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roe vs wade essay Because neither interest is over compelling before the of Robert Work Theory Essay second trimester, the State may not regulate abortion in the first trimester either to preserve the womans health or to protect the life of the unborn child. Id . at essay 163. After the first trimester, however, the State may regulate the performance of an abortion, but only for the purpose of preserving the womans health, not for the purpose of protecting the life of the unborn child. After viability, the State may regulate, and even prohibit, abortion to protect the how does temperature photosynthesis life of the unborn child, except when the performance of the change over time essay abortion is necessary to preserve the life or health of the woman. Id . at 164-65 (summarizing holdings). Microfilter Asda! The abortion statutes challenged in Roe , which prohibited abortion throughout pregnancy except to save the life of the mother, did not conform to the Courts trimester framework. Accordingly, they were declared unconstitutional. Id . at time 164. In Roe , the Court also held that an unborn child is not a person as that word is used in 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, is not protected by either the Due Process Clause or the Equal Protection Clause, id . at of care 156-59, a holding from which no Justice on the Court then or since has dissented. In Roes companion case of Doe v. Change Over Time! Bolton , 410 U.S.

179 (1973), decided the same day as Roe , the Court struck down various procedural requirements imposed by a Georgia abortion statute based on 230.3 of the Model Penal Code (that the abortion be performed in a licensed and vietnamese accredited hospital, that the procedure be approved by change time essay, the majority of a medical staff committee of the hospital, and that two other physicians in addition to custers revenge the attending physician certify that the abortion was necessary for one of the reasons specified in the statute). 3 410 U.S. at 192-200. The Court also rejected a vagueness challenge to what remained of the substance of the statute after major provisions of the change time essay statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. Migrants! Id . at 191-92. 4 Both Justice Byron White and over essay Justice William Rehnquist dissented from the opinions in Roe and Doe striking down the Texas and Georgia abortion statutes. Roe , 410 U.S. at 171 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting); Doe , 410 U.S. at 221 (White, J., dissenting from both opinions); id . at 223 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting). I. The Origins of a Constitutional Right ^ top. Roe , as noted in the Introduction, was based on the right of privacy. As Roe itself acknowledged, however, [t]he Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of temperature affect photosynthesis privacy. Over! 410 U.S. at 152.

Nevertheless, in a line of decisions going back to the late nineteenth century, the Court has recognized that a right of personal privacy, or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy, does exist under the Constitution. Id . This right of privacy, founded in the Fourteenth Amendments concept of personal liberty, the Court in Roe held, is broad enough to encompass a womans decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. Id . at 153. The roots of a right of personal privacy have been found in the U.S. Constitution in the following places: in the free speech guarantee of the The Contribution of Robert Merton’s to Criminological Theory First Amendment, which has been held to protect the possession of pornography in ones home, Stanley v. Georgia , 394 U.S.

557, 564 (1969); in the Fourth Amendment, which secures the right of the people against unreasonable searches and seizures of their persons, homes, papers and effects, and the Fifth Amendment, which prohibits compulsory self-incrimination, see Boyd v. United States , 116 U.S. Essay! 616, 630 (1886) (Fourth and Fifth Amendments protect against all governmental invasions of the sanctity of a mans home and the privacies of life); in the Ninth Amendment, which preserves other rights not enumerated in the Constitution, Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S. Custers Revenge! 479, 486 (1965) (striking down statute prohibiting use of contraceptives by over time, married couples) (Goldberg, J., concurring) ; in the penumbras (shades) of the Bill of The Contribution of Robert Merton’s Work to Criminological Essay Rights as a whole, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 484-85 ; and in the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390, 399 (1923) (striking down a state statute forbidding the teaching of any subject in any language other than English, or the teaching of change modern foreign languages below the eighth grade). The right of privacy, the Court in migrants Roe noted, also has some extension to activities relating to marriage, . . Change Over Time Essay! . Duty Essay! procreation, . . . family relationships, . . . and child rearing and education. 410 U.S. at over 152-53 , citing the following cases: Loving v. Virginia , 388 U.S. 1, 12 (1967), recognizing liberty interest in marrying the person of ones choice; Skinner v. Oklahoma , 316 U.S.

535, 541-42 (1942), striking down statute mandating sterilization of certain recidivists; Eisenstadt v. Affect Photosynthesis! Baird , 405 U.S. 438 (1972), striking down statute prohibiting distribution of contraceptives to unmarried persons; Prince v. Massachusetts , 321 U.S. 158, 166 (1944), recognizing authority of parents over their children, but upholding child labor laws as applied to the children of Jehovahs Witnesses who were distributing religious literature in exchange for voluntary contributions; Pierce v. Society of Sisters ,268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925), striking down statute mandating public education of children between the ages of eight and change essay sixteen; and Meyer v. Custers Revenge! Nebraska (holding described above). II. Critique of Roes Privacy Theory ^ top. The Supreme Courts reliance on privacy theory to support a right to abortion is change essay problematical at several levels. Asda! First, as the Court itself recognized, Roe , 410 U.S. at change time 152, the Constitution itself does not expressly mention any right of custers revenge privacy. To be sure, as Justice Hugo Black noted in his dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S.

479, 508-10 (1965) (Black, J., dissenting), various provisions of the Bill of Rights protect specific privacy interests, for change over time essay, example, the First Amendments right of associational privacy, the Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable searches and seizures and the Fifth Amendments prohibition of compelled self-incrimination. But the Constitution does not create a general right of privacy. How Does Temperature Affect! See , e.g ., Katz v. United States , 389 U.S. 347, 350 (1967) (Fourth Amendment, which protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusions, cannot be translated into a general constitutional right to privacy). Recognition of a general constitutional right to privacy cannot be reconciled with the care with which the Framers of the Bill of Rights described the specific rights that were being secured.

Second, the concept of privacy is over essay amorphous and chameleon (or, in Justice Blacks words, broad, abstract and ambiguous, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 509 ). How Does Photosynthesis! Roe s attempt to collect cases under the over rubric of privacy a term that does not even appear in most of the cases cited simply creates an artificial common denominator among a very disparate and largely unrelated group of cases that have nothing to do with the subject of abortion, as the Court in of care Roe freely admitted: The situation [involving a pregnant woman and her unborn child] . Change Over! . . is inherently different from marital intimacy, or bedroom possession of obscene material, or marriage, or procreation, or education, with which Eisenstadt and Griswold , Stanley , Loving , Skinner , and Pierce and custers revenge Meyer were respectively concerned. 410 U.S. at 159 (emphasis added). 6 If a pregnant womans decision whether or not to carry her pregnancy to term is inherently different from all of the privacy cases on which the Court relied, then it is difficult to change over understand how those cases could possibly support recognition of how does photosynthesis a right to obtain an change over essay abortion. Third, most of the cases Roe cited in support of its privacy theory were decided under one or another of the provisions in The Contribution of Robert to Criminological the Bill of Rights. Roe itself, however, derived the right of privacy (and a subsidiary right to abortion) from the liberty language in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, 410 U.S. at 153, not from any of the specific guarantees set forth in the Bill of Rights. That directly contradicted the Courts express refusal, only a few years earlier in Griswold , 381 U.S. at 481-82, to rely upon the Due Process Clause in postulating a right of privacy. Fourth, even with respect to the Due Process Clause, the Court no longer examines substantive due process claims (of which, more below) through the lens of over time privacy, and that includes the subject of abortion. In reaffirming the of Robert Work Theory core holding of Roe that the State may not prohibit abortion before viability for any reason or after viability if the pregnant womans life or health would be endangered by continuing the pregnancy the Court, in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 846-53 (1992), relied upon the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, not upon privacy theory. 7 See also Cruzan v. Change Over Time! Director , Missouri Dept of Health , 497 U.S. 261, 279 n. 7 (1990) (analyzing right to refuse unwanted medical treatment in terms of photosynthesis a Fourteenth Amendment liberty interest, rather than under a generalized constitutional right of privacy).

Focusing more particularly on the Fourteenth Amendment, 1 thereof provides, in relevant part, that no State shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law . . . Change Over Time! . As its language suggests, the Due Process Clause is concerned with the process by which a person may be deprived of life, liberty or property, not the substance of the law authorizing such deprivation. See Lawrence v. Texas , 539 U.S. Duty Of Care Essay! 558, 592 (2003) (Scalia, J., dissenting) . It was never the over time essay intent of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment that the custers revenge Due Process Clause would serve as a battering ram to knock down statutes the substance of which offended the sensibilities of a majority of Justices who happen to over sit on the Supreme Court from duty of care essay, time to time. See Raoul Berger, Government by Judiciary The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Liberty Fund 2d ed. 1997) 221-39, 273-306. 8 Despite its focus on over essay process, the Due Process Clause, at how does photosynthesis various times in our history, has been given substantive content, resulting in the invalidation of state laws thought to over time be inconsistent with prevailing understandings of liberty. The paradigmatic case in this area, before Roe v, Wade was decided in 1973, is custers revenge Lochner v. New York , 198 U.S.

45 (1905). In Lochner , the Supreme Court, over the vigorous dissent of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that state legislation setting limits on the number of hours a person could work in a bakery daily (ten hours) and change over time essay weekly (sixty hours) violated the liberty of an employer to contract with his employees on custers revenge terms that were mutually agreeable to them. The notion that the Due Process Clause has substantive (as opposed to only procedural ) content bedeviled constitutional adjudication for change over, a generation, until it was laid to rest, at birth least with respect to the review of social and economic legislation, in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish , 300 U.S. 379 (1937), which upheld a minimum wage law. Twenty-five years later, the Supreme Court could state that it had returned to the original constitutional proposition that courts do not substitute their social and economic beliefs for the judgment of legislative bodies. Ferguson v. Change Over Essay! Skrupa , 372 U.S. 726, 730 (1963). Despite the custers revenge interment of what may be called economic substantive due process, libertarian substantive due process is alive and well. Under this strand of change over essay substantive due process analysis, the Due Process Clause provides heightened protection against government interference with certain fundamental rights and liberty interests. Washington v. Glucksberg , 521 U.S.

702, 720 (1997). Roe v. Wade , while sounding in privacy theory, was ultimately based on the liberty language of 1 of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, see Roe , 410 U.S. at 153, and, therefore, may justly be regarded as the custers revenge modern paradigm of (libertarian) substantive due process analysis. See Richard Epstein, Substantive Due Process by Any Other Name , 1973 Sup. Ct. Rev. 159, 184. But Roe flunks the test the Court uses for evaluating substantive due process claims. In determining whether an asserted liberty interest (or right) should be regarded as fundamental for purposes of substantive due process analysis (infringement of which would call for strict scrutiny review), the Supreme Court applies a two-prong test.

First, there must be a careful description of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. at 721 (citation and internal quotation marks omitted). Over Time Essay! Second, the interest, so described, must be firmly rooted in the Nations history, legal traditions, and duty of care practices. Id. at 710. An asserted interest in (or right to) abortion does not meet the second prong of the Glucksberg test. Quite the contrary. As much research has established, especially that of Professor Dellapenna ( see n. 4, supra ) , abortion was a crime in English and American common law, at least after quickening (that stage of pregnancy when the woman first detects fetal movement, usually sixteen to change time eighteen weeks gestation), and very possibly without such a limitation. With the gradual replacement of common law crimes by statutory crimes in microfilter asda the nineteenth century, the overwhelming majority of States had made the change time performance of an abortion at any stage of pregnancy a crime well before the custers revenge Fourteenth Amendment was adopted in change over time 1868. Vietnamese! And the case law interpreting these statutes revealed that the principal, if not exclusive, purpose in enacting these statutes was to protect unborn human life, not (or not solely) to safeguard women from dangerous medical and/or surgical procedures. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub.

L. Rev. Over! 15, 109-15 (1993). In light of the foregoing, an birth of venus interest in (or right to) abortion cannot be said to be firmly rooted in our history, legal traditions, and practices. III. Applications of Roe ^ top. The Supreme Court has decided almost three dozen abortion cases since and including Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton . A detailed analysis of the holdings in these cases would unduly prolong the length of this essay. The principal holdings, however, may be briefly summarized:

In addition to the Texas abortion statutes struck down in Roe , the Court has struck down state statutes prohibiting particular abortion methods, Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth , 428 U.S. 52, 75-79 (1976) (saline amniocentesis), Stenberg v. Time Essay! Carhart , 530 U.S. 914 (2000) (partial-birth abortion), but more recently has upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007). The Court has upheld statutes prohibiting non-physicians from performing abortions, Mazurek v. Armstrong , 520 U.S. 968 (1997) ( per curiam ) and has held that non-physicians may be prosecuted for performing abortions, Connecticut v. Menillo , 423 U.S. 9, 11 (1975) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes and ordinances requiring all abortions (or all abortions after the first trimester) to be performed in hospitals, Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. Of Robert Merton’s Theory Essay! 179, 193-95 (1973) (all abortions), City of Akron v. Akron Center for over time, Reproductive Rights ( Akron Center I ) , 462 U.S. 416, 431-39 (1983) (all abortions after the first trimester), Planned Parenthood Assn of Kansas City , Missouri , Inc. Affect Photosynthesis! v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S.

476, 481-82 (1983) (all abortions after the over first twelve weeks of pregnancy), but has upheld a statute requiring all second trimester abortions to be performed in either a hospital or a licensed outpatient clinic, Simopoulos v. Virginia , 462 U.S. 506, 510-19 (1983). The Court has struck down parental consent and notice statutes and birth ordinances if they did not contain a judicial bypass mechanism that would afford the pregnant minor the opportunity to avoid obtaining the consent of change time (or giving notice to) her parents or legal guardian, 9 Danforth , 428 U.S. at 72-75 (one-parent consent), Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at vietnamese migrants 439-42 (one-parent consent without judicial bypass), Bellotti v. Baird , 443 U.S. Change Time! 622 (1979) (two-parent consent) (inadequate judicial bypass), Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417, 450-55 (1990) (two-parent notice without judicial bypass), 10 but has upheld statutes that contained an adequate judicial bypass, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at duty essay 490-93 (one-parent consent).

Hodgson , 497 U.S. at essay 497-501 (Kennedy, J., concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in part), id. at 461 (OConnor, J., concurring in part and concurring in the judgment in part) (two-parent notice with judicial bypass), Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health ( Akron Center II ) , 497 U.S. 502 (1990) (one-parent notice with judicial bypass), Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. Vietnamese! 833, 899-900 (1992) (one-parent consent), Lambert v. Change Over Essay! Wicklund ,520 U.S. 292 (1997) (one-parent notice) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes requiring a married woman to photosynthesis obtain the consent of, or give notice to, her husband before undergoing an abortion, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 67-72 (consent), and Casey , 505 U.S. at 887-98 (notice) . Change Over! The Court has upheld state and federal statutes restricting public funding of abortions, Beal v. Doe , 432 U.S. 438 (1977), Maher v. Roe , 432 U.S. 464 (1977), Harris v. McRae , 448 U.S. Custers Revenge! 297 (1980), and Williams v. Zbaraz , 448 U.S.

358 (1980), as well as state statutes and municipal government policies prohibiting the performance of abortions by public employees within the scope of their employment or in publicly owned and operated facilities (other than those necessary to save the life of the change mother), Poelker v. Doe , 432 U.S. 519 (1977), and Webster v. Reproductive Health Services , 492 U.S. 490, 507-11 (1989). The Court has also upheld federal administrative regulations (since rescinded) requiring physical and financial separation of Title X family planning projects from of venus painter, other projects operated by Title X grantees that perform, counsel or refer for abortion, Rust v. Sullivan , 500 U.S. 173 (1991). The Court has upheld a requirement that a pathology report be prepared for all fetal tissue obtained in the course of an time essay abortion, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at of care essay 486-90 , but has struck down a requirement that fetal remains be disposed of in a humane and sanitary manner, Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at change over essay 451-52 . The Court has upheld some record keeping and reporting requirements, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 79-81 , Casey , 505 U.S. at 900-01 , while striking down others, Thornburgh v. American College of custers revenge Obstetricians Gynecologists , 476 U.S. 747, 765-68 (1986), because of change time what the Court perceived as inadequate guarantees of patient confidentiality. Of Robert To Criminological Theory! The Court has upheld a requirement that a second physician be present during the performance of a post-viability abortion to provide immediate medical care for a viable child who survives an abortion procedure, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 482-86 , but has struck down a second-physician requirement that did not contain an express or implied exception for medical emergencies, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 769-71 . The Court has also struck down standards of care for the performance of post-viability abortions that were either vague, Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 397-401 (1979), or posed an unacceptable risk to the mothers health, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 768-69 , but has upheld a statute mandating fetal viability testing at twenty weeks gestation, Webster , 492 U.S. at change essay 513-21 . In a pair of decisions, later overruled in part by Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S.

833 (1992), which is discussed in the next part of this essay, infra , the Court held that States and custers revenge municipalities could not require a short waiting period before the performance of a non-emergency abortion; that they could not required detailed informed consent information to be given to the pregnant woman seeking an abortion; and that they could not require portions of the informed consent information to be conveyed in person to the patient by change, the attending physician, see Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 442-51 and Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 759-65 . 11. IV. Microfilter Asda! Roe Revisited: Planned Parenthood v. Casey ^ top. In 1992, the Supreme Court revisited Roe and, in a Joint Opinion authored by essay, Justices Sandra Day OConnor, Anthony Kennedy and David Souter, substantially modified its holdings. Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. Asda! 833 (1992). In Casey , the Court reaffirmed what it characterized as the change essay essential (or central) holding of custers revenge Roe , consisting of three parts: First, a woman has the right . . . . to choose to have an abortion before viability and to obtain it without undue interference from the State. Before viability, the States interests are not strong enough to support a prohibition of over abortion or the of care essay imposition of a substantial obstacle to the womans effective right to elect the procedure. 505 U.S. at 846. Second, the State has the power to restrict abortions after fetal viability, if the law contains exceptions for pregnancies which endanger the womans life or health. Id . And, third, the State has legitimate interests from the outset of the change over time essay pregnancy in protecting the health of the woman and the life of the birth fetus that may become a child. Id . While reaffirming the essential (or central) holding of Roe , the authors of the change essay Joint Opinion rejected Roes trimester framework as an unnecessarily rigid construct which in its formulation . . . Birth Of Venus! misconceives the change over nature of the pregnant womans interest, and in practice . . . undervalues the States interest in potential life . . . Vietnamese Migrants! . Id . at 872-73. Over! The trimester framework misconceives the nature of the how does photosynthesis pregnant womans interest because [w]hat is at stake is [her] right to make the ultimate decision [to obtain an over time essay abortion prior to viability], not a right to be insulated from all others in duty of care essay doing so. Id . at 877. Though the change woman has a right to choose to terminate or continue her pregnancy before viability, the Joint Opinion explained, it does not at all follow that the State is prohibited from taking steps to ensure that [her] choice is thoughtful and vietnamese informed. Id . at 872.

The trimester framework undervalues the States interest in change essay potential life, the Joint Opinion continued, because the State has a substantial state interest in potential life throughout pregnancy, id . at 876, not just after viability. In light of their dissatisfaction with the trimester framework of Roe and custers revenge how it had been applied in subsequent cases, the authors of the Joint Opinion developed a new standard for change over time, reviewing pre-viability abortion regulations, the so-called undue burden test. Casey , 505 U.S. at 874-79. Under that test, a state regulation [that] has the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus is unconstitutional. Id . at 877. Applying that test to the statutes challenged in Casey (multiple provisions of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of 1982, as amended), a majority of the Court upheld the detailed informed consent requirement (including the mandated twenty-four hour waiting period), the parental consent requirement and microfilter the record keeping and reporting requirements, id . at 881-87, 899-901, but a differently constituted majority struck down the spousal notice requirement , id . at time essay 887-98 . 12 In upholding the informed consent requirement (and the Merton’s to Criminological accompanying waiting period), the Court overruled, in part, its earlier conflicting precedents in Akron Center I and Thornburgh . Id . at 881-82. 13. Both Justice Harry Blackmun and Justice Paul Stevens dissented from the Joint Opinions abandonment of Roes trimester framework and change over the strict scrutiny standard of asda review, while Chief Justice William Rehnquist, joined by Justices Byron White, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, dissented from the reaffirmation of the essential holding of Roe , arguing that the rational basis standard should be applied to all regulation of abortion.

14. The Joint Opinion in Casey is notable in five respects: First, in reaffirming what it characterized as the essential (or central) holding of Roe , the over time essay authors of the migrants Joint Opinion raised the issue but refused to state whether they believed that Roe had been correctly decided as an original matter of constitutional interpretation, Casey , 505 U.S. at 871 ([w]e do not need to say whether each of us, had we been Members of the Court when the valuation of the change state interest [in the protection of potential life] came before it as an original matter, would have concluded, as the Roe Court did, that its weight is insufficient to temperature photosynthesis justify a ban on abortions prior to time essay viability even when it is subject to birth certain exceptions), 15 relying instead on over principles of institutional integrity and the rule of stare decisis [deferring to of Robert Merton’s Essay precedent]. Id . at 845-46; see also id. at 854-69. Second, the Joint Opinion provided no principled basis for time, distinguishing between the essential (or central) and how does the inessential (or peripheral) holdings of over essay Roe , reaffirming the former and overruling the how does temperature affect latter. As Justice Scalia commented, I must . . Change Over Time Essay! . confess that I have always thought, and I think a lot of other people have always thought, that the arbitrary trimester framework, which the Court today discards, was quite as central to Roe as the arbitrary viability test, which the Court today retains. Id . at 993. (Scalia, J., concurring in The Contribution of Robert to Criminological Essay the judgment in part and dissenting in change time part). Third, in reaffirming the essential holding of Roe , the Joint Opinion abandoned Roes reliance on privacy theory, resting its analysis, instead, on microfilter asda the liberty language of change time essay 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment. Fourth, the microfilter asda Joint Opinion tacitly abandoned Roes characterization of the right to abortion as fundamental. 16 And, fifth, the Joint Opinion substituted a new standard of review undue burden in place of the strict scrutiny standard employed in Roe for evaluating fundamental rights, which clearly allows for a broader scope of time regulation (but not prohibition) of pre-viability abortions. 17.

The strict scrutiny standard of judicial review applies to laws that either interfere with the exercise of a fundamental constitutional right ( e.g ., voting) or discriminate on the basis of a suspect classification ( e.g ., race). A law reviewed under this standard is presumed to how does affect be un constitutional and over time essay will not be upheld unless its proponents are able to demonstrate that it is necessary to promote a compelling state (or governmental) interest. Few, if any, laws reviewed under this standard survive. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the rational basis standard of review, which applies to almost all other legislation. 18 Under this standard, a law is presumed to be constitutional and will be upheld so long as it has a rational relationship to any legitimate state (or governmental) purpose. Most laws reviewed under this standard survive constitutional scrutiny. V. The Roberts Court and the Future of Abortion Jurisprudence ^ top. Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Roberts, the Supreme Court has taken a more cautious approach to the review of migrants abortion regulation. Most obviously, the Court, in an opinion by Justice Kennedy, upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. Over Time Essay! 124 (2007) ( Carhart II ), after a differently constituted Court struck down a similar (but more vaguely worded) state statute only seven years earlier in Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S.

914 (2000) ( Carhart I ). Less obviously, the Court has suggested that, at least with respect to the regulation of abortion, facial challenges, i.e ., a claim that a given statute is unconstitutional in its entirety, are disfavored, Carhart II , 550 U.S. Duty Of Care Essay! 124 at 130 (these facial attacks should not have been entertained in over time the first place), and temperature photosynthesis as-applied challenges, i.e ., a claim that a statute is unconstitutional in change time essay particular circumstances, are preferred, id . at 168 ([a]s-applied challenges are the basic building blocks of constitutional adjudication) (citation and essay internal quotation marks omitted). Relatedly, in another decision of the change time Roberts Court, the Court unanimously held, in an opinion by birth of venus painter, Justice OConnor, that when only a limited number of applications of an abortion statute would be unconstitutional, the proper remedy (if otherwise consistent with legislative intent) is to enjoin enforcement of those applications only, not to declare the entire statute unconstitutional. Ayotte v. Change Over Time! Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. Temperature! 320, 328-31 (2006) (reviewing parental notice law). Significantly, in change essay Ayotte , Justice OConnor acknowledged that the how does temperature photosynthesis Court did not take this more circumspect approach in Carhart I, id . at change 330-31 (explaining that the parties . . . did not ask for, and we did not contemplate, relief more finely drawn than complete invalidation). 19. In light of the Roberts Courts more cautious approach to The Contribution Work Essay the review of abortion legislation, fewer challenges to change time essay abortion statutes may be expected. Custers Revenge! Moreover, even with respect to those challenges that are brought and are determined to have merit, both the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts are likely to strike down the statute and enjoin its enforcement only over time essay with respect to its invalid applications, not in its entirety. VI.

A Comment on the Scope of the Health Exception ^ top. Finally, a brief comment on an unresolved area of abortion law the scope of the health exception required by duty essay, Roe (as reaffirmed in Casey ). In Roe , the Supreme Court held that the States may prohibit abortion after viability except when it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother. 410 U.S. at 164. The Court, however, did not define the term health. In the companion case of Doe v. Bolton , the Court considered a challenge to what remained of the Georgia abortion statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. As a result of the district courts decision, a physician could perform an abortion whenever he determined, in change over time his best clinical judgment, that the abortion was necessary. At issue in essay Doe was whether this standard was impermissibly vague. The Court concluded that it was not: [T]he medical judgment [as to whether an abortion is time essay necessary] may be exercised in the light of all factors physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the womans age relevant to the well-being of the patient.

All these factors may relate to of care health. Whether Doe , properly understood, mandates an open-ended health exception for change over essay, post-viability abortions is duty of care debatable. Although there is the merest hint in one older case that the time Court (as then constituted) may have regarded the broad language in how does temperature affect Doe as a limitation on the States authority to prohibit post-viability abortions, see Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 400 (1979), the Court has never directly considered the validity of a post-viability ban. Lower federal courts have read Doe as a gloss on the scope of the health exception that must be included in any post-viability ban, 20 but that reading misinterprets Doe , as Justice Thomas noted in his dissent from the denial of change certiorari in Voinovich v. Womens Medical Professional Corp . , 523 U.S. 1036 (1998): Our conclusion that the statutory phrase at vietnamese issue in Doe [whether the abortions was necessary] was not vague because it included emotional and psychological considerations in no way supports the proposition that, after viability, a mental health exception is required as a matter of federal constitutional law . Doe simply did not address that question. 523 U.S. at 1039 (emphasis in original). As things now stand, whether the open-ended health language of Doe is a limitation on the authority of the States to time prohibit post-viability abortions remains an open question, but one that should be answered by duty of care essay, a challenge to an appropriately drafted statute. Given the present composition of the Court, there is reason to believe that such a statute would be upheld. In recognizing a constitutional right to abortion, the change time essay Court in Roe believed that it was meeting the profound problems of the present day. 410 U.S. at 165.

The problems which the Court thought would be ameliorated by its decision included the medical risks associated with pregnancy, a distressful life and future for the pregnant woman confronted with an unwanted pregnancy, [p]sychological harm, the difficulty in providing child care, the distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child, the problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically or otherwise, to care for it, and, for some, the additional difficulties and continuing stigma associated with unwed motherhood . . Asda! . Change Time Essay! . Id . at 153. More than thirty years of experience with legalized abortion has failed to solve these problems, as well as others for which abortion was touted as a panacea (crime and poverty). Indeed, the regime of legal abortion has aggravated them. See Clarke D. Forsythe and Stephen B. Duty! Presser, The Tragic Failure of change time essay Roe v. Wade: Why Abortion Should be Returned to the States . 10 Tex. Rev. of vietnamese Law Politics 85, 108-36 (Fall 2005). In reaffirming, as modified, Roe in Casey , the change essay Supreme Court call[ed] the contending sides of duty essay a national controversy to end their national division by accepting a common mandate rooted in the Constitution. 505 U.S. at 867.

Given the issues at stake in abortion, that call, not surprisingly, has not been heeded. The abortion liberty has no roots in the Nations history, traditions and change over legal practices. And the national division over The Contribution of Robert Theory Essay, the abortion controversy, which Roe created and change over time essay Casey continued, will not end until, initially, the Supreme Court returns the issue of abortion to the States and, eventually, the Constitution is amended to protect the lives of microfilter asda all unborn children. A discussion of the various standards of judicial review may be found in Part IV of this essay, infra . back. When Roe was decided, an unborn child was viable, i.e ., capable of living outside of his or her mother, at over essay twenty-eight weeks of microfilter asda gestation.In light of medical advances made since Roe , viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks, or, in some instances, even earlier, as the Supreme Court recognized almost twenty years ago in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 860 (1992) (noting that viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks). back.

Section 230.3 of the change over time essay Model Penal Code, one version or another of which was adopted by thirteen States before Roe v. How Does Photosynthesis! Wade , allowed abortion whenever the physician believed that there was a substantial risk that continuance of the change over pregnancy would gravely impair the physical or mental health of the microfilter asda mother, that the child would be born with grave physical or mental defect, or that the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest, or other felonious intercourse.In Doe , the Court also struck down a requirement that an abortion could be performed only upon a bona fide resident of the time State of Georgia. Doe , 410 U.S. at 200. back. As a result of the district court's judgment, a physician could perform an abortion whenever, in his best clinical judgment, the procedure was necessary. back. Interested readers, however, may wish to consult some of the following sources. Duty Essay! An early critique of the change over Court's handiwork in Roe , which includes a brief review of the initial academic responses to Roe (both favorable and unfavorable) is John T. Microfilter! Noonan, Jr.'s, A Private Choice: Abortion in America in the Seventies (The Free Press 1979). Dennis J. Horan, Edward R. Grant and Paige C. Cunningham (eds.), Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts (Georgetown University Press 1987), is a compendium of articles written by a variety of authors criticizing various aspects of the time essay holdings and analysis in Roe . The most comprehensive and thorough analysis of Roe's treatment of the historical treatment of abortion in of Robert Work to Criminological Essay English and American law, as well as the restatement of change over essay that history in James C. Mohr's Abortion in America (Oxford University Press 1978), is Joseph W. Dellapenna's Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History (Carolina Academic Press 2006) (an extremely abbreviated version of The Contribution to Criminological Professor Dellapenna's analysis appears in Abortion and the Constitution , supra , at 137-58). A concise critique of the time Court's historical excursus in Roe , particularly its explanation for the reasons nineteenth century abortion statutes were enacted, may be found in Appendix A to Paul Benjamin Linton's article, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from custers revenge, Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St.

Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993). The poor quality of the analysis and reasoning in Roe has led some academics to rewrite the opinion. A collection of such opinions and opposing dissents, along with a useful selected bibliography, appears in Jack M. Change Time Essay! Balkin (ed.), What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said (New York University Press 2005). back. All of the holdings in microfilter these cases, and change over the full citations thereto, appear in Part I of this essay, supra . Essay! back.

Planned Parenthood v. Casey is discussed in more detail in Part IV of this essay, infra . back. Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Louis D. Brandeis and Hugo Black, as well as Judge Learned Hand, who served on the Second Circuit Court of change Appeals for decades, all agreed that the how does use of the liberty language of the Due Process Clause to invalidate the substance of state enactments is fundamentally illegitimate. See Berger, Government by change over, Judiciary , at 227-28 n. Of Care! 27 (Black), 282 n. 46 (Holmes, Brandeis and Hand). back. Consent of (or notice to) a parent or legal guardian may be waived by a court in a judicial bypass hearing if the minor can demonstrate to change time the satisfaction of the court that she is mature enough to make the decision to obtain an abortion without the consent of (or notice to) her parent(s) or legal guardian, or, alternatively, that obtaining consent (or giving notice) would not be in her best interests. The Court has upheld both consent statutes, see , e.g ., Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992), and Planned Parenthood Ass'n of Kansas City , Missouri v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 490-93 (1983), and duty essay notice statutes, see , e.g ., Ohio v. Akron Center for change over time, Reproductive Health , 497 U.S.502 (1990), and Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S.

417 (1990). back. See also Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. Custers Revenge! 320 (2006) (one-parent notice statute could not be enforced constitutionally in medical emergencies requiring the change over immediate performance of an of care abortion). back. A general and change essay non-specific requirement that a physician obtain the informed consent of the patient before performing an of care abortion was upheld in Danforth , 428 U.S. at 65-67. back. The Court also upheld the medical emergency definition. Casey , 505 U.S. at change time 879-80. back.

The holdings in Akron Center I and Thornburgh are discussed in Part III, supra . back. These alternative standards of review are discussed below. back. See also id. at 853, 858, 864, 869. back. Nowhere in the Joint Opinion is the right to abortion described as fundamental. Birth Painter! back. The Joint Opinion in Casey has been subjected to withering criticism. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Over! Casey : The Flight from Reason in birth the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. L. Over Time Essay! Rev.

15, 103-19 (1993); Michael Stokes Paulsen, The Worst Constitutional Decision of All Time , 78 Notre Dame L. Rev. 995 (2003). Casey is also extensively discussed and critiqued in Professor Dellapenna's magnum opus , Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History , supra , n. 4. back. Under federal constitutional equal protection doctrine, an intermediate standard applies to classifications based on The Contribution Merton’s to Criminological Theory Essay sex or illegitimacy. Over! Under that standard, often referred to vietnamese as heightened scrutiny, the classification must be substantially related to an important state (or governmental) interest. back.

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sample html resume Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to change essay provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of custers revenge yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and time essay have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. Of Robert Merton’s Work Essay! If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of over time essay charge.

Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and birth painter printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to your reference and change time previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and microfilter asda making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of over time essay getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT.

When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by vietnamese many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Change Over Time Essay! Many instructors in the English department of of Robert Work Essay a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to review it and change so that it will not be an vietnamese migrants, inconvenience to him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to see them.

It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in time the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and birth of venus painter format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by change over using the vietnamese migrants, save as option found under the over time essay, file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for of care, your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily.

Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the change essay, file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is of venus painter, unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to time essay delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and of care underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Change Time Essay! Some of the most common are: edit on custers revenge, DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and over time edit on birth of venus, VAX/VMS machines. Change Time Essay! You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual.

Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and The Contribution Merton’s Work your preference between the editors on your system. Make sure you use an change over time, editor that you are familiar with. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to use the essay, editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the change over, remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by painter typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Change! Fill in custers revenge the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the change essay, beginning of the element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Birth Of Venus Painter! Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the over essay, angle brackets.

For example, to of Robert Merton’s to Criminological display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the change essay, looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is essay, not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the change over time essay, extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the of care essay, indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser.

Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. Over Time Essay! I could not possibly cover every tag here.

However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the vietnamese migrants, latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on change, the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the custers revenge, most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the change over, text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to birth view your current HTML document.

By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into change over essay your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the microfilter asda, .html or .htm extension. Change Time! To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME.

While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. Microfilter Asda! One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and over essay search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and temperature affect photosynthesis click on time essay, the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to custers revenge create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to change time essay create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly.

Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from birth your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to time your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist.

However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to temperature photosynthesis it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an over time essay, image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and of care essay filename of your image. For example, to change essay display an asda, image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. Over! All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. Birth Painter! If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770.

See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for change over, help with setting file permissions). Vietnamese Migrants! Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by change over time typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Vietnamese! Consult your user's manual for change over, help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button.

Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the asda, content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to over essay ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on The Contribution of Robert Merton’s to Criminological Theory, each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Time Essay! Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links.

Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. How Does Temperature Photosynthesis! Because the change time essay, web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to of venus the rest of the change essay, world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for custers revenge, students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an change essay, email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to custers revenge insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to change essay potential employers that contact you as soon as possible.

In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an vietnamese, employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is time essay, a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Microfilter Asda! Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web.

Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an change essay, excellent job of explaining to how does temperature the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of change over time essay Java Report is devoted to Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader.

This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for custers revenge, any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the change essay, Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. The Contribution Of Robert Merton’s Work To Criminological Theory Essay! C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an time, HTML resume.

The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of microfilter asda writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to change essay the computer. The Contribution Of Robert Work Essay! He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the change over essay, dehumanization of custers revenge it all.

In addition, the article provides the change, URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by temperature anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Change Over Time! Rampe provides an of venus, ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an over essay, HTML resume. Rampe provides both the custers revenge, pros and change time essay the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the custers revenge, necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the change essay, information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and The Contribution to Criminological Theory definitions.

Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the time, conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to affect as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in change over time content of, and variations. In addition the birth, document contains an easy to use index which allows the essay, reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available.

In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.

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6 Tips on How to Tailor Your Resume to a Job Description (Examples) What does a hiring manager look for over time essay, in the essay, right candidate? Well, that depends on the job. A sales recruiter wants someone who can sell. An engineering recruiter wants someone who can engineer. So, how do you use your skills and over time essay, achievements to persuade the how does temperature affect photosynthesis, hiring manager that you're the best candidate for the position? You need to over essay, tailor your resume to every job description, and you need to know how to how does affect, use the right keywords . I know you're probably thinking - B ut that's going to change over essay, take ages!

It’s way easier than it sounds. This guide will show you how to tailor your resume to custers revenge, a specific job or an employer by finding the skills and change essay, keywords recruiters are looking for, ranking them, and putting them in critical places on your resume. Microfilter Asda? And then it will tell you how to link those skills to your achievements. Some recruiters receive up to 250 resumes on average in response to an open position. Falling into that pile reduces your resume to change, little more than a needle in a haystack. On top of that, recruiters have developed ways to eliminate bad eggs, making their lives easier and The Contribution of Robert Merton’s Work to Criminological Theory, yours harder. Change Over Essay? They use two methods - Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) and quick scans. Both methods comprise a keyword scan. Asda? The only difference is who does the scanning - a human or R2D2.

The only way to beat both is to saturate your resume with keywords from the job description - aka tailoring your resume. Sounds complicated, right? In fact, it couldn’t be easier. Before you get started, here is a sample job description and a tailored resume example: Take a look at the highlighted keywords in the job description. Can you see how they are reflected in over, the resume? You should try and put the keywords all over your resume: in the resume summary, skills, and in The Contribution to Criminological Theory Essay, your experience. I will show you how to do this step-by-step. Read on.

No One Keeps a Master List, But it Works so Well. To start, you’ll want to make a master list of your skills . List all of the skills you have - even odd ones like being able to change over, tie a cherry stem with your tongue. Why? Listing unrelated skills gets your creative juices flowing. Now, rank your professional skills , starting with your strongest and most valuable skills. Your list will come in handy when you want to determine which of your skills are the most important when compared to skills listed in the job description. Duty Essay? Now, I will show you how to customize your resume and skills to a job description. How to Find the Keywords You Need to Tailor a Resume.

Okay, you’re going to your job description for skills. Highlight all of the skills and experience you can find. Here's how: And, voilà! You have keywords. As long as you have these skills, you will put all of them on over time, your resume. Of Robert Merton’s Work? Where exactly do they go? Well, that depends on their importance. And how do you know that?

Start by finding a couple offers similar to yours. Now , highlight the over, skills. Next , make a list of overlapping skills. Finally , go to LinkedIn and snoop around for professionals with the job title from The Contribution of Robert Work to Criminological your job offer. Note, professionals who have done a good job of time essay optimizing their LinkedIn profiles will have used keywords. That’s because using keywords on custers revenge, LinkedIn makes your profile easier to find. Here’s our guide on how to optimize your LinkedIn profile using keywords. Have a look at their skills and experience sections to find these keywords. If they match any on your list of overlapping skills, there is change over time essay, a good chance that these repeated skills are the most valuable and The Contribution of Robert Essay, desirable.

Pro Tip: Once you finish tailoring your resume to the job description, you can go back to your lists and add important skills to essay, your resume that didn’t show up in your job offer. Here's How to Categorize Your Skills Before Tailoring Your Resume. By categorizing the most important skills, you can prioritize their place on your resume. That will allow you to even better customize your resume to vietnamese, a specfic job desciption or an employer. There are three types of skills: These are arguably the most important because they are mandatory. Change? For example, let’s say you are applying for a position as a Software Developer. The job description says Java is how does temperature affect photosynthesis, required. If you don’t know Java, then you can’t do the job.

Mandatory skills should go in the top third of your resume so that a recruiter knows right away that you’re qualified. You can add them to a resume summary or objective. Detail-oriented Software Developer with 5+ years of experience. Proficient in Java and C++ . Note, detail-oriented is a typical example of an adaptive skill. Change Over Time Essay? More on that later. Here are two articles that explain how to write a resume summary and the only way to how does affect, write a resume objective . Change Time? Both will give you an idea of The Contribution of Robert Work Essay how to work skills into the top third of your resume. But why is the top third so important? Because that’s the first place a hiring manager looks. And remember - she’s only scanning. So, you want her to see your best skills within seconds. Check out change time essay this article on resume formats to see where other things can go on your resume.

Transferable skills “transfer” from one job to another. They include things like the ability to use Microsoft Office or to speak Spanish. Look at your lists. You should have two: The master list of your best skills. Your list of overlapping skills. Find the transferable skills in your job description. Do any of them rank as overlapping skills?

Are any of them at the top of your personal skill list? If so, work the top skills into your experience section . The rest can go in your skills section . These are skills that help you “adapt” to of care, society. They include intangible skills like integrity or discretion. The best way to work them into change over time essay your resume is to use them to describe yourself. Remember the example? Detail-oriented Software Developer with 5+ years of experience. Proficient in asda, Java and over, C++. Detail-oriented is an adaptive skill. Find the adaptive skills that are repeated across your lists and add those that you feel most strongly define you throughout your resume. Also, have you considered adding a Hobbies and duty essay, Interests section? Hobbies and over essay, adaptive skills are both great ways to show off your personality.

For example, to demonstrate that you are detail-oriented, prove it with a hobby that requires attention to painter, detail . Adding hobbies is change over time, also a good way for students to how does, flesh out their resumes. Draw Attention to Your Keywords Using Numbers and Achievements. Once you’ve got all of your keywords in place, it’s time to make them sparkle. One thing that will make your resume better than any other is over time, demonstrating how well you use your skills. Adding details like numbers and achievements will spice up your keywords. Let’s say you want to be a waiter at a fancy restaurant. Affect? The job description says: Excellent customer service skills required. So you write “ responsible for over, customer service ” as a bullet point under your present retail job.

Stop right there. What does “responsible for customer service” even mean? First , the number will draw the eye of the hiring manager directly to this point - where you’ve written the desired keyword verbatim. (You’ve just passed the scan test.) Second , the hiring manager can see exactly how your customer service skills result in something tangible. When you’re in charge of customer service, customers are happier with their purchases, resulting in fewer returns. (You’ve just secured an interview.) Here is the full read on how to add achievements to custers revenge, your resume to effectively impress a hiring manager. Here's How to Check If You Tailored Your Resume Well.

When you’ve finished tailoring your resume, it’s time to check if you did a good job. Try dropping your resume into a cloud generator. It will show you how frequently you’ve used a word. If your keywords aren’t prominent, consider adding them more than once. Did you perform that skill at multiple jobs?

Keep in mind that the robots can sense whether you’ve added skills ad hoc or in a meaningful way. Next, check out Jobscan’s ATS simulator. Drop your job offer and change over time essay, your resume into their tool to see how well you’ve used keywords. It’s ideal to have a match over 80% , if not Jobscan will provide you with personalized tips on how to do better. Pro Tip: You will also want to tailor your cover letter to the job description by adding keywords. Duty Of Care Essay? Here is change time essay, a complete guide on how to write a cover letter if you need a quick refresher. Tailoring your resume to a job description is a must. And it’s the one piece of advice to microfilter, rule them all. By tailoring your resume to the job description, you signal to the hiring manager that your resume is relevant and essay, that you’re the right person for microfilter asda, the job. So if you’ve ever wondered why you’re not getting called interviews, maybe it’s time to rethink sending that generic resume and get busy tailoring to over time essay, every job offer.

What are you waiting for? Still not sure how to tailor your resume to a job offer? Find any of the duty of care, advice above confusing? Let us know in time, the comments, and we will get back to how does affect photosynthesis, you. Essay? Thanks for reading!

Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and duty of care essay, eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and over, binge watching TV series.

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The .pdf Resume Does It Help or Hurt Your Job Search? .pdf stands for portable document format. It allows resumes to be opened on different systems without formatting glitches and it prevents anyone from making unauthorized changes to change over time the document. In other words, .pdf gives users total control of their resumes. And dont we often dream about having total control? The problem is, total control, in how does temperature photosynthesis any aspect of life, tends to choke the vitality out of whatever a person attempts to over time control. Thats certainly the case with resumes. While a .doc resume is a living, breathing, interactive document, a .pdf resume isnt. The pro-control, propdf argument often contains an implicit or explicit assumption that other people, whoever they are, might change a resume in some sort of nefarious, damaging manner. Consider this maybe there are people who want to help your career by improving your resume. Birth? As a search consultant, I might:

Ask you about over time essay, a piece of missing information and then add it to your resume (clearly highlighted as my addition) because I know my client wants to see it. Notice a question your resume raises but doesnt answer. I ask you about it and note the answer (again, clearly highlighted as my addition) on birth painter your resume. Add a comment about over, something I particularly like. Etc. If you have sent me an interactive .doc resume, I can annotate it to improve my clients understanding of photosynthesis, your background. If you have sent me a locked up .pdf file, youve tied my hands and change over essay, prevented me from helping you. Now I have to ask you for a Microsoft Word resume (again) and then come back to microfilter asda my mission of helping you after I receive it. Later.

After my attention has shifted. I dont send my clients candidates resume that are incomplete by their standards. Its my job to time essay anticipate and answer their questions. They need to be able to look at microfilter your resume once and make an interview/no interview decision. Done.

Final. Time? Move on to the next step in the process. When the of care essay, Recruiter Gets a .pdf Resume after Asking for a Word Resume. One more thing, when recruiters specifically ask for .doc resumes and they get .pdf resumes, you can be sure they make negative assumptions about the change time, sender. They wonder about topics such as: Cooperation. Attention to temperature affect photosynthesis detail. Willingness to change time respect processes. Please think about what Ive written the next time youre deciding which type of resume format to use. Oh, and painter, that total control thing?

Just an illusion. Check out the comments below. Note: This post has upset some readers. I welcome your comments. Kindly keep them constructive and within the bleeding edge of civil discourse. I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired. Email me at essay donnasvei@gmail.com for microfilter, more information. Updated June 2017.

Do employers looking to hire graphic designers still want a plain Word document as a resume though? Is this the exception? Thats a terrific question. I have only recruited one graphic designer in my career so Im not an expert (at all). On that search, I wanted to change over time have easy access to portfolios and I cared a great deal both about how they were presented and the work samples they contained. I also wanted to migrants understand if the work samples were solo or team creations. Where they were team creations, I wanted to change time essay know which elements the applicant had handled. As to your resume, I think it probably is an asda exception to the rule. I put rule in quotation marks there because the real rule is to know the norms if youre in a specialized market and change time essay, then use your judgment as to the best way to present yourself. I would love to hear what people who read graphic designers resumes and then make go/no interview decisions on applicants have to custers revenge say about this. Thank you for over essay, asking Jenn. I believe that we would definitely be an asda exception to that rule.

Best. Comment. Ever. I really value your perspective on things, so I hesitate to time comment on this advice. It is good advice, as your blog is the gold standard on microfilter asda how to do things the right way. Over? I think the custers revenge, job seeker should know the change over time, whole story before deciding to vietnamese migrants avoid .pdf altogether.

The .doc or .docx format should be good enough for any resume submission, so it may be a moot point anyway. When an agency recruiter asks for change over time essay, a resume in a MS-Word or compatible format, assume it will be edited. Most of the time, the job seekers personal information will be edited out and duty, the agency contact information substituted in its place. Change Over Time Essay? This is to prevent an unscrupulous company from going directly to you rather than through your chosen agent. There should be no problem with this concept since the temperature affect, 3rd-party recruiter has your best interests at heart and should be trusted to time present your qualifications to how does temperature photosynthesis their client in the best light. The key: Dont send an editable resume to anyone you dont trust. Large companies with an applicant tracking system should be able to handle any format submitted, including .pdf. Over Essay? Most Applicant Tracking Systems can parse data into searchable fields in custers revenge the database. Job seekers should be concerned that their resumes are readable after submission, and change over essay, most of the of care essay, good ATS systems will let you review it.

If bullets and other resume parts look like Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, you may want to send a plain .txt file. Over Time Essay? You spend a lot of time making the resume perfect, so dont let an ATS make you look bad. The bottom line is that it really is about trusting a bit of yourself to the people who will receive an electronic version of microfilter, your resume. Send a .doc, .docx, or .rtf formatted file and forget it. If you dont trust them, you shouldnt be applying there anyway. First, aw shucks, gosh, THANK YOU! Next, youre right, trust is the key. Im always saddened when I see blanket advice to distrust everyone and always send a PDF resume. Change Over Time? Hence this post.

Thank you for adding this critical point and refinement to my post. We all really write a much better post together than any one person can do alone. Take home message: If employers ask for a resume in Word format, send em one. OK, Ill do that. Otherwise its PDF. There are a couple of important reasons why I am not fully in agreement with this viewpoint. Custers Revenge? Having been a Recruiter myself in Canadas premiere firm specializing only in retail and as a retailer I am not in agreement with the time, following: maybe they are people who want to The Contribution to Criminological Essay help your career by improving your resume. Change Time Essay? As a recruiter, when I read a resume, I might want to add a piece of missing information. A recruiters role is temperature, not to change or edit a candidates resume and in fact, it is considered unethical to do so. This is over, personal information and only the candidate should edit their info or a specialized resume writer.with the candidates permission. We can coach candidates to produce resumes that are more impactful from a format and content perspective, but to actually play in them is vietnamese, a not the right approach. Over? Secondly the reason most firms require Word format from the candidate is for the purpose of of watermarking their firms logo when presenting the resume to migrants a client company.

We always watermark then PDF the resume received and time, then send to the client along with the profile notes. The PDF is not dead: it is custers revenge, a locked document preserving the integrity of the information and privacy. Thank you for change, adding another perspective. Clients hire me for, among other things, my judgment. Its my job to anticipate and birth painter, answer their questions about change over essay, candidates resumes and to fill in missing pieces of information.

The resume isnt a pass/fail exam. Its a decision support document. If I can make it more informative, I do. When I annotate resumes, I add my notes in red and type Annotations in birth of venus painter Red at change time the top of the resume. Vietnamese Migrants? That way my client can distinguish between my additions and change over time, the original text. Also, I work on birth painter exclusive, retained searches. Thus, I have no need to watermark resumes.

Given what you and Tom Bolt have added here, Im thinking about essay, writing a post about the photosynthesis, different types of search firms and the different types of exclusivity arrangements that companies and their recruiters use. See: 5 Ways Job Seekers Can Vet Recruiters http://buff.ly/14cXzg2. Good post, Donna. Another issue that Ive heard is that, although the major ATS systems can scan PDFs, not all of them can. Over? Or they can import text from Word, but need to do OCR on PDF. Whats your experience with this? Thanks for another thoughtful post. What Applicant Tracking Systems will and wont do varies by custers revenge system.

The consensus seems to be that a .doc file is the change over, safest way to submit a resume to an ATS. Then again, the even more effective answer is, Find a human who can get your resume to the hiring manager. Thank you for your kind words. Its always nice to see you online! Thanks for sharing insider views. My question might be a bit technical: do search firms have Acrobat Pro or only Reader for processing PDFs? If the former is asda, typically used, then one wont have to worry about not being to annotate or watermark. Interesting question. Im sure it varies by firm with many (most?) only time, using the reader. But what youre also saying is that PDF is not the assurance of TOTAL CONTROL that just about everyone thinks it is.

Come on, this is a joke. Recruiters need the vietnamese, CV in Word format so that they can remove the contact information and prevent the recruiter to contact the candidate directly. Time? As simple as that. That certainly happens. But its not the only reason recruiters want MS Word resumes (see blog post above). Its a good idea to asda know your recruiter and their reputation before sending them your resume. Change Time Essay? See: 5 Ways Job Seekers Can Vet Recruiters http://buff.ly/14cXzg2 (written 6/3/13). If you cant trust them, why would you share your resume with them? Beyond that, do you really want to work for birth of venus, a company that would work with an over essay unethical recruiter or one that would try to beat a recruiter out of a valid fee?

If theyre not fair with recruiters, theyre not going to be fair with you either. You CAN comment within PDF resumes as well. If you are working with a recruiter, or with a company who is custers revenge, submitting your bid as a part of time essay, a proposal response, sending a Word resume is important, and in how does photosynthesis turn, the recruiter has an change over time essay obligation to consult with you on any substantive changes. (Some dont, and thereby can involve you in telling an of care essay untruth about your experience, if they word-spin to get a match and thereby introduce inaccuracies.) If you are sending your resume directlty to change over essay the hiring organization, pdf would be the sensible format to use, because it controls how your resume will appear at the far end. pdf is the right choice in any situation where you want to lock in vietnamese migrants exactly what you formatted and said. Good to change time essay see you! Thank you for your perspective. On the internal part, remember that internal recruiters support hiring managers in their decision processes.

Thus, they like to Merton’s Work to Criminological Theory annotate resumes also. Its very helpful to have all the information on one document. A PDF isnt always about change time, preventing others from making edits, it can also be used to ensure the recruiter sees the document as it was meant to be viewed. A PDF maintains the of care, original documents format and font, something Microsoft Word cant always deliver. Depending on the reader used (Adobe Reader or other), the recruiter can make comments or notes and change time essay, annotations. I do agree however that if the request is for a particular format, such as a Word .doc or .docx file, that is what you should submit. OK. So here I am, Joe Recruiter. This email comes sailing in. If the resume attachment is in Word, I can open the file, call the custers revenge, candidate, and take notes as we talk. Seamless.

If its a PDF file, I cant just open a writable file, I have to open it in Adobe Reader, which Ive never done, so I have to change over Google how to microfilter asda do that and fiddle around, then I can call the candidate, and take notes as we talk. Essay? Because when I just open the file, the thing is not editable. Its an annoying, dead, non-interactive file. Thoughts? Reasons why recruiters should have to learn something new to deal with someones resume. Hi, Im Joe Candidate, and the first thing Im going to expect from of venus you is that you learn something new and change. Thats great if youre an 11 on the clients scale of 1 to 10 but, if youre an 8, it wont you get far with most recruiters. Just sayin. Thank you for your comment. I know its well intentioned and it gave me a platform to talk about change over, not only writing your resume to your audience but making sure that your audience can use your resume once you send it to them. Im in The Contribution of Robert Work to Criminological Essay agreement with Christina, Jennifer, and Stephanie here the integrity of the original document is a higher priority to me than the ability of a third party to make edits without my agreement.

If Im sending a resume to a company you can bet that Im using a .pdf format, as its the time essay, only way for me to be (reasonably) sure that what I see on my monitor is what theyll see on theirs. As a career advisor Id never advise a client to how does temperature photosynthesis send their application documents to a company using something other than .pdf unless the posting explicitly requested something different, for that very reason. I can understand how certain recruitment contexts might suggest otherwise, but that hardly warrants this posts black/white title. Plus adding comments and the like on Adobe Acrobat is simple, as Mike suggested certainly no more complicated than MS Word. Lastly, if interactivity is the basis of your argument for MS Word, why not suggest google docs?

Thank you for your comment. Google Docs would be a terrific idea if it was in nearly universal use. Just like PDF files would be great if they were in essay nearly universal use and everyone knew how to mark them up. Also, applicants would benefit from getting real with the idea that the people who read their resumes might (very high likelihood of this) find them deficient in some way and duty of care, choose to add information to them. Were not talking about taking information away. Change Time Essay? Were talking about adding it. Microfilter? Truthful information. Change Over Time? Helpful information. We dont write, This applicant sucks, on resumes. We just dont forward that applicants resume to the hiring manager.

Frankly, if I could only use resumes exactly as I receive them, most applicants wouldnt get interviewed. These arent the Dead Sea Scrolls. Theyre working documents. Applicants might not want them to be working documents, or might not understand that theyre working documents, but they are. Im suggesting that applicants make it easy for the people who read their resumes to help them.

Besides, this safety factor? False sense of essay, security. I can always convert a PDF into a Word file and time, mess with it however I want. Custers Revenge? And I mean however I want in a good way. Time Essay? Id just rather receive the Word file in the first place. As a candidate who has worked with many recruiters, I DO NOT WANT YOU MAKING UNAUTHORIZED CHANGES TO MY RESUME.

These are my skills, my experience. I will be interviewing with the client, not you. What I do appreciated is vietnamese, your feedback. If you see a deficiency in my Resume, TELL ME about change over, it. I will fix it. If there are certain skills or technologies you think should be highlighted for this particular client, TELL ME.

But remember, if I have to change my resume in a significant way, the job is vietnamese migrants, probably not well suited to me. I understand that youll want to prevent the change over time, client from contacting me directly to cut you out of the picture, and for that reason, Ill send you the Word file you request (as converted from the original Pages, Google Docs, or OpenOffice file), but only when you specifically request it and of Robert to Criminological, when you have talked to me about the role. Making the changes you are talking about change over time essay, are most definitely unethical. I would never work with a recruiter doing that. And remember, when I interview with the client, I bring my own copy of my resume and we can compare. Custers Revenge? We will both be aware of over, your modifications, and they will reflect poorly on you and The Contribution of Robert Merton’s Work to Criminological Theory Essay, I. Thank you for your perspective. Let me suggest that we draw a distinction between changes and additions. Im not changing what you wrote about yourself. Im adding additional information and my own comments. Im sorry that you had a bad experience with a recruiter, but consider how you let it affect your future relationships with recruiters. Do you really want to stand out as (1) needing this much control and time essay, (2) demonstrating that you can be difficult to custers revenge work with?

Recruiters notice how easy or difficult applicants are to work with. We know that youre being as cooperative and collaborative as youll ever be on change over the job during the hiring process. These types of behaviors are HUGE tells for us. If we find you difficult to work with, we tell our clients. Painter? That usually immediately removes a candidate from further consideration. One more thing, its not uncommon for recruiters, especially at more senior levels, to not even present your resume to their clients. They draft a brief about change essay, you and submit that. Lets get past the The Contribution Work, idea of change time essay, resume as magical document and how does affect, work together to see if youre a good fit for over, the job at hand or not. That often involves letting go of The Contribution Work to Criminological Essay, a little control.

The brief is over essay, great. Its clearly a document written by the recruiter and presented by the client. Microfilter? It should have all the additions and other information youve mentioned (and the over, results of reference checks that you have done). But the Resume is different. It is a document created by custers revenge the candidate to reflect their skills and experience. If the recruiter has to make changes (especially without the candidates specific approval and input), theres a much larger chance that youre putting them in the wrong role. Time Essay? Nobody appreciates being setup for failure.

As far as recruiters not submitting me for roles, I have never had that problem. I live in a market that is well served by recruiters and I have them competing on an hour-to-hour basis to bring new roles to my attention so they can submit me (I work with a number of of care essay, recruiters and generally go with the over time, first one to bring a role to my attention). Migrants? Most recruiters know that they facilitate a transaction that could easily take place without them. Over Essay? They need to add value to the process to of Robert Merton’s Work Essay survive. Recently, a recruiter came to change time me with a good role with a great company. The company hires many people with my skill set and has a very good reputation. Essay? The role that they were hiring for was asking for a specific technology that I know, but isnt my strongest selling point.

The recruiter asked me to adjust my resume to bring this technology to the forefront. I thought about it and declined, because emphasizing a second-level skill (or exaggerating) would take away from my overall resume and over time, start me off on the wrong foot. Microfilter? I am better off waiting until they have an opening more suited to my top-level skills. Youre lucky to have a skill set thats in high demand Daniel. Essay? Donna. Daniel said elegantly what I was going to. Your responses were defensive at best. You should not be adding anything to a resume, either. My resume should be only birth of venus painter, mine.

If youre making a brief or it, or adding information, do it separately. What is in my resume is what I want to show the world, and over time essay, how I want it. If youre not comfortable with the to Criminological Theory, quality or content, talk to me or move on. Anything you do to change it is misrepresenting me, be it adding or modifying data. Send your own notes independently. Ive had a lousy recruiter change my resume.

The employer I spoke about change essay, certain experience, and when I said it was minimal, they said my resume highlighted it. Custers Revenge? I checked what I sent to over time that staffer, and there was barely a mention of it. They insisted they did not change it. This was the last time I sent a recruiter a Word copy of my resume, and duty of care, it will be any time I deal with recruiters in the future. Too many recruiters are trash. Change Over Time? Another told me to take a job and not tell them I had barely any of the skill they wanted, and birth of venus painter, just get up to over time speed quickly. If youre not one of the bad ones, great- but there are too many that give your profession a bad name, and birth, until theres less unethical practices in the field, telling others that the way they protect their interests is not needed is over time, misguided. Thanks J. I actually send my clients both the original and of Robert Work to Criminological Theory Essay, the annotated resumes. And yes, Ive found some of these remarks personally offensive. Change Essay? I deleted one that added nothing to the conversation and vietnamese migrants, left the over time essay, rest up because theyre shining an painter interesting light into the relationship between recruiters and essay, candidates.

Whats becoming more interesting to me here than the format of a resume is the birth of venus, vitriol directed toward the change essay, recruiting community. Candidates now have more power than ever to vet recruiters before they send their resumes off to them. Are people checking recruiters LinkedIn profiles to see what type of vietnamese, backgrounds and recommendations they have? I put my LinkedIn profile URL on my job postings so applicants can see exactly where their resume is going. No one has to swim with bottom feeders. If youve run into lousy recruiters, perhaps its because you havent done your homework.

And Ill ask again, why would anyone want to essay work for a company that hires a recruiter that candidates cant trust? If you cant trust their representative, why would you trust them? 5 Ways Job Seekers Can Vet Recruiters http://buff.ly/14cXzg2 (written 6/3/13). Please see Drew Tewells 6/4/13 comment on this post. Custers Revenge? He sums it all up quite well. I have been an executive recruiter for 20 years and I have never changed a candidates CV or resume. My candidates all have either a PhD or a MD, as I recruit for the biotech pharma niche. I think if my candidate with a PhD in Chemistry from Harvard cant get his CV right on his own then he is not a good candidate for change time essay, my client. Essay? Of course we all make typos and I will occasionally point these out.

As for filling in missing information, I write a report for time, each candidate I submit with all my thoughts- both pro and con. As a client I would not like to see a resume marked all over with red comments as it is too distracting. Custers Revenge? It also mentally would conjure a negative picture.( Think red marks on a test from your teacher). We dont want a candidate to time start off on first glance with a negative image, do we? Its good to see you here. Interesting, I dont point typos out to candidates and essay, I dont fix their typos in change over time any way.

Thats data about asda, how closely they copy edit important documents before they go out the door. Time? I want my clients to see those typos and of venus painter, determine whether or not they matter to them. My comments do things like document the candidates explanation of a gap in his/her job history, list current salary and bonus as provided by the candidate, document the candidates explanation of over, why they left a job, etc. As to the color red, it provides a sharp contrast and thus clearly shows the information Ive added to the resume. Ive tried green and The Contribution Merton’s Essay, blue but they dont pop as well. Remember, I also send a clean copy of the resume to over time essay my client. Thus, they can choose to read either one or both. Beyond sourcing great candidates, my job is to develop and Work Theory, provide information to the hiring manager for decision support. If a candidates resume doesnt provide all the information I know they want, or if it raises questions, its my job to time provide that information. Adding missing information to the face of a resume provides that information directly in context. Duty Of Care Essay? Its also the most efficient way to convey the information.

BTW, Ive never had a client object to receiving an annotated resume and Ive been recruiting since 1987. Hi Donna When I first read this I was perplexed about over, why you or anyone else would want to make comments directly on vietnamese a persons resume. I realize you are resume writer and thought perhaps that is change over time, how you provide edits back forth when working with clients. Duty Essay? If so, that process wasnt obvious to me From the perspective of a person submitting their resume in the context of applying for time, a position at a company and/or sending their resume to a 3rd party firm to be represented by that firm to the firms client(s), I dont believe there would be a need for ANYONE to manipulate an applicants resume. Aside from an migrants agency presenting the resume content under their letterhead (blinding the candidates name and contact info) there would be no other reason to have an editable format. In fact, I would discourage anyone from over typing or writing on a resume under consideration for an employment opportunity outside of the above purpose. Birth Of Venus Painter? If any modification is change time, needed, the resume owner (applicant/candidate) should provide additional explanation, clarification or updates on the document itself or the of venus painter, inquiring party should note any comments on a separate page.

Should there ever be a dispute about qualifications and/or hiring practices, the resume in use would be considered evidence in any investigation and/or legal preceding. While a resume is not considered a legal document in the same way that an employment application is, I do believe it should be left intact as submitted. Adding comments, notes, corrections or interpretations should not be necessary and I would strongly advise against this practice unless the change essay, resume owner is birth of venus painter, present and personally authorizing and initialing the changes to change essay their information. As to whether PDF or MS Word is preferable, I would almost always recommend PDF unless specifically requested to send MS Word or PDF is not accepted by an ATS or other online system. As a person that includes limited, yet precise formatting in the resumes I prepare, PDF ensures that recipient is of Robert Theory Essay, able to view the document as it was intended to over appear. Because of different SW versions and/or operating systems, MS Word has far more room for being translated improperly or unattractively. And, even some printers will alter how the hard copy appears from the soft (screen) version. Thanks for your commenthave you read through the comments that precede yours? Theres been quite a conversation. Migrants? Hopefully a detailed read will make things clearer.

BTW, Im both an executive search consultant (over 400 searches completed) and an executive resume writer. Im a bit surprised that there isnt cleaner process for taking notes on a candidate other than writing them within Microsoft Word on the actual document. Maybe theres an opportunity for an aspiring entrepreneur to disrupt the industry #128578; For my part the reason why I use PDF, and get frustrated when a Word document is asked for, is a similar reason to what Stephanie had mentioned earlier in the string. Over? Formatting in Word is a nightmare, even if you know youre way around fairly well. I actually use design editing software, InDesign, to build my resume though I am not a graphic design by trade. It gives me better control, not over the security of the document, but to migrants make sure it looks exactly the over time essay, way I want. Of Venus Painter? To Stephanies point, PDF maintains that integrity. I do have a Word document backup with all of the same information. It doesnt quite fit right.

The breaks dont flow as well. Its not as balanced. Its not accurate to time the perception of affect photosynthesis, myself that I want to get across to employers. If you can make a resume ugly then you can certainly make it pretty (in a professional way of course). Thank you for your comment. MS Word can present some page break formatting challenges between systems. Time? They dont bother me. I know that happens.

For me, wanting MS Word documents really boils down to only wanting to look at one document and birth painter, having all the information needed for decision support in change over time essay one place. Screens are getting smaller all the time. Thus, its often not convenient to look at more than one document at microfilter asda a time. Three axioms that will benefit any job search: 1.Vet the recruiter a little before you send your resume off into the ether. 2.Comply with the requested process. 3.Make sure an applicant tracking system can read whatever document you submit. I found a couple of your comments interesting: If its a PDF file, I cant just open the file, I have to open it in Adobe Reader, which Ive never done, so I have to Google how to do that and change essay, fiddle around. You should only have to double click the vietnamese migrants, attachment, just as you would a Word doc.

Typically, Adobe Reader is a standard install on business computers. PDF files would be great if they were in nearly universal use and everyone knew how to mark them up. True, not everyone knows how use the change over essay, various features available, but PDFs are as universal as Word. Adobe Reader is free, unlike Microsoft Word. Duty Essay? With Word docs you always have to save them in a compatible format (.doc not .docx) to ensure the recipient can actually view the over essay, file. With a PDF, its automatically readable in how does affect photosynthesis any version of Reader; what you may lose are some of the change essay, newer features.

Personally, Ive found that the applicant tracking systems invariably mess up the formatting despite the file uploaded, both Word and PDF resume versions. Just my two cents, Thank you for commenting. Theres no trouble opening the PDF format from an email attachment with a double click. Its readable that way. Essay? Its just not markable. Hence my headline that its dead as opposed to interactive. When you double click a Word file from email, its readable and markable. Ive got to think that companies using applicant tracking systems care more about processing mountains of data at low cost than they care about formatting because youre right, the change over, systems do mess up formatting. Having just been made redundant I started the rounds of visiting recruitment agencies and asked this very question PDF or DOC(x)? The recruiters reply was In this tight market, recruiters are lazy, if I cant key word search the resume it goes to the bottom of my pile!

Always write a resume tailored to the specific role in how does the format requested. I dont want to or need to do any extra work to accommodate the wrong format. Maybe its not a professional attitude but with possibly hundreds of essay, applicant for a job, minor things will count against you. One thing I always do though is migrants, save each resume as a new file in change time essay a new directory before sending it out I dont want anyone looking at the change history to of Robert Merton’s to Criminological see what I applied for previously. Thank you for this.

We recruiters process volumes of data. We have systems. We really appreciate people who cooperate with us, rather than wanting special, time consuming attention that takes us out of our flow. Over Time? If someone needs special attention, its at least a red flag to us. Worst case scenario, per what you wrote, its an birth of venus painter instant deal killer.

Ouch! Do you think its perfectly fine to send two copies of my resume? A PDF and a Doc one? I totally agree with you that PDFs remove the interactive side of things, but Im also worried that a DOC resumes format would appear differently on another computer you know, different font, different alignment, etc. I dont want to change mess it up. Dee, Yes. Perfectly fine. Birth Of Venus? Terrific idea! Thank you, Donna.

It seems as if your only real argument here is that one cannot mark-up a PDF (which is actually not a completely true statement, depending on over essay what version of birth of venus painter, Adobe you are utilizing). So what would you prefer to send to a job; a Word document that has weird underlining in it because the over time, program lacks the ability to understand certain margins and spaces as stylistic choices (that is, of course, unless you create individual tables and tabs for everything) or a cleaner PDF document that has none of the above? I guess making comments directly to the Word comment is a viable argument; however, as many have mentioned before, the basic Adobe contains a comment tool. I understand the point of of Robert Merton’s Theory Essay, someone wanting to edit the document, but really, how often would that happen unless youre specifically sending it to someone who you know will likely edit it for you. In regards to automatic tracking systems, most of them state the types of files that are acceptable and more times than not, will not accept an upload of an unacceptable file type. Word documents saved/printed as a PDF always retain the full search-ability though. Moral of the story Follow the directions and/or requests from the company or person you are sending your resume to? Hi Jan, Yes on change over moral of the story. Thank you, Donna.

What are your thoughts on receiving the PDF resume (the one that is meant to look good) and receiving a plain text doc with no formatting (as it wont look the same on my PC as your anyway)? Plain text docs are for computers, not people. I dont think you would get many recruiters to of Robert Merton’s Work to Criminological Essay spend much time reading a plain text doc. Im a programmer and I work on Linux machines only. I dont have Word. If someone wants to edit my resume they should ask me to do it and I will happily oblige if I think its an appropriate change. I DO NOT want recruiters changing my resume without telling me. The ethics of that are a bit grey. Lets flip the calendar back to change time the days of how does, hard copy resumes.

Would you object to time essay a recruiter writing a clarifying note on your resume? Thats all Im talking about. I dont change anything. I add comments that help my clients understand what theyre reading. I can only migrants, speak for my career experience but I have found that recruiters only essay, want Word versions so they can strip out contact information preventing you from custers revenge being contacted directly (thereby negating the need for the recruiter) One very recent and very clear example of change time essay, this was: 1) Applied for a job (senior exec, global brand bank) 2) Sent my CV (pdf) 3) Recruiter asked for a word version because the formatting was coming out wrong. I knew this not to be true but the role was very attractive so I complied. 4) Got through to the final panel interview where they had my CV throughout with the agency covering sheet and affect photosynthesis, the only thing that was missing was my contact information, including my LinkedIn URL (they were kind enough to provide me a copy at the end of the process which I checked forensically)

Interestingly, the entire panel had checked out my LinkedIn profile anyway (thanks to the whos looking component) from which spawned a LOT of time essay, questions. Of Venus? Theyd even reached out to change time essay former colleagues and acquaintances whom we shared connections to help validate career delivery claims so it was a very interesting new dynamic. Ultimately, I turned down the how does temperature affect photosynthesis, job because it was more promise than guarantee of delivery but it did prove one thing. Whether a resume is a PDF or Word doc over the long term, it doesnt really matter as its about the change time, content and what you can offer. Over time, personally, I think a CV document as a concept will slowly fade into use by of venus painter niche use cases. This view opinion is largely fueled by that last interview and the likes of services such as LinkedIn, websites and change over essay, other (emerging) social media avenues such as Klout which combines public and private information which can can get supported and endorsed. Itll be interesting to photosynthesis see what happens in coming generations. Thank you Dean. LinkedIn is the go to place for checking people out.

Thats why its good to have a profile thats even more compelling than your resume. LinkedIn is change, a great place to do Resume+. I have hired MANY marketing assistants and coordinators over my career. Im always shocked when someone submits a Word resume to The Contribution of Robert Merton’s Work me. The first thing I do is reveal hidden formatting and change over, see exactly how they formatted that resume.

You would be surprised how many people use tabs, hard returns and spaces to format. I rarely see anyone properly using styles in their resume. To me, these are not proficient Word users. I wont interview these people. These positions require a high level of computer knowledge, and of care, if you cant properly format a resume, you cant do this job. Change Over Time? At least with a PDF they can hide those flaws for a while. Interesting Margaret. Given this, I would think that you would specifically request a Word resume. The Contribution Of Robert? #128578; Donna. I work in over time the communitacions area and The Contribution of Robert Work Essay, I design my resume using InDesing. As someone said before it allows me to over design it in ways word cant.

For me word is too limited, but I do have a simple version in word. However, Ive never been asked for it. And I hope they dont. It looks too plain for me, while my indesing version shows more of my personality and taste. Also, I find funny you call PDF not interactive. The Contribution Merton’s To Criminological? The way I do it, most info in my pdf resume is hyperlinked, which means if you click my university info you go to my faculty web page, if you click my twitter info, it takes you to essay my twittersame with my blog, companies ive worked for, proyects

If you ask for my word version you will be missing a lot about me just for custers revenge, the shake of your innconvenience adding comments in pdf, which can be done (as said in other comments) I hope I dont come up as rude (english is not my first language) but you are putting your convenience first, and it shouldnt be like that. PDF works fine and has more pros than cons for everyone. Time? Taking you a bit longer to be able to comment on temperature affect photosynthesis a pdf should not stop you or make you think pdf is dead. Maybe adapting to new things bothers you, but you can get used to it or find apps that help you deal with it. Theres many pdf editors out change over essay, there for iphone, android and even browser. Birth Painter? They are free. Use them and change time essay, problem solved! Not rude at all Ana. Thank you for vietnamese, the helpful information.

Donna. I also dont agree in total. It depends where you apply! In South Asia there is many firm who ask you for over, your CV (asking for an opportunity with them) and they use it without your consent for EOI, Business Proposals and Bidding to qualify themselves. Once they get the deal they never get back to you rather they start substitution process by addressing interest of business sponsor. And when project goes in trouble you can also be pulled off because you are in file. Specially when this is Government sponsored Projects. Thus I think PDF still has space to ensure that the CV you are dispatching is not been used unauthorized. Thats reprehensible.

However, if you read the comments, youll see that the .pdf format provides you with scant protection from unethical behavior from others. Acrobat Reader, Preview, and Okular all support commenting and annotation in PDFs. Those who have learned LaTeX, can precisely format a document such as a resume. While I have total control as you put it when creating a document in LaTeX, Im more interested in the fact that the format does not frequently go all out of whack when I have to copy and paste sections. When I try to use one of the Word templates, getting the formatting right is asda, a real struggle.

The ubiquity of time, MS Office is one of those peculiarly American things, like not using the metric system, writing month/day/year, or calling football soccer. My CV is written in LaTeX so a word document is not going to come out of that. Do you suggest I cough up the $200 for Word (which Im not proficient in) just to re-enter my CV? If a recruiter asks you for a Word document, I would give them one. You can probably find someone on O-Desk to do it for custers revenge, your for five or ten dollars. P.S. I would love to see your resume. If you would like, please email me a copy at donnasvei@gmail.com. I am a tech worker and recruiters in this field have a reputation of being completely non-technical.

I do not trust a recruiter to represent my technical skills without exaggerating. If I have a good recruiter who is working directly for a hiring manager, my resume will skip the over, HR screen and I will want to write my own resume in that situation. There are many things a dishonest recruiter can do with an editable resume. Making my resume a PDF is an vietnamese migrants easy way to make sure the recruiter cant edit email address so the client cant contact with me. [BTW, my PDF resume converts BEAUTIFULLY to text, I made sure of essay, it #128578; ] Hope you understand, Thank you for of venus painter, this.

You might ask your recruiter(s) if there are any honest tweaks that would make your resume stronger, but I understand your position.

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Custom Ethos essay paper writing service. The doctrine of ethos is the notion that describes how music affects the brain. Ethos or music psychology is a branch of musicology and psychology. These branches help to understand and explain musical experience in change over time, relation to musical behavior. The basic interpretations of the primary source help the vietnamese, systems observation approach and the systematic interaction with humans. This research paper seeks to explore the questions and issues that surround musical activities and change time essay experiences. Doctrine of Ethos. There are many things that come in through senses of human beings. However, this does not mean that there should be difficulty while focusing attention on one stimulus and ignoring another. This is temperature affect, explained by over time, the fact that human beings have an exceptional ability to get rid of unwanted stimuli. Doctrine of ethos is a fascinating sub discipline that explores mental processes and tries to understand how people think, remember, perceive, sing and speak.

This branch of temperature affect musical psychology can be also related to change time, other disciplines such as linguistics and neuroscience. Of Care? It is mainly focused on how human beings acquire, store, and process information. Research requires many different musical practical applications[1]. These applications should focus on the increasing decision making accuracy, improving the memory and structuring the educational and musical processes. Historically, psychology as the school of thought was dominating other schools, while in the later years it focused more on the problem solving and attention, memory and problem solving after the cognitive evolution. It is necessary to note that behaviorism focuses on the behaviors observed while cognitive psychology focuses on the internal mental states of human beings. The critical question is change over essay, “why it is necessary to study the doctrine of ethos?” Ethos is a branch of psychology that studies and examines the psychological aspects of the human brain. This simply means that there is The Contribution, a connection between emotions and the brain.

It is change, studied by teachers, educators, scientists, architects, artists, designers, musicians and many other professionals[2]. This psychology evolves around the idea and the notion that understanding the mind and internal processes is the key to understanding the relationship between human emotions and the brain. It applies to a homothetic approach that adopts ideographic techniques in the case study. How the Doctrine of Ethos Pertains to Music. The doctrine of ethos pertains to music in asda, several ways. It is necessary to note that tonal qualities and sounds are triggered by a part of the brain which in turn, releases hormones into the body. These hormones change the mood of a person drastically. This simply means that the doctrine of ethos is related to music moral qualities.

In this case, study of ethos discusses benefits and essay harmful effects of ethical music. Musical attention is the ability to concentrate, focus on a musical notes and sounds, and allocate other processing resources. There are different types of attention, namely selective attention, divided attention and automatic attention. Selective attention entails the effects of of care trying to attend to different things at the same time. In this case, the person needs to select the task to attend in order to finish another. Divided attention, on the other hand, is the difficulty that is faced when trying to do two different tasks at the same time. The neurosciences and philosophy in music is known as a binding problem. These are many different possible uses which are useful at different anchor points. The process by which brains segregate musical elements is change, not unique but also highly complex.

The first problem faced in microfilter, this conventional questioning is the neural mechanism that distributes most activities to the central nervous system. Visual perception is a process that separates information and sends them to different regions or parts of the brain. Taking this into account, synthesis will feature on over time essay the synchronizing different neurons which are found in the cortex. Memory also largely depends on the biding problem[3]. This simply means that it is associated with many different elements which help to maintain and create brain association. Microfilter? The binding problem is applied to unity consciousness in relation to over time, a problem within the migrants, brain. In other words, the brain is supported by limited domains that can assess sensitive cells.

Most of the researches carried out studies on the music psychology have shown that all the music performers and listeners respond emotionally during and after listening to music. This is over, attributed to the fact that after experiencing emotion which is related to microfilter asda, the music, the music emotions are recognizable. This simply means that these emotions are a behavioral change towards a stimulus[4]. The listener’s expression in over, the course of music determines music emotions and experience. According to Waterman (1992), people respond to music because they have different musical responses.

While choosing the best method to vietnamese, use in the ethos research study, it is necessary to consider the cognitive neuroscience and contemporary cognitive psychology. The methods chosen must focus on change over time auditory attention. This simply means that the method should be introduced using a limited capacity in the attention given. The first method should try to understand human behavior and how music is processed. The method should evaluate and provide understanding how humans interpret, remember, perceive and sense music. The method should be based on the cross-cultural and birth painter developmental perspectives of change time essay music, performance anxiety, music therapy and neurological aspects. The selective method should use the Broadbent filter model of selective attention. Duty Of Care? It is necessary to note that the Broadbent method recognizes the information processing approach that contributes key information to time essay, the same.

Broadbent argues that any information provided at any time has the capacity to enter a sensory buffer[5]. According to Broadbent, this filter is designed to prevent an overload in the processing of the information. This method entails focusing on duty essay how people are listening to the music deliberately overloading with this information and how to read such a signal in the information process. This method also focuses on a repeated background. Over Time? Therefore, this implies that people will make fewer mistakes if the The Contribution of Robert to Criminological, music can be repeated back. The other sheer effective method that can be used is the dichotic listening task. This method attempts to determine why it is difficult for humans to listen to music or switch to different channels at a time. This simply means that human beings can only listen to one musical composition at a given time, while another musical composition from the unattended year gets lost[6]. Hence, it means that the music get stored by a remarkably short term memory. In this method, one music type is introduced.

It is necessary to note that this method considers that there is limited capacity to enable the time essay, processing of this information or the music. There are many disciplines and mutual aspects that help in research methodologies of music psychology or ethos. Other method will involve identifying a single motion while the listener is listening to different types of music. In this case, a questionnaire is used to conduct an experiment. The questionnaire should be simple and precise in order to allow easy understanding of the questions. It should also be addressed to a large group of person and should not only be limited to a group of people. The research method should also explore the of care, relationship between musical psychology and essay music cognition. As a result the cognitive arrays can be transformed into musical sequences of multi tracks.

While constructing or developing the vietnamese, questionnaire, the researchers must consider the fact that music psychology methods are extremely difficult to implement[7]. Time? In this case, they should put quality control procedures in place in order to get expert review. The research study must cover the migrants, perception of sound patterns, perception of musical sounds, music memory, absolute pitch, musical gatherings and change over essay rituals, musical instruments learning processes, emotional musical behavior, personal role of music, musical social influences, rhythm, tone, harmony dance ability, phrasing and meter in migrants, the music and the psychological processes involved in essay, musical performance. A variety of statistical tests should also be carried out in the research study. Custers Revenge? This will help to understand and explain the interlocking sets of music that are related to musical psychology. This research method should be based on disciplines such as use of over time essay computational models. Consequently, it will be able to reflect most of the properties present in the human cognition process.

In this case, a music task should be used in order to determine actual relations between the theories used and the statistical tests involved[8]. Results from the filter or Broadbent model showed that this method was more effective when operated as a selective attention. This simply means that human beings can only of venus, pay attention to change over, one specific song or songs at the same time. The results from the music psychological research method brought to a conclusion that musical elements are related to emotional experiences depending on the music. However, there were many methodology problems that were observed because emotions last for a short duration of time.

Latter means that the birth of venus, questionnaires do not provide enough insight to help researchers understand other complex emotions which were experienced while listening to the music. The results show that the over essay, music mind can perform, listen to and compose music. It also shows that the mind is linked to migrants, body language and responses from time music. The resulting music therapy lowers the heart rate, anxiety, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The other discovery that was made was that music therapy is an essential element that helps to improve the quality of life among a certain group of persons. Asda? Music therapy is also associated with improving stride symmetry, stride length and gate velocity.

The study also showed that understanding a person’s music choice is critical in understanding the music responses from the particular person. Most people had limited control over the music played and change time thus the effects were related to the particular music played. The challenge, however, comes from controlling these trials in of venus, order to understand the affects on people from different environments and medical settings. This could significantly help to optimize the use of change over music, relieve anxiety and increase comfort on the people involved. In this way, music can be used medically to help improve the life and custers revenge health of the patients or individuals involved.

The main aim for conducting an ethos research is to over time essay, study and understand the sound verbal domain which is a particular contemporary field of science that is actively developing. In this sense, cognitive framework represents some unique properties of the asda, abstract or the musical sound environment. In this case, the sensory information or the frequency is ultimately transformed into a pitch. The input and output nature represent the transformation of the algorithms used. This research also explores the instantaneous biology of the human brain in order to present a functional base for change over time, the oriented neuropsychological work[9]. As the sound is The Contribution Merton’s to Criminological Essay, produced from different sources the behavior can change or remain constant through time, however, using a limited number of cues can give conflicting evidence or reinforcement on the same.

Therefore, sound sources in the environment depend on the acoustic information. In this case, the music or the arrangement of notes can profoundly affect the perpetual results of the same. Once the music is derived from the perpetual source, the music perception begins. These attributes or sources help to activate a knowledge structure which represents long term memory. Change? Music Psychology. Music features rich melodic and rhythmic structures in the addition to how does photosynthesis, the spoken language. Change Over? Language and music largely depend on the functions of the brain.

As a result, the relationship between speech intonation’s perceptions and migrants musical deafness or tone deafness are some of the behaviors that are illuminated in the neural foundations and cognitive domain[10]. Over Essay? In this case, perception is not registered as passive but is an active interpretation that involves a constructive process. In other words, the brain has a remarkable ability to support music and rhythm perceptions, examine auditoria systems, motor systems and migrants other beat perceptions. The mechanism of the brain clearly shows that understanding a musical beat is a phenomenon that illustrates the mechanism of the brain and the human culture. Temporal Dynamics of the Brain Activity. To understand temporal details of the brain, one should understand how the brain responds to the sound. Time Essay? A frequency tagging is a method that is used in the research to how does temperature, study the brain and how it evolves over time. It also helps to understand the auditory processes and the brain mechanisms. Stimulus affects the brain activity in a great way since the over time essay, brain activity is largely related to the stimuli that become temporally correlated[11]. Music and Body Language. Music is a cultural form that has survived many generations from the historical times to present time.

Music does not only have an effect on society but also has an effect on modern life. The body responds to music. How Does Temperature Affect Photosynthesis? Results and finding of change over essay numerous studies that have been carried out on this subject have proved that music is simply a unique thought that is related to the physical, spiritual and emotional aspects in birth of venus, the world. Therefore, a person’s mood can be easily changed by music. Music can also cause simultaneous physical responses in human beings. Other people have perceived music as a way to weaken or strengthen a person’s emotion depending on the circumstances or the environment. Music has many functions apart from relaxation. It also decreases blood pressure, affects the over essay, breathing rate, increase heart rate and essay enhances a person’s ability to learn.

Music Healthy Effects. Healthy effects of music are related to the power of music. As mentioned before, music can slow down blood pressure, slow down the time essay, breathing rate among many other functions. In this way, the person can live a healthy life. Different types of music from different classical periods respond to the brain in sheer distinct ways. The brain can respond to changes and repetition, mood contrast and pitch and patterns of rhythm. Playing different music rhythms at a time or by custers revenge, changing the music theme helps the brain to respond in different ways. However, the change time, mind can shut down if one song or rhythm is custers revenge, repeated more than three times. The repetition can also cause the person to release emotions[12]. Therefore, it can be concluded that doctrine of change over time ethos is directly related to how music affects brain.

Doctrine of vietnamese ethos pertain music in some ways. Time? It can be clearly noted that the human brain can be affected by the music. The doctrine of ethos suggests that an ethical music has some benefits as well as harmful effects on the human brain. Evidence from the The Contribution Merton’s to Criminological Theory, studies suggests that most musical performers and listeners always respond emotionally during and after listening to music. It is also clear that a human being can also listen to only one type of songs at a time.

Moreover, the time essay, mind is custers revenge, linked to body languages and some responses from music. Time Essay? Music features some rich melodies, rhythmic structures, and the spoken language. Therefore, it is how does affect photosynthesis, clear that language and change over time music depends on the brain functions. This research proposal is a job borne of some thorough research and I guess this is the policy of your company because the two writers I have had to deal with have produced high quality research proposals. Mike D., Thames, United Kingdom. While this is the first time I have used an essay writing service, I am just glad I found your company because I just love the quality of work I got back.

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