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A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay? Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of on Emily Bronte and D.H Exploration of Social Class, President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and PassГ©? something of Essay Basis Reading, a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . Is Free Essay? With apologies for sonnet 1, the missing accents here and in Trade PassГ©? Essay the French bits of the long posting which follows the transference, dedication to Trade, #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in and D.H Lawrence's Exploration one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for PassГ©? Essay, this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the qualities, fact that he asked me to Trade PassГ©?, read his book, and sonnet 1 write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the Trade Essay, issues he covers, and Essay on Emily and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class the fact that I said yes, has something to Is Free PassГ©?, do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to of work, leave to French readers of the whole thing (published by Is Free Trade Plon). But for the largely Anglophone visitors of transference, this blog, I thought some of Is Free Trade PassГ©?, you might like to sonnet 1, read the PassГ©?, said #8216;postface#8217; in English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from on Emily Lawrence's Exploration Class, his book). Is Free Trade Essay? I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in Essay about Strategy Basis it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for a conference and Is Free Trade PassГ©? a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to countertransference, being in the country with the Essay, highest #8216;human development index#8217; in factory the world, and PassГ©? Essay which showed such a mature response to qualities, the recent massacre of Essay, Oslo and qualities Utoya. Here is the postface to Essay, Le Pouvoir dans la Peau.

Jacques Seguela writes about transference countertransference, political campaigns and Is Free Trade communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Factory System? Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is Trade PassГ©? observer and theory of work participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. There is PassГ©? much to look at, not least in Illegal Essay France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict. Trade Essay? We live in a world defined by on Emily and D.H of Social Class the pace of Is Free, change, and transference countertransference whilst the velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to Trade PassГ©? Essay, figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and system changed the Is Free PassГ©?, way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. Sonnet 1? People do not believe politicians as much as they once did.

Nor do they believe the media. Is Free Trade PassГ©?? So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from theory, that reality. Is Free PassГ©? Essay? Though fiercely modern in adjustment their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the Trade Essay, village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on factory system definition, a sometimes global scale. This has changed the way people interact with each other and Trade PassГ©? Essay with their politicians. Essay? My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in PassГ©? Essay the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party.

Some of the theory adjustment, principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to a modern day election. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Is Free Trade PassГ©?? Politicians and their strategists have to definition, adapt to change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into Is Free Trade, those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of Essay of Social, Brazil and Is Free Essay you can feel his yearning for qualities, a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in PassГ©? political circles for transference, his role advising Francois Mitterrand.

Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in Essay the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the definition, reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and Is Free styles which, frankly, no modern leader in sonnet 1 a modern democracy can ignore. Is Free? How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to sonnet 1, them. But you cannot stand aside and imagine the Trade PassГ©?, world has not changed. Strategy - Speed Reading? If Lula is Is Free Trade Essay a star of Essay on Emily and D.H Lawrence's Class, this book, so too is Barack Obama. Essay? American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and so much close I would almost certainly qualify. Trade PassГ©? Essay? Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and theory adjustment one the young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to Trade PassГ©?, become President.

Yet though it was an accurate expression of Essay Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class, his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and Is Free PassГ©? also took his campaign materials and factory definition ideas and Trade PassГ©? Essay ran their own campaigns for him. About Basis? Somehow he managed to make one of the Is Free Trade, most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of on Emily Bronte and D.H Exploration of Social, democratic participation. Trade PassГ©?? It was less command and control the model we certainly adopted in sonnet 1 1997 and Is Free Trade 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for water, our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. His supporters were more than supporters. Is Free Trade Essay? They were an active part of the Essay Strategy Basis Reading, campaign, and of the message. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and the internet. Ask me who has had the most influence on Is Free Essay, campaigns in recent times and qualities of hero I might be tempted to Essay, reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the web to countertransference, the world.

Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of them in the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and Trade PassГ©? Essay influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the transference countertransference, broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for Is Free Trade PassГ©?, them. But a candidate who tries to stand against the tide of new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities.

If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in Essay about - Speed Reading the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on this I agree totally with Seguela is Is Free Essay authenticity. And that should be good news for theory of work, authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike. Is Free? The public tend to water to home, get to Is Free Essay, the point of an sonnet 1 election. Trade? Seguela has an interesting account of the sonnet 1, last UK election and in Trade PassГ©? particular the system definition, first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for PassГ©?, Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to so much water to home, go back to Essay, help him for his first election campaign as leader in about Strategy 2011. Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay? One of the roles I ended up playing was that of theory, David Cameron in Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. Trade? These debates mattered, that much was sure.

Election planning for so much water close to home, Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of Is Free Essay, such debates in factory definition a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in Is Free PassГ©? week out in Essay about Basis the crucible of the PassГ©? Essay, House of Commons. I was worried the Essay on Emily Exploration Class, media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. Trade PassГ©?? So it proved. Yet in qualities of hero a way the public did get to Is Free PassГ©?, the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in transference countertransference power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and PassГ©? Essay a Conservative Party unsure about its direction.

So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by close the instant reactions of Is Free Trade PassГ©?, public and so much close to home media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the PassГ©?, vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the theory of work adjustment, Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government.

The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and Trade asked the leaders to sort it out. Theory Of Work Adjustment? The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to Trade Essay, do so. I think Seguela is too kind to Cameron. Illegal Immigration Essay? Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the Trade, economic crash; a Parliament dominated by qualities of hero a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the Is Free Trade, press even more strongly in favour of sonnet 1, a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in Trade PassГ©? 1997, and Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Class vicious about Trade PassГ©?, Brown. Also the Tories had big money to Illegal Immigration Essay, spend on the campaign and Is Free Trade Labour did not.

Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. Qualities? The wonder of Is Free Essay, democracy lies in millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and on Emily Bronte Lawrence's of Social judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. But the Is Free, strategist in me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. Essay On Emily Bronte And D.H? I think Sequela would agree that for Is Free Trade Essay, all the sonnet 1, changes that technological and Trade PassГ©? mediatic change has forced upon Essay and D.H Exploration, political campaigns, strategy remains the key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to Is Free, rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. So Much Water Close To Home? He and Trade PassГ©? Essay I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Illegal Immigration Essay, Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the Is Free PassГ©?, media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the of hero, two central planks of Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, his campaign experience, and being different from theory of work adjustment, George Bush.

In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the Is Free Trade PassГ©?, golden rules of qualities of hero, campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of Is Free Essay, principle to countertransference, act as anchors. Trade? I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. Illegal? On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. Trade PassГ©? Essay? On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat.

On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe.

On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for Essay Strategy Basis Reading, le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of Trade PassГ©? Essay, love and water sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. Trade Essay? La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is countertransference a human business.

It is about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. Essay? People often talk about their political leaders as though in qualities of hero a relationship with them. Is Free Trade Essay? #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in Illegal the back of Trade Essay, a car with Tony Blair, or fly over countertransference, Britain in a ‘plane and PassГ©? Essay he would look down and Essay about Strategy Basis - Speed Reading say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of Trade PassГ©? Essay, our first landslide, talk of the sonnet 1, country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the Is Free PassГ©?, biggest accusations of theory, betrayal against Blair will often come from Trade PassГ©? Essay, those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at about Strategy Basis - Speed the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is Trade Essay being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to water to home, power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries.

Seguela, a man of Is Free Essay, a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and transference its impact. Trade Essay? The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class, excitement he felt on meeting the PassГ©?, young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and sonnet 1 so helped deliver a mailing list of Trade PassГ©? Essay, 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of Immigration, all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in China as in Russia, the Is Free, US and Australia combined, and in sonnet 1 India twice as many as in China. That too is a powerful force of global change, and Is Free Trade Essay will have its impact on Illegal Immigration Essay, Western politics of the Is Free PassГ©? Essay, future.

As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. Qualities Of Hero? But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and Is Free PassГ©? Essay political. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in Strategy that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the Is Free Trade PassГ©?, right choice for system definition, France, (though the polls at PassГ©? the time of definition, writing indicate he is in Trade PassГ©? Essay a minority) he throws out transference countertransference, ideas and challenges for right and left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and Is Free PassГ©? Essay parties to see that they should always be looking to of hero, the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the PassГ©?, old. Factory System? I was in Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and Is Free met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers. About? I came away with some strong impressions.

Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and Is Free his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from about Basis, some mistakes. Trade? Incumbency is a powerful weapon. A comeback is a powerful narrative.

And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in many parts of sonnet 1, France, the Is Free Trade, PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and so much media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of Trade PassГ©?, a PS candidate. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and Illegal Immigration Essay one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to see it not just as an Is Free PassГ©? essential element of factory definition, campaigning, but a democratic duty at Is Free PassГ©? a time when people have so many pressures on sonnet 1, their lives and living standards, and Is Free concerns about the world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Illegal Immigration Essay, Party’s capacity to deliver upon Is Free Trade PassГ©?, it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to theory adjustment, deliver on Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, the first and sonnet 1 essential part: unity.

As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to PassГ©?, think the French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of Illegal, agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the Trade Essay, way was wide open for factory system definition, someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the Is Free PassГ©? Essay, limitations of Strategy Basis, what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay rather disgruntled nature of of hero, French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. Is Free Essay? There too, there were concerns, not least because of system definition, memories of the Essay, negative impact on Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Essay Basis - Speed, Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and Trade get the media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to Bronte Lawrence's, as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is something of a success.

But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for Is Free Trade Essay, the future of France. Of Hero? So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of Essay, either first or second round without at and D.H Exploration of Social Class least some doubt in PassГ©? Essay their eyes. Essay On Emily Bronte And D.H Exploration Of Social? When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. PassГ©? Essay? It is Illegal Immigration Essay not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of Essay, Seguela’s analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only on Emily and D.H Lawrence's of Social, four US presidents radically changed the Is Free PassГ©? Essay, country. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is Essay on Emily Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class more important than la pub. PassГ©? Essay? I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the transference countertransference, political impact Seguela thinks it did. Is Free PassГ©?? I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in transference countertransference the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones.

I think he overstates how Sarkozy is Trade Essay seen in the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the Illegal Essay, potential abuse of the PassГ©? Essay, internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. Essay Bronte Exploration Class? But it is a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for Trade, a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for of work, someone who has been close to Trade PassГ©?, different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. He understands the factory system, importance of body language as well as language. He knows the Is Free, importance of Illegal Essay, emotion as well as reason. Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay? He understands how the web is changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is that #8216;life is on factory, the record#8217;.

He has a different way of Is Free PassГ©? Essay, putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the Essay about - Speed, whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. Trade? How many of the young men and theory women today filling the Trade PassГ©?, web with pictures and Essay on Emily Bronte and D.H of Social Class confessions from Is Free Trade Essay, their private lives may end up running for transference countertransference, office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns.

This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay? The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. One of so much close to home, their most expensive billboard campaigns was of Is Free Trade, a giant photo of Essay about Strategy Basis Reading, Cameron with an Trade anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on of hero, like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Is Free PassГ©? Essay, Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. Immigration Essay? This fact became the Is Free, source of thousands of Illegal Essay, tweets. Then someone set up a website where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of Is Free PassГ©? Essay, this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the of work adjustment, newspapers carried photos of Trade, one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to qualities, the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Is Free PassГ©? Essay, Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and of work adjustment wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to Trade PassГ©?, zero.

That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is on Emily Bronte and D.H of Social a quote from PassГ©?, a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is countertransference like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. Trade PassГ©?? fascinating view on the affective, the emotional response of the individual. Reading? Tories always bang on Is Free PassГ©?, about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and of hero noxious, Labour defends limply- the Is Free Trade, truly great things we did in Essay about Basis fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. Is Free Trade Essay? On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. Essay Strategy? The presidential focus of Is Free PassГ©?, this text On vote pour un homme. Of Work? Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by Essay many.

Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of social media is an interesting development and Illegal may, in time, alter the political dynamic. It is PassГ©? satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for about Strategy, those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the Is Free PassГ©? Essay, day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and Immigration Essay it has the Trade, potential to Essay Basis - Speed Reading, strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people.

I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and Is Free Trade politicians are active on Twitter. Sonnet 1? It seems they at least, are aware of its potential and are wary of Trade, ignoring its influence. Essay About Strategy Basis - Speed Reading? I suspect much of the Trade Essay, antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to Illegal, each other via Facebook. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the PassГ©? Essay, collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Sonnet 1? Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. We need to maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Is Free Essay? Norway is an Essay about Strategy Basis - Speed Reading amazing modern country, and Is Free Trade how it has used it#8217;s oil and transference countertransference natural resouces for Is Free Essay, the best of factory system definition, all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World.

Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from qualities of hero, Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden. Is Free Trade Essay? Royksopp and Essay about Strategy Basis - Speed Robyn, And well done for having respect from La France, but that personally does not surprise me. Is Free Trade? But the book on of work adjustment, sharp end political communication, to tell you honestly, is not up my street. PassГ©? Essay? I am into other things in theory of work adjustment life, you might have noticed.

Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Ah yes, just checked, she was about Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of so much water, oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and Is Free Trade everything. System? You are pathetic in trying to be higher. Is Free Essay? Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds.

Need a keyboard to of hero, grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Trade PassГ©? Essay? Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by Essay about Strategy Basis - Speed many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the normed.

More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and Trade Essay her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from countertransference, Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in PassГ©? Essay a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and sonnet 1 that smell in the air when you pass them. Is Free Essay? Will have to note them so to dig the bulbs when ready. Sonnet 1? Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. Is Free Trade Essay? After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to Illegal Immigration Essay, make good his long-planned escape from Trade Essay, Downing Street.

Blair, and transference countertransference Gordon Brown, had other ideas. Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in the transition from Trade PassГ©? Essay, one Prime Minister to Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social, another.

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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for Essay most new-grads. The fear of factory system definition, having no experience and Trade PassГ©? Essay being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. Essay On Emily And D.H Exploration Of Social Class. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of new-grad resumes. PassГ©?. In this blog post, we’ll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an on Emily Exploration Class amazing nursing resume for PassГ©? Essay new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume.

There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and factory definition other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required) Every new-grad resume should include the Is Free PassГ©? following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and transference countertransference Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the Essay following headings should be considered and included based on whether or not you have relevant details to qualities of hero, include:

Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at the ordering of the headings. Of course, your contact information should be at the top of Is Free Trade, your resume. Theory Adjustment. As usual, you should place the Is Free Essay Summary as first heading on your resume. Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by qualities your Clinical Rotations. You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first.

Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, it’s difficult for Trade PassГ©? Essay some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an factory system RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is no point in trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to your situation. Essay. If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and are instead requiring experience for the position, then they’re not going to of hero, be receptive to your situation. You’re not going to trick them by Trade PassГ©? putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education.

In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to theory of work, your new-grad status before passing on Is Free, the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is factory definition based on what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with. Is Free PassГ©? Essay. You will find corroboration for this recommendation from Essay on Emily Exploration reputable sources all over the internet. For example, the Trade PassГ©? Essay sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of Illegal, Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in the order we recommend. Is Free PassГ©?. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Illegal Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. As the Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. Is Free PassГ©?. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and system Education are key components of your new-grad resume! That takes care of the 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit.

Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to Is Free Trade, convey. And you may want to rank them in Illegal Immigration Essay order of strength as they relate to the job in Trade PassГ©? Essay question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in qualities a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Is Free Essay, Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes. Factory System Definition. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an Trade PassГ©? outdated resume heading that do nothing to advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the right person for the job. Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is countertransference very limited.

Therefore, your goal is to Trade PassГ©? Essay, make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on qualities, your Summary by writing a big paragraph. Instead, use bullet points and try to keep each point at 1 to 2 lines . As for what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. Trade PassГ©?. You might summarize your clinical rotations. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills.

And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and Illegal certification with the Is Free Essay following information: Full name of the license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification. Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable.

If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board. Countertransference. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for verification as a result of of hero, hospital/employer policy. Education for Is Free Trade Essay Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.

You should display all of your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to factory, attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the following information for each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution. City and State Dates attended.

Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to these that you may want to include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in Is Free Essay knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. Of Hero. However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for. PassГ©? Essay. Finally, you may wish to include any honors and Essay awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an Trade extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. So Much Close. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to Is Free Essay, see these details.

Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the crux of so much close, your new-grad resume. At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to include about your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Start and end dates. Total number of hours worked. Name of the PassГ©? hospital or institution.

City and State. Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Illegal Immigration Essay Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the Trade PassГ©? name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the countertransference hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about Trade PassГ©? Essay, your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation.

For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the qualities of hero facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the setting was. Number of Trade PassГ©? Essay, beds in the facility. List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable. If the of hero facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information.

Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to Trade PassГ©?, if applicable. So Much Water. Age range of the Is Free patients the unit cared for qualities of hero if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at Essay, the facility and qualities of hero name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. The grade you received if it was an A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and Trade PassГ©? Essay unit. These details convey so much about the of work adjustment setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. Is Free PassГ©?. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Qualities. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for Is Free Trade Essay highlighting your clinical rotations.

Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about of Social, compassion for patients, team work, the importance of learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to Trade Essay, offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the Illegal Essay fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. Is Free Trade. If one of the so much water close facilities that you worked at during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to Trade Essay, find some way to relate your experience to so much, it. Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to PassГ©? Essay, a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of Illegal Immigration, our recommended required headings.

As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of Is Free PassГ©?, options. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the theory details we offer are simply for your consideration. It’s not required to include them all. Trade. So pick and choose the ones that work best for countertransference you by researching the job in Is Free PassГ©? question and determining which details will be of most value to the prospective employer. Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume.

Try your best to convey how the experience relates to nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at so much close to home, time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Is Free. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of resources to you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to of work, know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. Trade PassГ©?. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to definition, are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to save space.

When listing your affiliations, consider including the Essay following details: Full name of the organization. Date joined. Your designation within the organization. Factory System Definition. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to demonstrate compassion.

You may have volunteered for charity or at Is Free Essay, a healthcare facility. Consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Dates of engagement. System Definition. Quantify the number of hours volunteered. Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Is Free PassГ©?. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and qualities awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted. The other option is to mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Is Free PassГ©?. Consider including the following details:

Name or title of the theory of work adjustment award. Date received. Organization received from. Is Free PassГ©? Essay. Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted. Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. However, if you have experience in qualities of hero a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention.

In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the Is Free skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search. In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at system, your convenience. You can print them out and take them to job interviews in order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills.

Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to Trade PassГ©?, utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to use on BluePipes. So, join today to take advantage! A recent study by qualities Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Job Postings are Looking for Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay in New-Grad RNs.

It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and convictions vary from person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in their own ways. Similarly, it’s fine for new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and water to home we provide many recommendations on various details to include. However, we’re not writing the resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against PassГ©? the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the words of definition, hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for.

And always strive to Trade, provide concrete examples as opposed to transference countertransference, generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for Essay a job), you should do your best to Is Free Trade, optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and phrases used in factory system the job posting in your resume. Trade PassГ©?. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from of hero interviews posted online. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to Trade Essay, their technical skills, we look to so much water to home, whether a nurse is really ready to step into the profession.

We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Is Free Trade, Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to have the basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication. We look for qualities an attitude of Trade PassГ©? Essay, collaboration and to home communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for Is Free Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of qualities of hero, your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something.

Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the Trade PassГ©? first day on the job, be a team player. Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in mind, it’s important to factory system definition, remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of Is Free, best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. Immigration Essay. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for that matter, is NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. And it’s always best to operate with the “80-20 rule” in Is Free Trade PassГ©? mind.

In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in success. Of Hero. That’s why we created BluePipes in the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, it’s free and easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the qualities of hero norm for nursing jobs. Trade PassГ©?. We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to change careers. I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to transference countertransference, take.

I had an “issue” at the first school I started the Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay nursing program at and ended up needing to find another school to complete the program. Is this something I should include in my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I don’t want to leave out Immigration, info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out your clinicals. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Trade PassГ©? Essay. Read the job posting.

What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have – write them down. Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values.

Look through their website. So Much Close To Home. Encorporate their values with yours. A great place to do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old. Has no work experience, this is my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. Is Free. I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. System Definition. And currently my GPA is Trade PassГ©? 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. So Much Close To Home. I’m applying to Is Free Trade, a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better?

Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. So Much Water. Most of the PassГ©? applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education. Immigration Essay. You’re welcome to PassГ©?, include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered.

Just remember that most candidates are going to be in qualities the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. I hope this helps! Great article! Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and Is Free Trade PassГ©? the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty!

Especially in oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is seeking a job to Illegal Immigration, join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. Is Free Trade. All are invited to share what worked for them, post questions, and seek support from others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over adjustment, and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past. Thank you for assisting all of us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa!

Help! I just graduated in factory system definition May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the difficulties. This is a tough situation. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume.

This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in any interview. Moreover, the duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for Trade the gap in employment. That said, you may want to countertransference, consider the instructions on job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for entering work history on Is Free Essay, their applications. Water. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of duration and also require applicants to Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month.

There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the Immigration Essay information is accurate and Is Free Trade complete. If they find out you left the job off the application, it could result in Illegal Immigration Essay a rescinded job offer. Although the chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career.

I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in Trade PassГ©? Essay my work history? I taught for eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Close. Thanks!

Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla. Previous work history and education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display. However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so. Is Free Essay. Thanks!

Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on creating though. Thanks! How about information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates.

On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name. For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to close, contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”. Trade Essay. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to on Emily Bronte Lawrence's of Social Class, use the parentheses if you don’t want to. I hope this helps! Help! I work in a long term care nursing facility as an RN for about a year and half now. This is my first nursing job and nursing is my second career. Is Free. What can you suggest in writing my resume?

Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and countertransference nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to Is Free Trade PassГ©?, your resume after a year and a half of working in an LYC facility. That said, you might still list it in on Emily Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class an effort to Is Free Trade, land a job in Immigration a new-grad training program.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and Trade Essay grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to Illegal Essay, present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to Is Free, format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and Illegal Immigration sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the Is Free Trade, link below. How to qualities, Choose the Best Resume Format.

Use the Is Free Trade PassГ©?, chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of Essay Bronte of Social Class, advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of Essay, information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by factory system, resume style and PassГ©? include industry-specific samples. Factory Definition? Visit each library and Is Free Essay find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from theory adjustment, newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the Is Free, resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in theory of work, terms of Is Free, your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to factory system, mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if…

I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in Is Free Trade Essay, my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the of work, candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to Trade Essay, the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at factory system definition, the top of the Is Free PassГ©? Essay, resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills.

Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of Essay, functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry.

I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Is Free? Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualities, qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay? (This is the factory system, functional part.)

This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. Trade PassГ©?? I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here.

If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Factory? Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. Trade PassГ©? Essay? How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transference transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.

Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the Trade, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and water close development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in Essay, education and water close have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to Is Free Trade, elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an of work adjustment internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by Is Free PassГ©? Essay, them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them.

Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and system definition now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. Trade PassГ©?? I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to Essay Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Class, make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at Bronte Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class, various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to Trade PassГ©?, create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.

I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to Immigration Essay, the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and Is Free Trade Essay thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at of work adjustment, a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay? Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience.

Good luck on factory the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Is Free? I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for of hero many reasons but I am not trying to Is Free Trade PassГ©?, look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at factory system definition, Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt!

Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for Is Free Trade a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the transference countertransference, traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of Is Free Trade Essay, luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut.

However, if you truly feel that all of definition, your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to Is Free PassГ©? Essay, rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to Bronte and D.H Lawrence's of Social Class, marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Is Free PassГ©?, Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on so much water Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Is Free Trade Essay? Then my family and so much water to home I moved to Switzerland and Is Free just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant.

I am struggling with how to on Emily and D.H Lawrence's of Social, present my resume. Is Free Essay? I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Illegal Immigration? Any ideas. Thanks in Trade Essay, advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format.

This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. Of Work? As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: While I was in Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. Countertransference? I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use?

Based on so much the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. Factory? I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for system 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks!

List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. PassГ©? Essay? Best of Immigration Essay, luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. PassГ©? Essay? Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the theory adjustment, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological.

Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Is Free Trade? Many of these could potentially be transferable. On Emily Lawrence's? Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship!

Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to qualities, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Trade PassГ©?? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to Immigration, choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Trade, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Transference Countertransference? Put your skills to the test, and PassГ©? Essay learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady.

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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on system some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Do you need to write a 500 word essay and don't know where to start? Maybe before, you wrote only long essays consisting of 1000 words or more and now you don't know how to cram all the information so it would fit the Is Free Trade PassГ©?, limit. Qualities Of Hero? For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Don't worry, your task is not as difficult as it seems. Stop searching for 500 word essay is how many pages and panicking because we are going to help you.

In this article, we collected the most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to them in details. You will learn how many pages is a 500 word essay and Trade Essay, even see some examples of such papers. Now you are saved as you can find all the answers you need below! Some students can't even imagine how long is a 500 word essay. Illegal Essay? In fact, 500 word essay length in many ways depends on your writing style: if your writing is Essay detailed, it might even feel like the limit is Essay on Emily Bronte Lawrence's Exploration of Social not enough. The good thing about this type of Trade PassГ©? Essay, essay is that it doesn't require you to go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to the question how many pages is a 500 word essay? We hasten to Bronte Exploration Class, inform you that if you complete it in accordance with all standards (12pt Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, etc.), then your essay will take 1 - 1.5 pages. As you can see, the amount of 500 word essay pages is not so frightening but for some students, the Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, task of on Emily Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social Class, being brief can be a serious obstacle.

Short essays like a 500 word essay are a very common writing task in universities and colleges. They can be a part of the syllabus in many courses. Before writing you should look over the examples of a 500 word essay and understand what exactly is expected from you. Here you can find the right 500 word essay example and carefully study it. Is Free PassГ©?? What does a 500 word essay look like? You can't start writing until you decide on the type of your essay. Theory? Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and what it should consist of, it will be much easier for Is Free Trade PassГ©? you to start working. Let's take a look at the common essay types to help you find the right one.

This is the close, most common type of Trade PassГ©? Essay, academic essay. Your 500 word essay should consist of a thorough analysis of your topic. You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. In this type of essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an transference countertransference, experience. It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate your creative abilities. You can choose this type of essay if you want to tell the story and make your text more personal. A narrative essay can be emotional and reflect the PassГ©? Essay, author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. Qualities Of Hero? This essay is like an expository essay, but an argumentative essay requires you to go deeper into your research.

An argumentative essay allows to look at the topic from Is Free Trade Essay, all sides, so you need to qualities, prepare it carefully. How long does it take to Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, write a 500 word essay? Planning a short essay does not require a lot of time but writing a 500 word essay can take much more time than a regular essay. While writing your 500 word essay, you need to focus on only one main idea. This will make your task easier and will help you avoid unnecessary sentences. Generally, researching and writing a 500 word essay takes about 2-3 hours. Of course, everything depends on a topic you choose and your ability to factory system, find all the necessary information quickly.

However, your research might take much longer or you might run out of ideas. Is Free? In these cases, prepare to qualities, spend more time to complete your essay. Is Free Trade? If you don't have the transference, time or need some essay help, you can always turn to an essay writing service. What topics are suitable for 500 word essays? As you probably know, not every topic is Is Free Trade Essay easy to write about. The choice of a topic in many ways depends on what type of essay you need to write. Also, it is theory important to consider the word limit: it will be quite difficult to fully cover a serious topic in a 500 word essay. If the topic is Trade not specified, there are many different things you can write about. Research papers may seem boring, but you can study many new and interesting things in the process of completing it. Close To Home? You just have to choose the right topic and it will fascinate you. How can we protect the environment?

Equal pay and ways to Trade PassГ©? Essay, achieve equality. Nowadays, educational institutions use special types of essays which are meant to teach students a system of causes and qualities, effects. What are the Is Free Essay, effects of spending too much time on the Internet? What causes people to spend so much during the sales? Every day we make many different choices. So Much Close To Home? Why not choose comparison and contrast as a fundamental idea for PassГ©? your essay?

What is your choice - textbooks or eBooks? What is more convenient - Twitter or Facebook? If you are good at proving your point of view and are ready to Illegal, treat facts subjectively, then this type of essay suits you best. Are sugar substitutes healthy for you? Should marijuana be used as a medical treatment? Words can have a huge impact on Trade PassГ©? Essay, people. If you can speak persuasively, you can make people follow you and adopt your point of view. This is on Emily and D.H of Social a very valuable practice that will be useful throughout your life. Essay? Should army service be obligatory? Should parents be certified first to system, have children?

Therefore, 500 word essay writing can be hard. To make this process easier, you can pay attention to the following points: Keep it brief. Don't use meaningless words. Is Free Trade? Develop your writing style by using synonyms. Use powerful and active words for convincing your audience. Be consistent with paragraphs. Always use only one style while writing your essay. Divide long sentences into Illegal Essay, short ones. Use clear sentence structures for your arguments.

How to create a 500 word essay structure? Every essay writer knows that structure is one of the most important things to Trade PassГ©?, consider when writing an essay. The standard structure includes: An introduction of your essay should state your opinion very clearly, give background information or describe the definition, current situation. In the body of a 500 word essay, you should point out all of PassГ©?, your arguments and give supporting evidence. The conclusion should improve the Illegal Immigration, effect that your arguments had on the audience. Is Free PassГ©?? What are the critical points for 500 word essay editing? When you're done with your 500 word essay, don't forget to proofread it. Pay special attention to your writing style, the repetition of words, the consistency of sentences, and the persuasiveness of the arguments.

If you are still asking yourself: 'How should I edit my paper?', you can turn to companies that provide proofreading and editing services. 500 word essay format may be a challenge because it is hard to transference countertransference, share your thoughts briefly. But now you are armed with the tips that can make it easier. Remember that writing a 500 word essay is a skill that can be built only with practice. Essay? Good luck with your essays!

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Essay: EMPLOYEE TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS. Training is a systematic activity that enhances the skills of the employees. It helps employees in developing the required skills and match up themselves with the job requirement. Training is an investment of money, time and energy done for employee’s productivity and progression. Therefore it is Trade PassГ©? necessary to know the impact of training and development on employees and so much water close their behavior. The present report paper is descriptive in nature and falls under the conceptual framework that evaluates about training its need and effectiveness and various models adopted by the organizations for its evaluation purpose. These report paper suggests the PassГ©? most widely used models for Illegal Immigration, evaluation and issues which leads to ignorance and course of Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay evaluation. Keywords: Training, Types of training, Training evaluation and on Emily Class Training effectiveness models.

Objectives of the study. The objectives of these study are: ‘ To study about training , its need and importance of its evaluation, and to keep a check on its effectiveness procedure as to enhance skills of employees and measure the returns on investment. ‘ To study the various models of employee training effectiveness and to analyze it so as it can be helpful to various HR departments. ‘ To create a comparative analysis of various type of models used. ‘ To find out the short comings in Is Free Trade the total training program.

‘ To study the change in the knowledge implementation and ideas in work and the behavior of Illegal employees after training program. As per the requirement of the report study , I basically analyzed the questionnaire given to employees to know their perception regarding the training program and also collected information on websites regarding the various methods of training evaluation , the process of evaluation ,etc and also referred to Essay, books to get the idea of the water close concepts. The practical approach was by. ‘ Understanding the training effectiveness systems. ‘ Studying the Is Free PassГ©? kind of Illegal Immigration Essay training effectiveness evaluation system in L#038;T-S#038;L. ‘ The time period required for the Review to be completed. This study is both quantitative and qualitative in nature and uses secondary as well as primary sources like books ,journals ,internet web pages to Trade Essay, create different training models. It helps in analysis and study of factory system definition various models.

Ramachandran (2010) has made an analytical study on effectiveness of training program of different cadre of Essay employees working in a public sector organization. Qualities Of Hero. The result reveals that employees differed in effectiveness of training programme on the basis of demographic characters. It is also inferred that experience and Is Free Trade education of the employees of the organization is predominating and determining factor in training program. Nagar (2009) has viewed that training budgets are growing at a phenomenal pace as organization use training to build required skills, indoctrinate new employees, transform banking culture, merge new acquisitions into the organization and build multiple skills for radically changing jobs. Scholar has made an attempt to definition, study the effectiveness of training programmes being conducted by the commercial banks in public as well as in the private sector based on Is Free PassГ©?, the responses of their clerical level staff. The results of the study reveal that training programmes of the Immigration Essay respondent organizations are generally effective with respect to PassГ©?, course duration, library facilities, trainer, teaching and computer aided programme and infrastructure facilities. Saharan (2011) highlighted that most organization are taking feedback from employees for training effectiveness to maximize its benefits. In the so much close to home ceaseless drive for a competitive edge, companies subscribe to the belief that smarter, better trained workers increase chances for success. Is Free Trade PassГ©?. The study expounds the perspective of employees having different qualification and of work adjustment experiences towards objectives behind imparting training in organizations. Smith (1990) viewed that evaluation of management training courses is a subject much discussed but,superficially carried out. The study finds that there is too great an emphasis on Is Free, providing an objective evaluation report and too little recognition of subjective and peculiar issues which do not necessarily fit the frame.

Hashim (2001) has made an theory of work adjustment intensive study that training evaluation is an elusive concept, especially when it comes to Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, practice. The practice of transference countertransference evaluation in training has received a lot of criticism. This criticism is largely explained by the unsystematic, informal and adhoc evaluation that has been conducted by training institution. Griffin (2010) finds that there is a mismatch between organizations desires to Essay, evaluate training and the extent and effectiveness of actual evaluation. There are a numbers of reasons for this including the inadequacy of current methods. Al-Ajlouni, Athammuh #038; Jaradat (2010) viewed that the evaluation of an y training programme has certain aims to on Emily Lawrence's Exploration, fulfil. These are concerned with the determination of PassГ©? Essay change in the organizational behaviour and the changes needed in the organizational structure. Scholars asserts that evaluation of any training programme must inform whether the training programme has been able to deliver the Immigration Essay goals and objectives in terms of cost incurred and benefit achieved, the analysis of the information is the concluding part of any evaluation programme.

They also stressed that the analysis of data should be summarized and Is Free Essay then compared with the data of other training programmes similar nature. On the basis of Immigration these comparisons, problems and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay strength should be identified which would help the trainer in his future training programme. Ogundejl (1991) viewed that evaluation is increasingly being regarded as a powerful tool to enhance the countertransference effectiveness of training. Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted. In order to enhance the Essay effectiveness of training, evaluation should be integrated with organizational life.

Hunt #038; Baruch (2003) highlighted that some organizations invest a great deal of time and effort in elaborate training programmes designed to improve the so-called soft skills of managing. Transference. Yet assessing the effectiveness of such initiatives has been rare. Is Free Trade PassГ©?. Recent developments in the use of survey feedback have provided a technique for pre and system definition post training assessment. A study, at a leading business school, was designed to assess the impact of interpersonal skills training on Is Free PassГ©?, top managers. The evaluation of training was based on subordinate feedback conducted before, and six months after training programme took place. The result indicates significant impact on some but not all of the competencies and transference countertransference skill under study. Iyer, Pardiwalla #038; Bathia (2009) briefly explore the various methods of training evaluation to understand the need for training evaluation with emphasis on the Kirkpatrick’s model. Scholars concluded that although there are different methods to evaluate training, still training evaluation is the weakest and most under.

developed aspect of training. Essay. Although evaluation is still a grey area, every organization has to move to evaluate return on investment and behaviour to evaluate its training programme in order to justify the investment made in training as well as to improve the training process. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY. ‘ The evaluation process questionaries was designed itself by the company so I did not got chance to prepare them. ‘ No training programs were conducted during the time of my internship training , the analysis is been done on the pre collected data of employees feedback. ‘ The main limitation as full and theory complete information could not be gathered.As it was not permitted to have a talk with each single employee. Eastablished in 1995, is a premier Engineering #038; Consultancy firm in the Power Sector, born out of shared vision of two renowned organizations – Larsen #038; Toubro Limited (L#038;T), India’s largest Engineering #038; Construction Company and Sargent #038; Lundy LLC – USA, a global Consulting firm in Power industry since 1891.

L#038;T-S#038;L’s main Design Centre is located in L#038;T-Knowledge City, a world class complex in Is Free Trade Essay Vadodara. L#038;T-S#038;L has also set up full-fledged Design #038; Engineering center at Faridabad to expand its horizons and of hero effectively reach out to customers. L#038;T-S#038;L has a present strength of around 640 experienced professionals and Trade PassГ©? has been associated with over 150 power projects in India and abroad. L#038;T-S#038;L encompass the complete gamut of Power Plant Engineering #038; Consultancy services – from concept to commissioning. Its experience list includes overseas projects in USA, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Jordan, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Central America, North Africa, Kenya and many others. Besides having considerable expertise in factory Gas based and Is Free Trade PassГ©? sub-critical Coal based power projects, L#038;T-S#038;L is pioneering the definition engineering for Supercritical Coal based projects and forms the engineering base for L#038;T’s thrust into turnkey Supercritical technology. Is Free PassГ©?. It has engineered over 14,000 MW of generation capacity of Gas-turbine based power plants and 19,000 MW of generation capacity of Coal-based power plants.

L#038;T-S#038;L is also expanding its horizons in factory system definition the Renewable (Solar/Wind/Biomass) Energy. A unique feature of L#038;T-S#038;L’s engineering proficiency is the PLADES (Plant Design Software) modeling, which not only facilitates smooth project execution but also gives it an Trade PassГ©? Essay edge with enhanced quality. It also enables all the L#038;T-S#038;L offices in India and factory definition S#038;L’s offices in Chicago to work concurrently on the common platform, thereby offering cost effective, optimized engineering solutions at a global level. ‘ To become a leading integrated engineering solutions provider in the global power sector, continuously creating value for our stakeholders. ‘ Be responsive to customer needs, delivering optimal solutions and value-added services. ‘ Ensure sustainable growth and professional excellence using state-of-the-art technology, process-driven approaches, eco-friendly solutions and Trade Essay IT enabled tools. ‘ Foster a culture of mutual trust, respect, teamwork, continuous learning, innovation, challenge and employee empowerment to of work adjustment, provide a growth-oriented workplace. ‘ Adhere to Is Free PassГ©?, fair, transparent and Immigration Essay ethical practices in interactions with all stakeholders, in keeping the tenets of good corporate citizenship. ‘ Remain flexible and agile, continually adapting to the changing business environment.

Larsen #038; Toubro is a USD 14.3 billion technology, engineering, construction, manufacturing and financial services conglomerate, with global operations. It is ranked 4th in the global list of Green Companies in the industrial sector by reputed international magazine Newsweek, and ranked the world’s 9th Most Innovative Company by Forbes International. L#038;T is Is Free one of the largest and most respected companies in India’s private sector. A strong, customer’focused approach and the constant quest for qualities, top-class quality have enabled L#038;T to Is Free Trade, attain and qualities of hero sustain leadership in its major lines of business over seven decades. Sargent #038; Lundy LLC (S#038;L), headquartered in Chicago is Trade PassГ©? acknowledged as a premier consultant in power industry worldwide for more than 120 years. Sargent #038; Lundy provides complete consulting, engineering, and project development services for theory adjustment, all types of fossil-fuel, nuclear, and Is Free renewable power generation and power delivery projects. S#038;L has designed over Essay on Emily of Social, 927 Electrical Generating units representing approximately 1,35,000 MW of capacity of Power Plants, which includes combined cycle power plants, gas based and Is Free coal based projects. Besides S#038;L also has extensive experience in Nuclear Power projects and Renewal Energy (Solar, Wind, Biomass etc.).

Every organization in transference countertransference today’s era is facing challenges as to Is Free Essay, changed nature of qualities work and work place environment due to Is Free, many technological advancement and qualities of hero such other factors. This rapid changing environment requires competent, , skilled ,efficient, and high level of knowledgeable workforce for its attainment of various organizational goals. As these employees in PassГ©? organization are on larger numbers. Those employees may be skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled .So as of these employees as has to process various task in an organization which needs such specialized skill for their allocated works, and therefore they require the transference specific training for their specific task to be performed. Therefore every organization has the training program for Is Free Trade Essay, their activity. Training enhances efficiency and develops a systematic way of performing duties and task. Training helps out in bridging the gap between the job requirement and definition employees present specification. Training as an organizational activity requires a huge amount of investment, time and energy which leads to Is Free, development of employees. But as of these huge expenses incurred these is a need to check the training effectiveness, i.e. the organization need to know whether the of work adjustment investment being done is Is Free Trade PassГ©? effective or not. It’s an assessment of the impact of training on trainee’s performance.

Therefore training effectives check is an transference countertransference important process of an organization .Initially it will go through explanation of training, its need and types. Training is the process of that enhances the skills, capabilities and knowledge of PassГ©? employees for doing a particular job. Training process helps in moulding the thinking of employees and leads to factory, quality performance of employees. It is condisdered as a continuous and Is Free PassГ©? Essay never ending in nature. It’s an countertransference planned effort done by a company to Trade PassГ©?, facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies. Competencies may include knowledge, skills or behavior critical for Essay Class, successful job performance. ‘ The goal of training is for employees is to master their competencies and Is Free Trade apply them to their day-to-day activities and to regular working process . ‘ Using training to gain a competitive advantage, a company should view training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital. ‘ Intellectual capital that includes basic skills advanced skills an understanding of the customer or manufacturing system, and self-motivated creativity. Training is considered as a short term educational process helping employees to learn knowledge and skills, behavior, aptitude and attitudes.Traning is basically job_oriented and so much close to home teaches the employees the new techniques and ways of performing the jobs and Is Free PassГ©? operations. Training is considered as a key input in on Emily Lawrence's Exploration Class developing manpower in an organization that’s helps in improving the employees job performance.

‘ Training matches the employees specifications with their job requirements and their organizational needs. ‘ It helps employees in learning and adopting mechanization, automation and computerization. ‘ Helps them in promotion and getting an higher position in an organization and self-development. IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING. Training basically is an important process of imparting the knowledge to Is Free PassГ©? Essay, the employees that helps in improving productiveness and their behavioural is a vital and necessary activity in all the organization as it plays a larger part in transference countertransference determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the eastablishment.

Every organization based on their functions has different types of training methods but the basic methods are: There are two methods of training: A. On-the-job training methods. B. Off-the-job training methods. A. On-the-job training methods. On the job training method is also called as ‘Internal Training Method’. Is Free Trade PassГ©?. And usually method is suitable for all levels of employees, workers, executives and supervisors. Here in this method the employees gets the training on of hero, the job and even at Trade Essay the work place itself when he/she is actually is doing the job. Illegal Essay. This method is Trade Essay also called as ‘learning by doing’ Some of its examples are assignments, coaching, job rotation, etc. B. Off-the-job training methods. Off the theory of work job training method is also called as ‘External Training Method’.this methos id designes and intended to impart training to the employees by supplying the required knowledge and skills to the employees away from job and Trade the workplace.

Some of it examples are: Class room lecture,role playing ,etc. As every training program made by the organization has lots of investment incurred in it is necessary to check whether the training program has brought required changes or not it becomes necessity to evaluate them. Training and transference development program starts with the training and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay development identification and ends with evaluation. The evaluation as is a critical investment done for succession planning, promotion and employees development.So as of on Emily so much of expenditure done on it the organization needs to know whether their expenditure done is Is Free Trade Essay effective or not.and for these reasons continuous evaluation of close training is necessary. Training effectiveness is measured to identify results or outcomes from Essay, training process in organization. It is a formal attempt to determine the individual and organizational impact of attempts to factory system definition, make people or organizations more effective. PURPOSE OF TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS. ‘ Evaluation is done as to Is Free Essay, identify the water close to home effectiveness of Is Free training programs that are implemented.

‘ Adjust training plans for future time. Basically the purpose of training effectiveness is to identify on to how were the training programs implemented and what all were the changes or effects that were seen before and after the training program been delivered. ‘ To see whether the water training programs objectives are been met or not. ‘ To determine the effectiveness of the different components of Trade Essay training and development programme i.e. the training aids, facilities, contents, training aids, presentation style, etc.) ‘ To justify the training and development cost. ‘ To decide who all should participate in future programme. ‘ To assess on to which all participants participants gained the most or the least from definition, specific programmes that were been delivered. ‘ To gain the practical insight in order to develop , design and deliver tnhe more effective future programs. Bramley and Newby (1984) identified the four main purposes of evaluation. ‘ Feedback: Linking the learning outcomes to the objectives and Essay providing a form of the quality control. ‘ Control: linking training to the organizational activities so as to consider the cost effectiveness; ‘ Research: Determines the relationship among the learning, training and Illegal and how this gaines knowledge is Essay transferred to the job.

‘ Intervention: Here the countertransference results of the overall evaluation influences the context in which it actuallty occurs. TRAINING EVALUATION PROCESS. It is the Trade basic process of Essay Bronte and D.H Lawrence's Class examining the training program.It examines whether the candidates are implementing the Is Free PassГ©? Essay learning’s of the training program to system, the workplace or not. There are there steps where the Trade PassГ©? training is evaluated: A: Before the training.

B: On the training. C: After the training. A: Before the Essay Lawrence's of Social Class training. The skills and knowledgw of the Is Free Essay learners are assessed before thwe training program.Mostly during the start of the training program learners generally perceive it as a waste of time and resources .It basically helps us to know the. that what type of training is to be given to the employees and qualities of hero define the areas where their skills is to be developed. B: During the training. It is the phase at which short regular test are been conducted on the trainees to evaluate their training learnings. C: After the training. It is the phase in which the trainees learners skilld and knowledge are assessed again to measure the actual effectiveness of the Trade PassГ©? Essay training program on them. Theory Of Work. It helps us in knowing the expected results or the desired effect on to the individual department and the organization levels. Thus to evaluate various types of Trade techniques are used, they are:

Techniques of Evaluation. The various methods for qualities of hero, training evaluation are: ‘ Self recording of specific incidents. Here in this research report we are basically considering the after training, effectiveness by different evaluation models developed by different researchers. TRAINING EVALUATION MODELS. As for Is Free, evaluation and effectiveness of the so much to home training program. Different organizations use different type of PassГ©? Essay models to Immigration, test the effectiveness on Trade PassГ©? Essay, the employees these models are been developed by different researchers. Here in this report you will go through different models a broad classification of it is done and the types of analysis they follow to transference, evaluate the training program.

Here we have considered 3 different types of models, they are: A. Kirkpatrick Model. B. Trade. CIRO approach: C. Phillip’s Evaluation approach. A. Kirkpatrick Model. If a traijning is been delivered to an organization, then we probably know that how important it is to measuring the adjustment training effectiveness.afetr all as it is so niot important to spend time and PassГ©? moneyon the training that does not provide good returns. So therefore to evaluate the Kirkpatrick’s four level model for training evaluation can help youobjectively to analyze the effectiveness and impact of water your training, so that you can improvise in future . The Four Levels. Sir Donald Kirkpatrick, Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin and Trade PassГ©? Essay the past president of the definition American Society for PassГ©?, Training and theory adjustment Development (ASTD), first published his Four-Level Training Evaluation Model in Is Free Trade PassГ©? 1959, It was introduced in the US Training and Development Journal. The model was then firstly updated in close to home year 1975, and then again in Trade PassГ©? the year 1994, when he published his one of the Essay and D.H Lawrence's of Social best-known and Is Free Trade Essay famous work, “Evaluating Training Programs.” The four levels are: Getting through each level in greater detail.

Level 1: Reaction. Reactionn level measures how the trainees react to the training program. Ans as of the training program it becomes important to qualities, measure reaction because it would be helpful the futue training programs and also helps out in identifying important areas or topics that are missing from the training. ‘ By completed participant feedback questionnaire. ‘ Bt the informal comments from PassГ©?, participants. ‘ By doing focus group sessions with participants.

.Level 2: Learning. Learning level helps us in measutring the actual increase in the level knowledge after training it helps in knowing that whether thje training objectives been me or not.this helps out in knowing what all the employees have gaines from the traing and what are the thing that can be done to improve the training in near future. ‘ pre- and post-test scores. Level 3: Behavior. Here in this level you measure the trainees behavioural level after the training,basically it on how the trainees apply the information. It may also be seen or observed that the level of behavior has not changed but it does not only factory system imply that the Is Free Essay training is ineffective or the trainee have not learned anything.but it may also be that his boss might not help him in applying the factory system knew knowledge or the Trade employee may not have the Illegal Immigration desire to apply that knowledge.It is measured by. ‘ The completed self-assessment of the questionnaire. ‘ by the reports obtained from customers, peers and manager. Level 4: Results. Here in this level you measure the final results of your training program . It includes the outcomes of you and Is Free Trade your organization.Which can be good for business,good for bottom line and good for employees.

How to Apply the Model. Initially we have to start by identifying the ways to measure the reaction. questionaries’ that can be addressed are: ‘ Did the training was time worthy for the training ‘? Do you think that the training program was successfully exucated ‘? What all were the actual strength and the weakness of the program ‘? Was the countertransference presentation style and the venue suitable ‘? Did the training program accommodate with their personal learning style . Next, identify how you want to measure these reactions. And for doing this you’ll typically use employees satisfaction survey or the questionnaires; however you can also watch trainees’ body language during the PassГ©? Essay training, and get the oral or verbal feedback from the traines by asking them their experience. Once you’ve gathered this information, you have to look at Essay on Emily Lawrence's Exploration of Social it carefully. After this you can decide what all changes you could make, aas from knowing the trainees feedback and the suggestions. Here to Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, measure the learning initially you need to start by identifying what all you want to transference countertransference, evaluate i.e. it could be the Is Free Trade PassГ©? gained knowledge, skills, or also helps out in measuring both before and system definition after training. It can be really challenging to measure behavior effectively or accurately . And the reasons for this is the longer-term activity which should take place weeks or months after the initial training is been done. Consider these questions: ‘ Have the trainee has put any of his learning to use’? Are the trainees after learning able to teach the gained new knowledge, skills, or attitudes to the other people with them ‘? Are trainees aware of the changes in their behavior? Practically the one beast way to Is Free Essay, measure the behavior is to conduct the Illegal observation and interviews over the time.

Also, it happens that behavior only changes if the Is Free Trade PassГ©? conditions that are considered are favorable, i.e. effective learning could have been taken place in the training program. Similarly if i happens that if the overall organizational has not setup up for any such behavior changes, which may result in non-applicability of the training learnings. Alternatively, it also happens that the trainees may or may not receive the required support, the recognition, or any knd of rewards for their behavior changes from factory, their superior. PassГ©? Essay. So, over time, they start disregarding he skills or knowledge that they have learned, and finally go back to factory definition, their old existing behaviors. As of from the above other levels , measurement of the final results of the training program is likely to be the Trade Essay most time consuming as well as costly.

And it has been found that some of the biggest challenges are identifying which benefits, outcomes or the final results are most closely linked to the training program, and also see what all are coming up with an effective way to measure these outcomes over the long term. Here are some of the outcomes that can be to considered, as to of the objectives of your training: ‘ Increased employee retention. ‘ Higher quality ratings. B. CIRO approach: The CIRO (context-input-reaction-outcome) approach is a 4 level training evaluation approach by was originally developed by Warr ,bird and so much close Racham. This approach is based upon the view that the most important purpose of Is Free evaluation is to improve that overall functioning of the program.

1. Context evaluation. 2. Input evaluation. 3. Immigration Essay. Reaction evaluation. 4. Outcome evaluation. Context evaluation involves the collection of information about the performance deficiency,assessing the Is Free Essay information that is to eastablish training needs and on the base of those findings, and then setting the objectives at water close the other three level. Here the context of the learning event concerns with obtaining and as well as using the information about the current operational situation in order to determine training needs and objectives. It also determines if training is needed. Ultimate objectives: These are some of the particular deficiency in organization that program will eliminate.

This process evaluates basically 3 type of processes in Is Free it.. 1. Intermediate objective: Measurement of changes in employees work behavior necessary for transference countertransference, attainment of the ultimate objectives. 2. Immediate objectives: Attainment of new knowledge, skills or attitudes that must be acquired by the employees to change their behavior and so as to reach to the intermediate objectives. 2. Input evaluation. Input evaluation concerns with how well the learning event was actually been planned, developed, managed and executed. Where as it also helps out to determine the cost efficiency, effectiveness and the feasibility level with the major inputs. Whereas it also involves to analyse the resources available and determining how well they can be deployed so as to PassГ©? Essay, achieve the maximum results of the desired objectives. 3. Reaction evaluation. Reaction evaluation here particularly concerns with obtaining and using information about participants reactions to bring out the improvement in the HRD process.

And the distinguishing feature of this type of evaluation is that it rely on factory, subjective inputs of Essay participants. This can be actually helpful when collected and used in systematic and objective manner. 5. Outcome evaluation. This helps out to know or assess what were the actual changes been observed as a result of Illegal Immigration Essay learning event.Depending on the object of the evaluation exercise and resources available, outcome should be measured at any or all of Is Free PassГ©? Essay these following levels. The learner level: This level involves establishing changes in the level of learners knowledge, attitudes and skills at the completion of the training program which change me measured with the level of Illegal Immigration Essay skills,knowledge and attitude at the beginning of the Essay program. The workplace level: Here in the workplace level the changes taking place in the learners job behaviour at the workplace is been observed. Here this changes can be measured by the appraisal, discussion and observation with the manager of Bronte and D.H Lawrence's of Social learners /customers/peers/clients. The team/department or unit level: Team level involves in Trade PassГ©? the identification of the changes that take place in the unit, team and the department as to the result of the learning becomes very difficult to measure the changes at adjustment the department level this changes may include alteration in PassГ©? Essay the departmental scrap rates, output, costs, absenteeism as well as the staff turnover rates. The organizational level: This level involves to identify the changes that takes place in the organization as a whole after the end of the training program .Here too measuring the qualities outcome is quite difficult. These change that may occur after the training program can be the Trade PassГ©? change in culture of organization,reduced level of theory adjustment conflict,more flexibility and enchanced ability to attract and retain value workers.

Phillip’s Evaluation approach. Phillips’s five level approach. Here Phillips model is Is Free almost similar to Kirkpatrick’s four-level model and has an additional level Return on investment . And here it has been used in so much water close to home the business so to determine the Is Free PassГ©? value of an investment in financial terms. ROI is Illegal Immigration calculated in order to show value, in financial terms, of a training investment . The levels of Phillips’s framework are. (1) Reaction and planned action; (3) Job application; (4) Business results. (5) Return on investment.

The Phillips Model : The Phillips model measures training outcomes at PassГ©? Essay five levels: Level Brief Description. 1. Reaction, Satisfaction, #038; Planned Action Measures participant reaction to and satisfaction with the and D.H Lawrence's Exploration of Social training program and participant’s plans for action. 2. Learning Measures skills and Is Free Trade Essay knowledge gains. 3. Application and Implementation Measures changes in Bronte on-the-job application, behavior change, and PassГ©? Essay implementation. 4. Business Impact Measures business impact. 5. Theory Of Work Adjustment. Return on Investment (ROI) Compares the Is Free Trade monetary value of the business outcomes with the qualities costs of the training program. Level 1 – Reaction, Satisfaction, and Is Free Planned Action: It helps out in Immigration measuring the participants’ satisfaction level with the program as well as their plans to use what they have learned. Even although the most organizations evaluate at this level exclusively, therefore it should be noted that this level of evaluation does not actually guarantee that the participants have learned the new skills or knowledge or will use them on the job. Level 2 ‘ Learning: Here in the learning level using tests, simulations, group evaluations, skills practice, role playing and such other important assessment tools, and here the evaluations also assess how much participants have learned and what all have and Is Free what all are their gains.

And again, although it is very useful to know that participants have absorbed the new skills and Lawrence's knowledge, evn though this positive outcome does not ensure that the Is Free Trade PassГ©? participants will use their new learning when they are back on the job. Level 3 – Behaviour, Application and Implementation:In evaluation assesses whether (and how much) participants applied the Illegal Immigration new knowledge and skills to his/her job. It measures the extent to which the Trade new learning is been applied in the workplace (or changes behaviours) determines its success. Here too, it should be remembered, a favourable Level 3 evaluation does not guarantee that business outcomes will be positive. Level 4 – Business Impact: This measures the Immigration Essay extend to which business measures have improved after the training program. It also nmeasures the output,quality time and cost. The level 4 measures the extent to which business measures have improved after training. Its measures are output, quality, output, time and cost. It becomes important to go beyond the level 4 business results, however, because even if the training program results in substantial business improvement, there is still a concern that the program’s costs may outweigh its business benefits. Level 5 – Return on Investment (ROI):

ROI is the Is Free Essay ultimate level of factory definition evaluation. It compares the monetary benefits from the Is Free Trade Essay program with the program costs. (ROI) is usually presented as a percentage or cost/benefit ratio even though it can be presented in several other ratios. The Phillips’ model actually evolves from that can be differentiated from, the earlier Kirkpatrick model by transference countertransference the adoption of return on investment so as to yield the Essay additional , critical insight for transference countertransference, the evaluation. Investmest returns allows decision makers to compare the ultimate value of a training investment with other potential investment opportunities. Another key technique introduced by Is Free Trade Phillips is ‘Isolation.’ Here I n the past, the major barrier to Illegal, evaluating the Trade business impact of training was the so much close to home perception that it is all but impossible to separate training’s impact from the many other potential factors driving bottom line results. Where as an important feature of the Dr.

Phillips’ evaluation model, therefore it is the Essay recognition that the credibility depends on the extent to of hero, which the evaluation accounts for Trade Essay, these other factors as such. Phillips model here uses ten techniques to isolate the business impact of to home training from other potential sources of business improvement i.e. the overall changes in the ( interest rate, marketing programs, employee bonus schemes, competitive environment, seasonal effects that temporarily contributes to the improvement in the business, etc ). Here in Trade this models a further addition of intangibles is done to Essay, the Kirkpatrick model. As to this method it become important to recognize that some outcomes cannot be easily measured and converted to monetary values. With attempt to put a dollar value on outcomes such as customer satisfactiom ,a less stressful work environment, and the employees satisfaction can be extremely difficult ,and its results may be of the questionable value. Suggestions for Evaluating Training. Mostly evaluators look for the validity .accuracy and reliability in their evaluations.but what happens is that these goals require more time, people and money than thw organization has. They mostly look for the evaluation approaches that are relevant and Is Free Trade Essay practical. Training activities can be evaluated before, during and Bronte and D.H Class after the training activities , by considetring some of the very basic suggestions. Before the Implementation Phase. ‘ Whether the selected training and development methods really result in Trade the employee’s learning the knowledge and skills needed to perform the task or carry out the role?

Did the other employee’s have used the methods and Essay on Emily Bronte Lawrence's Exploration been successful’? Considering applying the methods to a highly skilled employee. Inquire the employee of their impressions of the methods. ‘ Are the Is Free Trade methods conform to the employee’s preferences and on Emily of Social learning styles? Did the employee briefly review the methods, e.g., overheads documentation, etc. Is Free Trade Essay. Has the employee experience any difficulties understanding the methods? During Implementation of Training. ‘ Regularly ask the employee how they’re doing. Are they been understanding what’s all being discussed ‘? Conduct a short test periodically, e.g., have the employee explain the main points of what was just described to him, e.g., in the lecture. ‘ Check that whether the employee enthusiastically taking part in the activities?

See whether he or she coming late and leaving early. Many a times surprisingly it happens that that oftens the so much water to home learners leave the course of workshop and complain it as to be the complete waste of time. So as to get rid of these ask them to give the Essay raitings to of hero, the program i.e. from PassГ©?, 4 to Essay on Emily Bronte Exploration, 1 which meands 4 being the highest and 1 being this lowest. After Completion of the Training. ‘ Compare the Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay before and after test results. ‘ Compare the qualities of hero I results of Is Free interview of Essay Bronte and D.H Lawrence's him or her before and after the training. ‘ Observe and watch him or her performs the task or conduct the roles. ‘ Keep an expert evaluator from inside or outside the organization to evaluate the learner’s knowledge and skills.

Training evaluation is said to be the most important aspect of training and development program. It is a subject which has been much discussed but it is superficially carried out. Essay. And there are various reasons for that which has been discussed during earlier times . One of the theory of work adjustment main reasons is that all models are descriptive and subjective in nature, its classified indicators for evaluating training and development is not clearly given and explained. Is Free Essay. So from the above discussion it has been found out that Kirkpatrick model is widely used and accepted model at reaction level but in factory system definition this case also what should be the Trade PassГ©? Essay main indicators at reaction level as well as the other levels is not explained properly. So in this way after after discussing a lot on the models for evaluating training and development, it can be easily suggested that there are enough model for the training evaluation. And further they should be further modified by giving its main indicators and explained properly about so much water to home each issue so that evaluation of training and development can be properly carried out with the greater effectiveness. Subject : People Management. Faculty :Anjan kumar. No. of participants : 19. Raiting scale: 4 (max) – 1(min)

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. CONTENT 15 3 0 0 69 3.63. DEPT COVERAGE 10 8 0 0 64 3.37. ADEQUACY OF DURATION 8 9 1 0 61 3.21. EFFECTIENESS IN MEETING OBJECTIVES 14 4 0 0 68 3.58. OVERALL RAITING OF THE PROGRAM 14 4 0 0 68 3.58. FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B.

LEADERSHIP 14 4 0 0 68 3.78. POWER 17 1 0 0 71 3.94. MOTIVATION 11 6 1 0 64 3.56. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. PRESENTATION SKILLS 15 3 0 0 69 3.78. GETTING PARCIPANTS INVOLVED 17 1 0 0 71 3.94. USE VARIETY OF ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 9 9 0 0 63 3.5. RELATING TO RAEAL LIFE 10 8 0 0 64 3.56. QUERIES SOLVED 14 3 1 1 67 3.72.

Subject : Interpersonal skills and Trade Personell effectiveness. Faculty :Bhavin Bhatt. No. of Essay participants : 24. FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. CONTENT 15 7 2 0 85 3.54. DEPT COVERAGE 12 10 2 0 82 3.42. ADEQUACY OF DURATION 7 13 4 0 75 3.13.

EFFECTIENESS IN MEETING OBJECTIVES 15 8 1 0 86 3.58. OVERALL RAITING OF THE PROGRAM 17 6 1 0 88 3.57. FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. UNDERSTANDING SKILLS 14 9 1 0 85 3.54. MANAGING DIFFERENCES 15 8 1 0 86 3.58. COMMUNICATION 17 5 2 0 87 3.63. TIME AND ENERGY MGMT 12 11 1 0 83 3.46. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. PRESENTATION SKILLS 20 4 0 0 92 3.83.

GETTING PARCIPANTS INVOLVED 21 3 0 0 93 3.88. USE VARIETY OF ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 13 10 1 0 84 3.5. RELATING TO RAEAL LIFE 14 9 1 0 85 3.54. QUERIES SOLVED 15 9 0 0 87 3.63. Subject :Self Empowerment.

Faculty : Harshida Pethapuria. No. of participants : 22. FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. CONTENT 8 14 0 0 74 3.36. DEPT COVERAGE 7 14 1 0 72 3.27. ADEQUACY OF DURATION 7 12 3 0 70 3.18. EFFECTIENESS IN MEETING OBJECTIVES 6 18 0 0 72 3.27. OVERALL RAITING OF THE PROGRAM 8 14 0 0 74 3.36. FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM.

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. SELF CONFIDENCE 9 12 1 0 74 3.36. OWNERSHIP #038; RESPONSIBILITY 9 13 0 0 75 3.41. GOAL SETTING 9 13 0 0 75 3.41. ACTION ORIENTATION DECISION 6 13 3 0 69 3.14.

DECISION MAKING 8 13 1 0 73 3.32. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. PRESENTATION SKILLS 19 3 0 0 85 3.86. ABILITY TO CITE RELEVENT EXAMPLES 12 9 1 0 77 3.5. ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 10 11 1 0 76 3.41.

ABILITY TO GET ACROSS CENTRAL MESSAGE 8 14 0 0 74 3.38. SOLVE QUERIES 13 9 0 0 79 3.59. OVERALL RAITING 12 10 0 0 78 3.55. Subject :Communication skills. Faculty : Samir Desai. No. of participants : 14. FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. MEETING COURSE OBJECTIVES 7 5 2 0 47 3.36.


TELE-COMMUNICATION 6 8 0 0 48 3.43. ASSERTIVENESS 8 6 0 0 50 3.57. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 6 7 1 0 47 3.36. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. PRESENTATION SKILLS 10 4 0 0 52 3.71.

ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 11 3 0 0 53 3.79. USE ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 8 5 1 0 49 3.5. RELATE TO REAL LIFE 2 11 1 0 43 3.07. SOLVE QUERIES 4 9 1 0 45 3.21. OVERALL RAITING 3 11 0 0 45 3.21. Faculty : Anil Shinde. No. of participants : 11.


Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. DICHOMOMIES 8 4 0 0 44 3.67. SENSING Vs INTUTION 10 2 0 0 46 3.83. THINKING Vs FEELING 8 4 0 0 44 3.67. JUDGING Vs PERCEIVING 8 4 0 0 44 3.67. EXTRAVERSION Vs INTROVERSION 8 4 0 0 44 3.67. MBIT INSTRUMENTS #038; ITS PROCESSING 7 4 1 0 42 3.5. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. PRESENTATION SKILLS 7 4 1 0 42 3.5. ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 6 6 0 0 42 3.5. USE ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 6 5 1 0 41 3.42.

RELATE TO REAL LIFE 5 6 1 0 40 3.33. SOLVE QUERIES 6 6 0 0 42 3.5. OVERALL RAITING 7 5 0 0 43 3.58. Subject : Business Etiquettes. Faculty : Sachin bordavelkar. No. of participants : 10.


GROOMING #038; POWER DRESSING 4 6 0 0 34 3.4. TABLE MANNERS / DINNING ETIQUETTES 2 7 1 0 31 3.1. EMAIL ETTIUETTES 5 4 1 0 34 3.4. TELEPHONE ETIQUETTES 5 5 0 0 35 3.5. YOU #038; YOUR DIRECT SUPERVISOR 2 5 3 0 29 2.9. ETIQUETTES IN MODERN WORKPLACE 2 7 1 0 31 3.1. Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B. PRESENTATION SKILLS 9 1 0 0 39 3.9. ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 4 4 2 0 32 3.2. USE ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 3 5 2 0 31 3.1. RELATE TO REAL LIFE 7 2 1 0 36 3.6.

SOLVE QUERIES 5 5 0 0 35 3.5. OVERALL RAITING 6 4 0 0 36 3.6. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in Is Free as little as 3 hours. This Management essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of of work this page in your own work, you need to Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: EMPLOYEE TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS . Available from: [02-10-17].

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essay night twelfth (A portion of this essay was published in Midsummer Magazine , Summer 1991.) Shakespeare seems preoccupied with madness and folly in Twelfth Night . The word fool and its variants (foolery, foolish, and so forth) appear eighty times in Trade PassГ©? Essay the play, and the word folly occurs seven times. There are, in addition, other means of transference indicating foolishness such as Maria's Now, sir, thought is free (1.3.67). Is Free Trade? As Feste suggests, Foolery . does walk about the orb like the sun; it shines everywhere (3.1.39-40). Robert Armin, who originated the role of Feste, was fascinated by fools and system wrote Foole upon Foole , a book which treated this subject. David Wiles writes that Armin was a pioneering realist in his study of how fools actually behaved.

His stage fools were based on observation rather than on the recreation of an emblematic stage type (158). He goes on to point out that Armin's interest in fools allowed Shakespeare to tap one of the richest veins in the medieval dramatic tradition: the idea that the Vice reveals vice to Trade Essay be folly (158). M. C. Of Hero? Bradbook notes that Armin did influence Shakespeare's writing. From the time that Armin joined the company Shakespeare very noticeably began to give his clowns the catechism as a form of jesting. Feste catechizes Olivia on Trade PassГ©? why she grieves and proves her a fool for doing so; later, in the guise of the Immigration Essay curate, he catechizes Malvolio (228).

Indeed, Shakespeare seems to have utilized this valuable resource for Twelfth Night , creating a broad spectrum of fools in this play. The actions and words of almost all the play's characters fit the recognized behavior patterns of fools. Feste is, of Essay course, an allowed or professional fool; Sir Toby Belch, like Falstaff, is a Lord of Misrule who orchestrates the folly of his cohorts; Maria, with her mischievous practical joking, resembles the spiteful court fools whose malicious capers brought ruin upon many an unwary courtier; Viola in her disguise is a witty fool not unlike Feste; Sir Andrew Aguecheek qualifies as a natural fool; and Olivia, Orsino, and Malvolio all suffer from melancholic folly, respectively derived from sorrow, unrequited love, and self-love. Robert Armin brought his observations of actual fools to countertransference the role of Feste. David Wiles points out that when Armin played Carlo Buffone in Is Free Trade PassГ©? Jonson's Every Man Out Of His Humour , he was impersonating a real tavern fool by the name of Charles (i.e. 'Carlo') Chester (i.e. Theory? 'jester') (147). Trade PassГ©?? Wiles also sees a connection between this role and that of Feste: Carlo's most interesting routine is inspired by Armin's researches.

Carlo plays the part of two courtiers simultaneously. A cruder and better known example of the technique is of course Feste/Topas (147). Thus it can be seen that Armin's research pervaded his roles and influenced Jonson's plays as well as Shakespeare's. In Reality in a Looking Glass , a comprehensive historical study of fools and Illegal Immigration their roles in medieval and modern society, Anton C. Zijderveld describes and classifies the types of traditional medieval fools. Feste, the most obvious of Twelfth Night' s fools, belongs to Essay a class of jesters which, according to Zijderveld, were . in full command of their wits. They played at being foolish, often with much wit and ingenuity (92); as Feste himself proclaims, I wear not motley in my brain (1.5.56). He is the allowed fool who can criticize the two absolute rulers of the play#151;Olivia and Orsino#151;with impunity, and he does. He takes the liberty to prove Olivia a fool for her grief (1.5.56-71) and to chastise Orsino for his changeability (2.4.73-79). Feste is the only member of this society who can find fault with his superiors without endangering his position. When Malvolio rather nastily reproaches Olivia for qualities, enjoying Feste's jests, Olivia is quick to remind him of his place and to deliver some criticism of her own: she replies, You are sick of self-love, Malvolio, and taste with a distempered appetite (1.5.90-1). In this way Feste serves as an Trade PassГ©?, emotional and critical outlet for the subjects of absolute rulers.

Zijderveld comments that the fool is Illegal Essay, irreverent in the face of authority and tries his best to Is Free PassГ©? Essay undermine the impression management that is staged by the powerful (28). He says of rulers, The more dictatorial they are, the more they need fools and folly (30). If the Lady Olivia needs fools and folly, she has them in abundance. Qualities Of Hero? Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria form a society of fools, the sole aim of Is Free Trade which is merry-making and the destruction of any impediment to their pleasure. Of Hero? This society is reminiscent of the ancient Roman Saturnalia, a day of celebration held in Saturn's honor. For this celebration the functions of Is Free Trade PassГ©? normal society were halted and the regular order inverted: the slaves, one of whom was appointed lord of misrule, were freed for the day and exchanged social roles with their masters. Anne Barton notes the similarities between Epiphany#151;the Twelfth Night feast#151;and Saturnalia and explains, It was perhaps inevitable that a celebration which initially was wholly pious should, with time, alter its complexion, attracting to itself in the process a good deal of the licence and even the specific customs of the pagan Saturnalia (404). Lois Potter indicates that the Saturnalian customs which were adopted permitted the qualities licensed irreverence through disguisings, parodies of Is Free Trade PassГ©? solemn events, reversals of roles between men and women, masters and servants, clergy and laity (18). Accordingly, when Feste takes on water close the role of Sir Topas for the mock exorcism of Is Free Essay Malvolio, he inverts the proper role of the priest (18).

Sir Toby's society is a grotesque inversion of the established hierarchy, a looking-glass image of the status quo (Zijderveld 66), in which the drunken Sir Toby Belch serves as lord and master. Zijderveld writes that in the French city of Lyon there existed some twenty different societies of fools in system definition the sixteenth century, each having its own abbot, admiral, prince, king, court judge, or patriarch as Lord of Misrule (73). Accordingly, Sir Toby is the leader of PassГ©? his friends' drunkenness, the advisor of Sir Andrew's wooing of Olivia, and Essay on Emily of Social Class the director of the PassГ©? Essay duel between Sir Andrew and Viola/Cesario. With this in mind, one may wonder why their main practical joke, the deception of Malvolio, is engineered by Maria rather than Sir Toby. One possible explanation for this is factory, that Maria is modeled on the malicious court fools, some of whom were women. In fact, she strongly resembles Mathurine, the female fool of the French kings Henri III (1574-89), Henri IV (1589-1610), and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Louis XIII (1610-43). Qualities? It is not unreasonable to suggest that Shakespeare would have known of this French fool. In Love's Labour's Lost , Shakespeare uses the Trade PassГ©? Essay political maneuverings and Essay and D.H Lawrence's Exploration Class court occurrences of Henri III and Henri of Navarre (the future Henri IV) as the basis for his plot, demonstrating his knowledge of French affairs (David xxix). Also, as a man of the theatre, Shakespeare would have been interested in the actions of Trade fools, and as an associate of Robert Armin, he would have been familiar with their activities.

1. Zijderveld writes of Mathurine, Her personality was not all that pleasant. He goes on factory system to say that She was as malicious as an old ape (96). Just as Maria loathes Malvolio's austere Puritan behavior, Mathurine particularly hated the morally strict and Is Free Trade Essay stern Protestants (96). Yet another parallel between Maria and Mathurine is that both of them are associated with the Amazons. Qualities? Sir Toby names Maria Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons (2.3.177), and Mathurine often wore . the outfit of an Amazon (96). Another characteristic of fools which Maria exhibits is Is Free PassГ©? Essay, her smallness. Viola mockingly says, Some mollification for your giant, sweet lady (1.5.203-4) after Maria, with a sailing metaphor, has urged Viola to get on countertransference with her business.

According to Zijderveld, midgets and dwarfs occupied a very special position among fools, and they were valued by their owners (97). Viola is another type of Is Free Essay female fool and also has much in theory of work common with the Is Free PassГ©? French fool Mathurine. Feste commends her for her skill at word-play, exclaiming, A sentence is but a chev'ril glove to a good wit. How quickly the wrong side may be turned outward! (3.1.11-13). Mathurine, one of the Illegal Immigration Essay few fools who were obviously of good wit, was a smart fool who certainly knew her allies and PassГ©? Essay foes (Zijderveld 96-7). Viola's cross-dressing also fits in with the theory adjustment behavior of Mathurine, who was sometimes seen dressed as a military officer with a huge sabre (96).

Indeed, this sort of Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay sexual ambiguity was not uncommon among medieval fools: They are never clearly male or female, but engage happily in transvestism (4). Maria calls Sir Andrew a natural throughout the play, a title which he thoroughly deserves. Theory? In Erasmus's In Praise of Folly #151;which Shakespeare may well have read at school (Levi 80)#151;the personified Folly characterizes the natural fool as that class of men whom we generally call morons, fools, halfwits, and zanies (47). 2 Even Andrew recognizes that people think him a fool at 2.5.82 after Malvolio refers to Is Free PassГ©? Essay a foolish knight. Qualities Of Hero? David Wiles maintains that when Sir Andrew is given 'a bloody cockscomb' by Cesario, the character's lank, hanging hair completes the effect of a fool's hood (156). According to Sir Toby, Andrew speaks three or four languages . and hath all the good gifts of nature (1.3.26-8), yet Andrew does not know the meaning of the word accost (1.3.58) nor of pourquoi (1.3.90). Andrew says, I would I had bestowed that time in tongues that I have in fencing, dancing, and bearbaiting (1.3.90-92), yet we find later on Is Free Essay that, as Maria predicts, he is a coward and cannot fence well at all. In short, many do call (2.5.82) Sir Andrew fool, and they are right; he is all folly and no wit, unlike Feste, Toby, and on Emily Bronte Maria, who are deliberate in Essay their foolery, beneath which exists a layer of wisdom. 3.

Olivia and Orsino are also unintentionally foolish, though less obtuse than Sir Andrew. Both are melancholic, and from this disorder arises folly; Zijderveld includes in his detailing of the water spectrum of folly a kind of fool called melancholicus (35). It is easy to identify the types of PassГ©? Essay melancholy from which the Countess and Duke suffer. Olivia's is on Emily Bronte and D.H Class, clearly derived from her excessive grief over her brother's death; she tells Valentine that she will mourn for seven years. Is Free Essay? Orsino's melancholy finds its origin in his obsessive, unrequited love for Olivia; he enacts the role of the despised courtly lover, surfeiting himself with music, bowers of flowers, and self-pity#151;indeed, he seems more in love with love itself than with Olivia. Robert Burton's wisdom, Douglas Bush suggests, is like Shakespeare's (298), and close to home so it should be since Burton's treatise on psychology and humours drew on materials contemporary with Shakespeare and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay was published only seven years after the Bard's death. In the Anatomy of Melancholy , Burton calls grief the mother and daughter of melancholy, her epitome, and chief cause. Sorrow, saith Plutarch to transference Apollonius, is Is Free Essay, a cause of madness, a cause of many other incurable diseases (225). Burton likewise says of love-melancholy that if it rage, it is no more Love, but burning Lust, a Disease, Phrensy, Madness, Hell. Countertransference? (651). Feste recognizes Olivia's folly, dexteriously proving her a fool for Trade PassГ©? Essay, mourning for her brother's soul, which is in heaven (1.5.57-71), and Olivia later compares herself to Malvolio, lamenting, I am as mad as he, / If sad and merry madness equal be (3.4.13-14).

As Juliet Dusinberre writes, The texture of the play is thick with references to Olivia's folly (47-8). Feste also pinpoints Orsino's ailment, proclaiming, Now the melancholy god protect thee, and the tailor make thy doublet of changeable taffeta, for thy mind is a very opal (2.4.73-5). Erasmus writes, A man who is deceived not only in his senses but in the judgement of his mind . is bound to be considered close to madness (52). Olivia and Orsino, whose reactions are out of proportion with their troubles and Illegal Immigration who lack temperance in sorrow and love, certainly fit this description. Malvolio's melancholic folly originates in his self-love. In In Praise of Folly , Folly asks, What is Trade Essay, so foolish as to be satisfied with yourself? Or to admire yourself? (29). Burton calls self-love a delectable frenzy, most irrefragable passion, this delightful illusion, this acceptable disease (253).

Malvolio certainly thinks highly of himself, fantasizing about marrying Olivia at 2.5.23-81 and grouping himself with the truly wise men who despise all kinds of folly at 1.5.82-89. Erasmus's Folly, however, has this to say about transference countertransference, these supposedly wise men: Even those who arrogate to Trade themselves the part and name of wise men cannot conceal me, though they walk about 'like apes in scarlet or asses in lion-skins'. Essay Bronte And D.H Exploration Of Social Class? Although they are wholly of my party, in public they are so ashamed of my name that they toss it up at others as a great reproach (10). The yellow stockings that Malvolio is duped into donning also connect him with fools. Robert Goldsmith writes in Is Free PassГ©? his Wise Fools in Shakespeare , Natural fools and idiots often wore long, yellow gowns (3), and Shakespeare and qualities Fletcher mention a long motley coat guarded with yellow (16) in their Prologue to The Life of King Henry the Eighth . Malvolio is also the Is Free Trade PassГ©? Essay only modern man in transference countertransference an essentially medieval society. He is the prototypical Puritan who threatens to wipe out folly altogether, in himself and in everyone else; he represents the rational man who is too one-dimensional to be able really to understand the fool (Zijderveld 27). He stands, as a result, in direct opposition to Is Free PassГ©? Essay Feste, the Essay traditional medieval fool who strives to bring out the Is Free Trade foolishness in theory of work adjustment all his acquaintances. M. C. Bradbrook comments that Feste is Malvolio's first and principal antagonist, parish clerk to Lady Folly (231). That they despise one another is evidenced in Malvolio's insult, I saw him put down the other day with an Trade PassГ©?, ordinary fool that has no more brain than a stone (1.5.83-5). Feste's enjoyment of his revenge on Malvolio demonstrates that he returns a full measure of transference antipathy.

Twelfth Night becomes, in effect, a looking-glass for Shakespeare's society and our own. The play takes us from the Is Free Trade Essay routine of ordinary life to the realm of so much water to home folly. As Zijderveld speculates, If one follows the Is Free Essay fool into the reality of Illegal Immigration Essay his looking-glass, if one adapts to PassГ©? his 'language', his 'logic', his kind of 'reason', the routine and 'normal' reality of everyday life, with its structures and of hero hierarchies, begins to look genuinely foolish (27). Shakespeare shows us the reflection of ourselves and our society in the distorted mirror of Twelfth Night , and Is Free Essay as a result, we reach a heightened awareness of our own shortcomings and absurdities. Paradoxically, we learn by laughing, passing beyond seriousness to wisdom. 1 Queen Elizabeth was certainly familiar with European fools. David Wiles indicates that she followed in the tradition of the water close to home sixteenth-century courts of Paris, Mantua and Is Free Trade PassГ©? Ferrara when she kept a dwarf in her court from 1578 to the end of her reign (150). Factory Definition? [Return to text.] 2 The possibility of Shakespeare having read In Praise of Folly seems great since the work was written in Thomas More's home, Erasmus was well known to many Oxford and Cambridge scholars (Coulton 664-6), and at least one of the Is Free Trade masters (Simon Hunt) at Shakespeare's grammar school during his time there was an Oxford man (Speaight 10-11). [Return to text.] 3 Leslie Hotson comments that Set beside the brain of Feste, the little wit of Aguecheek shrinks further into imbecility (91). [Return to countertransference text.] Barton, Anne.

Introduction to Twelfth Night. The Riverside Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1974. 403-407. Bradbrook, M. C. Robert Armin and Twelfth Night . Twelfth Night: A Casebook . London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1972. 222-43. Burton, Robert. The Anatomy of Trade Melancholy . Ed. Class? Floyd Dell, New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1927. David, R. Trade PassГ©?? W., ed.

The Arden Shakespeare: Love's Labour's Lost . London: Methuen, 1951. Dusinberre, Juliet. Shakespeare and the Nature of Women . London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1975. Erasmus, Desiderius. Countertransference? In Praise of Is Free Trade Folly . Illegal Immigration Essay? Trans. Hoyt Hopewell Hudson, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970. Hotson, Leslie. Shakespeare's Motley . New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. Potter, Lois. Twelfth Night: Text Performance . London: Macmillan, 1985.

Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare , ed. Sylvan Barnet, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972. Wiles, David. Shakespeare's Clown: Actor and text in the Elizabethan playhouse . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Zijderveld, Anton J. Reality in a Looking-Glass: Rationality through an Is Free, Analysis of Traditional Folly . London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1982.

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