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The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay example

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Quels leaderships pour la reussite de tous les eleves ? Comment le partage des responsabilites au niveau de la direction d’un etablissement scolaire peut-il favoriser la reussite des eleves ? Cette question constitue la cle de voute de ce nouveau dossier d’actualites du service Veille et analyses (n°73), intitule « Quels leaderships pour la reussite de tous les eleves ? ». En s’appuyant sur les recherches recentes menees en France et a l’international, il met en evidence la generalisation progressive d’un modele de direction au service des apprentissages, dans des etablissements beneficiant partout d’une autonomie croissante tout en etant davantage tenus de rendre compte de leurs performances. Malgre des variations importantes selon les pays et quels que soient les modes de leadership adoptes, la position cle du chef d’etablissement est partout reaffirmee, non plus seulement pour gerer l’ecole, mais aussi pour promouvoir une dynamique pedagogique collective : c’est l’engagement conjoint des equipes de direction et des equipes enseignantes qui est a meme de garantir une meilleure reussite des eleves. Pour autant, si chercheurs et decideurs semblent s’accorder sur l’importance de renforcer le leadership pedagogique au sein des etablissements, les reformes entreprises ne parviennent aujourd’hui que marginalement a enrayer la rarefaction des vocations, tant chez les chefs d’etablissement que chez les enseignants. The Relation Identity And Language Essay Example? Quelles orientations seraient a privilegier pour renverser la tendance ? Quels efforts seraient a consentir pour que ces metiers redeviennent attractifs ? La direction des etablissements scolaires est devenue une priorite forte de l’action gouvernementale en matiere d’education dans un grand nombre de pays (Pont et al. Perennialism Education? , 2008). The Relation Identity Example? Politiques publiques et recherches s’accordent pour considerer le role crucial joue par le chef d’etablissement non seulement en matiere de management, mais aussi dans la dynamique pedagogique qui mobilise son personnel. Character Analysis? Autrement dit, on The Relation Identity and Language Essay evolue d’ un modele « gestionnaire » a un modele de direction au service des apprentissages des eleves . Ces evolutions interviennent dans un contexte marque par une double tendance : d’une part une autonomie plus large des etablissements et corollairement une attention plus forte portee aux resultats de l’ecole (Eurydice, 2007 ; Pair, 2007 ; Hassani Meuret, 2010), et d’autre part une penurie croissante de candidats qualifies pour assurer la releve de chefs d’etablissement vieillissants et une rarefaction des vocations enseignantes (AFAE, 2010 ; Schleicher, 2012). Dans ce contexte, il est dans l’interet des systemes educatifs de promouvoir des formes de pilotage, au niveau des etablissements, qui vont au-dela des modalites bureaucratiques et gestionnaires traditionnelles, avec des statuts, des salaires et indemnites et des mecanismes d’evaluation et de promotion de carriere, qui accompagnent l’engagement des chefs d’etablissements et des enseignants en faveur d’une qualite de l’education (Schleicher, 2012).

Le « leadership », entendu comme une approche globale du partage des responsabilites au niveau de l’etablissement, voire a un niveau inter-etablissements, en vue de promouvoir le changement, constitue une piste privilegiee aujourd’hui par nombre de pays. En France toutefois, les resistances sont fortes. Fool's Gold? Les chefs d’etablissement, dont le corps a ete cree en 2001, doivent rompre avec la profession enseignante dont ils sont issus et se conformer a des pratiques de direction de plus en plus normalisees (Pelage, 2011). The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Les enseignants sont pour leur part traditionnellement hostiles a une direction aux fonctions elargies, supposee aller a l’encontre de leur liberte pedagogique (Gauthier, 2007). Apres une premiere synthese sur les synergies entre leadership et changements educatifs (Gaussel, 2007), le service Veille et Analyses propose dans ce dossier une analyse approfondie des acteurs et des pratiques du leadership, a partir des travaux recents realises par des experts et chercheurs internationaux. Perennialism? Apres avoir inscrit les principes du leadership dans un contexte politique global, nous nous interessons aux roles des chefs d’etablissement et des enseignants dans les etablissements scolaires avant de presenter plusieurs types de leadership qui semblent faire plus ou moins consensus. Meme si l’organisation du systeme scolaire releve de la seule responsabilite des Etats, ces derniers sont tenus par des lignes directrices communes, decidees au niveau europeen (Hutmacher, 2007) ou dans des organismes internationaux tels la Banque mondiale et l’OCDE.

La doxa dominante peut se resumer ainsi (Pair, 2007) : dans une economie fondee sur la connaissance et dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pauvrete, l’education est essentielle ; mais les systemes educatifs sont trop rigides dans un monde en perpetuel mouvement ; la solution consiste a deplacer le pouvoir vers les usagers et davantage responsabiliser les etablissements scolaires ; il revient aux pouvoirs publics de creer le cadre de cette responsabilisation ; les outils disponibles sont le mode de financement, le libre choix de l’ecole laisse aux usagers et l’evaluation des etablissements ainsi que la publication des resultats de ces evaluations. Les travaux de l’OCDE montrent que la notion de « direction », traduction restrictive du terme anglais « leadership », suppose l’exercice d’une influence intentionnelle par une personne (ou un groupe) sur d’autres personnes (ou d’autres groupes), et repose sur la formulation d’objectifs ou de resultats a atteindre. Between? Elle se distingue de la gestion et de l’administration d’un etablissement scolaire, plus etroitement associees a une efficacite procedurale, en lien avec un temps plus ou moins present. Education? Les trois taches, toutefois fortement imbriquees, rentrent dans les attributions des chefs d’etablissement. Identity Example? Le pouvoir de diriger n’est pas le fait d’une seule personne, mais peut etre reparti entre plusieurs personnes au sein de l’ecole et en dehors de celle-ci (Pont et al. Perennialism Education? , 2008). En explorant les differentes approches scientifiques, essentiellement nord-americaines, developpees depuis les annees 70, Spillane et al. Identity And Language? (2008) distinguent deux traditions dominantes : une tradition qui envisage le leadership comme lie a la personnalite, a la competence et au style des personnes, et une autre tradition, moins repandue et plus deterministe, liee a des formes d’organisations dominantes plutot qu’a des pratiques individuelles. En France, le terme utilise est plutot celui de pilotage , dont Pair (2007) donne la definition suivante : « l e pilotage met en jeu des regles de fonctionnement, des objectifs a atteindre, des decisions pour que la mise en ? uvre conduise a des resultats conformes aux objectifs. Education? Les decisions ne sont pas prises une fois pour toutes et le pilotage comporte donc une boucle de regulation qui vise a ce que les resultats obtenus se rapprochent des objectifs fixes ». La notion de « pilotage » heurte certaines susceptibilites dans le corps enseignant : il y a une culture traditionnellement hostile a cette idee qui est vecue comme allant a l’encontre de la liberte pedagogique.

Ceci est d’autant plus pregnant en France que l’etablissement n’est pas l’echelon principal en ce qui concerne le travail collectif ou l’evaluation : les programmes sont decides au niveau national et sont mis en ?uvre dans la classe, ce qui est source d’inegalite et d’inefficacite (Gauthier, 2007). Pour Obin (2007), trois modes de pilotage se confrontent : pilotage par les normes (derive bureaucratique) ; pilotage par les objectifs et les valeurs (prospere de nos jours, mais derive technocratique possible) ; pilotage par les valeurs et l’action commune. The Relation Identity And Language Essay Example? C’est ce dernier mode de pilotage qu’il defend. Pour Barroso, ce qui a ete initie dans les pays anglo-saxons par les politiques neo-liberales de la nouvelle droite (Thatcher et Reagan), connu sous le nom de self-management school (Royaume-Uni, Australie et Nouvelle Zelande) ou de school-based management (Etats-Unis ou Canada), se distingue des volontes d’ameliorer les systemes existants comme en Allemagne, Norvege, ou encore Portugal, Espagne, France, Italie : les contextes et les histoires ne sont pas les memes. World Gnp? La principale difference entre ces deux approches reside davantage dans le libre choix des familles et la concurrence accrue entre etablissements (pays anglo-saxons) que dans l’autonomie et la decentralisation qui est une tendance dans tous les pays (Barroso, 2007). Vers une nouvelle gestion publique : decentralisation, autonomie, obligation de resultats. Quelles reformes en matiere de decentralisation ? De nombreux pays ont engage des reformes de leurs systemes educatifs en faveur de la decentralisation. The Relation Between And Language Essay Example? Il s’agit de s’appuyer sur des etablissements scolaires qui jouissent d’une plus grande autonomie, tout en etant soumis a une plus grande obligation de resultats ( accountability ). Abortion Is Murdering? Cette autonomie touche potentiellement la gestion budgetaire, les ressources humaines et la direction pedagogique.

La reddition de comptes porte moins sur la mise en ?uvre des moyens que sur les resultats obtenus par les enseignants et les eleves. And Language Essay Example? La pression sur le chef d’etablissement peut generer une tension plus ou moins forte entre la responsabilite individuelle et les attentes collectives (parents, enseignants, administrateurs, etc.) (Barzano, 2011). Ces reformes empruntent cependant des formes variables. Fool's? Globalement, on Between example distingue les pays du Nord de l’Europe ou la liberte des acteurs locaux est largement soutenue par la decentralisation politique, des pays du Sud qui demeurent peu enclins a favoriser l’autonomie des etablissements. Entre les deux, c’est la dissonance qui domine. World Gnp? Ainsi en Belgique et au Pays-Bas, les etablissements sont historiquement dotes d’une forte autonomie. And Language Example? Des politiques extremement volontaristes se sont developpees des les annees 1980 au Royaume-Uni (Angleterre, Pays de Galles et Irlande du Nord). And Protean Career Essay? Des pays comme l’Allemagne et la France, de par leur histoire respective, ont realise des avancees timides en matiere d’autonomie des etablissements (Eurydice, 2007).

S’agissant des mecanismes de responsabilisation, l’Angleterre reste sans conteste le pays dans lequel une politique nationale exigeante a ete generalisee, basee sur la publication periodique de rapports. And Language? Dans les autres pays, c’est la diversite qui prevaut, avec une tendance naturelle a s’appuyer sur les dispositifs de controle deja en vigueur. Employability Career Essay? Au Portugal, le directeur rend des comptes devant l’assemblee qui l’a elu. The Relation And Language Essay Example? En France, ce sont les lettres de mission et les contrats d’objectifs passes avec l’administration territoriale qui sont les instruments d’evaluation. World Gnp? En Italie, meme si l’evaluation existe dans les textes officiels, elle n’a pas de realite dans le quotidien des etablissements (Barzano, 2011). Malgre des calendriers differents, les pays d’Europe ne font plus aujourd’hui de ces reformes une finalite ; la decentralisation est ainsi davantage consideree comme un moyen au service d’objectifs plus directement en lien avec l’enseignement et l’apprentissage (Eurydice, 2007). Autonomie des etablissements et leadership. Les travaux de l’OCDE distinguent deux modeles de decentralisation qui peuvent influer sur le role du chef d’etablissement et donc sur le leadership (Pont et al. The Relation And Language? , 2008) : une decentralisation basee sur une responsabilite « locale » , caracterisee par un transfert des pouvoirs de decision a une instance intermediaire entre l’Etat central et l’etablissement scolaire (les Local Authorities en Angleterre ou les School Districts aux Etats-Unis). Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Les ecoles font ainsi partie d’un ensemble plus vaste d’etablissements, les chefs d’etablissement sont amenes a exercer des fonctions de pilotage en dehors du perimetre de leur ecole et sont tenus de savoir travailler en reseau au sein du systeme educatif local. Between And Language? une decentralisation basee sur une responsabilite de l’ecole , caracterisee par une delegation de pouvoirs a l’etablissement meme. Education? La charge d’administration et de gestion dans ces etablissements est plus lourde et va souvent de pair avec une diminution du temps accorde au pilotage des activites d’enseignement et d’apprentissage.

Le personnel enseignant, les parents et les representants locaux participent souvent de facon formelle ou informelle aux prises de decision concernant l’etablissement. Quel que soit le modele dominant a l’echelle nationale, les responsabilites des etablissements varient considerablement selon les pays, mais aussi selon les domaines de decision. The Relation Essay Example? Certains pays pronent l’autonomie a la fois administrative et pedagogique des etablissements ; c’est le cas des Pays-Bas, de la Republique Tcheque et, dans une moindre mesure, de l’Angleterre. Abortion Is Murdering? D’autres, a l’inverse, disposent de marges de man?uvre extremement reduites, tant en terme de gestion de budget et de ressources humaines, qu’en termes de programmes et d’evaluation (Grece, Turquie). The Relation Between And Language? D’autres enfin combinent une forte autonomie pedagogique avec une faible autonomie administrative : Nouvelle-Zelande, Coree et Japon (OCDE, 2011). Perennialism Education? Si dans des pays tels que les Etats-Unis, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni et la Suede, le pouvoir de decision des chefs d’etablissement est eleve dans la plupart des domaines, il reste bien plus limite dans des pays tels que la Grece, le Portugal et la Turquie (OCDE, 2007). Between Identity Example? Au Chili, en Coree et aux Etats-Unis, le role du chef d’etablissement varie fortement selon les ecoles ; a l’inverse au Danemark et en Norvege, les chefs d’etablissement ont des roles relativement homogenes d’une ecole a l’autre (Pont et al. Fool's Gold Essay? , 2008). Leadership et culture du changement. Le leadership, en tant que relais entre les politiques publiques et les pratiques educatives, est un maillon essentiel de la mise en ?uvre des reformes.

Autrement dit, il est en quelque sorte garant du changement. The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Son influence s’exerce a la fois sur l’adaptation des processus scolaires et sur les cultures et comportements des personnels. Cette capacite de l’etablissement, non seulement a traduire sur le terrain les reformes voulues par l’Etat central mais aussi a s’adapter a son environnement et tenir compte des evolutions societales, est au c?ur des defis que l’ecole doit relever pour former les citoyens de demain (Pont et al. Career Essay? , 2008). Between Essay? Pour Spillane et al. Employability Career? (2008), le leadership vise fondamentalement a promouvoir le changement et l’innovation ; il se distingue ainsi du management qui cherche a garantir la stabilite et le bon fonctionnement de l’etablissement. Dans une perspective de leadership, il s’agit en priorite d’agir sur l’environnement et pas seulement de reagir a l’environnement. C’est aussi l’idee defendue par Ehrich Cranston (2009) lorsqu’ils estiment que dans un monde en perpetuel changement, les chefs d’etablissement doivent etre proactifs et ne pas se contenter d’appliquer des reformes. Pour Fullan (2010), le changement peut etre « conduit » ( led ) mais pas controle ( managed ), et c’est le chef d’etablissement qui joue un role cle dans ce processus. Between And Language? C’est lui qui peut mobiliser les enseignants, garantir de bonnes conditions d’exercice et promouvoir une culture apprenante au sein de l’etablissement.

Le changement n’est pas reductible a l’innovation, mais concerne davantage la capacite a innover dont l’organisation – ici l’ecole – fait preuve ( innovation vs innovativeness ). Education? « The principal of the The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay example, future – the world gnp, Cultural Change Principal – must be attuned to The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay example the big picture, a sophisticated conceptual thinker who transforms the mergers, organization through people and The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay teams (Fullan, 2001). Pharmaceuticals? Cultural Change Principals display palpable energy, enthusiasm, and The Relation Between Identity and Language example hope. World Gnp? In addition, five essential components characterize leaders in The Relation Identity and Language example the knowledge society: moral purpose, an Employability career understanding of the The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay example, change process, the tkam, ability to Identity example improve relationships, knowledge creation and world gnp sharing, and The Relation Between and Language Essay example coherence making » (Fullan, 2010). Cette vision fondamentalement dynamique de l’etablissement, qui s’incarne notamment dans la fonction de chef d’etablissement, ne trouve que peu de resonance dans les pratiques de leadership telles qu’elles peuvent etre observees aujourd’hui par les chercheurs. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Le focus porte clairement sur l’evaluation du « changement » , c’est-a-dire l’amelioration des resultats des eleves.

1. Diriger autrement pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves. L’autonomie croissante des etablissements s’accompagne d’un recentrage sur les questions d’enseignement et d’apprentissage. Between Essay Example? Le reseau Leadership for character analysis Learning recemment cree par la faculte d’education de Cambridge, est une manifestation concrete des liens etroits entre leadership et pedagogie qui rassemble ici professionnels du leadership et chercheurs. The Relation Between Example? Le 32 eme colloque de l’AFAE, intitule « Equipe de direction, equipe enseignante » interroge les tensions entre sphere administrative et sphere pedagogique, tout en cherchant a les depasser (AFAE, 2010). Pour Gauthier (2007), en effet, l’initiative pedagogique doit etre au c?ur de l’etablissement et ne peut venir que d’un collectif. Perennialism? Avec le leadership, « il ne s’agit en realite pas de quelque autorite personnelle du chef qui irait imposer un « pouvoir pedagogique », mais de la fonction d’initiative pedagogique dont chaque professeur doit etre porteur et qui doit etre repartie entre les acteurs, et coordonnee par le chef d’etablissement ». The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay Example? Il en est de meme pour Spillane et al. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? (2008) : « le leadership est defini comme l’identification, l’acquisition, l’affectation, la coordination et l’utilisation des ressources sociales, materielles et culturelles qui etablissent les conditions prealables a l’enseignement et aux apprentissages. Between Identity Essay? Il implique de mobiliser le personnel, les eleves pour reperer et s’attaquer aux taches de reforme pedagogique et exploiter les ressources necessaires pour soutenir la transformation de l’enseignement et des apprentissages . Pharmaceuticals? » Cet horizon commun se traduit par la definition de nouveaux indicateurs, fondes sur des objectifs d’equite et de reussite des eleves : ameliorer les resultats des eleves, notamment pour ce qui concerne les competences de base ; reduire les ecarts de resultats entre les differentes populations d’eleves ; assurer une meilleure integration de certaines populations d’eleves a besoins particuliers ; reduire les taux de decrochage, en particulier dans l’enseignement obligatoire, etc. L’idee qu’une direction d’etablissement efficace doit permettre d’ameliorer l’efficience et l’equite de l’enseignement s’enracine dans deux courants de pensee qui marquent les recherches sur la qualite en education depuis pres de 30 ans : school effectiveness et school improvement. L’influence du school effectiveness et du school improvement. Si l’on observe aujourd’hui une certaine convergence entre ces deux courants, les approches qui ont preside a leur creation restent relativement distinctes (Berger et al. The Relation Identity Essay Example? , 2004).

D’un cote, le courant des ecoles efficaces ( school effectiveness ) cherche a montrer que les resultats variables des eleves peuvent s’expliquer par des facteurs qui ne relevent pas exclusivement des caracteristiques de ces memes eleves, mais sont aussi lies aux etablissements et aux enseignants. And Protean Career? Les recherches, plutot quantitatives, sont centrees sur l’organisation de l’ecole, elles s’appuient preferentiellement sur des evaluations externes, s’interessent a l’ecole telle qu’elle est et privilegient une approche du changement focalisee sur les reformes en cours. D’un autre cote, le courant de l’amelioration de l’ecole ( school improvement ) porte davantage sur les processus ; il s’agit d’une « approche particuliere du changement educatif qui a pour objectif d’ameliorer les resultats des eleves aussi bien que la capacite de l’ecole a gerer les changements. And Language Example? Elle se preoccupe d’ameliorer la performance de l’eleve en se concentrant sur le processus d’enseignement-apprentissage et sur les conditions qui le soutiennent. Fool's Gold? » (Hopkins 2001, cite par Berger et al. And Language Essay? , 2004). And Protean? Les recherches sont plutot qualitatives, privilegient l’auto-evaluation des etablissements et s’interessent au « comment » les ecoles « deviennent » efficaces (et donc aux acteurs). Dans l’un ou l’autre cas, les etudes realisees ont pris le contrepied de ce qui etait defendu dans les annees 1960-70 : les differences entre etablissements s’expliqueraient davantage par des pratiques manageriales differentes que par les publics qui les frequentent. Identity? Les etudes plus recentes depassent ce debat et posent une double hypothese : « d’une part, les processus manageriaux et pedagogiques developpes dans les etablissements scolaires sont indexes par le public qui les compose, et d’autre part, l’articulation de ces pratiques avec la composition d’etablissement est un facteur explicatif significatif des differences entre etablissements scolaires . Abortion? » (Dumay Dupriez, 2004). En tout etat de cause, avec les enquetes PISA, le role des etablissements scolaires dans la reussite des eleves est revenu sur le devant de la scene (Rey, 2011), et les deux courants tendent a se rapprocher (cf. The Relation Between Identity Essay? revue School Effectiveness School Improvement ) : les modes d’evaluation se combinent pour le benefice a la fois des etablissements et des eleves, sous l’effet de la generalisation des politiques d’obligation de resultats (Townsend, 2007).

Les recherches issues de ces courants trouvent cependant un echo marginal en France. Employability And Protean? Depuis la loi d’orientation de 1989, c’est le projet d’etablissement qui concentre l’attention des pouvoirs publics et des chercheurs, meme si cette orientation est moins dominante aujourd’hui. Between Identity Essay Example? C’est le role preponderant de l’Etat francais dans la definition de l’architecture du systeme educatif qui pourrait expliquer le peu d’interet accorde aux correlations potentielles entre la vie de l’etablissement et ses performances (Berger et al. Is Murdering? , 2004). En France, l’effet maitre est important, c’est pourquoi d’apres Forestier (2007), l’autonomie pedagogique doit primer lorsque l’on parle d’autonomie des etablissements. The Relation Between And Language? D’apres les chiffres avances par Bressoux (2008), l’effet maitre intervient dans la reussite des eleves a hauteur de 10%, tout comme l’origine sociale, et l’effet etablissement a hauteur de 5%. Mergers? Le rapport s’inverse toutefois dans les etablissements situes dans des zones defavorisees, rendant le travail en equipe plus necessaire. Quel impact du leadership sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage ? Toutes les etudes portant sur le deploiement d’une reforme ou d‘un dispositif quel qu’il soit soulignent systematiquement l’importance de l’engagement du chef d’etablissement pour une meilleure atteinte des objectifs. Between Identity? Tout se passe comme s’il etait entendu que la direction d’un etablissement devait jouer un role moteur a tous les niveaux, sans que soient precisement pointes les effets d’une insuffisance. Ce qui contribue effectivement a l’amelioration des resultats des eleves n’est pas non plus evident a demontrer parce que la reussite ou l’echec n’est bien evidemment pas imputable au seul leadership. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Les recherches mettent generalement en evidence trois types de correlation : l’origine sociale, economique et culturelle des eleves, qui constitue la principale source de variation ; les facteurs lies au systeme scolaire (niveau macro) ; les variables liees a l’etablissement scolaire, en particulier l’engagement des enseignants et les pratiques pedagogiques (Feyfant, 2011). Les recherches de type « evidence-based » ne permettent pas en effet de mettre au jour une correlation directe entre le leadership et la reussite des eleves.

La mega-analyse realisee par Hattie (synthese de 800 meta-analyses traitant 50000 recherches) ne fournit que des preuves indirectes de cette correlation : le fait que les apprentissages se deroulent dans un climat scolaire structure, que les enseignants developpent des pratiques collegiales au sein d’equipes motivees et stables, favorisent les apprentissages. The Relation Essay? Mais ce sont les facteurs lies a la personnalite de l’enseignant et a l’organisation d’une seance pedagogique qui sont les mieux a meme de predire la reussite des eleves (Hattie, 2009). Character Analysis? Ces resultats convergent avec d’autres travaux qui mettent invariablement en evidence le role charniere, bien qu’indirect, joue par le chef d’etablissement dans la progression des eleves (Scheerens, 2007 ; Townsend, 2007). Certaines revues systematiques, centrees exclusivement sur les liens entre leadership et reussite des eleves vont egalement dans ce sens. The Relation Identity And Language Essay Example? Les huit etudes de cas analysees par l’EPPI-Centre de Londres (Bell et al. Fool's Essay? , 2003) montrent que ce sont les actions du leadership en faveur du travail des enseignants, de l’organisation de l’ecole et des relations avec les parents et plus largement la communaute qui peuvent avoir un impact sur la reussite des eleves. Les travaux de Leithwood et al. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay? (2006) pour le Ministere de l’education anglais soulignent l’importance des qualites et des competences personnelles des leaders pour developper des strategies adaptees a l’environnement ou ils se trouvent : il s’agit d’agir simultanement sur les capacites et motivations des personnels de l’etablissement et sur les conditions dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Character? Si les performances de l’etablissement sont faibles, la mobilisation pour construire une culture commune de la reussite par exemple sera davantage le fait du chef d’etablissement au depart que le resultat d’une construction collective.

La revue systematique realisee par Robinson et al. Between And Language Example? (2009) pour le Ministere de l’education neo-zelandais montre qu’un leadership focalise sur la pedagogie ( pedagocical leadership ) est plus a meme d’influencer positivement la reussite des eleves qu’un leadership davantage base sur les relations et la promotion d’une vision commune ( transformational leadership ). Fool's? Parmi les cinq dimensions pedagogiques identifiees, ce sont les actions du leadership visant a promouvoir le developpement des enseignants qui sont les plus efficaces : il s’agit de leur fournir des opportunites formelles et informelles d’evoluer dans leurs pratiques en favorisant un climat d’echanges entre enseignants et eleves, en developpant une responsabilite collective pour la reussite des eleves et en accompagnant les enseignants pour resoudre les difficultes rencontrees. Identity Essay? 2. Si l’on apprehende toute l’importance du « collectif » dans la plupart des etudes d’impact dediees au leadership, peu de recherches empiriques permettent d’evaluer veritablement les effets du leadership distribue (Leithwood et al. Mergers? , 2006). The Relation Identity Essay? D’apres Mulford (2003), un leadership qui est a la fois base sur un role fort du chef d’etablissement et sur une distribution des fonctions de direction est le plus a meme de faire une difference, en particulier dans une perspective d’amelioration durable ( sustainable improvement ). World Gnp? Cette perspective, pour etre effective, ne peut se limiter aux modalites du nouveau management public, elle doit s’appuyer sur la capacite meme de l’ecole a apprendre et evoluer. Between Essay Example? 3.

Pour Elmore (2008) egalement, les strategies pour developper et diffuser les connaissances et les competences au sein des etablissements sont essentielles. Fool's Gold? Il plaide pour une fonction davantage centree sur l’« apprentissage organisationnel » ( organisational learning ) et moins regulee par les mesures de controle et evaluations externes. Between Essay Example? Les recents travaux de Day et al. Pharmaceuticals? (2009) font echo a cette conclusion. Between Identity And Language Essay? Les etablissements les moins efficaces accordent plus d’importance a l’utilisation des donnees qu’aux valeurs communes qui cimentent les actions de leadership et qui visent a la fois la promotion du bien etre individuel et social et la meilleure reussite des eleves. Les chefs d’etablissement des ecoles les plus efficaces savent ameliorer les resultats des eleves a travers ce qu’ils sont (leurs valeurs, leurs competences) et les strategies qu’ils deploient (Day et al. Abortion? , 2009) Ils empruntent tous a un repertoire de valeurs educatives et de qualites personnelles et interpersonnelles et a un eventail d’actions strategiques internes et externes, mais savent aussi articuler ces elements avec les besoins de l’ecole et les injonctions des politiques nationales. Les enseignements de PISA ne sont pour autant pas a negliger quand on The Relation Between Identity example s’eloigne des etablissements pour examiner l’efficacite des differents systemes educatifs.

Ils s’averent notamment sans ambiguite quand il s’agit d’evaluer l’impact de l’autonomie sur les performances. World Gnp? « Plus les etablissements d’enseignement sont nombreux a detenir la responsabilite de la definition et de l’elaboration de leurs programmes et evaluations, plus la performance du systeme d’education dans son ensemble est elevee » (OCDE, 2011). C’est donc l’autonomie pedagogique au niveau de l’etablissement qui predit le mieux la reussite des eleves. En revanche, la correlation entre l’autonomie administrative et la performance des etablissements est moins evidente ; elle s’avere positive dans les pays ou la culture de la responsabilisation est favorisee, c’est-a-dire dans les pays ou les etablissements rendent majoritairement publics leurs resultats (OCDE, 2011). L’autonomie des etablissements va de pair avec de nouveaux modeles de repartition des taches de direction et de nouveaux types de responsabilite. And Language? Le leadership s’entend comme un engagement collectif, il ne releve pas de la seule responsabilite du chef d’etablissement. Tkam Character? Cette repartition des taches de direction peut etre plus ou moins formalisee ; elle peut s’incarner dans la constitution d’equipes de direction ou bien s’ouvrir a une delegation plus systematique des responsabilites et une implication plus forte des enseignants. Chef d’etablissement : une profession en mutation.

Quelle que soit l’autonomie dont jouit l’etablissement, et quelle que soit l’amplitude de cette distribution des responsabilites, le chef d’etablissement reste dans une grande majorite des cas celui a qui incombe la plus grande part de pouvoirs dans l’ecole. Des responsabilites accrues, une fonction plus strategique. La fonction de chef d’etablissement a connu des evolutions importantes au cours des decennies passees dans tous les pays de l’OCDE : de quelques responsabilites supplementaires assumees par un enseignant, elle est devenue (ou tend a devenir) une fonction a part entiere, d’abord caracterisee par une responsabilite administrative accrue, puis de plus en plus concernee aussi par des taches d’ordre pedagogique. D’une facon generale, le role du chef d’etablissement evolue vers une conception du metier plus systemique , visant a faire de l’etablissement une organisation apprenante et privilegiant le pilotage a l’administration. The Relation And Language Essay Example? Dans certains pays, le fait de definir des strategies a long terme et d’en garantir la reussite fait officiellement partie des attributions du chef d’etablissement (Suede, Angleterre, Ecosse, Irlande et Irlande du Nord).

Les chefs d’etablissements sont donc censes developper une attitude plus strategique, supposant une certaine competence dans la manipulation de donnees tres diverses, en particulier les resultats des tests standardises. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Ils sont egalement supposes savoir mieux communiquer sur leur etablissement, potentiellement pour le « vendre » a une clientele moins captive que par le passe, et en tout etat de cause savoir mieux se positionner dans un environnement plus concurrentiel (Pont et al. Identity And Language Example? , 2008). Sous l’effet conjugue de l’autonomie plus large des etablissements et de l’obligation accrue de rendre des comptes, leur charge de travail s’est considerablement alourdie et complexifiee. Perennialism? Le caractere cumulatif des exigences externes peut se traduire par une fragmentation excessive des taches qui nuit a la coherence globale de l’activite et sape la capacite des etablissements a evoluer. Between Essay? La concurrence potentielle entre des modes de management anciens et nouveaux et des formes d’apprentissage organisationnel constitue un frein a l’implementation des reformes et au changement (Mulford, 2003). Selon Barzano (2011), les chefs d’etablissement doivent agir dans un cadre qui est de plus en plus influence par les politiques internationales, tout en tenant compte des particularites nationales et locales. World Gnp? Ils sont les agents principaux de cette articulation entre le niveau global et le niveau local ( vernacular globalization ou glocalization ). The Relation Example? Les idees globales doivent etre recontextualisees et remodelees en fonction des histoires locales et des relations sociales. Des tensions entre administration et pedagogie. Dans un grand nombre de pays, les chefs d’etablissement disposent d’une veritable responsabilite pedagogique (Dutercq, 2006). World Gnp? Cette dimension pedagogique de leur fonction, bien que sujet a debat en France, est reconnue comme une evolution necessaire par les milieux scientifiques et politiques.

Il s’agit de savoir accueillir des populations d’eleves tres diverses, de mettre en ?uvre des programmes plus propices a l’integration de ces populations, de proposer des activites permettant une demarche plus personnalisee et privilegiant un apprentissage actif plus autonome (AFAE, 2010). The Relation Between And Language Essay? Il s’agit surtout de favoriser « l’apprentissage organisationnel », c’est-a-dire de « donner aux etablissements les moyens d’obtenir de bonnes performances et de s’ameliorer en permanence », en vue d’ameliorer les resultats des eleves (Elmore, 2008). En d’autres termes, le chef d’etablissement est appele a devenir « le leader de l’apprentissage, charge de creer des communautes professionnelles » et doit integrer des methodes d’evaluation et de valorisation professionnelles plus elaborees. Il est cense jouer un role plus actif dans le pilotage de l’enseignement : « suivre et evaluer les performances des enseignants, conduire et organiser des activites de mentorat et de soutien, gerer l’evolution professionnelle des enseignants et orchestrer le travail en equipe et le travail pedagogique en groupe » (Pont et al. Employability Career? , 2008). 14 pays, sur les 22 participant a l’enquete de l’OCDE sur la direction des etablissements, signalent l’existence de dispositions officielles faisant de l’evaluation des enseignants une responsabilite importante des chefs d’etablissement. The Relation Identity Essay Example? Ces dispositions varient de tres importantes (Slovenie) a tres faibles (Chili), et sont le plus souvent integrees a un cadre d’evaluation plus general visant a renforcer la qualite. Essay? Les objectifs se repartissent de facon assez equilibree « entre evaluation, estimation des performances, planification du perfectionnement professionnel et base pour les promotions ». Between Identity Essay? L’entretien annuel avec le chef d’etablissement est une pratique courante, couplee ou non a d’autres methodes telles que l’observation en classe et l’examen des documents prepares par l’enseignant (plans de cours, donnees sur les resultats des eleves, examens par les pairs, auto-evaluations, etc.) (Pont et al. World Gnp? , 2008). En France, ou le degre d’autonomie des etablissements est moindre, l’intervention plus importante des chefs d’etablissement dans l’activite des enseignants ne laisse pas indifferent. The Relation Essay? La liberte pedagogique des enseignants est toujours affirmee et mise en avant par les organisations enseignantes pour refuser une plus grande implication des chefs d’etablissement au niveau pedagogique.

En effet, deux discours s’affrontent (Hassani Meuret, 2010) : le discours critique : il y a un risque de deprofessionnalisation des enseignants, les enseignants sont « proletarises » et demoralises par la perte de sens de leur metier. Analysis? Ils refusent l’application de « l’ideologie neoliberale » a l’ecole. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay Example? le discours modernisateur : les enseignants deviennent des praticiens reflexifs et sont engages dans une dynamique collective au sein de l’etablissement. Fool's? L’Etat est un Etat regulateur et evaluateur. Des traditions nationales profondement ancrees. Les manieres de recruter les chefs d’etablissement restent marquees par les traditions nationales ; elles mettent au jour des relations complexes entre direction et enseignement. The Relation And Language Essay? Ils sont frequemment recrutes parmi les enseignants et entrent dans la fonction a l’apogee d’une carriere d’enseignement, meme si c’est moins vrai en Angleterre et que ce n’est plus une obligation en France. Le concours de recrutement est tres centralise en France et en Italie, le postulat etant qu’un bon leader sera bon quel que soit l’etablissement dans lequel il officie. Perennialism? En Angleterre, les chefs d’etablissements repondent a des annonces dans un journal specialise, ils passent ensuite des tests avec des criteres qui varient d’un poste a l’autre ; la connaissance du contexte local s’avere un atout important.

Au Portugal, le chef d’etablissement est elu pour une duree de quatre ans par une assemblee mixte comprenant entre autres des enseignants ; s’il n’est pas reelu, il redevient enseignant. Identity Essay? Contrairement a l’Italie et la France, le concept de mutation n’existe pas en Angleterre ni au Portugal (Barzano, 2011). Les responsabilites du chef d’etablissement et le niveau d’autonomie dont il dispose varient fortement d’un pays a l’autre, mais aussi parfois d’un etablissement a l’autre. Fool's? Ses attributions sont en effet plus ou moins reglementees. The Relation Identity And Language Example? Si le Royaume-Uni dispose d’un cadre professionnel tres elabore et detaille, la legislation en Autriche demeure plus evasive. Employability Essay? Dans les pays nordiques, a l’exclusion de la Suede, en Belgique flamande et aux Pays-Bas, le cadre legislatif est quasiment inexistant (Pont et al. Identity Essay Example? , 2008).

« En Finlande, le chef d’etablissement est un Forestandare – c’est-a-dire celui qui represente l’etablissement. Character? Au Danemark, il est l’Inspektor, celui qui supervise. Between And Language Example? En Suede, le chef d’etablissement est celui qui detient les plus hautes responsabilites dans les ecoles confessionnelles, et il porte le titre de Rektor depuis la fin du XIIIe siecle. Perennialism Education? Au Royaume-Uni, les chefs d’etablissement sont des head teachers. The Relation Identity Essay Example? » (Pont et al. Mergers? , 2008). Dans de nombreux pays, les chefs d’etablissement sont consideres comme des primus inter-pares , c’est-a-dire des enseignants qui se distinguent des autres par le nombre de responsabilites qu’ils assument. Identity? En France et en Angleterre, ils sont les superieurs hierarchiques des enseignants, mais pas en Italie ni au Portugal (Barzano, 2011). Character Analysis? Ils remplissent egalement tres souvent des fonctions d’enseignement, en particulier dans les ecoles primaires et dans les etablissements ou les effectifs sont peu importants : c’est le cas en Angleterre, en Autriche, en Belgique (flamande et francophone), en Ecosse, en Espagne, en France, en Irlande et en Nouvelle-Zelande par exemple (Pont et al. The Relation Between Identity And Language Example? , 2008).

En France, le role du chef d’etablissement a ete redefini avec la creation en 1985 des Etablissements publics locaux d’enseignement (EPLE), notamment pour ce qui concerne le domaine pedagogique. Gold Essay? Avec l’autonomie croissante des etablissements, les prerogatives de l’inspection diminuent. Between Example? Le chef d’etablissement joue alors un role de regulateur des activites de son etablissement (Hassani, 2007). Character Analysis? Il faut attendre la loi d’orientation de 1989 pour que les chefs d’etablissement se voient attribuer davantage de pouvoirs concernant notamment la relation avec les partenaires exterieurs, la vie scolaire, l’orientation et l’insertion des eleves (Dutercq, 2006). The Relation Identity And Language Example? Le referentiel du metier de chef d’etablissement (2000) precise que, s’il lui revient de conduire la politique pedagogique et educative de l’etablissement et s’il est le garant de l’efficacite pedagogique, ses responsabilites concernent malgre tout la peripherie de l’acte pedagogique (l’orientation, l’evaluation, l’assiduite) et non son c?ur dont l’evaluation revient a l’inspecteur pedagogique regional (Hassani Meuret, 2010). Des contextes locaux qui influent egalement sur l’activite des chefs d’etablissement. Outre les caracteristiques propres a la population scolaire accueillie (ses origines sociales en particulier), les criteres les plus discriminants sont lies a l’ecole meme : sa situation geographique, sa taille, le fait qu’elle soit ou non publique, le type de formation propose et le niveau d’enseignement concerne. Dans les ecoles primaires, le directeur est generalement plus proche des enseignants et des eleves, plus implique dans les questions d’ordre pedagogique, alors que dans les grands etablissements secondaires, son role en matiere de pedagogie est plus indirect, il s’appuie davantage sur les instances et les professeurs principaux par exemple (Leithwood, 2005).

Une profession qui doit devenir plus attrayante. Une profession vieillissante, surmenee et peu valorisee. D’apres les travaux de l’OCDE (Pont et al. And Protean? , 2008), l’effectif des chefs d’etablissement peut varier de 250 a 55000 personnes selon les pays, et se situe majoritairement en deca de 5000. The Relation Identity And Language Essay Example? Cet effectif reduit, issu essentiellement des ecoles primaires, plus nombreuses, compose une profession vieillissante et peu feminisee. Mergers? Dans des pays tels que la Coree, la Belgique (Communaute francaise) et le Danemark, plus de 75% des chefs d’etablissements sont ages de plus de 50 ans. Between? Les femmes chefs d’etablissement, sur-representees dans les ecoles primaires, sont en revanche sous-representees dans les etablissements secondaires dans une grande majorite de pays. 15 pays, sur les 22 qui ont participe au programme de l’OCDE, signalent un nombre de candidatures inferieur au nombre de postes publies. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Les motifs evoques pour expliquer la desaffection sont : « l’image negative associee a ce poste, la surcharge de travail et de responsabilites, l’absence de preparation et de formation, ainsi que le niveau insuffisant des traitements et remunerations. The Relation And Language Essay Example? » (Pont et al. Gold Essay? , 2008). Le nombre et la variete des exigences de la profession soulevent en effet de nombreuses questions. Between Identity And Language Essay? En Angleterre, les chefs d’etablissement effectuent des horaires hebdomadaires souvent longs (54h dans le primaire et 65h dans le secondaire en moyenne) ; 61% d’entre eux evoquent un desequilibre entre leur vie professionnelle et leur vie privee (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007).

En Nouvelle Zelande, les reformes recentes en matiere de leadership ont eu pour effet d’allonger de 10 heures par semaine le temps de travail des chefs d’etablissement et d’accroitre les tensions entre les obligations administratives et les attributions pedagogiques dans la gestion des priorites (Wylie, 2007). Dans ce contexte de fragilite, il importe que les pays se mobilisent pour preparer la releve et saisissent cette opportunite pour recruter et former une nouvelle generation de chefs d’etablissements, mieux sensibilises aux questions de leadership. Gold? Pour limiter la desaffection dont souffre cette profession, plusieurs actions peuvent etre entreprises a l’echelle meme du systeme : un renouvellement des modes de recrutement visant plus de transparence et de coherence, avec des criteres bases sur une evaluation plus diversifiee des candidats, permettant par exemple de reduire l’importance accordee a l’anciennete ; une revalorisation des baremes de remuneration ; des formations initiales et des modalites de formation continue qui soutiennent la professionnalite ; un role reconnu des organisations professionnelles de chefs d’etablissement dans la reforme de la profession et dans la dissemination des pratiques ; des perspectives d’evolution professionnelle et de mobilite mieux formalisees (Pont et al. Between Essay? , 2008). Une mobilisation forte des Etats et des associations professionnelles. Nombre d’associations professionnelles sont aujourd’hui mobilisees pour definir et promouvoir des outils et ressources susceptibles de soutenir la professionnalisation des chefs d’etablissement. Abortion Is Murdering? La creation en 2010 de l’ Australian Institute for Essay Teaching and is murdering School Leadership temoigne de l’interet australien pour la promotion de l’excellence au travers de normes partagees par la profession. The Relation Between Identity Essay? L’association nationale americaine New Leaders accompagne les ecoles dans la mise en ?uvre de leurs politiques et de leurs pratiques de leadership, et s’appuie notamment sur le programme Urban Excellence Framework qui s’attache a disseminer ce que font les « leaders » dans les bonnes ecoles pour faire reussir leurs eleves.

Le National College for abortion is murdering School Leadership en Angleterre joue un role cle dans la definition du cadre reglementaire de la profession et dans la conception d’une offre de formation a l’echelle nationale. En Europe, le reseau European Qualification Network for The Relation Identity and Language example Effective School Leadership joue egalement un role cle dans la dissemination des pratiques de leadership, tandis que le reseau d’experts European Policy Network on pharmaceuticals mergers School Leadership , recemment cree par la Commission europeenne, cherche a developper des synergies plus etroites entre les decideurs, les chercheurs et les professionnels du leadership. Une des actions concretes pour revaloriser la profession consiste a concevoir un referentiel metier . The Relation Identity And Language? Ces referentiels servent a fixer les caracteristiques, taches et responsabilites des chefs d’etablissement efficaces. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Ils jettent les bases d’une demarche coherente de recrutement, de formation et d’evaluation des chefs d’etablissements, et cherchent a definir les principaux domaines de responsabilite, sans evacuer les elements propres au contexte local et en y incluant potentiellement les responsabilites des enseignants (Ingvarson et al. The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? , 2006). Plusieurs pays se sont d’ores et deja dotes de tels referentiels : c’est le cas en Ecosse, en Irlande du Nord, aux Pays-Bas, au Danemark et en Nouvelle-Zelande. Abortion? Ces referentiels doivent miser sur l’engagement plus que sur la conformite pour devenir des principes reellement structurants pour la profession. Between Identity And Language Example? Il importe donc qu’ils soient concus et mis a jour avec les chefs d’etablissements eux memes, comme c’est le cas aux Pays-Bas (Pont et al. Fool's Essay? , 2008).

Comment recruter, former et accompagner les chefs d’etablissement ? Jusqu’a recemment, peu de systemes educatifs exigeaient une qualification pour entrer dans la carriere et la formation initiale, quand elle existait, n’articulait pas toujours efficacement les contenus de formation avec les realites du metier. Between And Language Example? Recemment, les reformes engagees dans plusieurs pays ont fait une priorite explicite de la formation et du developpement professionnel des chefs d’etablissements, en rapport avec l’amelioration des performances des etablissements et des resultats des eleves (Schleicher, 2012). L’existence de dispositifs de formation exerce une influence sur les pratiques professionnelles des chefs d’etablissement ; ces dispositifs impactent indirectement la reussite des eleves en favorisant de meilleures dynamiques d’enseignement et d’apprentissage, comme le demontre l’etude de Darling-Hammond (2007) sur les programmes de formation initiale identifies comme « exemplaires ». Abortion? L’enquete longitudinale realisee sur 35 etablissements suedois par Blossing Ekholm (2005), met en evidence l’impact de la formation des chefs d’etablissement sur le developpement du travail collaboratif des enseignants. The Relation Between Identity Essay? D’autres etudes montrent que les etablissements s’ameliorent plus vite quand leurs leaders ont beneficie d’une certification (Schleicher, 2012). Si les enjeux strategiques sont relativement convergents, les dispositifs deployes peuvent varier considerablement en fonction des contextes nationaux et locaux, et etre plus ou moins axes sur le recrutement, la formation et le perfectionnement des chefs d’etablissement. Tkam Analysis? En matiere de recrutement, plusieurs pays cherchent aujourd’hui a encourager les vocations en amont , en identifiant les enseignants presentant des aptitudes au leadership lors des evaluations individuelles, ou bien en proposant des seances d’initiation a tous ceux qui manifesteraient un interet pour ce type d’activite (Schleicher, 2012). Les dispositions relatives a la formation initiale des chefs d’etablissement sont generalement centralisees dans les pays dotes de systemes educatifs eux-memes centralises (Allemagne, France, Hong Kong et Singapour). Between Example? A l’autre extremite, en Nouvelle-Zelande et aux Pays-Bas, les etablissements disposent d’une forte autonomie et de nombreux programmes de formation sont proposes par les entreprises locales (Mulford, 2003).

Dans la majorite des pays, des mesures d’accompagnement existent. Tkam Analysis? Les evaluations des chefs d’etablissement, qu’elles relevent des autorites locales, de l’inspectorat ou des conseils d’etablissement, sont moins systematiques que les programmes de formation initiale et peu homogenes d’un pays a l’autre. Between And Language? Certains pays privilegient l’examen des performances des etablissements, d’autres s’attachent davantage aux resultats des eleves et a la maniere dont ces resultats sont utilises pour progresser (Schleicher, 2012). Diverses formes d’accompagnement telles que le mentorat et le tutorat, qui ont fait leurs preuves aupres des enseignants (Davidson Jensen, 2009), peuvent etre mises au service du developpement professionnel des chefs d’etablissement. Fool's Essay? La tendance qui se dessine est de privilegier des formations en situation, sur le lieu de travail (Angleterre, France, Singapour, Afrique du Sud, etc.). Identity Essay? Des anciens chefs d’etablissement ou certains encore en activite sont impliques dans la formation, leurs savoir-faire sont sollicites (Bush, 2008). Aujourd’hui des pays tels que l’Angleterre, le Canada (Ontario), l’Irlande, l’Irlande du Nord, l’Ecosse et l’Australie (Victoria) ont opte pour une approche holistique. And Protean Career? Ils ont tous mis en ?uvre des programmes complexes allant de certifications initiales, a des modules et stages de formation continue en passant par des dispositifs d’accompagnement a la prise de fonction en debut de carriere. Between Example? Ces programmes sont souvent integres a des strategies plus globales pour ameliorer l’ecole et sont generalement concues par une institution ou une organisation nationale, telle que le National College for is murdering School Leadership en Angleterre (Schleicher, 2012). Repartition et delegation de pouvoirs : les structures et acteurs sollicites. Des equipes de direction et conseils d’etablissement elargis.

Au sein des etablissements, plusieurs structures de gouvernance peuvent etre identifiees, allant de l’equipe de direction au conseil d’administration en passant par divers autres conseils exercant des responsabilites plus ou moins fortes. Dans leurs travaux sur les etablissements scolaires anglais, Ranson et al. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay? (2005) identifient quatre types de structures de gouvernance qui se distinguent par les finalites et responsabilites, le rapport de forces entre le chef d’etablissement et le(s) conseil(s), et le niveau de professionnalisation dont les membres font preuve dans leurs deliberations et decisions : ces structures sont enceintes de deliberation, lieux de debats ; elles sont antichambres de consultation, le pouvoir decisionnaire restant la prerogative du chef d’etablissement ; elles agissent en tant que comite executif et sont juridiquement responsables de l’etablissement ; elles ont les fonctions d’un veritable organe de direction, avec un chef d’etablissement considere comme un simple membre. Les equipes de direction en tant que telles sont plus ou moins dotees en personnels, selon le nombre d’eleves scolarises dans l’etablissement. Abortion? Les chefs d’etablissement sont souvent secondes par des adjoints dont les attributions se concentrent sur certaines taches precises d’administration et de gestion. Between Identity? Dans des pays tels que le Chili et l’Angleterre, les equipes de direction sont composees d’une diversite de profils, permettant de prendre en charge de facon explicite la multiplicite des responsabilites en termes de budget, de ressources humaines et d’organisation pedagogique (Pont et al. Fool's? , 2008).

Dans certaines configurations, rares cependant, les equipes de direction travaillent de maniere repartie sur plusieurs etablissements, avec ou sans le soutien d’une structure exterieure. Essay Example? C’est le cas de l’experience menee par une municipalite finlandaise, rapportee par Hargreaves et al. Abortion Is Murdering? (2008) : il a ete demande a cinq chefs d’etablissement d’occuper une fonction de coordination a l’echelle du « district scolaire » pour un tiers de leur temps de travail et d’integrer l’equipe de direction municipale. Between Identity Essay Example? Le leadership a ainsi ete redistribue entre la municipalite et les etablissements ; les activites des chefs d’etablissement ont trouve un equilibre entre leur etablissement, les quatre autres etablissements et le district, alors que la reconfiguration des pouvoirs au sein des etablissements a ouvert de nouvelles perspectives en matiere d’apprentissage mutuel, chacun pouvant se specialiser dans un domaine d’expertise. Dans la plupart des pays de l’OCDE, les etablissements sont dotes de structures de gouvernance auxquelles sont associees les parents, les eleves, les enseignants et les membres de la communaute. Tkam Character? Ces conseils d’etablissement peuvent intervenir a trois niveaux : direction, gestion et strategie de l’etablissement. The Relation And Language? Leur role varie considerablement selon les pays, allant « d’une simple fonction consultative sur des questions de moindre importance a une mission plus vaste de developpement de la strategie de l’etablissement ». Essay? Dans certains pays, les responsabilites de ces conseils d’etablissement sont importantes, ils sont souvent partie prenante dans la nomination du chef d’etablissement (Belgique flamande, Irlande, Irlande du Nord, Nouvelle-Zelande, Danemark). Between Essay Example? Dans d’autres pays, elles sont a contrario relativement faibles et leur role reste purement consultatif (Espagne, Portugal). Tkam? Enfin, certains pays ont opte pour une approche a la fois decentralisee et responsabilisante : c’est le cas au Pays-Bas par exemple, ou les conseils d’etablissements, composes dans des proportions variees de professionnels et de benevoles, sont au final responsables de l’etablissement (Pont et al. The Relation? , 2008).

Au Pays de Galles, la decision la plus importante prise par le conseil d’administration est la nomination du chef d’etablissement. World Gnp? En Nouvelle-Zelande, suite a une reforme recente, les missions des conseils d’administration ont ete elargies et leurs membres beneficient desormais d’un accompagnement et peuvent egalement suivre une formation. Between Essay Example? En Angleterre, tous les membres des conseils d’administration doivent etre formes (Wylie, 2007). Gold Essay? En Italie, une assemblee d’enseignants a des pouvoirs deliberatifs qui vient contrebalancer le pouvoir du chef d’etablissement. The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Par contre, les autorites locales ne participent pas directement a la vie de l’etablissement (Barzano, 2011). Quelles que soient les configurations et les attributions de ces structures, les recherches s’accordent le plus souvent pour en signaler les faiblesses suivantes : des missions peu claires , assorties de responsabilites souvent trop nombreuses ou trop importantes pour des personnels partiellement benevoles ; des tensions frequentes entre le chef d’etablissement et les differents conseils ; une participation et une implication souvent limitees des membres, liees en partie a un manque de competences (Pont et al. Abortion Is Murdering? , 2008). Between And Language Essay Example? Peu d’etudes probantes permettent toutefois de mesurer l’impact de ces conseils sur l’amelioration des etablissements scolaires, meme en Angleterre ou le leadership beneficie d’importantes ressources pour se deployer. Is Murdering? De meme, la question des synergies entre equipe de direction et equipe enseignante reste complexe a mettre en ?uvre en France (AFAE, 2010). Les enseignants sont de plus en plus amenes a exercer des responsabilites officielles en matiere d’encadrement, meme si celles-ci restent le plus souvent mal definies statutairement. The Relation And Language Example? Il n’est pas rare que les associations professionnelles soutiennent activement cet elargissement des activites enseignantes (Bangs MacBeath, 2012). En Nouvelle-Zelande, les « enseignants specialistes » apportent un soutien pedagogique a leurs collegues.

En Belgique, les enseignants du secondaire peuvent reserver 3% de leurs heures d’enseignement au maximum a des fonctions pedagogiques specifiques. And Protean? En Angleterre, des postes nouveaux ont ete crees : les middle teachers coordonnent les enseignements disciplinaires ; les learning managers analysent les performances et preconisent des interventions ciblees ; les advanced skills teachers fonctionnent comme des mentors aupres de collegues novices (Pont et al. The Relation Between Essay Example? , 2008). La posture du praticien reflexif , encouragee dans plusieurs pays, contribue a une forme de distribution du leadership. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Au Japon, il existe des adjoints formels et des adjoints informels. The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? En Finlande, les enseignants sont en posture de recherche permanente, proposent des plans de formation qui sont negocies en fonction du projet d’etablissement. Perennialism? Au Royaume-Uni et en Suede, on Between and Language Essay example favorise la circulation des savoirs et le soutien professionnel (Laderriere, 2008). Parallelement a ces responsabilites intermediaires, occupees de facon plus ou moins formelle, emergent d’autres fonctions plus etroitement associees au pilotage de l’etablissement.

C’est le cas, par exemple en Angleterre, des assistant head-teachers qui sont integres a l’equipe de direction. Fool's Essay? C’est aussi le cas en Australie, avec des teacher leaders qui animent des equipes ou sont responsables d’une matiere ou d’un niveau comme les coordonnateurs disciplinaires en France. Aux Etats-Unis, les teacher leaders peuvent etre appeles a jouer un role cle dans l’implementation d’une reforme , en servant d’interface entre les autorites locales chargees de l’education et les etablissements. The Relation Essay Example? Leur proximite avec les personnels de l’etablissement leur procure un certain avantage pour relayer les attentes de l’autorite locale, tandis que cette derniere parvient, par leur intermediaire, a influer davantage sur les pratiques pedagogiques de l’etablissement (Firestone Martinez, 2009). Le « teacher leadership » mobilise aujourd’hui des chercheurs du monde entier, comme en temoigne le projet International Teacher Leadership (ITL) mene par l’universite de Cambridge. Mergers? L’existence d’associations telles que le Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium aux Etats-Unis, rassemblant a la fois les institutions de recherche et les syndicats professionnels, est egalement une illustration de l’interet porte au leadership enseignant. Le theme n’est pourtant pas nouveau. The Relation Between Identity? Nombre de recherches americaines ont mis en evidence, des les annees 1990, la combinaison fructueuse entre leadership des enseignants, collaboration des enseignants et renforcement des capacites ( capacity building ) au niveau des etablissements. Gold? Le teacher leader peut etre investi de responsabilites formelles ou informelles ; dans tous les cas, il fait preuve d’une forte capacite a collaborer. Au Royaume-Uni, le concept de « teacher leader » a connu une destinee plus chaotique, et s’est repandu, depuis une dizaine d’annees, plus ou moins en marge des principaux travaux sur le leadership scolaire. The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? Cette difficulte a acquerir une legitimite s’explique a la fois par un certain flou conceptuel, qui permet mal d’apprehender les frontieres entre leadership enseignant et formation continue des enseignants, et par la remise en cause potentielle de formes de leadership plus conventionnelles ou la repartition des roles est plus explicite (Harris, 2003).

4. Si la plupart des recherches sur ces responsabilites des enseignants en soulignent l’importance dans le cadre d’un leadership distribue, visant un renforcement des capacites de direction strategique, l’exercice de ces responsabilites demeure une pratique mal definie, caracterisee par un investissement souvent faible en termes de formation et de valorisation des personnels concernes (Pont et al. Pharmaceuticals? , 2008). Les travaux menes dans le cadre de l’ International Teacher Leadership project se concentrent sur les moyens a mettre en ?uvre pour soutenir les enseignants leaders de l’innovation : 15 pays participants et 15 recommandations au final, permettant de discerner quels programmes seraient efficaces dans cette perspective et comment les enseignants peuvent constituer des points d’appui pour l’implementation des reformes (Frost, 2011). Du leadership distribue au leadership systemique ? Un horizon commun, des conceptions et pratiques diversifiees. Normand (2010) distingue plusieurs modalites de leadership : transformational leadership : une action collective, impulsee par le chef d’etablissement, pour promouvoir une culture de la cooperation au sein des equipes pedagogiques ; distributed leadership : des interactions multiples, dans differents « espaces-temps » de l’etablissement scolaire, au service de la reussite des eleves ; une action concertee ou les enseignants collaborent et agissent collectivement pour ajuster, innover et changer leurs pratiques ; systemic leadership : en lien avec de nouvelles formes de gouvernance locale, concretisees par un engagement des chefs d’etablissement au dela de leur etablissement propre, qui devient l’element d’une communaute professionnelle d’apprentissage plus large. D’apres les travaux experimentaux de Spillane et al. Example? (2009), le leadership dans les etablissements scolaires etudies est effectivement distribue : il est reparti sur de multiples acteurs, que ceux-ci soient officiellement investis d’une mission de leadership ou non. Employability And Protean Career? Ce peut etre des enseignants, mais aussi dans une moindre mesure des eleves. And Language Essay Example? Mais le degre de repartition depend du type d’activite (administrative ou curriculaire par exemple) et varie d’un etablissement a l’autre. Plusieurs conceptions du leadership distribue peuvent etre identifiees. Essay? Dans une premiere, il correspond a la somme des interventions qui relevent de la fonction de direction ; cette conception « quantitative » va alors de pair avec des roles identifies au sein d’une organisation hierarchique. Between? Les modalites de mise en ?uvre sont multiples mais se basent toujours sur une delegation de pouvoirs du chef d’etablissement aux gestionnaires et aux enseignants.

Dans une seconde, le leardership comme action concertee est superieur a la somme des parties. Essay? Independamment des postes ou des roles, il s’agit de mobiliser a bon escient les competences disponibles dans l’etablissement pour repondre a un besoin dans un contexte precis, et de privilegier les initiatives (Pont et al. And Language Essay? , 2008). Gold? Dans une troisieme enfin, ce ne sont pas les competences des individus qui fondent la concertation, mais les interactions et interdependances entre les personnes et les situations : « une perspective distribuee sur l’activite humaine oblige a depasser l’activite individuelle pour reflechir aux facons dont la situation materielle, culturelle et sociale la permet, l’informe et la contraint ». The Relation And Language Essay? Autrement dit, la bonne unite d’analyse n’est ni l’acteur ni le groupe d’acteurs mais l’interaction des leaders, des affilies et leur situation respective ; une approche par les (macro) fonctions et les (micro) taches est a privilegier par rapport a une definition basee sur les roles (Spillane et al. Education? , 2008). L’examen des pratiques de repartition des fonctions de direction en Angleterre a permis de dresser une typologie des differentes strategies deployees dans les etablissements scolaires (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007) : dans le modele traditionnel , frequent dans les ecoles primaires, l’equipe de direction est composee d’un directeur seconde par un ou plusieurs adjoints et par des enseignants qualifies formellement impliques ; dans le modele gere, plus frequent dans les ecoles secondaires et plus flexible, la structure de direction peut inclure un personnel experimente et encourage l’adoption de methodes plus innovantes ; le modele a instances multiples , variante du modele gere, combine une grande diversite de profils dans l’equipe de direction et un mode de fonctionnement qui s’appuie sur des instances plus nombreuses, permettant de faciliter l’acces des familles a des services d’aide varies ; le modele federe se caracterise par une collaboration inter-etablissements, avec la mise en place potentielle d’un organe exterieur de direction ; le modele de direction a l’echelle du systeme educatif, avec des chefs d’etablissement qui interviennent dans des structures susceptibles d’influer sur le systeme educatif meme. Pour Barrere (2007), le leadership de l’etablissement ne doit pas rester cantonne aux bureaux de l’equipe de direction : il est necessaire de « mettre en conflit » a l’interieur de l’etablissement des positions pedagogiques ainsi que des problemes de gestion de classe. Example? Les reponses doivent etre trouvees collectivement. Bouvier (2007) affirme lui aussi l’importance du travail collectif au niveau des enseignants, qui favorise la reflexivite. Mergers? Dans ce cadre, le projet pedagogique et le conseil pedagogique prennent tout leur sens.

Pour lui, le pilotage pedagogique doit etre partage dans l’etablissement entre les enseignants et les cadres afin de se fixer des objectifs communs portant sur les acquis des eleves, leur savoir-faire, leurs competences. The Relation Between Identity? Les instances existantes n’ont de valeur que si elles sont mobilisees dans un esprit de partage des responsabilites. C’est aussi le point de vue defendu par Pair (2007) qui distingue differents types de pilotage : hierarchique et administratif (controle de conformite de l’application des regles) ; corporatiste (par les enseignants, mais qui exclut de fait les usagers) ; par objectifs et resultats (en coherence avec l’esprit de la Lolf). World Gnp? Il preconise plutot un pilotage concerte, bati sur le dialogue entre les differents acteurs. And Language? « Les relations avec les usagers doivent se fonder sur la responsabilite envers eux » mais cette responsabilite ne peut porter que sur les resultats. Abortion Is Murdering? « L’obligation de moyens ne suffit plus, mais l’obligation de resultats ne peut etre totale ». Between Identity Example? Il faut fixer des objectifs, evaluer des resultats, apporter des corrections avec les partenaires (dont les parents). Abortion Is Murdering? De meme, il convient de developper une culture commune (chefs d’etablissement et enseignants) dans une « societe apprenante ». The Relation Between Identity Example? C’est ce qu’il appelle une « regulation par le sens ». Les debats du colloque 2010 de l’AFAE montrent la necessite d’avoir une culture et des valeurs communes, qui sont rarement explicitees, et qui patissent du fosse existant entre le pedagogique et l’administratif. Perennialism Education? Quenet plaide pour une presence accrue des inspecteurs dans les etablissements et pour une politique de gestion des ressources humaines plus efficace, associant les autorites locales et les chefs d’etablissement. Between Example? Il appelle aussi a la facilitation des relations (horizontales et verticales) et du partage d’informations au sein des etablissements. Essay? A cet egard, la creation des conseils pedagogiques et le recours aux ENT peut s’averer positif. The Relation Between Identity And Language? Il est possible aussi d’imaginer des « fonctions intermediaires » pour dynamiser la concertation.

Le chef d’etablissement doit etre un « leader a l’expertise reconnue. Employability And Protean? Il doit etre creatif, flexible s’adaptant au contexte local pour creer les conditions d’une confiance reciproque par un management participatif et une evaluation collective et partagee des resultats ». The Relation And Language Example? L’evaluation et la formation sont des elements cles de ce type de leadership (Quenet, 2010). Pour van Zanten (2010), le modele « charismatique », centre sur le pouvoir du chef d’etablissement, est trop pregnant en France, au detriment du modele « managerial », qui privilegie les competences aux qualites personnelles. Abortion Is Murdering? Si le rapprochement necessaire entre direction et enseignants plaide pour l’adoption de ce dernier, ce modele se heurte a une double resistance en France : le fait que le pays ne se soit pas totalement affranchi de son systeme bureaucratique et le fait que les enseignants cherchent a preserver une autonomie individuelle qui ne soutient pas necessairement la progression de tous les eleves. Between Identity Essay Example? L’autonomie doit devenir « collective » pour peser a la fois sur le fonctionnement des etablissements mais aussi sur la reussite des eleves. Le leadership distribue semble faire consensus. Plusieurs travaux de recherche montrent que la repartition des fonctions de direction est necessaire pour que les etablissements soient capables d’ameliorer leurs resultats et que l’impact est particulierement marque dans les etablissements qui accueillent une population scolaire en difficulte (Leithwood et al. World Gnp? , 2010). The Relation Between Essay? Pour certains, la participation active et collective des personnels au fonctionnement de l’etablissement constitue la garantie de son developpement comme organisation apprenante ; et c’est en tant qu’organisation apprenante que l’etablissement s’ameliore et reussit (Elmore, 2008). Mais d’une facon generale, peu de recherches ont veritablement interroge cette influence. Fool's Gold Essay? Pour Bennett et al. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay Example? (2003), qui ont realise une analyse exhaustive de la litterature, l’impact du leadership distribue sur l’ecole reste plus indicatif que probant. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Anderson et al. And Language Essay Example? (2009) et Hallinger Heck (2010) estiment que meme s’il est difficile de trouver un lien entre un modele particulier de leadership distribue et l’amelioration des resultats des etudiants, il semble que le fait de partager le leadership au sein de l’etablissement soit un facteur favorisant l’apprentissage des eleves.

D’apres Leithwood et al. Analysis? (2006), les responsabilites du chef d’etablissement se trouvent etendues et non pas diminuees par l’influence des autres acteurs. The Relation Example? Ils estiment aussi qu’ une coordination explicite des pratiques est plus efficace qu’une repartition plus informelle , meme s’il ne s’agit pas d’exclure totalement de s’appuyer sur les competences plus que sur les postes. Employability? Dumay (2009) confirme qu’un mode de gestion directif, avec des objectifs clairs et des ressources adequates, influencent davantage la reussite des eleves qu’un mode de coordination centree sur des normes locales. Les etablissements de petite taille, de loin les plus nombreux, sont ceux qui beneficient le plus de ces pratiques de leadership distribue. The Relation And Language Example? On y observe souvent une double charge et des conflits d’interet entre ce qui releve du pilotage et de la gestion d’une part et ce qui touche a la pedagogie d’autre part.

Agir en priorite sur ces conflits d’interet represente une bonne pratique (Ewington et al. World Gnp? , 2008). Les travaux de Frost, dans le cadre du projet International Teacher Leadership , confirment que les enseignants qui exercent des responsabilites « pedagogiques », en lien avec les programmes, l’evaluation et le comportement des eleves au sein de leur etablissement, dans un cadre qui beneficie du soutien des autorites nationales et ou regionales, influencent positivement la qualite des interventions pedagogiques de l’ensemble des enseignants, qui se repercute alors sur les resultats des eleves (Frost, 2011). Quel cout du leadership distribue ? En Angleterre, le developpement du leadership distribue a pu avoir pour corollaire une augmentation de la masse salariale au niveau de l’equipe de direction, partiellement compensee par des economies dans d’autres domaines. Between Identity And Language Example? L’augmentation de salaire pour ceux charges de ces responsabilites supplementaires n’a pas ete systematique ; certains ont beneficie d’un allegement de leur charge d’enseignement. En Nouvelle-Zelande, chaque etablissement secondaire dispose d’un nombre d’unites de valeur a repartir entre les personnels en reconnaissance des responsabilites supplementaires qu’ils ont exercees.

En Irlande du Nord, cinq indemnites sont prevues pour recompenser les enseignants qui s’investissent sur des questions d’enseignement ou d’apprentissage : pour encadrer une matiere ou une partie du programme, pour gerer les progres globaux des eleves, pour intervenir sur le parcours scolaire des eleves de leurs collegues, pour developper les pratiques pedagogiques des autres categories de personnels. Perennialism? Ces systemes de points constituent un moyen efficace de mobiliser des cadres intermediaires sur des fonctions de direction plus ou moins ponctuelles, en reponse a des besoins specifiques (Pont et al. And Language? , 2008). Le leadership distribue ne diminue pas la charge de travail du chef d’etablissement : il lui revient d’organiser cette distribution, coordonner les personnes, encadrer le travail, etc. World Gnp? (Leithwood et al. The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? , 2009). Les conditions d’un effet positif sur les apprentissages. Les recherches montrent que les chefs d’etablissement peuvent faire une difference au niveau des performances de leur etablissement et des resultats des eleves s’ils jouissent d’une plus grande autonomie dans la prise de decision (Thibert, 2011). L’etendue des pouvoirs de decision des chefs d’etablissement, variables d’un pays a l’autre comme le montrent les travaux de l’OCDE (2007), n’est toutefois pas une condition suffisante pour ameliorer l’encadrement. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Il importe que leurs responsabilites fondamentales soient mieux definies et delimitees, et qu’elles s’integrent dans des modeles d’organisation bases sur une meilleure repartition de l’encadrement, sur des programmes de formation initiale et continue adaptes et sur un soutien effectif a tous les niveaux du systeme educatif. Certains domaines d’actions en matiere de leadership ont une plus grande incidence que d’autres sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Example? L’OCDE recense quatre types de responsabilites essentiels pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves (Pont et al. Tkam Analysis? , 2008) : une volonte de promouvoir, d’evaluer et d’ameliorer la qualite des enseignants, premier facteur d’impact sur les resultats des eleves au niveau de l’etablissement ; un effort pour definir des objectifs educatifs et mettre en ?uvre pour l’etablissement des modes d’evaluation performants permettant de mesurer les performances individuelles et globales ; une utilisation strategique des ressources financieres et humaines ; un engagement de la direction au dela du perimetre de l’etablissement : collaboration avec d’autres etablissements scolaires, avec les parents, les associations, les collectivites, les services publics de sante et l’aide sociale, les entreprises locales par exemple (cf. Essay Example? travaux de Fullan et Hargreaves). Promouvoir, evaluer et ameliorer le travail des enseignants.

Ces responsabilites peuvent etre appreciees a partir de ce qui se passe dans les etablissements, notamment en matiere de gestion des programmes scolaires, d’evaluation et de formation continue des enseignants ainsi que des collaborations existantes. Les recentes analyses basees sur les donnees de PISA mettent au jour une correlation positive entre le fait d’accorder une certaine latitude aux etablissements pour gerer les programmes d’enseignement et les resultats des eleves (OCDE, 2007 ; Goldring et al. Tkam Character Analysis? , 2007). Between And Language Essay? La meta-analyse de Robinson et al. World Gnp? (2009) confirme que la supervision des programmes, via la coordination et l’harmonisation des objectifs scolaires dans l’ensemble des classes et des niveaux, peut impacter les resultats des eleves. Between Identity Essay Example? Avec Marzano et al. Essay? (2006), l’implication directe des chefs d’etablissement dans l’elaboration et la mise en ?uvre des programmes scolaires est consideree comme l’une des pratiques d’encadrement ayant une influence significative. Evaluation et formation continue des enseignants. Les enquetes PISA montrent que les performances des eleves sont meilleures la ou les chefs d’etablissement jouent un role effectif dans les regulations pedagogiques (au niveau des cours par des observations, notamment) (Pont et al. The Relation Between And Language Example? , 2008). World Gnp? D’autres etudes montrent que l’implication du chef d’etablissement dans le feedback fait aux enseignants sur leurs pratiques et dans l’observation en classe, semble associee a de meilleurs resultats scolaires (Robinson et al. Between Identity And Language Essay Example? , 2009), surtout quand les enseignants sont responsabilises, a travers un suivi opere par le chef d’etablissement et des inspecteurs externes (Woessmann et al. Pharmaceuticals? , 2007).

Mais ces pratiques sont rarement systematisees du fait du manque de moyens dont disposent les chefs d’etablissement et les autres cadres pour proceder a des evaluations formelles. Pour Robinson et al. Identity And Language? (2009), le developpement des activites de formation continue et de perfectionnement des enseignants reste la dimension du leadership la plus fortement correlee a de meilleurs resultats scolaires. Essay? Pour Leithwood et al. The Relation And Language Essay? (2006) et Marzano et al. Essay? (2006), il importe que ces programmes de perfectionnement soient completes par un soutien moins formel : la reconnaissance des realisations individuelles ainsi que la connaissance des personnes sont considerees comme des pratiques essentielles pour un encadrement efficace. Dans cette perspective, de nombreuses etudes soulignent les insuffisances des dispositifs de formation initiale et continue des enseignants (Feyfant, 2010), malgre des tentatives pour une plus forte convergence entre les besoins des etablissements et ceux des enseignants. La tendance actuelle serait au renforcement de la marge de man?uvre des etablissements avec une generalisation des activites de perfectionnement au sein de l’etablissement, auxquelles la majeure partie des enseignants participerait, et une marginalisation des formations individuelles.

De tels dispositifs permettant aux chefs d’etablissement de proposer et coordonner localement le perfectionnement utile aux enseignants, pourraient beneficier d’un transfert des budgets de formation au niveau des etablissements (Pont et al. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay? , 2008). Developpement du travail collaboratif. L’attention portee aux collaborations constitue une responsabilite de plus en plus importante des chefs d’etablissement, en particulier dans les pays du Nord de l’Europe ou le corps enseignant est habitue a de telles pratiques. Tkam? Le chef d’etablissement joue un role cle dans le developpement d’une culture collective au service d’une organisation apprenante en constante redefinition (Sherp Sherp, 2006 cite par Pont et al. Between Identity And Language? , 2008). World Gnp? Les chefs d’etablissement consideres comme les plus performants « consacrent plus de temps a dire aux enseignants ce qu’ils pensent de leur travail et encouragent plus frequemment la reflexion avec leur personnel ». Between Identity And Language Essay? Ce sont les principes de collegialite, de responsabilites collectives et d’objectifs communs qui prevalent, ainsi que tous les processus de perfectionnement, de reflexion et d’amelioration de la qualite. World Gnp? L’enseignement n’est plus l’affaire d’un individu isole dans sa classe, mais s’entend comme un ensemble d’activites collegiales, transparentes et concertees (Leithwood et al. The Relation Identity Example? , 2006 ; Stoll Louis, 2007). En ce qui concerne la France, Hassani Meuret (2010) distinguent quatre types d’etablissement en fonction de leur facon d’apprehender la cooperation entre les enseignants et l’intervention du chef d’etablissement dans la regulation de leur travail : type 1 (29,5% des etablissements) : « fortement collectif et fortement regule » . World Gnp? Le chef d’etablissement et les enseignants discutent des performances des eleves, des moyens de les ameliorer, prennent des decisions pedagogiques. Between Identity Essay Example? Il existe des rencontres informelles avec le chef d’etablissement assez frequentes, etc.; type 2 (15,4 %) : « individuel / laissez-faire » . Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Il y a peu de collectif et peu d’intervention du chef d’etablissement ; type 3 (48,3 %) : « moyennement collectif et moyennement regule » . And Language? C’est de loin le type le plus represente.

Il existe des reunions par classe ou par discipline environ deux fois par an perennialism education ; les chefs d’etablissement discutent quelquefois avec les enseignants. Example? Il y a peu de rencontres informelles entre la direction et les enseignants ; type 4 (6,8 %) : « individuel / interventionniste » . Employability Career Essay? Il n’y a pratiquement pas de collectif mais les chefs d’etablissement rencontrent assez souvent les enseignants (trois fois par an) pour parler du projet d’etablissement ou de l’etablissement de facon generale. Le resultat de cette enquete confirme la these d’une nouvelle professionnalite : la cooperation entre les enseignants est correlee avec l’engagement de chef d’etablissement dans la regulation des activites des enseignants. Si plus des deux tiers des chefs d’etablissement se sentent legitimes pour intervenir de facon significative aupres des enseignants dans le but de favoriser les progres chez les eleves, les enseignants seraient, d’apres une enquete syndicale, 70% a le refuser. The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Ceci expliquerait en partie le « malaise » des chefs d’etablissement comme celui des enseignants. Gold? Hassani Meuret (2010) plaident pour une « conjugaison du modele de la communaute professionnelle et de la regulation par le chef d’etablissement » : « Un cercle vertueux peut s’enclencher, dans lequel le chef d’etablissement favorise une cooperation entre les enseignants d’ou emerge un ethos collectif au nom duquel le chef d’etablissement peut reguler l’activite de ses enseignants et ainsi eloigner le spectre du petit chef ». Cette double culture (cooperation et regulation) est a construire en interne et en externe (Bouvier, 2007) et necessite une nouvelle culture de l’evaluation (Normand, 2007). Definir des objectifs et promouvoir des modes d’evaluation performants. Differents cadres d’evaluation peuvent etre convoques aujourd’hui par les chefs d’etablissements : des mecanismes externes, tels que les tests standardises nationaux et internationaux et les actions menees par l’Inspection et des mecanismes internes bases sur les indicateurs de resultats des eleves et sur l’auto-evaluation des etablissements (Thibert, 2011).

Deux tiers des pays membres de l’OCDE disposent d’une reglementation stipulant que les etablissements doivent etre inspectes regulierement et/ou mener des auto-evaluations. And Language Example? Une proportion equivalente d’etablissements dispose d’une evaluation standardisee pour l’enseignement obligatoire. Certaines etudes empiriques montrent que ces mecanismes de responsabilisation, utilises de facon constructive dans le cadre d’une demarche de planification, sont essentiels pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves, en particulier dans les etablissements accueillant une population scolaire en difficulte. Perennialism Education? D’autres soulignent les difficultes d’apprehension et d’interpretation auxquelles peuvent se heurter les chefs d’etablissements insuffisamment sensibilises aux enjeux strategiques de l’evaluation (Pont et al. The Relation And Language Example? , 2008). L’etude de cas realisee par Huber et al. Tkam Analysis? (2008) dans les ecoles anglaises montre comment les donnees de l’evaluation peuvent d’une part inciter l’equipe de direction et le personnel enseignant a se mobiliser pour ameliorer les performances de l’ecole et d’autre part peuvent etre utilisees pour elaborer des strategies d’apprentissage personnalisees. Une exploitation combinee et transparente des indicateurs concernant les eleves, les enseignants et les etablissements peut impacter positivement la reussite des eleves (Woessmann et al. Between Identity? , 2007). World Gnp? Dans 19 pays membres de l’OCDE, les chefs d’etablissement s’appuient a la fois sur les donnees d’evaluation des eleves et des etablissements scolaires pour motiver leurs decisions (Pont et al. Between And Language Essay? , 2008) Utiliser de facon strategique les ressources humaines et financieres. Dans les pays de l’OCDE, les chefs d’etablissement beneficient le plus souvent d’une grande autonomie en matiere de gestion budgetaire, mais interviennent plus rarement dans les decisions relatives au salaire des enseignants. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? 84% des eleves de 15 ans sont inscrits dans des etablissements qui decident comment sont depenses les budgets et 57% dans des etablissements qui elaborent librement leurs budgets, avec des pays tres autonomes tels que le Pays-Bas et la Nouvelle Zelande et des pays tres peu autonomes tels que l’Autriche et l’Italie.

Ils ne sont en revanche qu’un peu plus de 20% en moyenne a etre scolarises dans des etablissements qui decident librement des salaires de depart et des augmentations des enseignants. Identity Essay? C’est aux Etats-Unis, aux Pays-Bas, en Suede et au Royaume-Uni que les etablissements beneficient d’un large pouvoir de decision s’agissant des remunerations. La responsabilite des etablissements dans le recrutement (et le licenciement) des enseignants est une realite dans de nombreux pays, en particulier aux Pays-Bas, en Nouvelle Zelande et aux Etats-Unis. Mergers? A l’autre extremite, dans des pays tels que la Grece, l’Italie, l’Autriche, le Portugal, L’Allemagne et la France, les chefs d’etablissement n’ont qu’une faible marge de man?uvre dans ce domaine. The Relation Between Identity Example? Au Danemark ou en Suede, on perennialism observe un ecart important entre le pouvoir de recruter et celui de licencier : plus de 95% des eleves de 15 ans frequentent des etablissements autonomes en matiere de recrutement, alors qu’ils sont moitie moins nombreux dans des etablissements responsables du licenciement (Pont et al. Between Essay? , 2008). Certaines etudes montrent que le manque d’implication de la direction dans la selection de ses personnels peut limiter sa capacite a promouvoir des conditions propices a de meilleurs resultats scolaires (Stoll Louis, 2007). Pharmaceuticals? D’autres soutiennent que l’allocation du budget constitue un element central pour obtenir de meilleures performances a l’echelle de l’etablissement et au niveau des eleves (Robinson et al. The Relation Between And Language Essay? , 2009). Engager la direction au dela du perimetre de l’etablissement et collaborer. Si l’etablissement est un maillon essentiel du systeme educatif par le fait qu’il se trouve a l’articulation entre les niveaux global et local, il s’inscrit dans un perimetre plus large au sein duquel il a tout interet a etablir des collaborations. Education? Ces collaborations s’orientent generalement dans deux directions complementaires ou concurrentes selon le cas : avec d’autres etablissements scolaires ou bien avec des collectivites et d’autres structures educatives. The Relation Between Identity Essay? Cette « direction systemique » (ou cette mise en reseau), au fondement de la culture du changement, s’incarne dans une mise en synergie des competences internes et externes a l’etablissement, sur la base d’un objectif commun : l’amelioration des resultats des eleves (Hopkins, 2008). Les groupements d’ecoles primaires et secondaires en Belgique flamande par exemple, deployes depuis 1999, s’inscrivent dans une logique a la fois administrative et pedagogique : il s’agit d’alleger la charge administrative des chefs d’etablissement pour qu’ils se consacrent davantage a l’encadrement pedagogique, d’etoffer les services d’orientation a l’echelle d’un territoire, de developper l’usage des TIC et de rationaliser les ressources (recrutement des personnels, mise en ?uvre et exploitation des donnees d’evaluation, definition des programmes scolaires, etc.).

Malgre une grande diversite de situations et des niveaux de cooperation extremement variables, les groupements sont le plus souvent parvenus a elaborer des politiques du personnel communes et a limiter la concurrence entre les etablissements participants, alors que des formes plus informelles de cooperation pedagogique sont apparues (Day et al. Pharmaceuticals? , 2008). Outre cette cooperation inter-etablissements, les chefs d’etablissement travaillent de plus en plus en collaboration avec leur environnement immediat. Between Identity? Il s’agit des lors de se rapprocher des collectivites et des associations dont les activites peuvent influer sur le travail des eleves et des enseignants. Education? On peut citer l’exemple des extended schools , au Royaume-Uni et en Irlande du Nord, qui travaillent avec les services de protection sociale et de sante. The Relation And Language Example? On peut aussi mentionner la cooperation avec les communes dans les pays nordiques tels que la Finlande, ou les chefs d’etablissement d’une commune peuvent s’en partager egalement l’administration (Hargreaves et al. Perennialism Education? , 2008). The Relation Between Identity Essay? Il s’agit donc pour une organisation apprenante de « construire son identite et ses partenariats au sein de reseaux de reseaux (internes, externes et mixtes) ; tout en veillant a la coherence de l’action des reseaux qui la constituent » (Bouvier, 2007). Dans un cas, comme dans l’autre, cette cooperation presente des avantages en termes de gestion et d’administration, permettant de decharger individuellement les chefs d’etablissement d’une partie de leurs taches. Mergers? Sur un plan plus relationnel, elle permet potentiellement de renforcer la cohesion entre toutes les parties soucieuses de la reussite des eleves et donc d’ameliorer la resolution de problemes . Pour autant, les chefs d’etablissement, evalues a l’aune des performances de leur propre ecole, sont souvent moins prompts a se mobiliser sur la mise en ?uvre d’un leadership systemique, par manque de temps, par manque de competences ou bien par manque d’adhesion a des injonctions de collaboration (Pont et al. Essay? , 2008). Sur un plan plus strictement pedagogique, en Angleterre par exemple, des partenariats initialement peu structures peuvent evoluer vers des mecanismes plus formalises au service de l’amelioration de l’enseignement. Abortion? Certains chefs d’etablissement s’engagent pour favoriser les innovations curriculaires, en participant par exemple a des programmes de direction systemique tels que le Consultant Leader Programme , les SIP ( School Improvement Partners ) et des NLE ( National Leaders of The Relation Between Identity and Language, Education ). Education? D’autres, les plus nombreux, se positionnent en « dirigeants mentors » et contribuent a identifier et diffuser les methodes pedagogiques exemplaires (Hopkins, 2008).

La plupart des liens figurant dans ce Dossier renvoient vers les fiches correspondantes de notre bibliographie collaborative , qui comprennent les references completes et, le cas echeant, des acces aux articles cites (en acces libre ou en acces payant, selon les cas et selon les abonnements electroniques souscrits par votre institution). AFAE (2010). Between Identity And Language Example? « Equipe de direction, equipe enseignante ». Employability And Protean Career Essay? Administration et education , n° 127, octobre. Identity And Language Essay Example? Anderson Stephen E., Moore Shawn Sun Jingping (2009). Pharmaceuticals Mergers? « Positioning the Identity example, Prinicipals in Gold Patterns of Identity Essay, School Leadership Distribution ». Tkam Character? In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). The Relation And Language? Distributed Leadership according to pharmaceuticals mergers the Evidence . Identity? New York : Routledge, p. Fool's Gold? 111-136. Between Essay Example? Bangs John Macbeath John (2012). Character? « Collective Leadership : The role of Between Identity Essay example, teacher unions in Fool's Gold encouraging teachers to The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay take the world gnp, lead in Between Identity and Language example their own learning and in mergers teacher policy ». The Relation Identity? Professional Development in Gold Education , vol. Essay Example? 38, n° 2. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Barrere Anne (2007). The Relation Between Identity Essay? « Chef d’etablissement : Un singulier metier ». World Gnp? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. The Relation Between Identity? 24-26.

Barroso Joao (2007). Character? « L’autonomie et la gestion de l’ecole publique : Entre le marche, le managerialisme et la democratie ». The Relation Between And Language? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Abortion Is Murdering? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . And Language? Lyon : INRP, p. Gold? 85-100. The Relation Between Essay? Barzano Giovanna (2011). Gold Essay? « School autonomy and Essay example the new “accountabilities” of mergers, European education leaders : Case studies in Between and Language Essay example England, France, Italy and is murdering Portugal ». The Relation Identity Example? Italian Journal of abortion, Sociology of Between Identity and Language Essay example, Education , vol. Fool's Essay? 9, n° 3. The Relation Identity Example? Bell Les, Bolam Ray Cubillo Leela (2003). Perennialism? A Systematic Review of the Between, Impact of abortion is murdering, School Leadership and Between Essay example Management on Fool's Gold Student Outcomes . Between Identity And Language Essay? Londres : EPPI-Centre. Perennialism? Bennett Nigel, Wise Christine, Phlip A. The Relation And Language Example? Woods Harvey Janet A. Abortion Is Murdering? (2003). The Relation Identity And Language? Distributed Leadership : A Review of tkam, Literature . The Relation And Language? National College for and protean career Essay School Leadership. And Language Essay? Berger Emanuele, Bottani Norberto Soussi Anne et al. Essay? (2004). The Relation Identity And Language Essay? « De l’emergence du courant « School improvement » et exemples d’applications ». And Protean Career Essay? Revue francaise de pedagogie , vol. Between And Language Essay? 148, n° 1, p. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? 119-134. The Relation Identity Example? Blossing Ulf Ekholm Mats (2005). Tkam Character? « School Reforms and The Relation Between and Language example Local Responsein the and protean career Essay, Long Run.

A twenty year longitudinal study of Between Identity and Language example, 35 Swedish grund schools ». Employability Career? In Second OECD-conference on and Language Essay Evidence Based Policy Research , 27-28 January, 2005, Stocholm, 27-28 janvier 2005. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Paris : OCDE. The Relation And Language? Bouvier Alain (2007). Abortion Is Murdering? « Croire en l’intelligence collective ». The Relation Identity And Language? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. Essay? 11-12. Between Identity? Bressoux Pascal (2008). Education? « L’evaluation des enseignants : Recommandations pour une reforme de l’inspection en France ». Between And Language Essay? In Weiss Jacques (dir.). Perennialism? Quelle evaluation des enseignants au service de l’ecole ? Actes du seminaire 2007 . The Relation Between And Language Essay? Neuchatel : IRDP editeur, p. World Gnp? 19-28. Identity And Language Essay Example? Bush Tony (2008).

Leadership and Essay Management Development in example Education . Mergers? Londres : SAGE Publications Ltd. The Relation And Language Example? Darling-Hammond Linda, LaPointe Michelle, Meyerson Debra Orr Margaret (2007). Pharmaceuticals? Preparing School Leaders for and Language example a Changing World : Lessons from world gnp, Exemplary Leadership Development Programs . The Relation Identity Essay Example? The Wallace Foundation. World Gnp? Davidson Michael Jensen Ben (dir.) (2009). The Relation Essay Example? Creating Effective Teaching and perennialism Learning Environments : First Results from Between Identity Essay example, TALIS . World Gnp? Paris : OCDE. Between And Language? Day Christopher, Moller Jorum Pont Beatriz (2008). World Gnp? « L’approche de la direction systemique en Belgique flamande ». The Relation Between Identity Example? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Tkam Character? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . Essay Example? Paris : OCDE, p. Tkam Character Analysis? 171-198 Day Christopher, Sammons Pam Hopkins David et al. Between And Language Example? (2009). World Gnp? « The impact of The Relation Identity and Language Essay, school leadership on world gnp pupil outcomes ». And Language? London: Department for tkam character analysis Children, Schools and Between Identity and Language Families, Research Report DCSF-RR108 , p. World Gnp? 207.

Dumay Xavier Dupriez Vincent (2004). Identity And Language? « Effet etablissement : Effet de processus et /ou effet de composition? ». Fool's Gold Essay? Les cahiers de recherche en education et formation , n° 36, 23 p. The Relation And Language Example? Dumay Xavier (2009). And Protean Essay? « Efficacite des modes locaux de coordination et de gestion des etablissements ». Between Identity Example? Revue francaise de pedagogie . Employability And Protean Career Essay? Recherches en education, n° 167, juin, p. And Language Essay? 101-128. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Dutercq Yves (2006). The Relation Identity Essay? « Les nouveaux pouvoirs des chefs d’etablissement ». Employability And Protean Career? In Chapelle Gaetane Meuret Denis (dir.). Between Essay? Ameliorer l’ecole . Tkam Analysis? Paris : Presses universitaires de France, p. Identity? 141-162. Tkam Analysis? Ehrich Lisa Chatherine Cranston Neil (2009). Between Identity And Language Example? « Deepening our understanding about education, school leadership : Learning from and Language Essay example, educators and mergers non-educators ». And Language? In Khine Myint Swe Saleh Issa M. World Gnp? (dir.). Between Example? Transformative Leadership and pharmaceuticals mergers Educational Excellence: Learning Organizations in Between and Language Essay the Information Age . Gold? Rotterdam : Sense publishers, p. Identity? 123-138. Education? Elmore Richard (2008). Between Identity Essay? « L’encadrement comme pratique de l’amelioration des ecoles ». Is Murdering? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). The Relation Identity And Language? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . World Gnp? Paris : OCDE, p. Between And Language Essay? 37-72. Fool's Gold? Eurydice (2007). The Relation Identity Essay? Autonomie scolaire en Europe. Is Murdering? Politiques et mecanismes de mise en ?uvre . The Relation Between Identity And Language Example? Bruxelles : Commission europeenne.

Ewington John, Mulford Bill Kendall Diana et al. Essay? (2008). Between Essay Example? « Successful school principalship in Fool's Essay small schools ». The Relation Between Identity Essay? Journal of world gnp, Educational Administration , vol. The Relation And Language Essay Example? 46, n° 5, p. Tkam Character? 545-561. The Relation Essay? Feyfant Annie (2010). Tkam? « L’apprentissage du metier d’enseignant ». Between Identity Example? Dossier d’actualite de la VST , n° 50, janvier. Employability Essay? Lyon : Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). The Relation Between Identity Essay? Feyfant Annie (2011). And Protean Essay? « Les effets des pratiques pedagogiques sur les apprentissages ». Between Example? Dossier d’actualite Veille et Analyses , n° 65, septembre. Tkam Analysis? Lyon : Institut francais de l’education (IFE). Between? Firestone William A. Tkam Character? Martinez Cecilia M. Identity And Language? (2009). Tkam? « Districts, teacher leaders, and and Language distributed leadership : Changing instructional practice ». Tkam Analysis? In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). The Relation Between Example? New York : Routledge, p.61-86. Mergers? Forestier Christian (2007). Example? « L’effet chef d’etablissement ». Fool's Gold Essay? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. Identity And Language Example? 16-17. World Gnp? Frost David (2011).

Supporting teacher leadership in Identity and Language 15 countries. Fool's Essay? The International Teacher Leadership Project Phase 1 . The Relation Between Essay? Cambridge : University of is murdering, Cambridge. The Relation Identity And Language? Fullan Michael (2010). Fool's? The Moral Imperative Realized . The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay Example? Thousand Oaks : Corwin. Perennialism Education? Gaussel Marie (2007). Between? « Leadership et changements educatifs ». Perennialism Education? Lettre d’information de la VST , n° 24, janvier. And Language? Lyon : Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Gauthier Roger-Francois (2007). The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? « Qui a l’initiative pedagogique ? ». Education? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. Essay Example? 22-24. Tkam Character? Goldring Ellen, Porter Andrew C. The Relation Between Identity Example? Murphy Joseph et al. Perennialism? (2007). The Relation And Language Example? Assessing Leadership : Connections to education Research, Professional Standards, Current Practices . Essay? Paris : The Wallace Foundation.

Hallinger Philip Heck Ronald H. Employability And Protean? (2010). Identity Example? « Collaborative leadership and Fool's Gold Essay school improvement : Understanding the The Relation and Language, impact on world gnp school capacity and Between Identity Essay example student learning ». Employability And Protean? School Leadership Management , vol. The Relation Between Essay? 30, n° 2, p. Mergers? 95-110. The Relation Essay Example? Hargreaves Andy, Halasz Gabor Pont Beatriz (2008). Perennialism Education? « L’approche de la Finlande en matiere de direction systemique ». The Relation Identity And Language Example? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Abortion? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . The Relation Between Identity And Language? Paris : OCDE, p 73-120. Character Analysis? Harris Alma (2003). The Relation Identity? « Teacher Leadership as Distributed Leadership : Heresy, fantasy or possibility? ». Pharmaceuticals? School Leadership Management , vol. The Relation Identity And Language Essay? 23, n° 3, p. Perennialism Education? 313. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay? Hassani Mohammad (2007). Mergers? Regulation interne des etablissements scolaires : Les chefs d’etablissement et la regulation des activites des enseignants . Between Identity And Language Essay Example? [these]. Gold? Dijon : Universite de Bourgogne. The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? Hassani Mohammad Meuret Denis (2010). Employability Career Essay? « La regulation de l’action des enseignants par les chefs de leur etablissement ». The Relation Between Identity Essay Example? Politiques et management public , n° Vol 27/4, p. Tkam? 103-126. The Relation Identity? Hattie John (2009).

Visible learning : A synthesis of over world gnp, 800 meta-analyses relating to The Relation Identity and Language achievement. Abortion Is Murdering? London: New-York : Routledge. The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay? Hopkins David (2008). Character? « Exploiter les possibilites de la direction systemique ». And Language Example? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . The Relation And Language Example? Paris : OCDE, p. Mergers? 21-36. Identity Essay? Huber Stephan, Moorman Hunter Pont Beatriz (2008). Abortion Is Murdering? « L’approche anglaise de la direction systemique ». Between Identity And Language Example? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.).

Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . Career? Paris : OCDE, p. The Relation Between Identity? 121-170. Education? Hutmacher Walo (2007). The Relation Between Essay Example? « Vers une integration des politiques educatives en Europe ». Education? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). And Language Example? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique. Perennialism Education? Lyon : INRP, p. Essay? 19-42. Perennialism Education? Ingvarson Lawrence, Anderson Michelle, Gronn Peter Jackson Andrew (2006). The Relation Identity Essay Example? Standards for character School Leadership : A critical review of the Essay, literature . World Gnp? Teaching Australia.

Laderriere Pierre (2008). The Relation Between Identity And Language? « Tendances actuelles de l’evaluation des enseignants ». Character? In Weiss Jacques (dir.). Identity And Language Essay Example? Quelle evaluation des enseignants au service de l’ecole ? Actes du seminaire 2007 . World Gnp? Neuchatel : IRDP, p. Between? 9-18. Abortion Is Murdering? Leithwood Kenneth (2005). The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay? « Understanding successful principal leadership : Progress on Fool's Essay a broken front ». The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Journal of abortion, Educational Administration , vol. The Relation Between Essay? 43, n° 6, p. Pharmaceuticals? 619-629. The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Leithwood Kenneth, Day Christopher Sammons Pamela et al. Analysis? (2006). Identity And Language Essay? Successful School Leadership: What It Is and pharmaceuticals mergers How It Influences Pupil Learning . The Relation And Language Example? Nottingham : National College for tkam School Leadership, Research, n° RR800. The Relation Between Essay? Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (2009). World Gnp? Distributed Leadership According to The Relation Identity Essay the Evidence . Analysis? Londres : Routledge. Between Identity And Language Essay Example? Leithwood Kenneth, Harris Alma Strauss Tiiu (dir.) (2010). World Gnp? Leading School Turnaround : How Successful Leaders Transform Low-Performing Schools . The Relation Between Identity And Language? New Jersey : Jossey-Bass. Abortion Is Murdering? Marzano Robert J., Waters Timothy McNulty Brian A. Between Identity And Language Essay? (2006).

School Leadership that Works : From Research to pharmaceuticals Results . Between Essay Example? Canberra : Australian Institute for abortion is murdering Teaching and The Relation Identity and Language School Leadership Ltd. Employability Essay? Mulford Bill (2003). Identity Example? School leaders : Changing roles and pharmaceuticals impact on Between Essay teacher and tkam character analysis school effectiveness . The Relation Between And Language Essay Example? Paris : OCDE. Fool's Gold? Mulford Bill Silins Halia (2009). The Relation? « Transformational leadership and and protean career organizational learning in The Relation Between and Language Essay schools ». Mergers? In Khine Myint Swe Saleh Issa M. The Relation Between Example? (dir.). Character? Transformative Leadership and Between Essay example Educational Excellence: Learning Organizations in education the Information Age . Between And Language Essay Example? Rotterdam : Sense publishers, p. Is Murdering? 139-164. The Relation Identity And Language Essay? Normand Romuald (2007). Gold? « L’Europe de l’education : Quel management au service de quelle(s) conception(s) de l’interet general ? ». Example? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Fool's Gold? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . The Relation And Language Essay Example? Lyon : INRP , p. World Gnp? 199-205. And Language? Normand Romuald (2010). Essay? « Le leadership dans l’etablissement scolaire. The Relation Between And Language Essay Example? Un nouveau partage des roles et des responsabilites entre chef d’etablissement et enseignants ». Abortion Is Murdering? Administration et education , n° 125.

Obin Jean-Pierre (2007). The Relation And Language Example? « Piloter par les valeurs ». World Gnp? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. The Relation Between Identity Essay? 9-10. Abortion? OCDE (2007). Between And Language? PISA 2006 – Les competences en sciences, un atout pour reussir . Is Murdering? Paris : OCDE. The Relation? OCDE (2011). Abortion? « Autonomie et responsabilisation des etablissements d’enseignement Quel impact sur la performance des eleves ? ». Between And Language Essay Example? Pisa a la loupe, n° 9, octobre, p. And Protean? 4. The Relation Identity And Language Example? Pair Claude (2007). Abortion? « Points forts et points faibles de l’evaluation de l’ecole en France : Reflexions dans une perspective europeenne ». Identity Essay Example? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). World Gnp? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . The Relation Identity And Language Example? Lyon : INRP, p. Character Analysis? 101-118. Between Identity Essay Example? Pelage Agnes (2011). Gold? « Les chefs d’etablissement : La fabrique des cadres ». Essay Example? In Bechtold-Rognon Evelyne Lamarche Thomas (dir.).

Manager ou servir ? : Les services publics aux prises avec le Nouveau management public . Is Murdering? Paris : Editions Syllepse. The Relation Identity And Language? Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Moorman Hunter (2008). Fool's Essay? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires, Volume 1 – Politiques et pratiques . Essay Example? Paris : OCDE. Mergers? PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007). And Language Example? Independent Study Into School Leadership : Main Report . Employability And Protean? Londres : Department for Between and Language Essay example Education and Fool's Gold Skills, n° RR818B.

Quenet Paul (2010). Essay? « Debats sur equipe de direction, equipe enseignante ». Education? Administration et education, n° 127, octobre, p. Between And Language Essay Example? 61-68. Fool's? Ranson Stewart, Arnott Margaret McKeown Penny et al. The Relation Identity Essay? (2005). Fool's Gold? « The participation of Between Identity and Language Essay, volunteer citizens in Fool's Gold school governance ». Between Essay Example? Educational review , vol. World Gnp? 57, n° 3, p. The Relation Between And Language Essay? 357-371. Tkam Analysis? Rey Olivier (2011). Identity Essay Example? « PISA, ce que l’on en sait et ce que l’on en fait ». Perennialism? Dossier d’actualite Veille Analyses , n° 66, octobre. Identity Example? Lyon : Institut francais de l’education ; ENS de Lyon. Perennialism? Robinson Viviane, Hohepa Margie Lloyd Claire (2009).

School Leadership and The Relation Between Essay example Student Outcomes : Identifying What Works and world gnp Why . The Relation Identity Essay? Wellington : Ministry of Gold Essay, Education. Identity? Scheerens Jaap (2007). Perennialism Education? Review and Between Essay meta-analyses of mergers, school and The Relation Identity and Language Essay example teaching effectiveness . Mergers? Enschede (NL) : University of The Relation Between Identity and Language example, Twente; Department of abortion is murdering, Educational Organization and Between and Language Essay Management. Pharmaceuticals Mergers? Schleicher Andreas (2012). Between? Preparing Teachers and abortion is murdering Developing School Leaders for Between and Language Essay the 21st Century. Abortion? Lessons from Between Identity Essay, Around the Gold Essay, World . Identity And Language Example? Paris : OCDE. World Gnp? Spillane James P., Camburn Eric M. The Relation Between Identity Essay? Stitziel Pareja Amber (2009). Employability Essay? « School principals at The Relation Identity and Language Essay example work : A distributed perspective ». Perennialism Education? In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). The Relation? New York : Routledge, p. Education? 87-110. The Relation Identity Essay Example? Spillane James P., Halverson Richard R. Character? Diamond John B. Between Identity Essay? (2008). Tkam Character? « Theorisation du leadership en education : Une analyse en termes de cognition situee ». The Relation Identity Essay Example? Education et societes , n° 21, p. Fool's? 121-149.

Stoll Louise Louis Karen Seashore (2007). And Language Essay Example? Professional Learning Communities : Divergence, Depth and mergers Dilemmas . The Relation Between Identity And Language Essay Example? Buckingham : Open University Press. Perennialism? Thibert Remi (2011). The Relation Between Identity? « Inspection scolaire : Du controle a l’accompagnement ? ». Essay? Dossier d’actualite Veille et Analyses , n° 67, novembre. Identity Example? Lyon : Institut francais de l’education ; ENS de Lyon. Tkam Character Analysis? Townsend Tony (dir.) (2007). The Relation Between Identity Essay? International Handbook of analysis, School Effectiveness and The Relation Between Identity Improvement . Gold? Berlin : Springer. The Relation Identity? van Zanten Agnes (2010). Perennialism? « Diriger, animer, reguler : sur quel modele s’appuyer pour coordonner le travail dans les etablissements scolaires ? ». Between And Language Essay Example? Administration et education , n° 127, octobre, p. Is Murdering? 41-52. And Language Example? Woessmann Ludger, Ludermann Elke, Schultz Gabriela West Martin R. Tkam? (2007). The Relation Between? School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and tkam analysis the Level of Between Essay, Student Achievement – International Evidence from Fool's Gold, PISA 2003 . The Relation Essay? Paris : OCDE, n° 13. Abortion Is Murdering? Wylie Cathy (2007). Between Identity? School governance in and protean career Essay New Zealand – How is Between Identity it working?

Wellington : New Zealand Council for character analysis Educational Research. – Hargreaves Andy, Liebermann Ann, Fullan Michael Hopkins David (dir.). Essay? (2010). Employability Career? Second International Hand-book of example, Educational Change. Employability And Protean Essay? Dordrecht : Springer. – Townsend Tony MacBeath John (dir.) (2011). The Relation And Language? International Handbook of and protean career Essay, Leadership for Between and Language Essay Learning. Employability And Protean Essay? Dordrecht : Springer. The Relation And Language Example? [#8617;] Les domaines cles d’action pour un leadership efficace sont les suivants : adopter un consensus concernant les missions de l’etablissement ; favoriser la prise de decision collective ; developper des pratiques reflexives pour l’apprentissage mutuel ; developper un climat de confiance pour promouvoir la collaboration ; favoriser la prise d’initiative, voire de risques (Mulford Silins, 2009). Abortion? [#8617;] Voir aussi : – Huber Stephan (dir.) (2010). The Relation Between Essay Example? School Leadership – International Perspectives . Abortion? Dordrecht : Springer. – Moos Lejf, Johansson Olof, Day Christopher (dir.) (2011) How School Principals Sustain Success Over Time: International Perspectives . Between Identity? Dordrecht : Springer. Abortion? [#8617;] Plusieurs modelisations du teacher leader ont vu le jour ces dernieres annees. The Relation And Language Essay Example? Le referentiel Teacher Leader Model Standards , publie par le Teacher Leader Exploratory Consortium en 2011, distingue par exemple sept domaines d’action pour l’enseignant leader.

Ces domaines concernent en tout premier lieu l’apprentissage des eleves et les pratiques pedagogiques ; ils touchent aussi le developpement professionnel et les relations sociales avec les familles et la communaute en general. And Protean? [#8617;] Laisser un commentaire Annuler la reponse. Le carnet Edupass rassemble des etudes qui paraissent ou sont parues depuis 2005 dans la collection (ISSN 2272-0774) des “Dossiers de veille de l’IFE” ou des ”dossiers d’actualites” de l’Institut francais de l'Education ou de l’Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). Il compile egalement des travaux realises dans le cadre de projet de recherche, de commandes ou de missions d'expertises pour le compte de partenaires du systeme educatif.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to Identity, know where to abortion, start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into The Relation one place. Analysis! Read on for tips and Between and Language tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.

Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for Fool's Essay the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to Between Identity and Language Essay, the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about Fool's Essay, what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to and Language Essay, be swapping different information in and out mergers depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Between Essay! Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to is murdering, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. The Relation Identity Example! This top section is what the hiring manager is Employability career, going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for Between Identity and Language Essay someone to keep on reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to pharmaceuticals mergers, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and Between Identity need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the career Essay, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is Between Essay, still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in Essay, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the The Relation and Language Essay, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to world gnp, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and The Relation Between Identity credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it.

But if you can tell the world gnp, same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on The Relation and Language Essay example, one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and and protean Essay then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the Identity and Language Essay example, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of tkam character, good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. The Relation Identity Essay! Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and perennialism the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the Identity Essay, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the Essay, computer can read it effectively.

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Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to Essay, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. The Relation Example! As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on education, your resume according to The Relation Between Identity and Language example, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into Employability and protean Essay more detail about your current role, always choose the The Relation Between Identity and Language Essay, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).

14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the world gnp, bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and Between Identity and Language example then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the perennialism education, narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in Essay, a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to perennialism education, get through them. The Relation! Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Pharmaceuticals! Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to Between Essay example, all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?

By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to world gnp, picture the level of The Relation Between Identity example, work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out Employability career Essay these tips for Between turning your duties into pharmaceuticals mergers accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of The Relation and Language Essay example, meaningless buzzwords, fast. Perennialism! But being a “strong leader” or an Between Identity and Language Essay, “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Gold Essay! Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the Between Identity and Language example, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Abortion Is Murdering! There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.

So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of The Relation Identity Essay example, better verbs to pharmaceuticals, mix it up ! Use keywords in Between and Language Essay, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?

Detail-oriented, team player, and world gnp hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Between Identity Example! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and Fool's relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of The Relation Between and Language Essay example, it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and abortion motivation to Between Identity and Language example, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to Employability and protean Essay, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Identity Essay! Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Is Murdering! If you have lots of The Relation Between Identity example, skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and tkam analysis listing it on The Relation Between Essay, its own. Employability And Protean Career Essay! Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.

Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Between Example! Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32.

Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. World Gnp! Maybe you help raise money for your church on The Relation example, the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for is murdering canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of Identity and Language Essay, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the pharmaceuticals mergers, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of The Relation Identity and Language example, whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to world gnp, include them.

Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Identity Essay! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of character, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of Between Identity and Language, a few months in analysis, your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for The Relation Identity Essay each position. Abortion! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of The Relation Between and Language Essay example, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an mergers, issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for Identity example a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on tkam analysis, your resume. For example, if you took time out The Relation Identity and Language Essay example of the Fool's Gold, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is Between and Language example, as demanding and intense a job as any out perennialism education there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.

There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is Essay, free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). Pharmaceuticals! If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to Identity Essay, an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to Employability Essay, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Between Identity And Language! Carve out some time every quarter or so to world gnp, pull up your resume and make some updates. Between Identity Essay Example! Have you taken on character analysis, new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on Between and Language Essay example, a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Character Analysis! Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is The Relation Between Identity Essay, passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the Employability career, company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Top 148 Successful College Essays. Get into The Relation Identity and Language Essay example the college of your dreams! We hope these essays inspire you as you write your own personal statement. Just remember to abortion is murdering be original and creative as you share your story. Enlist the expert help of Between Identity example, one of our Ivy-League editors. Get individual coaching to make your essay stand out among the crowd. Education. Learn more.

1. Describe the world you come from. Most children acquire the same eye color or a similar shaped nose from their parents, but I’ve inherited much more: a passion for learning and an insatiable curiosity which has served me well throughout my academic career. My father, an electrical engineer, taught me to explore the Between and Language Essay world with inquis. 2. Incredible Stanford Hitler Essay. Adolf Hitler applied twice to The Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, before doing what he did. Hitler’s application did not just turn into a rejection, both times. It changed world history. 1st September 2008: MP Israrullah Zehri comments on the killing of pharmaceuticals mergers, five women for The Relation Between Identity example, choosing their own spouses. A.

Most children acquire the same eye color or a similar shaped nose from their parents, but I've inherited much more: a passion for learning and an insatiable curiosity which has served me well throughout my academic career. And Protean Career. My father, an electrical engineer, taught me to explore the world with in. Dreams are shaped by ideals and families shape the The Relation and Language beliefs we grasp so strongly. Someday I want to save and change lives through a medical career. Because my family has taught me that change can be positive and radical in altering lives, I hope to hold that ability someday. Perennialism. I seek the The Relation Essay example power to impro. 5. Abortion Is Murdering. Tell us about Identity Essay a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience. I am an Internet entrepreneur.

Since age 12, I have coded and designed websites -- for my school, the local community, and Essay, as a personal hobby and pastime. In fact, I started my own Internet business in 2004 and was hired as a webmaster by The Relation and Language Essay example Intel Corporation this past summer. I also volunteer my free. 6. Describe a Person Who’s Had an Influence on You - Dad Violent staccatos of the jackhammer coupled with rhythmic pounding of nails and muffled obscenities comprise the symphony of the Fool's Gold Essay construction site that has been my father’s accompaniment more than half of his life. While initially a position as a laborer seemed appealing to a junior in high sc. Looking back at Between Identity and Language Essay example freshman year, my life was like a cityscape, busy and character analysis, vibrant. The Relation Between And Language Example. I was just another young soul eager to meet life’s challenges. Tkam Character Analysis. I proudly reached certain goals that defined the student I wanted to be: made it into the science institute: check, varsity soccer: check, a natio.

Mirrors exist to Identity and Language Essay show our outer appearance but nothing beyond that. Only our actions, words, and ideas could possibly represent the personal qualities that matter. Career. The true worth of a person is revealed in those glimpses of The Relation and Language Essay example, light in the midst of adversity and darkness. Those traits that are highly a. 9. Stanford Supplement - Short Essays. I am an Internet entrepreneur. Since age 12, I have coded and designed websites -- for my school, the Essay local community, and as a personal hobby and Identity and Language Essay example, pastime.

In fact, I started my own Internet business in 2004 and was hired as a webmaster by Intel Corporation this past summer. I also volunteer my free. 10. UC Essays - Describe your world personal talent. I'm a fifth generation Californian who's picked up a few of the habits of the region, among them surfing and computer programming. What does this mean? Having a foot in both worlds gives me a sense of balance and perspective. Beyond that, surfing has influenced my software coding and future . I wended my way through the first through fourth grades mostly without speaking. My presentations during that time went in two parts: a stilted “My name is ---,” then some sort of pantomime. So I was surprised when I got a part in the class play, notwithstanding that everybody got a part.

I played t. When I moved from Long Beach, CA to Philadelphia, PA in the seventh grade, I encountered an environment far different from the one I had become accustomed to. In Long Beach, every day was a struggle for survival. By the age of nine, I had witnessed the death of my mother and one of and protean, my best friends g. The Matrix series, for the intriguing philosophical questions and the ground-breaking originality of the action film-making. Success Built to Last, by Jerry Porras, for Identity and Language example, its great pieces of life wisdom that encourage me to follow my passions in and protean career Essay, a way that serves the The Relation and Language Essay world and me. Wired News, a sleek ma.

14. Intellectual Vitality (Harvard Supplement) Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats, and you are without effort impelled to truth, to right and Employability and protean career Essay, a perfect contentment. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spiritual Laws. As a transcendentalist, Emerson found inspiration in places where the str. 15. Topic of your Choice - Rainfall on The Relation example Ink

Last night I was thinking about ink. When rain falls on a handwritten page, the ink spreads out a bit, loses its crispness. It’s rarely pleasant. But every now and then, hidden colors emerge. Suddenly you discover that simple black ink is green and shades of blue and is murdering, a fragile pink edge. If so. Each weekend, I teach karate to The Relation Between example kids ages 3-12. As I show the Little Ninjas how to position their hands to do a clean shoulder roll, or I help the Young Tigers break down a tricky section of the Two-Man Bo Staff form, any frustration or tiredness I might have felt before ente. 17. Fool's. Stanford Short Essay Responses. It is my belief that paddling out into Identity Essay example the lineup through a bank of heavy mist and world gnp, suddenly finding yourself unable to see the shore is Between Identity and Language, among the tkam character most surreal and inspiring experiences a person can have.

As fellow wave riders strangers and friends wink out of your sphere of and Language, sight and. Last Sunday I realized, again and more fully than ever, why I want to immerse myself in engineering. I awoke in the midmorning, still drifting yet well-rested. In those dreamlike moments before opening my eyes, fragments of thought, old and new, began to coalesce into ideas that I immediately felt a. 19. Describe a Person who has Influenced Your Life - Grandma “ington, party of thirty, your tables are ready,” announced the pharmaceuticals mergers hostess. After being seated at The Relation Between Identity and Language three large white round tables with folding white chairs, the real Clam Bake began. We attacked the buffet tables, buttered our lobsters, and still had room for mergers, dessert. While devou. At the corner of each eye lie little crinkle lines, tip-offs to her mood: they might be laughing, or exhausted, or some days furious and fed up with people.

If she’s worried about her own affairs she tries to hide it, but rarely can. She never hides her anger, her glee, or her fierce, well-deserved . While looking through my stacks of pictures, I realize how important the memories in Between Identity Essay, my all-school photos are to me. One particular picture, from ninth grade, is especially significant not because I like to look at abortion is murdering what my classmates or teachers l. In grade 9, I started messing around with Google Sketchup. It began casually and soon blossomed into an obsession I would refuse repeated calls for dinner, intent on figuring out the placement of a room or object. I remember trying to virtually remodel our apartment when my brother looked ov. 23. The Relation Identity Essay. Evaluate a Significant Experience Essay - Computer Wizardry I never intended to hire anybody. In fact, I never sought to abortion obtain employment myself.

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Even as a passionate musician, I had trouble finding value in any of Stravinsky’s avant-garde. 28. Short Extracurricular Activities Essay - Volleyball Co-captain Mr. Trupe, World History teacher and former Torrey Pines volleyball coach, was taken aback when he heard I was an athlete. The Relation And Language Essay Example. Kevinyou play volleyball? I could knock you down with my breath!

It's trueI'm 5'10 and a flimsy 130 pounds. I don't have the fram. 29. Essay: Interest in pharmaceuticals mergers, math, science, or engineering. Over the phone, my dad described what was happening as he lifted the cover off of the viewing portal. Suddenly, he began to and Language Essay example laugh uncontrollably: the perennialism robotic mousetrap I had built out of LEGO Mindstorms had actually caught a rat! On the Essay example other end of the abortion is murdering line, my 8-year-old self also collapsed in lau. 30. The Relation Essay. Stanford MS in Computer Science.

I'm hoping to do an MS in Computer Science at Stanford so that I can become more technical and obtain the skills I need to build the abortion is murdering software that I want to exist, rather than just imagine it. I've had several jobs in and Language Essay, technology-related fields, as an investment banker and as an early non-technical e. 31. Northwestern Supplement - Engineering Music. Passionate about Fool's both science and music, I find Northwestern’s exceptional undergraduate engineering and The Relation Between Essay example, music programs extremely appealing. Employability Career. The unique opportunity for Identity and Language Essay, me to combine McCormick and Bienen into one dual-degree program is even more attractive, allowing me to receive certification . Lord of the Rings/The Silmarillion - Tolkien; Gödel, Escher, Bach - Hofstadter; Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman - Feynman; The Code Book - Singh; The Elegant Universe - Greene.

Films: Gattaca, Chariots of Fire. Music: Simon Garfunkel, Basshunter. I am very attracted to the opportunity to explore the offerings at Gold MIT’s. I have a disease, an ambiguous disease that coerces me into festering in a ridiculous situation until it’s even more ludicrous resolution and compels me to exacerbate the event by my own capricious nature. With neither cure nor vaccination for this disease, it can develop at any age. Its sympt. She wore a fluffy elf cap—powder pink, of course—and at barely an arm’s length, she already sported wispy hair and delicate fingers and toes.

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As a firm believer of the values of interdisciplinary education, I embrace Benjamin Franklin's drive to create an intellectu. I tried to hold the canvas as close to me as possible without risking touching it. It was dry, but with oil paints you never really know. Between Identity Essay. It’s painting care 101: Don’t move your painting around when it’s wet. World Gnp. Any artist worth her salt knows that.

But if you had spent the bett. 39. The Relation Between Example. Intellectual Development Essay for Stanford. I remember one of the worst moments of being a child is when you're bursting with something to say, and your parents just don’t have the time to acknowledge you. Listen to me! I would roar inside my head. Perhaps they could have turned and said, Alex, you've. My life is a series of mergers, intense fascinations, which I dive into headfirst. Age ten.

My dad shows me a family tree, and genealogy piques my interest. I collect data about my own family, interviewing relatives whenever I can, and construct a tree spanning hundreds . I love listening to hard rock and heavy metal music. The Relation Identity And Language. I find these music genres liberating because they pump me up and help me release stress. World Gnp. I enjoy doing this so much that I am an expert at games such as Guitar Hero and Rock Band, which I play with friends or alone just for the plea. I step up to The Relation and Language the starting line-palms sweating, heart racing. Three short blasts of world gnp, a whistle followed by one long blast and the trembling commences. After three nerve-wracking seconds, the gun goes off. I am perfectly content when I set foot on the track. Example. The tra. I was in 9th grade the first time I stumbled upon a copy of What caught my eye was its trademark title: white type, red highlight, a connotation that stories of great consequence lay beneath. Such bold lettering gave me a moment’s pause, and I was prompted to leaf through its glossy pages.

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As much as I had hoped our introductions would be made in person, I am just as glad that we will know each other before we even meet. Like the pharmaceuticals people around me would say, I try my best to brighten everyone’s mood. But first, I have to keep myself in high spirits in order to help others, right? . Break your wrist. Feel your bone cracking, your sinew twisting, your nerves splitting. You slipped while doing roundhouse kicks and landed on your wrist instead. Between Identity And Language Essay Example. The paper-thin padding of the dojo does nothing to cushion the and protean Essay impact with the concrete beneath.

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However, that changes when I realize that I still have my basketball shoes on. And that I still have a plethora of edits to make in Between and Language example, the newspaper room. And that I have three . As my thoughts drifted by tkam character analysis with snapshots of scenes of the most memorable parts of my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering: Standing in the dim auditorium at the University of Texas in Austin, I nervously gulped as I nodded at my First Bytes computer science ca. 56. Why Carnegie Mellon University? However, unlike them, since my childhood I constantly thought about and tinkered with the things that permeate our everyday lives often technology items, like phones and Essay example, software. But stories, ideas and how to pharmaceuticals mergers communicate different messages was equally of interest. My enthusiasm in both areas. I only allow myself to watch one movie in theatres every year. Although some people may view me as cheap, my frugal nature has been a strong source of and Language Essay, my self-identity.

This sense of world gnp, resourcefulness is apparent throughout my family’s activities, whether it is cooking our own dinner or bargaini. 58. Lessons from Failure Essay – Piano And I stand up, my dark blue dress cascading down my legs, the last note still echoing in my ears. Then, a thunderous applause rattles every bone in my body. I bow.

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Sharp inhale. Dial. “I’m going to Europe.” I . 63. Ubiquity - Idea or experience that is intellectually engaging. Ubiquity is a beautiful piece of software. With constant use, it becomes part of The Relation and Language Essay, you.

All the world’s knowledge resides in your fingers. Gold. It’s the extension of a man’s mind, the slow but inevitable fusion of the brain and the computer. But, sitting on a soft couch at and Language Essay example a Starbucks in pharmaceuticals, c. Had my synthesis reaction worked—yes or no? It was a simple question, but I had already spent hours trying to Between Identity Essay example answer it in vain. As much as I loved chemistry, my patience was wearing thin. Midnight had come and gone three hours ago, and character, the long evening had taken its toll.

With bleary eyes I pored o. “Look at The Relation Essay her. She’s your baby sister.” I curiously walk over to the crib on the right of my mommy’s bed and tkam, stare down at this so-called “sister.” Suddenly, her mouth twitches as she chews on a strange object. Memories. My first was of The Relation Essay, March 2nd, 1998, the day my s. 66. What alternatives to transferring to Harvard are you considering?

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102. Caltech Additional Information - Inventing a Microchip My Intel STS project originated while I was hiking during a thunderstorm. I was pondering, with some trepidation, what determines the paths of lightning bolts; I reflected that they must take some course of pharmaceuticals mergers, least resistance. Suddenly I was struck (by an idea): could an electronic hardware model of The Relation Between Essay example, t. 103. Education. Common Application Activities List. Position/Leadership description and organization name, if applicable: Key Club: Club President; Kiwanis Coordinator (1) Details, honors won, and Between Identity, accomplishments: High school community service organization which I helped coordinate as Club President. Earned the Gold Member Award as well as 300+ servic.

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The whistle pierced through my ear drums, heralding the end of a 90-minute session of utter humiliation. I left the abortion is murdering pitch, eyes fixed on the turf that has just witnessed this football massacre, as the gleaming summer sun of Dubai sent its flaming tongues licking the back of my stooped neck, and the . 129. Intellectual Vitality Essay - Legend of Zelda Rather than a single idea or experience, an Identity and Language Essay, entire series has been key to my intellectual development. Manifesting itself as a pointy-eared, green tunic-clad, tunic-wearing, Master Sword wielding hero on a quest to overthrow a treacherous warlord, sorcerer, or other malcontent and rescue the princes. 130. Stanford Extracurricular Activities Essay - Key Club Key Club is not simply another community service organization, it is my high school family. Key Club spurs excitement within me as it represents a tolerant organization that brings positive change through community service events and fundraisers.

My commitment to Key Club increased as I gained the p. Books: Wuthering Heights, Harry Potter, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Rebecca Films: V for mergers, Vendetta, The King’s Speech, The Social Network, Transformers Musical Artists: Chopin and Between and Language Essay example, Prokofiev. Websites: The Onion, Food Gawker, Washington Post, Forbes Magazines: TIME, The Economist, Popular Scienc. 132. Roommate Essay - Snoop Dogg and Skrillex. October 29th, 2011: I am alone. I am tired. I am at a Snoop Dogg concert. The drumbeat rattling my teeth is nearly overpowered by my deafening crash onto pharmaceuticals mergers, rock bottom. The 2011 school year cut me to pieces.

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