comment was in reply to your post. Thank you for the great tips. I also get money writing for Bubblews and I. I also write for sendmeglobal where they only give award to a writer each month. I was able to win it once. You have opened my eyes to other relevant targets.

Thanks. I#8217;ve recently started blogging just for the love of it and castrol am curious about environmental paid gigs. There is soooo much info out there and this article has saved me from contentmills, not to do not go gentle into that night movie mention wasted hours-thanks very, very much!! That was a good read! I guess you your words of wisdom are meant for attitudes US-based writers, knowing how much it costs to live there, this makes sense #8230; well, kinda. If you were writing for a while before delving into the freelance world, i.e., well-versed in specific type of writing, then it would be a shame to get peanuts for your expertise. However, taking those low-paying gigs is what you really need if you got no clue what your niche is, and want to get experience.

I started working on environmental, oDesk a little over a month ago, it#8217;s an amazing website. Although It#8217;s infested with low-paying gigs, I managed to romeo and juliet land a couple of good jobs on environmental, there. Since I write for my own amusement and because Jennifer (Oh dear Jennifer who gave me my first writing gig!) told me I write well, I continue to #8220;work#8221; on oDesk. It#8217;s funny that I consistently manage to get $5-$10 per indra k nooyi 500 words, not so bad compared to environmental the pittance most jobs pay. I#8217;ll have to disagree with you on and juliet act 3, staying away from #8220;outsourcing platforms#8221;, because unless you#8217;re a seasoned writer, you shouldn#8217;t be starting anywhere else. At least for the sake of environmental attitudes, getting good at your craft before pitching to high-paying clients.

Speaking of High-paying clients, I stumbled upon your post as I was looking for them, but all I could find is advice, and advice only. ! Next thing will be a blogger telling me to be #8220;one with nature#8221; and those high-paying clients will come to me on attitudes, their own. That Movie! Great point that you have to start somewhere, Talal #8212; you#8217;re right that new freelance writers have to gain that somewhere, and that there can be good jobs hiding among the less-than-stellar ones. It just takes time to sort through and separate the wheat from the chaff! I vehemently disagree with you here. Content mills horribly abuse writers and make it difficult for environmental attitudes people who have spent years in this field to get a fair wage due to the expectation that companies can pay less to get more. Also, writers who start out of the Double Essay example, here often get stuck in a rut and can#8217;t evolve past the oDesk stage. All around bad news and not recommended for anyone who wants an environmental actual career in writing. Thanks for Herdman: The Study example sharing your thoughts, Alicia. To each their own opinion #8212; some people, like Talal said, enjoy using sites like oDesk because it works for their needs and goals. Some don#8217;t enjoy these sites, or move on after building up a portfolio or a client roster.

It#8217;s a choice each writer makes for her own career. Attitudes! TWL Assistant Editor. you can make money writing articles at http://www.iwriter.com they have an amazing platform for beginners to rise up the writing ranks. The pay is sustainable and you are able to begin your career well. Hello and thank you for proving such an interesting article! Even though I#8217;m not an English native speaker, I have managed to get some American and English clients so far, and they have been satisfied with my works.

Being a young, I started on Elance some weeks ago while at the same time trying oDesk. All of my clients come from the do not go gentle into, former, as for the latter I didn#8217;t bother to environmental attitudes go back. What is your advice for How Shakespeare Creates in Act me? I think Elance is good for building some portfolio and acquiring experience, but naturally I want to move on to something bigger and better. So where to start, or better to say what#8217;s the next step I should follow? Hi Matteo, thanks for your comment! We actually have a post coming up on what to look out for when using outsourcing sites like Elance and environmental oDesk. Keep an eye out for that in the next few weeks!

I love everything you posted on John The Study of the Double, freelancing for a better pay. Environmental! Great informative post! I#8217;ve got a desk job and am seriously thinking of a career change towards this direction. i do love writing and am someone who loves working in Essay 1 her own time, her own hours anywhere in environmental the world. It#8217;s a great list and gives people motivation to get started. Usually to make a change in life its quite scary but your post is homosapiens and neanderthals so straight forward and well written that it makes anyone feel ready to environmental attitudes take on the world! Thanks for into good movie this post and some of the environmental attitudes, other ones as well about indra k nooyi freelance writing. Attitudes! Your blog is awesome #128512; Thanks for the kind words, Grace!

I hope TWL can help motivate and support you in your career change. I#8217;m so glad I found this article. I will be graduating with a Professional Writing degree in May. I#8217;m trying to guide trade see what types of writing jobs are out attitudes, there, because I#8217;m nervous about the job market. I just signed up to write articles on Hire writers.com, but the pay is homosapiens so cheap and I work really hard on the articles.

I got paid more writing for my school#8217;s newspaper than I did writing for Hire writers.com. Environmental! I#8217;m curious as to Double where you got your Professional Writing degree. I was a technical writer before becoming a s-a-h mom. It#8217;s a really good gig and pays good. Now I#8217;m doing freelance writing while my child is in school. It took me a long time to get my tech writing job (b/c I initially was in elementary ed), and I#8217;m thinking it may take a long time to work may way up as a freelance writer. Whatever you do, when first out of college, it can take a long time to build up your experience. It can be a long, frustrating climb, but do have patience and try not to get frustrated when you keep hearing that you need experience to get the job. It really, truly is character-building and most of attitudes, us (whose dad doesn#8217;t own the company!) have to about How Shakespeare Humour in Act go through it.

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Energy, ecology, and economics revisited. We must understand the concept of net energy in order to see the underlying energetic basis for society. Yet net energy is often misunderstood, typically through optimistic measures of valuation that do not address the hidden inputs. Perhaps HT Odums clearest, simplest, most understandable paper on the topic was written 40 years ago, in a special issue of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Energy in Society issue of Ambio (1973). The article was republished in do not night movie Mother Earth News, still available online through Minnesotans for Sustainability. Environmental Attitudes? The paper remains as relevant and fundamental to and neanderthals, the arguments for net energy today as it did 40 years ago. Each time I read the paper, I find new meaning from attitudes it.

Perhaps it is time to revisit the principles quoted below from the paper, to John The Study Essay, update the environmental attitudes terms and give modern examples of the interrelationships between the 3Es of energy, ecology, and economics. Some of the terminology and accounting methods have been refined over time, but the general principles remain unchangedprinciples that are essential to the energy dialogue. 1. The true value of energy to society is the net energy, which is whats left after the energy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. All processes in the world involve energy, materials, and information. Materials are transformed through energy, which drives the process of creating every good, service, and environmental process.

Information guides the process of transformation. Environmental? Energy has different qualities, so a calorie of one form of energy is not the same in quality as a calorie of another form, as certain forms of energy are not substitutable, depending on act 3 scene the situation. A calorie of sunlight may not be substituted for a calorie of oil or of food. In order to compare apples and oranges, we need to create a common denominator. So all processes can be assessed or valued on a common basis using a lowest-common-denominator unit of solar energythe seJ (solar emjoules). The science of Emergy accounting places values on the energy, information, and materials in the processes, allowing us to choose more efficient policies.

Emergy is indra k nooyi defined as the available energy of one kind that is environmental used up in transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service. ? Real wealth, then, can be measured as the emergy memory that exists in human goods and services, and in non-human environmental goods and services. Environmental? Odums updated term for net energy is indra k nooyi net emergy or net empower. Attitudes? The true cost of a process to society is the net emergy, which is the emergy delivered after the emergy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. Net emergy contribution of any process within the economy including energy production can be calculated using an Emergy Yield Ratio, which is the net energy yield of a process expressed in emergy, divided by the purchased goods and services, which are also expressed in emergy. The EYR includes the contributions for environmental attitudes renewable and non-renewable sources, and inputs such as human labor/services and environmental contributions, using a quality correction factor for and juliet act 3 scene energies of different qualities. Net emergy is an essential concept in the science of descent, during a period of waning energy availability. Brown, Cohen, Sweeney, 2009.

2. Attitudes? Worldwide inflation is driven in part by the increasing fraction of our fossil fuels that have to be used in getting more fossil and other fuels. An updated explanation of this phenomenon can be found in Energy Basis for Man and Nature (Odum Odum, 1976, pp. 49-59), as summarized by Hanson, The buying power of money is the amount of real goods and services that it can buy. If the amount a dollar can buy diminishes, this is called inflation. Inflation can be caused by increasing the amount of money circulating without increasing the attitudes amount of energy flowing and doing work, for example, when more money is printed. It can also occur when the money supply is constant but less work is attitudes done, for example, because energy becomes scarce. As long as there is unused fuel energy to be tapped, increasing the money supply can increase the flow of energy through the environmental system, causing growth as well as some inflation. And in the current era of declining energy availability and expanding money supply and debt, the degree of inflation relative to Emergy is particularly egregious. The graph below illustrates the calculated steady decline of Emergy per environmental attitudes, dollar value of gross world product since 1970, demonstrating a loss in value of about 33%. Brown Ulgiati 2011 http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-global-economic-crisis-biophysical-perspective/

3. Many calculations of energy reserves which are supposed to offer years of supply are as gross energy rather than net energy and thus may be of much shorter duration than often stated. Because the emergy valuation method is notable for including human labor and environmental goods and services in attitudes the valuation of a process, the net emergy yield for energy sources tends to be lower than other methods that do not include all inputs. Below is a diagram from Chapter 3 of a pending book by Mark T. Brown and Sergio Ulgiati on lube Emergy and environmental accounting, posted here with permission. Attitudes? An in depth discussion of the history and fundamentals of the various method will be included in the book. One can see the different inputs that are considered in various types of accounting methods for energy production and other processes. If one were to include a fifth diagram reflecting the traditional economic demand-based approach, which does not measure environmental contributions, then that diagram would be even simpler, with a single-arrow output that is viewed or measured by the purchasers subjective ideas about willingness to pay, with minimal consideration for the inputs and no regard for limits of environmental contributions.

It would be helpful to this discussion if we examined the various energy accounting methods and the ranges of net energy estimated from John Herdman: The Study of the Double each one, and placed them on a continuum. That exercise would show how scattered the valuations are, with varying rates of optimism. But that is not todays goal in this post. From a pending book by Brown and Ulgiati, chapter 3, used with permission. The goal of this post is to re-examine Odums statements of 40 years ago in light of the lube trade current science. In the period after Odum wrote the environmental Ambio paper, Emergy scientists developed emergy accounting and calculated the net emergy or EYR for a variety of renewable energy and nonrenewable energy reserves. The ranges in the table below show values of EYR for a number of settings and processes over several decades. Net emergy is declining over time for these sources, so many of these values are now lower than what is published in the table. How many wrong policy guesses have occurred in various countries attempting to produce marginal sources?

What are the environmental attitudes environmental impacts of trying to produce marginal sources such as fracked natural gas, tar sands, shale oil, aquaculture, ethanol, and palm oil? How many wrong guesses on net energy policies are we allowed? Odum, 2007, p. Indra K Nooyi? 201. 4. Societies compete for economic survival by Lotkas principle (1922), which says that systems win and dominate that maximize their useful total power from all sources and flexibly distribute this power toward needs affecting survival. Odum refined the idea of Maximum Power from Lotka (1922) as a proposed 4th energy law, and its corollary, Maximum Empower. Individuals and systems that maximize energy flow and power flow (empower) through systems have an castrol, advantage in competing with other systems for available energy. Systems develop mechanisms of feedbacks, high quality storages, and systems of exchange to maximize energy flow (see diagram above). For examples of this in modern economies, look at environmental attitudes, the United States.

After World War II, our intact infrastructure and rich natural resources allowed us to maximize power through rapid expansion of energy production, development of a high quality education system, and domination in world trade. These means allowed us to overtake other countries in the development of technology, information, and military might. All of those adaptations served to improve feedback loops in our competition for even more resource acquisition. Power begets more power. 5. During times when there are opportunities to expand ones power inflows, the survival premium by Lotkas principle is on rapid growth even though there may be waste. Using this same example, Americas empire development in the 1950s and 1960s resulted in Essay about Humour in Act rapid expansion of energy production, industrialization, highway systems, suburbanization, industrial agriculture, and finally a high-tech information society.

Competitive and predatory capitalism, an go gentle into that night, expansive, debt-based financial system, and a large construction industry promoted rapid growth which gave the United States a great advantage in global trade, creating inequities and power imbalances. 6. During times when energy flows have been tapped and there are no new sources, Lotkas principle requires that those systems win that do not attempt fruitless growth but instead use all available energies in long-staying, high-diversity, steady-state works. from Mark T. Browns Democracy Lecture. When Odum wrote this paper 40 years ago, he was hopeful that global opinion and national policies could be changed through central planning so that societies could avert catastrophe by slowing growth and achieving a climax society in relative steady state. But that did not happen. We are now in overshoot, and over the past 40 years, signs that the United States and the world at large are slowly losing emergy flow per capita can be seen in indirect proxies such as failing wages, failing middle class, and collapsing empires. While some countries are doing better than others, the global trend in emergy flow is downwards. Maximum Power dictates that countries with less energy will adapt through increased efficiency. We can see this happening in the United States, for example, in slowing growth of various industries, including transportation and construction. 7. High quality of life for humans and equitable economic distribution are more closely approximated in steady-state than in growth periods. For points #7 and #8, I will let Odums words speak for themselves: During growth, emphasis is on competition, and large differences in economic and energetic welfare develop; competitive exclusion, instability, poverty, and unequal wealth are characteristic.

During steady state, competition is controlled and eliminated, being replaced with regulatory systems, high division and diversity of labor, uniform energy distributions, little change, and growth only for replacement purposes. Love of stable-system quality replaces love of net gain. Religious ethics adopt something closer to that of those primitive peoples that were formerly dominant in zones of the Essay about How Shakespeare Creates in Act 5 Scene world with cultures based on the steady energy flows from the environmental sun. Socialistic ideals about distribution are more consistent with steady state than growth (Odum, 1973, p. 222). 8. The successfully competing economy must use its net output of richer-quality energy flows to subsidize the poorer-quality energy flow so that the total power is maximized. In ecosystems, diversity of species develop that allow more of the energies to be tapped.

Many of the species that are specialists in getting lesser and residual energies receive subsidies from the richer components. Environmental Attitudes? For example, the sun leaves on top of trees transport fuels that help the shaded leaves so they can get some additional energy from the last rays of dim light reaching the forest floor. The system that uses its excess energies in scene getting a little more energy, even from sources that would not be net yielding alone, develops more total work and more resources for Humour in Act 5 Scene 1 total survival. In similar ways, we now use our rich fossil fuels to keep all kinds of goods and services of our economy cheap so that the marginal kinds of energies may receive the subsidy benefit that makes them yielders, whereas they would not be able to generate much without the subsidy (Odum, 1973, p. 223). 9. Go Gentle Into That Good? Energy sources which are now marginal, being supported by hidden subsidies based on fossil fuel, become less economic when the hidden subsidy is removed. Stephanie McMillan Code Green. There are many examples of marginal or net-negative energy sources that are only being produced because of hidden or overt subsidies. Hidden subsidies may consist of unfair trade, such as inputs to processes via expansion of empire, cheap goods from China such as solar photovoltaic panels, or rare earth minerals from Afghanistan. In an empire, many resources are subsidized through military actions or unfair trade that do not get calculated into costs of goodsyet these costs impact societal power.

Externalization of environmental damage is another large covert subsidy. Costs of goods do not include environmental costs of damage and pollution which get absorbed by the broader society over time. Overt subsidies include tax credits, production subsidies, or agricultural subsidies. How many overt or covert subsidies are involved in the creation of corn and marginal ethanol fuel in the diagrams below? Which components are not reflected in the economic price? If you want to learn more about this specific topic or what inputs contribute to an emergy analysis, the folio by Brandt-Williams (2002) analyzes the emergy basis including the inputs for attitudes 25 Florida agricultural commodities. Cambell 2008 Emergy Brief Comparative Corn Production 4 states. 10. Increasing energy efficiency with new technology is not an energy solution, since most technological innovations are really diversions of cheap energy into The Study example, hidden subsidies in the form of fancy, energy-expensive structures. One of the environmental attitudes ways that systems maximize empower is to develop high quality storages of information, materials, and energy that increase power inflows. New technology is highly transformed, energy-intensive machinery and processes that add to environmental attitudes, the transformity and emergy basis of processes.

Technology acts as a driver to promote faster use of energy. Technology in and of itself cannot power a system. For example, high-tech GMO-modified seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, feed lots, aquaculture, and other technologies expand rates of power flow through the system, technology by itself is useless without energy. Technologies add to the emergy basis of produced foods. While the required other fuels, chemicals, and services allow larger yields in the short run, the system creates more wastes and is not sustainable when the environmental attitudes fossil fuel subsidies are withdrawn.

We are told that energy sources that are marginal at present will become producible in the future, through technological innovations. We tell ourselves that smart grids and net metering will make solar photovoltaics the renewable resource of the 21st century. Or electric vehicles are touted as energy solutions, even though the solar emergy required for indra k nooyi an electric car is even higher than that of an internal combustion engine car, due to hidden costs of electricity, batteries, and new infrastructure. It is John time for us to look beyond the hoods of our cars at the real cost to society, beyond the sticker price. Ortega Miller-Soybean Comparison Odum, 1987, Crafoord Lecture, modified from A. Environmental Attitudes? Brown. So, forty years after the homosapiens original article, what is Odums track record on accuracy? Except for his hopeful stance on attitudes a climax steady state, Odum and colleagues estimates of which sources measure net benefits to society seem to be on track. This is castrol lube trade part 1thats enough for now. Environmental? There are ten more important principles from that article to be covered in Part 2 at a later date. Ive avoided discussing nuclear and solar photovoltaic in this first part of the lube guide series, as Odum covered those specifically in the ideas in environmental the next section of his paper.

I am continually amazed, both at what your father understood 40 years ago, but also at how profoundly hes been ignored over those 40 years. Why isnt this part of basic high school curriculum? Why are so few people exposed to John Herdman: The Study of the Double, these concepts? Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, hed have been imprisoned, but in a capitalist democratic system, hes simply out-shouted. Pity. Yes, heads can roll when paradigms shift. Environmental Attitudes? Net energy is so important, IMO it was HTs most important contribution.

Yet we dont even understand that one, relatively simple construct. Instead we get unicornsmagic technology: Every year I reread the Ambio paper and ask myself, is the world ready to get it yet? See the above reply. Ah, thats a really good one, Mary. Really good. Im always trying to romeo act 3 scene, figure out how we get to an Emergy for Everyone exegesis of these critical concepts. This post is a real step in that. Jan said: Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, hed have.

been imprisoned, but in attitudes a capitalist democratic system, hes simply. Exactly. But HT and his brilliant work is dangerous to the bosses and. what we now call the one-percenters. And it is they and their systems, incompatible with a world of reduced energy flows, that threaten us all. as a society and a species. But the much greater danger, of. course, is that we will, collectively, continue to fail to absorb and.

act on the insights that HTs work has afforded us. Attitudes? If we do fail, it. will be despite your fine efforts. Brava! And thanks. Hmmm. Dont understand the weird line breaks. Maybe need a techie consult. ;^) Hi, Doug. If you cut and paste something into Disqus, it picks up odd line breaks? Emergy for environmental everyoneworking on it.

Its complex enough that I cant start at the final product, which is the quantitative science of valuation. We have to begin with the reasoning behind net energy and the dialogue that led to the sciencewhat is the energy memory of things, explained in words? I dont think were able to see hierarchy in about in Act 5 Scene systems anymore. Environmental Attitudes? We are trained so thoroughly in breaking things apart and looking at the smallest piece we can find. Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the somewhat older papers In terms on environmental attitudes ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I entered thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture thats, it his words, Systems ecology for the commons but still a bit difficult to castrol lube guide trade, grasp for people with difficulties in abstract conceptual thinking Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to attitudes, the older papers ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I leared about Odums Energy Principles thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture it his words, PC was originally conceived as Systems ecology for indra k nooyi the commons but his book on attitudes that (Principles Pathways beyond Sustainability) is still a bit difficult to grasp for the more practical people. Thanks, Holger.

I havent read the book, but I suppose it goes on my list now. Attitudes? Heres the cliff notes, apparently: Essence of permaculture is a very condensed version of the bookgives you a good idea of Davids writing style. The book is important, actually its even dedicated to H.T.Odum, and gave me a good idea of emergy concepts even before reading A prosperous way down and Environment, Power Society (the original version of 1971 and the update from 2008) Environmental Accounting I have at home, but its a bit too difficult for me at go gentle good, the momentneeds time and concentration, and people to discuss the ideas (i do not have them around here on the mexican countryside) a good synopsis of Davids book is here: http://permanentpublications.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/PR-Perm-Principles-Pathways-EMILY.pdf. Though still quite cerebral and (at least for attitudes many PC-folks) very theoretical conceptual, the trade 12 PC principles developed in the book (by themselves they represent a major renovation actualization of the PC Concept) translate the attitudes sometimes complex language of systems ecology into easy to remember and practical principles definitely an important read. Here you get the castrol lube trade book: and of course amazon. Ive studied under Holmgren, and he is brilliant and has a wealth of information, but its too bad he didnt hire a good editor, because his writing is all passive voice and rather academic. But it is a rigorous and well-crafted description of Permaculture. Chapter Three of Holmgrens Principles and Pathways is Odum 101.

I recall being shocked and puzzled when I read that efficiency is not all its cracked up to attitudes, be. I had to read that chapter over and over castrol lube guide trade, before I got it. Thanks again for the links and book recc. Ive got the book, and it looks really goodIll get to it soon. Lots of hits on the website this morning, Jan. Environmental? I went to see what the fuss was about. Manchurian Candidate? LOL.

Thanks for the props. And I really liked this explanation of yours: There exists a maximum power point on the effort/efficiency curve. Go beyond that, and youre into net diminishing returns, no matter how good things look. That Prius that gets 60 MPG? It took way more resources than a first-cut look at materials reveals. With its heavy reliance on hi-tech semiconductors and software, it requires essentially all of modern civilization to manufacture and maintain. I think my non-computerized diesels from the 80s will be running long after the attitudes last electronic module for the Prius ceases to be available.

A skilled machinist in do not a large village or a small town can keep a mechanical diesel running on locally sourced fuels, but that Prius requires a global supply chain of exotic materials that require the long-distance transportation industry, semiconductors and software that requires much of the industrial education system, and billion-dollar semiconductor wafer fabrication plants that require the banking and finance industries. And we arent even to the point of discussing where the fuel comes from yet! (They are only attitudes, rated E85? 15% ethanol, unlike the diesel that can run on 100% plant oil.) It sounds like its time to take all of that frustration that you are venting in and neanderthals comments, and write a post for me on the topic of efficiency, max power, emergy basis? Consider this sentence, from Odums May, 1974 paper. It is why your father was ignored (and rightly so). 14. Energy is measured by calories, Btus, kilowatt hours, and other intraconvertible units, but energy has a scale of quality which is not indicated by these measures. You cannot just arbitrarily differentiate energy flow, entropy, the Laws of Thermodynamics and the rest of the natural world by a new scale using a subjective category of quality. This is the theoretical flaw in emergy. Okay, so lets give up on your new paradigm and look for guide an even newer paradigm a metric that crosses all platforms. Joules will work; so will kilocalories. Kilocalories have the advantage of being known by just about everyone who reads. [And just ignore the nerdboys who insist on a difference in kilocalorie measure from attitudes 14.5-15.5 C, versus 15.5-16.5 C.]

Using joules or kilocalories you can indeed compare the work done by a human to environmental, the work done by a bullock to environmental attitudes, the work done by a tractor. You can also compare the embedded energy in the tractor to the embedded energy in castrol guide trade a tiller. [Embedded energy is still better than emergy because it is strictly quantitative.] Those who insist on a difference in energy (like your father and yourself) just provide a way for the power brokers to keep everyone confused. If you just use joules or kilocalories you can devise your own methods of energy auditing AND it is applicable across the board (i.e. crosses all platforms). There is no big conspiracy here. It is just hard science. Emergy does use joules as a measure, Ralphieo. The difference in the joules of brain energy that is typing this response is different than the equivalent joule used to drive my car, or to grow a cabbage in my garden. They cannot be transposed. And the joules of brain and finger energy used to type this Disqus response is not just a couple of neurotransmitter exchanges at the axonal synapses and finger muscles on computer keys.

This response is the result of my formal schooling, my upbringing, my cultural values that give me the passion, the knowledge of navigating the web and creating this website, and some small component of both my Apple computer and the associated high tech company, and the overall internet that allows you and me to talk here, today, in this corner of the internet. Arguably, the joules of information energy being laid down in this response are of much higher quality, with much higher transformity, with potentially much greater impact through the wonders of copied information. People say that electrons are free on environmental the internet . . . well, that is only the case if you dont see what went into the making of them. This is indra k nooyi heresy and a huge emotional threat for engineers who see technology as the answer, through free energy. This business of not seeing the energy memory of things is the biggest blind spot in our energy sciences. The blind spot about the energy memory of things allows us to believe that we have created a free lunch, and that things are not as bad as they really arethat we can keep the current society and BAU. I just responded to attitudes, Dwigs excellent question about the relationship of power and efficiency on the previous Transformity post, and that explanation is useful here, so I will repost a paragraph of that response. Easy copying and sharing of information is environmental attitudes a transformational use for guide the internet, even though we dont see the true costs of both the internet and the original knowledge generation. Originals are expensive.

Copies are cheaper. Efficiency from a thermodynamic standpoint is the ratio of outputs to ALL energy inputs. including the ultimate energy value of bought goods and services (Odum Odum, 1976, p. Attitudes? 4). But the contributing energies are of different qualities, and are not always readily visible from the perspective of the high tech engineer at the top of the environmental attitudes hierarchy, especially the environmental contributions. Odum states that engineers should realize that most technological advances during the last century of growth have involved the hidden, indirect, additional forms of energy. As such forms of energy become less, many technological advantages will evaporate. What was an advance becomes wasteful and must be discarded (OO, 1976, p. 4). No it is not different. It is measured the same. It cannot even be measured! It must be calculated!

I dont believe you are talking about the same thing that the rest of the world is talking about when it comes to emergy. Hmm, it seems to me that ralpheio is talking and thinking in terms of a different scientific discipline (based on his quote from Wikipedia). Environmental? There, heat is heat, no matter what its effects are. Odum, however, thought and worked as an ecologist; a given amount of energy expended can do very different things in an ecosystem; in lube guide trade this context, the attitudes difference is very important. Heres a loose analogy from economics: GDP as a measure of the go gentle into that good night US economy has been criticized because it counts all economic activity as equal. The expense of building a house and the expense of tearing down a house are measured equally, regardless of the value they add to the neighborhood (and yes, both can be valuable, but in different ways).

Another example: was Superstorm Sandy good for the economy? Certainly, it caused a lot of economic activity to occur. So, various measures have been proposed to capture the value added or destroyed by a particular economic activity. Thanks, Dwig and Jan. Ralphie, Im not sure if you are really open to ideas, or if youre stuck on details and dogma, or just venting your spleen in attitudes an anonymous venue. Please be polite if you want to do not go gentle into, converse here. The figure below illustrates a generic energy chain which transforms energy of lower, dilute quality into higher, more concentrated forms. Sunlight becomes plants, plants are eaten by bigger and bigger animals and humans, and plants become peat, which eventually becomes coal, and is extracted to create electricity by humans. For a joule to get to the higher levels and exist there, as a joule of electricity or a solar PV panel, or as DNA, or as information on the internet, it has been transformed many, many times, with associated very large losses in castrol trade the form of heat entropy. Does a joule of bear exist without the supporting plants?

Does a joule of tiny energies on the internet exist without the supporting contributions from environmental lower levels? No. And if it takes 4 or 5 joules of coal to create a joule of electricity, then there may be relative differences in the ability to do work. Complex work requires a lot of different kinds of high quality energy. Could we run our current society based on coal, without the electricity? No. Can electricity based on renewables run our society?

No, not so much. Can we drop too many middle layers or power flow from loss of nonrenewable energy and still have the higher levels function? Energy is transformed and upgraded through energy chains which store progressively higher quality energy as assets at each level, then feeding back at environmental attitudes, each level to promote pulling in more energy. Mary You and Jan are being impolite, not me. If you are not willing to take criticism of your ideas without taking cheap shots, you are no scientist. The commentator, Dwig, gets it but still buys into the abstract concept of emergy. Here is a tip for all of you. No matter how hard you try, you cannot alter the laws of physics. You can certainly define things differently, but it is that good merely a parlor game and your definition does not square with the real world. ? As the Wikipedia entry says so succinctly, The idea that a kilocalorie of heat is different is attitudes absurd.

Im not sure I understand you. Odum writes of intraconvertable units of energy, which you seem to say only applies to joules or kilocalories. Certainly one could also use ergs or dyne-centimetres or barrels of oil equivalent if one wished, because all these units are intraconvertable. Odum then goes on to note that not all energy is created equal, and thus Odum originated the concept of EMbedded enERGY. I agree that the homosapiens ambiguous term quality itself lacks quality and precision. Quality generally refers to an immediate aspect of something, rather than a historical aspect. In the vernacular, a closely regulated source of precision flow of electrons might be thought of as a high quality energy source, whereas the chaotic, random nature of a lightening bolt could be thought of as lower quality because even though it may provide vastly more power than a typical 200-amp household electrical service, its nature is too unpredictable to be of much practical use to indra k nooyi, anyone except for some plants that get off on the nitrogen it fixes. On the other hand, the embedded energy that goes into the making of a photovoltaic solar panel means that electrons from such a source have a different cost to them than do, for environmental example, electrons coming from a coal-fired power plant.

So either I misunderstand you, or I think you may misunderstand the subtle meaning that Odum ascribed to quality in this context. Not all electron flows are created equal! Thanks, Jan, you addressed Ralphies question better than I, with more clarity. My head was still resonating with the issue of energy memory, which is the application of the idea of quality. I agree that the Essay about How Shakespeare Humour in Act 1 word quality has been loosely used and open to environmental, misconstruction. Yes you misunderstood me.

Odums concept of embodied energy, or emergy was a way to differentiate between human energy and that of fossil fuels. It is environmental attitudes a false distinction. Energy can be low-quality because it is dissipated over a large area, like sunlight. And Neanderthals? It can be high-quality because it is concentrated in a coal seam. However, regardless of its quality, it is environmental measured the same in joules, kilocalories, BTUs etc.

Arbitrarily assigning a new qualitative category and changing the and neanderthals measurement units to fit your arbitrary standard is environmental not acceptable. John Herdman: Of The? Physics trumps politics. There is environmental a very good reason for SI units (look it up). This is why Odum got no traction with his new units. I still think were talking past each other. Emergy units are not just another unit for expressing energy. No, emjoules are not at do not into that good night movie, all the same thing as a statement of the energy they contain. You cannot burn a photovoltaic panel and obtain the attitudes amount of heat implied by its emjoule content, any more than you can cool a cooked egg and get a raw egg back. This is not politics.

It is not some arbitrary standard. It is measuring a different thing. One might just as well say a kilowatt-hour or a light-year is about 1 just an arbitrary, political way of measuring time, simply because they sound like something other than what they are. I understand Systeme International units quite well, and kilocalorie is not even one of them, as its been superseded by the watt*second. Jan I am not talking past you at all. You have bought into environmental, an absurd concept. Since you cannot seem to understand what I am saying (whether willfully or not I will leave to your conscience), here is a quote from a the Wikipedia entry on emergy. The idea that a calorie of sunlight is not equivalent to a calorie of fossil fuel or electricity strikes many as absurd, based on the 1st Law definition of energy units as measures of heat (i.e. Joules mechanical equivalent of heat).[28] Sciubba, E., 2010. Attitudes? On the Second-Law inconsistency of Emergy Analysis. Energy.

I understand what you are saying. Creates Humour 5 Scene? You do not understand what I am saying. Good day to environmental attitudes, you! Hello Walter (Ralphieo), Good discussion here. I appreciate the worthwhile contributions of all the participants. I agree with most everything said by Mary, Jan, and Dwig.

I also think the points raised by Walter are significant there are serious objections to Odums concept of emergy, and they need to be dealt with in a rigorous and scientifically sound way. As Dwig indicated, emergy needs to be considered in the context of Odums work in attitudes systems ecology, and alongside the castrol trade parallel concept of transformity. As Odum pioneered the field of systems ecology, he looked at how these systems processes energy in flows, storages, transformations, feedbacks, and sinks. The concept of emergy helps to environmental, quantify the energy used in these processes. To me, the indra k nooyi concept of emergy makes intuitive sense in a number of ways. Environmental Attitudes? It does not make sense to me to look only at energy quantity. Energy itself is a nebulous thing we know it only by its ability to do work, which immediately brings it into attitudes, the qualitative dimension. What kind of work, and what scale of results? And yes, heat energy is heat energy, but does the burning of a book tell us its true energetic value, or is there a way to take into account all of the environmental attitudes energy that went into making the book possible? One can argue about and refine how the math is done to calculate it, but Odums efforts were an attempt to bring this closer to a common apples to apples standard, which continues to be refined (Giannantoni, 2003). I think it is an extremely helpful and important concept.

Im currently reading Environment, Power Society in the Twenty First Century, and am continually amazed by Odums broad perspectives and how the concepts interact and support one another across many systems, scales, and depths. I think it is a work of genius. OK, having said thatI also recognize that new concepts such as emergy, and fourth and fifth laws of thermodynamics need rigorous analysis from a wide body of expertsand that blog comments are not the attitudes greatest forum to undertake such an exploration. I did a quick Google search. One paper I found discussing the criticisms of emergy was Promise and Problems of Emergy Analysis by Hau and Bakshi. The paper above is sympathetic to Odums view, so I also looked up one of the papers they reference as critical of Odums view. I chose to go gentle into that night, look up Cutler Clevelands paper, because I have a respect for environmental attitudes Clevelands work in ecological economics and the concept of EROI.

The paper is called Aggregation and the Role of Energy in the Economy This comment is too long already, so I wont try to summarize the papers here. I did note to my surprise that Cleveland very early on do not movie extols the importance of energy quality. Despite its widespread use, aggregating different energy types by their heat units embodies a serious flaw: it ignores qualitative differences among energy vectors. Cleveland notes various researchers considering energy quality back to at least 1960. Secondly, Cleveland praises Odum for laying the environmental attitudes foundation of research into environmental attitudes, biophysical energy and material flows in systems that provided the lube guide intellectual backbone for the discipline of ecological economics. He does criticize emergy analysis as being one dimensional (he has the same criticism of exergy analysis). I would be interested in hearing about any other more academically oriented criticisms or defenses of emergy and the laws of maximum em-power and hierarchies of energy. Im especially interested if anyone has a good quote from Charles Hall on these subjectsperhaps something from the do not go gentle into good night 1995 book he edited, Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H.T. Odum. Hi, David.

No, this isnt the place for rigorous analysis, thanks. Ive heard these complaints so many times over the past 40 yearsyet Odums explanations for how the world works have been borne out over John of the Essay, time in whats happening in the world today. That is such rock solid evidence for me that Im not much interested in environmental these arguments. We stopped and saw Charlie and his wife in late July on my bike tripit was good to castrol, see them. Heres an email that has been sitting in my box for 2 months now waiting for some opportunity to copy and paste. So heres Charlies take, with his permission. I was trying to wheedle him into environmental, expanding it into a guest post, but I guess this will do: Odum was my PhD adviser and I have written a book called Maximum Power (Colorado Univ.

Press). The idea is not that entropy should be maximized but that there is selection for an optimal rate of doing each process where rate and efficiency are opposite and what is selected for is maximum power at an intermediate efficiency. This concept would operate so that organisms do not operate at maximum efficiency or as fast as possible but at an intermediate rate of each. Odum thought that as resources change the location on the power curve change and successful (surviving) organisms would adjust their rates accordingly. Environmental Attitudes? There was nothing necessarily about over the cliff for other organisms or humans or civilizations in what he said. But it was still uncomfortable for us grad students who thought humans should restrict their appetites. I think he would say from this perspective If the and juliet act 3 3 US does not use the middle East oil then the Chinese will but also as the oil is depleted successful nations will adjust their spending appropriately.

There is much more of this available on the website and elsewhere, and I have written the continuing importance of maximum power published in Ecological Modelling in a special tribute to Odum. Do not despair quite yet, although H.T. and I both think the world is likely to environmental attitudes, be quite different (email, CAS Hall, July 26, 2013). The PDF version of the 2004 Ecological Modelling article is linked below: I have thoroughly enjoyed the John Herdman: Essay comments this time round. Funny how I send you an email asking this very question and it blows up in the comment section.

The world is a strange place and coincidence abounds. Brian, yes, I find myself wondering the same thing about the series of coincidences. Environmental? Serendipity, but maybe mostly a number of connected people with two or 3 degrees of separation who are thinking about the same things. Mary, thank you! That paper by Hall is like gold to me, with its review and analysis of Odums career! I highly recommend everyone give it a read. For most of us who have been exposed to it [Maximum power principle] in some detail, there is no doubt as to its veracity. I believe it to be extremely interesting, and enormously more important than most things with which we fill our students heads. I keep a short list of articles to recommend for 1 basic energy literacy, and this 1973 paper by Odum is at the top of that list. Environmental? I also love the introduction given by Mother Earth News when they reprinted it: In early November of 1973during a visit to MOTHERs new home in the mountains of western North CarolinaNew Alchemist John Todd gave the indra k nooyi magazines editors about the 14th-generation Xerox copy of what can conservatively be described as a dynamite paper. We had only to glance at this extraordinary document to realize that the paper (originally written at the request of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) is one of the most conciseyet most sweepingexaminations yet made of the real problems of. the world.

Read it and see for yourself. Im also glad to see another person here who recognizes the strong connection between Odum and David Holmgrens articulation of Permaculture. Environmental? Holmgren wrote the first Permaculture book (Permaculture One), with Bill Mollison serving the role of editor and advisor. The very first reference in Permaculture One is to Odums Environment, Power and Society. And as Holger notices, Holmgrens Permaculture Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability is full of constant references to Odums work. Holmgren should be read side by side with A Prosperous Way Down and Environment, Power and Society for the 21st Century. These works complement and reinforce one another so well. In terms of how to apply the information, Odum focused on suggesting appropriate governmental policy, whereas Holmgren focuses on grassroots, bottom-up actions from individuals and alternative community.

In fact, the other paper at the top of my list for energy literacy is Holmgrens Energy and Permaculture. I see it as an early draft of his later book (the 12 permaculture principles had not yet been developed, but he does offer a nice list of suggested strategies). It is almost entirely a tribute to Odum. The third paper on my list is John Herdman: The Study Double Essay Energy Follows Its Bliss by John Michael Greer. I think misconception of solar PV electricity is lube trade that you also have to make do with less. The reality is that you can be more productive with more electricity at no cost. Well, there is the one time first cost. Which when divided out over the useful life, net to around 3 cents per kWH. Do you even know how much you pay? Simple math on your electric bill divide the Bill amount by the total kWH that month. I am an expert in these matters.

Here is the How Shakespeare in Act cost backup.