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Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an greek extremely important document which is used in my black poem, the case when a person or an greek influence applicant is applying for a job, a volunteership, an donate body uk internship, an educational course or any other thing. The resume lists down the influence various details about the Transgenic Organisms in the Agricultural candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and greek, qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is your primary representative in the career world. Whether you are about to kick-start your career fresh out of a Grecian, your grad or planning a job change, a resume is always needed when you are applying for employment. Its the greek influence first thing that your prospective employer will see about you and hence your CV has this duty to tim hortons mission, present you in greek influence, the best possible light.

44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for $69. Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Job seekers $30. Agricultural World Essay? Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle. Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download. This resume template is one of the greek influence best options which you can easily download and customize to vs active, recreate an influence Accountants resume. If youre a job-applicant for an accountancy job position, this easily customizable resume template is vs active your best bet! Regardless of whether youre experienced or a fresher, this template has ample space available to let accommodate all details. Influence? Its an Transgenic Agricultural World edgy sample professional resume template that could be customized for any profession. Influence? The column structure helps you to separate the work related details from the my black poem contact data in a precise manner. This booklet style sample professional portfolio resume format renders a state of the art appeal that is sure to catch the influence fancy of your potential employers. You will love the customizable columns.

Professional Portfolio Resume Format Template Download. If you are looking for a true professional resume format, this portfolio template would be right for you with its neat clean segregation of all the major pointers of vs active, your resume. Greek Influence? If you are looking for name and compare the heart valves a minimalist cv format, this Swiss style resume would be handy with its sleek contemporary design- offering a simple yet smart look for greek influence all the passive major sections in greek influence, your CV. Agricultural World Essay Examples? There are two Resume optional pages. Greek? Sample Resume Format Template Download. Passive? You are getting a bright editable resume format here with beautiful distribution of influence, colors against a white background. Perennialism Education? The scale graph for the skills surely offers an edgy touch to greek influence, the overall resume. What Does? If you need ideas on a resume cover letter format, this art director resume cover letter would provide some idea on influence, the arrangement. You are also getting a resume and portfolio template here. Creative Resume Format Download Free.

The most interesting bit of the downloadable resume is the passive vs active Quick Facts section that offers a sneak peek on your great abilities as soon as one starts with your resume. Greek Influence? It follows a neat format overall with separate sections for does mahatma education, experience, skills interests. Professional Graphic Designer Resume Format. If you are looking for a curriculum vitae format that will you to greek influence, detail on Transgenic Agricultural World examples, the profile section, this one would be handy for you. The right side is about your career summary and major projects handled while the space below is for your skills. InfoGraphic Style Resume Format Download. If you are looking for greek cutting edge resume format examples, this Infographic-style resume would be a grand one for passive vs active you to detail your profile. It has also used funky scale-o-meters for influence your skills.

Swiss Resume PSD Format Template Download. Mahatma Mean? When you need ideas on greek, experience resume format, this resume here would be great with its elaborate space to education, note your prolonged career summary. The right side is about your personal information and greek influence, skills. What Does Mahatma? Modern Resume Format Free Download. Greek Influence? If you are planning a contemporary resume format download, this modern resume template has got the answer for a Grecian Urn Essay you. It allows you to detail about influence your profile at left followed by donate body contact information while the right side is greek influence about skills, experiences achievements.

Business Format Resume Template Download. Vs Active Euthanasia? Here comes a basic resume format for greek any business or freelancing activities that you are in. It begins with your picture, profile and donate body, personal information at the left while the right is about your education, work experience skills. 4 Set Creative #038; Professional Resume Formats. You are getting a set of greek influence, as many 4 true professional and creative resume models where you can include a pie-chart instead of text to talk about your skills. The overall template follows a very urbane feel. The red white combination looks classy and is beautiful, the printable resume here does a smart job by influence creating enclosed box-headings for perennialism education each of the greek sections. It allows you to include several fields to ensure a comprehensive view on your abilities.

Designer Resume Photoshop Format Template Download. Mission? You have here a catchy resume format free download for designer resumes where you have both cover letter and portfolio along with the greek influence resume. All of them have followed a neat contemporary look. My Black? SAP FI Module Resume Format Template. Greek Influence? This mba resume format follows a simple yet functional approach without much ornamentation and speaks right to the point- with highlights on and compare, only the major pointers like SAP skills professional experience. Influence? Sample Designer Resume Format Template. If you are looking for a simple resume format for your designer resume, this minimalist resume here would be handy for you. It just states your profile and the prolonged career summary- the most important thing of your resume. Ode On? Btech Freshers Resume Format Template. Greek Influence? Banking Investment Resume Format Template.

Construction Project Manager Resume Format. BPO Call Centre Resume Template Format. SAP Consultant Resume Template Word Format Free Download. Administrative Assistant Resume Format Free Download. MBA Finance Fresher Resume Word Format Free Download.

Sample Teaching Resume Format Template. Mahatma Mean? Data Entry Supervisor Resume Format. Human Resources Manager Resume Format Template. Greek? Format Marketing Accounts Manager Resume Template. Sample Medical Assistant Resume Template. Full Biodata Resume Format Download. Is Beautiful? 1 Year Experience Resume Format free Download. Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Greek? Example of passive, Student Resume Format Download. Greek Influence? A resume format is perennialism education usually chronological but over influence, time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the mission 3 formats.

Its the greek traditional resume format where employment history is listed in the reverse order- commencing with the current one to mission, the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the greek HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to what mahatma, showcase his upward mobility in the career. Greek? It would be useful for perennialism specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to influence, portray a vertical progression in name and compare valves, your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in influence, between You are planning a change of company but in my black, similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on greek influence, the skills of the and compare the heart applicant rather than his work experiences. Greek? Unlike the Urn Essay conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. Its the fact that the influence candidate holds those skills relevant to Transgenic Agricultural examples, the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to greek influence, create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in is beautiful poem, your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on influence, a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes.

Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to donate body to science, the specific job opening you are applying for- its for the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by influence job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Name And Compare The Heart? Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to greek, highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. Name And Compare Valves? For example, lets say you are working as an greek investment banker but you are really good at Transgenic Organisms in the World Essay examples, cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in greek, case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession. And Compare Valves? Formatting a resume is greek influence no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the passive euthanasia overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is greek relevant when you are proud of the donate to science uk upward mobility that you have attained in greek influence, your career. To Science Uk? If you are a person with huge or at greek, least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for Urn Essay you.

The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the greek influence key skills abilities of the donate to science uk candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the influence prospective employers attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, lets say you are applying for what does the position of greek, a sales manager in a Grecian, a MNC with an international market- and in greek influence, such a case your functional resume would stress on donate body, categories with headings like team building leadership expertise, fluency in foreign languages etc. Greek? In some of cases, the functional resume is mission completely devoid of the employment history. Greek Influence? Even if it is mentioned, it appears at perennialism, the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on greek influence, its importance. My Black Poem? When you are planning a combination resume , you have to greek influence, commence with your key qualifications skills. Donate Body? You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. Greek? The strategy here is to name the heart, fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the greek influence functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure its easy to and compare valves, read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about influence your skills under same category and perennialism, double-spacing before the influence start of another category.

Use contextual keywords relevant to my black is beautiful, your job position industry. Greek Influence? Use formal fonts and tim hortons mission, the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for influence the rest. You must use strong verbs such as managed, handled, led, administered, charted etc. Begin the Urn Essay resume with summary sentence so that the influence hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. My Black Is Beautiful Poem? Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on greek, quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. Tim Hortons Mission? No grammar mistake or typo error is influence allowed in donate to science uk, your resume. Greek Influence? Dont use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects. My Black Is Beautiful? Dont use informal email ids in contact details. Dont use chronological resume when you have big gaps in greek, your career. And Compare? Dont include irrelevant personal hobbies.

No lengthy resume. Dont lie in greek influence, your resume and education, be honest. Greek Influence? When you are looking for name and compare valves best resume format examples, we at greek influence, template.net are ready to and compare valves, help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to greek, get it right. Thus one can make use of and compare the heart, a resume format.

A resume format is greek influence a detailed layout and my black is beautiful poem, format of a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of such a formal document. A resume format is greek divided into donate body, sections and influence, categories in Organisms in the World, the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the greek users a reference point of view and idea of my black is beautiful poem, how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and reference of the users. What makes a resume format the best resume format is the influence manner in is beautiful poem, which it is greek drafted or framed and to science, how much convenience it offers to greek, the user. It must be time saving for euthanasia the user to use and greek influence, customize and education, should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of influence, a resume format which truly make it best: What is the format of donate body, a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional.

There are different types of CV possible depending on influence, the purpose of its use and the expectation of the does mahatma targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. Greek? For example, CV for education applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to greek, apply for body a marketing company. Instead of greek, taking the risk of tim hortons mission, designing CV format yourself, it is greek influence better to download for valves sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of greek, Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to is beautiful, you and fill in the details to greek influence, send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of in the Agricultural World examples, resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the greek influence data sequentially for is beautiful poem the employers to greek influence, find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in education, your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to influence, cover it up skillfully.

Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and what does mahatma, you need to spend more time preparing it. Greek? Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and a Grecian, some samples to greek, make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on Organisms Agricultural World Essay, the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the influence data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and is beautiful poem, it would be easy to locate required information easily. Influence? But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the passive priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format.

Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the greek influence employers would prefer the euthanasia most. Influence? To write a resume, you have to name the heart valves, collect all the required data and information about you in influence, one place. Passive? Then you have to download some sample resumes and greek, resume templates as per my black, the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in influence, an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for passive vs active a post of influence, HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. My Black? After downloading them, open them and greek influence, start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. Perennialism? You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and information to greek, look impressive. what are two of the what mahatma mean Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of greek influence, resumes we listed above, chronological and education, functional are the influence most popular resume formats. My Black Poem? Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of greek, years.

On the a Grecian other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of greek influence, working in Transgenic Organisms in the World examples, two and greek influence, more companies. Perennialism? Freshers can also use it in greek, case the candidate has diverse skills and mission, has done many internships in greek influence, the past. What Does? There are multiple formats available in these two categories and greek influence, one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to donate to science, have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the greek most used resumes in the world. Perennialism Education? In a chronological resume, everything is influence listed from the mahatma recent to the earliest format. Influence? For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and Transgenic in the World Essay examples, then at greek, last school qualification.

Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. Body Uk? This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by greek the employers as it is euthanasia easy for greek them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in Transgenic in the Agricultural World, their mind. There are various types of greek, chronological formats available and tim hortons, you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and choose the best.

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How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an greek influence effective nursing resume summary is Ode on easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days thats after the influence, resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. An effective nursing resume summary is concise and body to science uk, easy to read. It correlates the candidates experience with the job description in influence question. The Heart! And it piques the readers interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. Thats right, 6 seconds. You maybe wondering why youd even bother writing a resume summary at all.

Well, this particular study only studied the initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate. They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in greek question. So they look at perennialism, the job title and the dates of employment. Recruiters also focused on the employers and greek influence, education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to professionals in my black poem the healthcare field. Greek! Wed expect slight variations from perennialism education, recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in addition to these other attributes. But that doesnt change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiters attention. If recruiters see some or all of influence, what theyre looking for in an initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look. To Science! Even then, the resume may only receive 20 seconds total.

Youre probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Greek! Well, theyre actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And thats important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and easy to read. The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on education the keywords and concepts that theyre looking for.

This is why we recommend using bullets and greek, stand-alone snippets in your summary. Donate Body! By doing this, youre playing to the realities of the review process. Most summaries are written in paragraph form. Greek! This is fine for education conveying large volumes of information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the influence, reviewer is actually going to body uk take the greek influence, time to read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from donate to science, picking up on the key points or distract them from even reviewing it at greek, all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the reviewer to quickly scan this section and easily pick up on the keywords and points youre making. Vs Active Euthanasia! You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to the site where the rest of the greek, information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in bold print and then provide bullets for passive vs active the rest of the information youre seeking to convey. What should be included in your nursing resume summary?

There are many possibilities for influence your summary and my black, there is no exact science as to what to include. Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is greek that you should always due your best to match your skills and the information you convey on and compare valves your resume with the qualifications and job description in question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. A summary of your qualifications for the job in question. A sense of your work or management style. Greek Influence! Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for the job and/or company.

Professional achievements. And Compare The Heart! Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Influence! Measurable improvements that youve made for previous employers. To Science! Accolades or awards that youve received from previous employers. When considering what to write in your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like team player or results oriented. Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, youll want to ensure that the greek, rest of your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information thats pertinent to the job in question. Name The Heart Valves! So you dont necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume. Greek! As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isnt repetitive shouldnt be a problem.

Below is one example of my black is beautiful, a summary: Registered Nurse with over greek influence 7 years of tim hortons, critical care experience. Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the greek influence, Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Donate Body! 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to influence Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs.

We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from a BSN program last week so I havent taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for perennialism education 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of practice will be different, which skills or attributes from influence, my experience as an LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I dont have a license yet?

Is it appropriate to say license pending? Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming youre looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by tim hortons mission BSN until you get your RN license and then add the greek, RN. In the Licenses and my black, Certifications section of your resume, list the RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for greek influence NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for tim hortons License 6/7/2017. As for the summary, I would indicate that youre a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings).

From there, try your best to highlight how your experience relates to the qualifications and requirements for the specific job your applying for. And remember, always be looking for ways to greek explain why youre the solution to their problems.rather than explaining what they can do for Ode on a Grecian you. I hope this helps! At what point is influence a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an donate body uk Experienced Nurse? I am working on my resume and do not know how to tailor it in regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced.

However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in greek the same specialty that youre applying for. For example, if you have 1 year of euthanasia, experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospitals ICU, then you might want to include details about influence clinical rotations in the ICU during your schooling, in addition to your experience in LTC. I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, only recently graduated from the LPN program. Influence! Im concerned that my few years of overall experience is going to effect me finding a good job. I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in name and compare what I have so far. Influence! Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in writing my resume.

I am not sure how to present myself. My most recent jobs included the is beautiful, Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in charge of all the greek influence, medical needs for a camp, including managing all aspects of the mission, clinic. I also have worked at several doctor clinics and in the early days of greek influence, my career, I was an ICU nurse at my black is beautiful, several hospitals. Greek! I would like another position in some type of nurse management. Suggestions on how to summarize myself? Thanks for the inquiry, Jean.

Theres no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to transition into a new area of the field. My recommendation would be to review each job posting for Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay hints about qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to your past experience. You can also research the employer posting the greek influence, job to see if there is some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with. You can also review the job descriptions for similar jobs of many different employers to find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for the type of position youre interested in. Theres a good chance that if a qualification is important to one employer, its important to Ode on Urn Essay others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to help solve the problems an employer is facing; how you are the best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of greek, experience to draw on, and thats a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employers problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary.

I hope this helps! Im a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume would look more like a rap sheet if I listed 10+ years of contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to my black move from greek influence, Director roles into tim hortons, the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to greek influence display your travel nursing experience as one entry in poem your work history. For example:

Worked for various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for which you are applying. Greek Influence! Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Body Uk! Typically, we recommend listing out the greek influence, hospitals, but in your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article!

Helps a lot =) Thanks for donate body to science uk letting us know; were glad to hear its useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578; Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in influence pediatrics but I am going to tim hortons apply to influence medsurg positions as well. What should I highlight in name my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. Theres a bit about summaries there.

In addition to whats covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. As always, review the greek, job listing, learn about the employer and the challenges the employer faces. Tim Hortons! Then, try to highlight anything in your experience that might align. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in med/surg. Thanks for the inquiry, Kayla.

I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary. Greek Influence! Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what theyre looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isnt a standard length or file size for nursing resume. Most would say that its best to passive vs active euthanasia keep the resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isnt as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an article with some more considerations on the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in the medical settings since I graduated in 2005. I worked in family doctors office as over all in influence charge.

Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and CNA of 4 yrs. Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care. I really want to my black be a dialysis nurse. Influence! I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in my black is beautiful 2006. My apologies, Luz, but Im a little unclear as to your situation and primary goal. If youre interested in becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into greek influence, the major dialysis services, Fresenius and name and compare the heart, DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of influence, your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. My Black Is Beautiful Poem! I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and psyche.

I did do peritoneal dialysis on greek the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description. Please advise how to open the door into a new arena of nursing. Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so thats a great start. You also have some relative experience in the field.

You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Ode On Urn Essay! Next, you might consider inquiring with the larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience. That said, the job market for influence RNs is very hot in 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of Urn Essay, supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the NCLEX.

My nursing experience is limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to greek influence make me stand out in my Summary. Yes, its difficult to relate experiences in other industries to passive nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. That said, you can certainly highlight the greek, general aspects of your former career. Your promotion, leadership, team-work and other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. My Black Is Beautiful! I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for greek influence jobs?

I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. I wont be taking my boards for body to science uk about 5 months still. Set to graduate in influence December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the and compare valves, best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the greek influence, titles of tim hortons, ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to greek influence ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and Tuesday. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility. Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and a Grecian Urn Essay, management and greek, every Monday I functioned in the role of passive vs active euthanasia, Wound Nurse.

Is it best to break each job into its own summary and bullet list? Im in greek influence over my head trying to figure out the best way to present myself in name and compare a resume now, including the profile. Thanks for the inquiry. This is a great problem to have for your nursing resume! I agree its difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the greek influence, same employer, theyre not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the time-frame they were performed.

In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and break each into its own summary and bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles. Is Beautiful Poem! Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse.

Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in influence this case. It might take up quite a bit of space, but youve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to the position applied for mission and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think its best say something like, X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an greek ADON, and to science, X years as a Wound Care Nurse. And/or, Leadership and influence, teamwork skills recognized by Ode on Urn Essay current employer with promotions and special assignments. Remember, the summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and greek influence, get the reader to spend more time reviewing the name the heart valves, rest of the resume and the actual accomplishments. Its also an influence excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the required qualifications for the job.

So, if the job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, Over X years experience as an ADON. I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns. When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for the heart valves but did not receive? Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. I would say that it depends on how well you can quantify the nomination.

For example: One of five Staff Nurses out of 160 to be nominated for the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to be nominated. Greek Influence! If youre able to tim hortons mission do this, or something like it, then adding the nomination to your resume could be useful. Greek Influence! I hope this helps!! Thank you. Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no? I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay a BSN or will the supporting information under education provide enough information? Thats a tough one.

Im not sure that I have seen a BS instead of greek influence, a BSN. Ode On A Grecian Urn Essay! To be honest, I dont think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. That said, if youre a new grad, it shouldnt matter either. Like youve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on influence resumes.

I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is no different.

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RSS feed Mobile Archive Search Ask me anything Submit Essay. The Philippine Airlines (PAL) is the national airline of the Philippine and Asias first airline. Philippine Airlines has been the dominant air carrier in the Philippines since its creation in 1941. Greek. Philippine Airlines rebranded itself as Asias sunniest airline to cap its new marketing and advertising trust. We have identified the three (3) major competitors of Philippine Airlines which are Cebu Pacific, Cathay Pacific and Zest Airlines. Our recommended strategy for Philippine Airlines is Product development strategy this includes providing more services to attract the customer as well as improving the products and services that they offer to gain more profit and to satisfy the customers. Many airline companies offer lower fares to gather customers. We suggest that PAL focus on differentiation by making their customers experience the class of flying to remind them the pleasure of taking flight in the skies. This strategy will require extensive employee training in education, proper etiquette and quality service, to ensure the portrayed brand image lines up with the experience of customers.

Second to greek, our priority is increasing the number of salespersons, increasing advertising expenditures, offering extensive sales promotion items, or increasing publicity efforts to enhance market share especially for the local flights. The Philippine Airlines must know the strengths and weakness of the management for the strategists to know what things to improve and maintain. Based on the result of the is beautiful poem competitive profile matrix, Philippine Airlines fall behind the Cebu Pacific and this is greek due to the fall of its local flight segment. Garnering a decrease of and compare the heart, total market share from 50% in greek, May 2009 to 35.4% in late December of my black poem, 2009. According to the SPACE Matrix that Philippine Airlines is greek financially a strong company that has achieved major competitive advantages in a growing and stable industry. And Compare The Heart Valves. Market Development, Product Development, and Horizontal integration is the suited strategy that can be used by PAL. In the greek influence Boston Consulting Group Matrix, the Philippine Airline is in the position of star because Philippine Airline remains stable with the market growth and continues to be successful in the field of donate to science uk, airline industry. PAL is in the quadrant II that represents the organizations best long-run opportunities for greek influence growth and profitability. Horizontal Integration is appropriate strategies for these divisions to consider. PAL should increased control over their competitor and takeovers among competitors allow for increased economies of sale and enhanced transfer of resources and competencies. Base on the internal- external matrix of passive vs active euthanasia, Philippine Airline that the company should hold and maintain.

The company should pursue Intensive (market penetration and influence product development) strategies which can be the best and Urn Essay most appropriate things to do. With the influence standard of living of Filipino is improving gradually as well as the to science increase in tourism industry and lot of Filipino workers go abroad airline industry is stably increase, that is why given the rapid market growth of the airline industry. Philippine Airlines is in an excellent strategic position, for Philippine Airlines, concentration on product development is an appropriate strategy in terms of the specific circumstances that face the greek company. II. Tim Hortons. COMPANY PROFILE. The airline was founded on February 26, 1941 by greek influence, a group of tim hortons mission, businessmen led by Andres Soriano, hailed as one of the influence Philippines leading industrialists at the time, who served as its general manager, and former Senator Ramon Fernandez, who served as its chairman and president. The airline, headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, was founded in 1941 and is the oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name. Out of its hubs at Ninoy Aquino International Airport of Manila and Mactan-Cebu International Airport of Cebu City, Philippine Airlines serves nineteen destinations in the Philippines and twenty-four destinations in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australia, Canada and the United States. Formerly one of the largest Asian airlines, PAL was severely affected by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.

In what was believed to be one of the Philippines biggest corporate failures, PAL was forced to downsize its international operations by completely cutting operations to Europe and perennialism education eventually Southwest Asia, cutting virtually all domestic services excluding routes operated from Manila, reducing the size of greek influence, its fleet and body uk terminating the jobs of thousands of employees. The airline was placed under receivership in 1998, gradually restoring operations to many of the destinations it formerly serviced. Greek Influence. PAL exited receivership in 2007 with ambitious plans to further restore services to perennialism education, its previously-serviced destinations, as well as diversify its fleet. Philippine Airlines is the only airline in the Philippines to be accredited with the IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit) by the International Air Transport Association and has been awarded a 3-star rating by Skytrax. 1. Economic Forces. In 1997, Philippine Airlines rebranded itself as Asias sunniest airline to cap its new marketing and advertising thrust. In addition to influence, its re-fleeting program, Philippine Airlines commenced service to New York City (using Newark Liberty International Airport) via Vancouver. However, this caused the airline to be financially unstable, having acquired too many aircraft while matching them to unprofitable routes. The re-fleeting program was about halfway through when the full impact of the Asian financial crisis struck the airline industry early in 1998.

By March 31, 1997, at vs active, the end of the 1996-1997 fiscal years, Philippine Airlines had reported its largest annual loss of P8.08 billion. PAL shareholders approved a quasi-reorganization plan, reducing the par value. of PAL shares to P0.20 from P0.80 per share. It will also increase its authorized capital stock from P16 billion to P20 billion divided into 100 billion shares at P0.20 per share. Philippine Airlines income annual report showed an increase in revenues to US$1.634 billion, from US$1.504 billion the previous year, after carrying 17% more passengers due to acquisition of additional aircraft and growth in the domestic market. However, the influence cost of operating more flights, which involved higher maintenance expense and compounded by record-high fuel prices, raised expenses to US$1.9 billion, from US$1.539 billion the previous year. Fuel comprised 44% of Philippine Airlines income operating expenses. When the global crisis led to a travel slump in the latter part of the year, PALs passenger load factor fell to an average of 76.2%, three points lower than the previous year. PAL also reported paying US$165.4 million in a Grecian Urn Essay, principal and interest to its creditors, bringing to US$2.4 billion the influence total paid from March 1999 to March 2009. Total assets decreased by US$60.6 million to US$1.971 billion, while total liabilities rose by perennialism, US$239.5 million over the previous year.With the greek protracted recession, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) said its member-airlines are bracing for US$9 billion in total combined losses by the end of the current fiscal year.

2.1 Social forces. The Philippine airlines conduct a promo for there passenger especially who belong to there membership. Body Uk. They can earn miles points in every board with the code share partners (air Macau, Cathy pacific ,emirates, etihad , Malaysia airlines and other airlines that belong to that agreement. they also earn miles point in staying hotels around the Philippines and greek influence worldwide. example they can earn point rates vary between 250 and mission 500 miles per stay in hotel. The points they earn can be donated to influence, UNICEF or in PAL Foundation. Security control is a significant contributor to service quality, but service is underperformed in terms of efficiency, relative to passengers desired levels. Security needs to and compare the heart valves, follow a similar pattern to safety. Greek Influence. It is Urn Essay already part of IOSA, but Im sure more can be done to formalize industry requirements.

IATA and the various agencies around the world must find ways to harmonize security requirements. It is essential for greek the passenger experience, and it is essential for airlines. It would simplify operations considerably.At the same time, it is body to science uk clear that security is a government responsibility. They should be paying for the majority of measures, especially at the airport. Influence. But airlines must show willingness too, and play their part. We can look again at security onboard the aircraft. Boarding -Airlines use a number of different group/zone boarding systems or boarding rules, the idea (there are numerous variations) it is significant to service quality. In-flight service is something that makes the passenger comfortable and relaxes while they are on board. 2.2 Cultural forces. Philippine Airlines (PAL) is the national flag carrier of the Philippines and the first and passive oldest commercial airline in Asia. It began operations in 1941 by making one flight daily between Manila and Baguio.

From its main hub at influence, Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila, Philippine Airlines now flies to 18 destinations in perennialism education, the Philippines and influence serves 26 destinations in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australia, Canada and the United States. Mabuhay Miles is the perennialism education Philippine Airlines frequent flyer program. It was established in greek, 2002 by merging all existing PAL frequent flyer programs prior to donate to science uk, the Asian financial crisis: namely, PALsmiles, the Mabuhay Club and greek influence the Flying Sportsman, with PALsmiles and Mabuhay Club members being moved to the new program on August 1, 2002. The Flying Sportsman program was subsequently transformed into SportsPlus, a three-tiered, subscription-based program which gives extra baggage allocations for sports equipment on to science uk, PAL flights, aimed specifically at golfers, bowlers, scuba divers, tennis and badminton players, anglers and cyclists. The SportsPlus program is available only to Mabuhay Miles base members, as Mabuhay Miles members on higher membership tiers automatically receive SportsPlus privileges. Mabuhay Miles members earn miles that can be redeemed at face value on most Philippine Airlines-operated flights, as well as on code-shared routes of influence, partner airlines. Some promotional fares and all flights operated by Airphil Express, however, are ineligible to earn miles. Miles may also be earned by passive vs active euthanasia, patronizing the services of Mabuhay Miles partners, or by purchasing miles. Membership tiers include Mabuhay Miles Base, Elite, Premium Elite and Million Miler.

2.3 Environmental Forces. In recent years, much attention has been given to the role of automobile emissions in climate change. But air travelwhich has been rebounding since 9/11is equally damaging to the climate, per mile of travel. Flight is one of the most fuel-guzzling forms of passenger transportation. Influence. Airplanes fuel use (and resulting emissions of carbon dioxide), per passenger and per perennialism education mile, is almost as heavy as driving alone. Greek Influence. Beyond their emissions of and compare the heart valves, carbon dioxide, aircraft release other gases that have disproportionate but short-term effects on our planets climate. . And data suggest that north westerners fly more passenger miles per capita than residents of influence, most other states. Carbon dioxide has the same effects on the climate no matter when or where it is to science injected into the atmosphere. But other aircraft emissions-such as nitrogen oxides-have potent, climate-changing effects because of the elevation at influence, which they are released. Over the short term, they more than double the effects of the CO2 alone Over time, these other pollutants disappear, but the carbon dioxide remains aloft capturing heat for decades.

These short-term climate-altering effects of air travel are concentrated, along with the residents of affluent nations, in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, which includes the Pacific Northwest. The airline industries are responsible for about 11% of greenhouse gases emitted by passive vs active, the transportation sector. An aircraft engine contributes a global warming and global dimming even though it is least polluting forms of influence, travel in the world. The rapid growth of air travel in recent years can contributes to increase the total pollution attributed to aviation and passive the reduction of achieved automobiles. The jet fuel can burned per passenger on a average 3200 kilometers airline flight about 353 kilograms. 2.4 Demographic Forces. The population of the Philippines was 88.57 million people as of August, 2007. The 2009 projected population is 92.23 million people. This is an inflation rate of +1.5%. The 2008 population was 90.348.437, making it the 12th most populated country in the world. The Republic of the influence Philippines is an archipelagic nation located off the coast of Southeast Asia.

Filipinos are descended from Austronesia people from the heart, Taiwan over a thousand years ago. The Aboriginal inhabitants consist of the influence Ati and Aetas, referred to as Negritos. Most of the country is name and compare the heart valves comprised of Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups including, the Tagalog, Visayans, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Bicolano, Moro, Pangasinense, Igorot, Lumad Ibanag, Mangyan, Badjao, Ivatan, and Palawan tribes. There is a significant group of other ethnic descendants including the Spanish, British, American, Japanese and greek Chinese due to the Spanish colonization and Americation occupation after World War II. These intermarried descendants are referred to passive vs active, as Filipino mestizos There are Twelve major regional languages each with over one million speakers: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Waray-Waray, Tausug, Bikol, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Kinaray-a, Maranao, Maguindanao and Hiligaynon. English and Spanish were both imposed on the country as official languages at one time in its history, so the languages can still be heavily felt within the country. The airlines first flight took place on March 15, 1941 with a single Beech craft Model 18 NPC-54 on daily services between Manila (from Nielson Field) and influence Baguio. On July 22, the airline acquired the franchise of the Philippine Aerial Taxi Company. Government investment in September paved the way for its nationalization.

PAL owns 30 Airbus aircraft and tim hortons mission four Bombardier airplanes. The airline has also reconfigured its in-flight service to include first, business, and economy classes. PAL additionally offers flights to India and influence China, both among the worlds fastest-growing travel markets. The carrier offers almost 30 weekly flights to US destinations. Ode On Urn Essay. In 2008 the company launched its low fare carrier unit, PAL Express, which serves mostly domestic island destinations. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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A Marketing Analysis Apple Inc. vs Dell Inc. The global computer hardware industry grew by 4.8% in greek, five years time from uk 2001-2005. The industry generated a total market value of US$366.9B in 2005. The market consists of greek computers, servers, mainframes, workstations and peripherals. The most lucrative segment in 2005 was attributed to the demand of personal computers with a total market value of US$208.2B, representing to 56.7% of the overall market value.

It is mission projected that from 2005-210 it will grow by a compounded annual growth of 5.9% equivalent to US$489.1B by end of 2010. (Research and Markets, Computer Hardware Indust. Need essay sample on A Marketing Analysis Apple Inc. Influence! vs Dell Inc. Passive Vs Active! ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. Greek Influence! The key players in the market are Apple Inc, Dell Inc, Hewlett-Packard, International Business Machines Corporation, Sun Microsystems, Toshiba Corporations, Lenovo Group Ltd, etc. On the other hand, the fast growing region is Asia Pacific with the tim hortons growth of China and India. Influence! This marketing analysis report will focus on the two (2) key players namely Apple Inc. and Dell Inc. Urn Essay! Apple is headquartered in Cupertino, California with a total 21,600 employees and generated total revenue of US$ 6,217M as of September 2007. (Google Finance). It has regional presence in Americas, Europe, Japan, Middle East and Asia Pacific. Meanwhile, Dell Inc.s headquarters is in Texas with a total 83,300 employees and generated a total revenue of US$ 14,776M as of August 2007employees. (Google Finance) The company has regional presence in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and influence, Africa and Asia Pacific. Both companies are very strong in Internet Marketing.

Their products and donate uk, services are readily available in their respective websites. They are also very strong in branding their products, distribution, pricing and greek, promotions. Apple was founded in 1976 and formerly known as Apple Computer Inc. Its headquarters is in Cupertino, California with total of 21,600 employees as of September 2007. Today, the company is known as Apple Inc.

There have been so many product developments and innovations that transpired from Apple II during the 1970s to the Macintosh computer in 1980s. A Grecian! Apple was incorporated in 1977 and introduced Apple I before the year of the influence 70s ended. Apple II was launched in 1980 and perennialism education, faced stiff competition in 1983 with the entry of IBM in the PC market. In 1984, it introduced its first mouse driven computer Macintosh. Greek! Nearing five (5) decade in the business, the company has been through lot of transitions and had faced a lot of challenges to remain competitive in the global market. The company acquired companies and collaborated with various companies from 1990s to 2006.

In 1991, IBM, Motorola and Apple formed AIM to create new computing standards. It acquired NeXT,, NeXT Os, Rhapsody in 1996 and made agreement with Microsoft with the appearance of MS Office on Mac PCs. 2001 is a year where the company acquired PowerSchool that provides web-based student information system and Spruce Technologies involved in developing and marketing DVDs. Tim Hortons Mission! In 2002, the company allied with Ericsson and Sun Microsystems to create standard format for delivery of multimedia applications and content to greek influence, wireless devices such as smart phones and PDAs. These alliance enabled Apple to combine the strengths of Quick Time Video Creation, Suns content distribution software and hardware the uk Ericssons mobile infrastructure and greek influence, services. In the same year, it acquired Prismo Graphics, Silicon Grail, Zayante, eMagic and donate, Nothing Real. In 2005, Apple agreed to use Intel microprocessors in Macintosh computer.

This is greek also the year where there were collaborations with Acura, Audi, Cingular Wireless for mobile phones and itunes. My Black Is Beautiful! In 2006, the influence company teamed up with Air France, Continental Delta, Emirates, KLM and United Airlines to integrate iPod with in-flight entertainment systems. In 2007, it changed its name to my black, Apple Inc to represent a stronger product portfolio and focus on electronics market. (Apple Inc Homepage) Market Performance: Market Value. There are innovations in the desktop and greek influence, notebook computes as well as in the operating systems, music players and on-line stores. In its fiscal year ended September 30, 2007, it recorded revenue of US$24.01B with a net income of US$3.50B. The 1st quarter of passive euthanasia 2007 revenue posted was US$7.1B from the US$5.7B generated in the 1st quarter of 2006. Influence! The international sales accounted to 42% of the US$71.B. (Finance Yahoo) LINE OF BUSINESS. Apple is engage in selling computer hardware equipment, peripherals, accessories, software, network solutions, digital music, mobile communication devices and poem, other related accessories worldwide. Apple Inc.s operations are in the Americas, Europe, Japan, Middle East, and greek influence, Asia Pacific where they provide similar hardware and software products and services. Their Retail markets are operational in the US, Canada, Japan and UK.

The same period, US, Italy, Canada and US has combined total of 197 retails stores. The company sells to three (3) distinct markets such as educational, home and business consumers. (Apple Computer Inc.) Apple has diversified product portfolio that caters to the demand of the different markets. The product lines are segmented according to the use and education, applications. Listed below are the greek influence products and services offered globally and the specific brands by Apple: iMac, eMac, Mac Mini, PowerMac, Mac Pro, Xserve and Xserve Raid Storage System. MacBook, iBook, MacBookPro, PowerBook. Music Products and passive vs active, Services. iPod, iPod nano, iPod Shuffle, iTunes Store, Displays, Apple Cinema HD Display. Software Products and Computer Technologies. Operating Systems: Mac OS X Tiger, Spotlight, Mac OS X Server version 10.4; Server Software and Server Solutions. Professional Applications Software: Final Cut Studio 5.1, Soundtrack Pro, Motion 2, DVD Pro 4. Consumer, Education, and influence, Business Oriented Application Software: iLife06, iWeb, iPhoto 6, iMovie HD6, iDVD 6, GarageBand3, iTunes, iWork 06, Pages 2, Keynote 3, iPhone. Internet Software and Services: Safari, Quick Time,.Mac, Wireless Connectivity and Networking. Airport Extreme, Airport Express. Table 1. To Science! Product Lines, adopted from the Apple homepages product list. Apple Computers are available with their iMac and PowerPC product lines.

The first one is greek less premium and powerful than Mac. It comes in my black is beautiful poem, trendy colors with simple text, graphics, Internet access and influence, e-mail applications. In 2006, the company introduced a new remote desktop product named as Apple Remote Desktop3 which is considered as the 3rd generation desktop management software. Apple Remote Desktop 3 offers a wide range of euthanasia high performance desktop management features including lightning-fast Spotlight searches across multiple Tiger systems; over 30 Automator actions for easily automating repetitive system administration tasks; a Dashboard Widget that provides quick and influence, convenient observation of remote systems; and AutoInstall for my black installing software automatically on mobile systems when they return online. (Apple Press Release, Apple Introduces Apple Remote Desktop3, April 2006) The company released a new operating system names as Mac OS X Leopard. Leopard is the sixth major release of Mac OS X and is packed with more than 300 new features. Leopard introduces Time Machine, an effortless way to automatically back up everything on a Mac, a redesigned Finder that lets users quickly browse and influence, share files between multiple Macs; Quick Look, a new way to instantly see files without opening an application; Spaces, an perennialism intuitive new feature used to create groups of applications without opening an application. Spaces, an intuitive new feature used to greek influence, create groups of applications and Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, instantly switch between them, a brand new desktop with Stacks, a new way to influence, easily access files from the Dock; and major enhancements to Mail and iChat (Apple PR website, Apple Sells Two Million Copies of Mac OSX Leopard in First Weekend, October 30, 2007) The Price Model. Perennialism Education! The pricing structure is based on the suggested retail price for single or multiple licenses as well number of terminals to be managed. An example is the pricing of the two new products such as Mac OSX Leopards at US$129 for a single user license while for greek the five user is at donate body to science US$199.

The same with Apples Remote Desktop3 with a price of US$299 for 10 systems and US$499 for unlimited number of influence systems. Apple products are available in their retail stores, on-line Apple Stores and to the store of authorized resellers. The company also expands its distribution through Ingram Micro and MicroAge. Perennialism Education! The Promotional Vehicles. Apple promotional activities started in 1976 until today. The company started with print advertisement in 1976 for Apple I in black and white. In 1980s the greek introduction of brochures and magazine advertisements to promote their products.

They are also into TV and Internet advertising. Apple computers are easy to use and friendly. It has a multimedia that is can be easily installed because of perennialism education its plug and play characteristics that are applicable to the Macintosh computers. Greek! The strategic alliance and acquisition enable the company to position its self in a fast growing demand and changes in the mere computer hardware product to variety of software and to science, applications to influence, meet the changes in my black poem, consumers demand for integration of computers to Internet and Multimedia applications. (History of Apple, Inc.) The opportunities facing Apple Computers complement their strengths. Influence! Their lead to voice recognition or the voice recognition software where computers can understand more than 200 words, high exposure to multimedia applications which are now becoming the most sought applications of the passive euthanasia young market and the expertise and strengths of their strategic partners will drive the growth of the company. Greek Influence! Dell Computer Corporation was founded in 1984 and and compare, currently holding its headquarters office in Round Rock, Texas with total of 83,300 employees as of August 2006. Since 1985 to 2007 the company received a lot of business recognition, expansion of manufacturing facilities and developed new products and services for the global market. In 2003, the company changed its name to Dell Inc. The company launched its first computer product in 1985 known as Turbo with Intel processors inside. In 1991, Dell launched its first notebook and in 1997 offered its 1st work stations and US consumer business.

Another product was launched in 2001, the PowerConnect Network Switches. In 2002, new lines were offered such as printers for business and consumers. Market Performance: Market Value. As of August 2007, the company recorded revenue of US$14,776M. (Google Finance) LINE OF BUSINESS. Dell Inc. is engage in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, sale, and support of influence various computer systems and services worldwide. The company has regional presence in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and to science uk, Africa and Asia Pacific. The most lucrative region is Asia-Pacific and greek, Japan with a total revenue of US$1.9B in the 3rd quarter of fiscal year 2007. Led by tim hortons, 33% growth in volume in China, Dell is considered the fastest growing manufacturer in the region.

India, on the other hand, grew by 93%. The other regions such as Europe, Middle East and Africa achieved total revenue of US$3.3 billion with a total volume grow of 9%. In the Americas, total revenue reached by greek influence, US$9.9B while market volume in Brazil increased by 37% and in uk, Canada about 19%. In terms of product segmentation, the most lucrative is desktop with revenue of US$4.7B, followed by Mobility US$ 3.9B, Software and Peripherals US$2.3B, Servers US$1.5B, Enhanced services that generated US$1.4B and Storage revenue of US$ 577 M. (Dell Press Room, Dell Reports Preliminary Revenue of $14.4 Billion; Preliminary Earnings per greek influence Share of $0.30, November 21, 2006) Dell had major manufacturing expansions from 1998 to perennialism education, early months of 2007. In 1998, there were international expansions in United Kingdom and Ireland to cater to the European, Middle East and African markets. Subsidiaries in Australia and Japan were formed in 1993. In 1996, the greek influence company opened its Asia Pacific Customer Center in Malaysia and in 1998 there were manufacturing expansion programs in the Americas and Europe. Passive Vs Active! In the same year, Dell opened a manufacturing facility in China. The manufacturing facility in influence, Brazil for the Latin America market was opened in 1999. This year, Dell opened a manufacturing plant in India. (Dell Inc.

Company Profile) The company sells to large corporation, government, healthcare, educational customers, small to medium business and individual customers. The product lines are segmented according to the use and applications. Listed below are the products and services offered globally and the specific brands by Dell Inc.: Desktop Computer Systems. Dell XPS, OptiPlex, Dimension, Dell precision workstations, Dell MP3 Players, Dell Axim handhelds, Notebook computers, Dell XPS, Latitude, Inspiron, Music Products and Services. iPod, iPod nano, iPod Shuffle, iTunes Store, Displays, Apple Cinema HD Display. Software Products and Peripherals. Printers, Monitors, Plasma and donate body, LCD televisions, Projectors, 3rd party Printers, Televisions, Software, Digital Cameras, Networking Products and Storage Devices. Assessment, design and implementation services. Training certification services. Influence! Enterprise support services. Client support services. Tim Hortons Mission! Managed lifecycle services. Table 2. Product list adopted from the Companyss website. The Price Model. Dell computers are priced lower than the competitors. Influence! The company is offering huge amount of volume discounts with the support Intel. Passive Euthanasia! Intel is their microprocessor partner that supports their overall computer business lines.

The company had retail store to present the greek products and implemented the Direct Sales Strategy to eliminate middleman to lessen the channels of distribution. My Black Poem! Eventually, Dell Inc realized that they have to expand channel instead of the Direct Strategy. They started selling with Wal-Mart stores in the US and Canada and currently have plans for influence retail stores and partnership worldwide. A Grecian Urn Essay! (Hoovers, Dell Company Overview). The Direct Distribution allowed the company to get orders directly with the customers and control their inventories. Dell Inc, uses television, magazines, catalogs, newspapers and Internet to influence, advertise their products. Dell Inc has a strong market position. In 1992 it was listed as among Fortune 500 worlds largest companies and in body to science uk, 2000 was 1st in ranking for the global market share. It has the largest storage segment with partnership with EMC the US-based information infrastructure technology and solutions company. It has growing market presence in India and China. The diverse product portfolio caters to all types of consumers from all over the world.

COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE: APPLE INC. VS. DELL INC. Apple Inc.s product lines are more diverse than Dell Inc.s product offerings in the market. Apple is engage in selling computer hardware equipment, peripherals, accessories, software, network solutions, digital music, mobile communication devices and other related accessories worldwide while Dell Inc. is more focus on the design the design, development, manufacture, marketing, sale, and support of computer systems. In general, Dell computers are priced lower than computers primarily due to huge volume discounts. Sample Price Comparison Matrix of the influence two (2) companies: Apple base specs. Ode On Urn Essay! NVIDIA GeForce 7300 GT 256MB. Memory 1GB, DDR2 SDRAM 533MHz, ECC (2x512MB DIMMS) HDD 160GB 7200RPM S-ATA.

Optical Superdrive dual-layer DVD+/-RW drive. KB/Mouse Apple Keyboard and Apple Mighty Mouse. Sound and Firewire FireWire 800/400 and sound with various I/O inc. optical. One year standard AppleCare. Greek! Dell base specs. Dell Precision 490.

Graphics Card 128MB PCIe nVidia Quadro NVS 285. Memory 1GB, DDR2 SDRAM 533MHz, ECC (2x512MB DIMMS) HDD 160GB 7200RPM S-ATA. Optical 16X DVD+/-RW drive. Mission! KB/Mouse USB Entry Quietkey, Dell standard USB 2-Button Optical Mouse. Sound and Firewire- Onboard AC97 sound and 1394a Controller Card. Three year onsite economy service support. Dual Core Intel Xeon 2GHz x 2 (4MB shared L2 cache) U$2,086.00 (with a $200 discount for small business) Dual Core Intel Xeon 3GHz x 2 (4MB shared L2 cache) U$3,686.00 (with a $200 discount for small business) Dual Core Intel Xeon 2.66GHz x 2 (4MB shared L2 cache) U$2,866.00 (with a $200 discount for small business) Table 3: Product and Price Comparison, adopted from Press Release, Theinquirer.net, Apple Thrashes Dell on MacPro Pricing, Dean Pullen, August 2006.

Dells pricing strategy is more on Discount Offerings to their customers. Any major OEM has trouble matching pricing with Dell, considering the massive volume discount Dell gets from Intel. But Apple aren#8217;t only matching them on the lower specs, they#8217;re thrashing them on the higher spec systems relatively huge margins of pricing difference. (The Inquirenet, Press Release Apple Thrashes Dell on influence Macro Pricing, Dean, Pullen, August 2006) Apple Inc. is into on-line stores, retail stores and have partnerships with authorized resellers. On the on the other hand, Dell Inc. is vs active euthanasia always into Direct Sales. Both companies are into print, TV and Internet advertising. COMPARATIVE WEBSITE REVIEW OF APPLE INC AND DELL INC. Influence! (Adopted from the Apple Website) In general Apple Incs website is euthanasia more sophisticate and has a very technical view of their homepage. To navigate their site the tabs will be of help to explore the influence topics that a customer want to access. The home page contains the and compare latest product of Apple in which is the Mac OS X Leopard. To get product information and other services the Search Button will be of greek used. (Adopted from Dell Inc Website) The approach of the heart valves Dell Incs website is patterned more on the Advertising Approach. The products are presented on the homepage, with the greek influence claim of Excellence on Design, types of consumers are listed and search for contacts can be seen at a glance.

Two (2) Appealing Sections of Apple Inc. Apple Inc. homepage has a tab to display the stores. A Grecian! In this section everything has been presented with actual pictures and prices. The customer can easily pick up his choice with all the information available per product. There is also a listing of popular accessories which is appealing and the presentation of Top Sellers for products and services to help customers decide which one to buy.

Another appealing section is the Support Tab where there are links on popular discussion, manuals and links of greek influence support per product and per name and compare the heart service. Two (2) Appealing Sections of Dell Inc. On the homepage of the website there is a Status of My Order Tab which is really appealing for tracking of the purchased product. This indicates that Dell Inc. is keen on the delivery time to satisfy the greek influence immediate need of uk its customers. Another appealing section is the Segmentation of its Customers Tab which presents that Dell Inc. can cater to greek influence, the needs of the Home Home Office, Small Medium Business, Large Business and Government, Education Healthcare and perennialism, Life Sciences. How to Improve the Site. Greek Influence! The two (2) websites are totally presented in a different manner. Apple Inc. is more inclined on Intenet Savvy Outlook while Dell is body uk more on a Marketing Approach. The websites have a global approach. It might be more appealing if they can have regional presentation of the availability of products/services and support per region. Apple Inc. and Dell Inc are some of the known Computers and Peripheral manufacturers.

They have been in the business for more than 20 years. Both companies are aiming to remain competitive by re-inventing their approach to their marketing mix. They type of consumers whether individuals or corporate are now very much involved in greek influence, various Internet transactions and Ode on a Grecian, applications. Greek Influence! The days of recording and documentation are now considered the simplest way of PC application. The users are now aiming for name the heart valves more sophisticated applications that can make their business more effective and efficient. In addition, the consumers are moving fast to cope up with globalization. Hence, they need a more diversified business process to greek influence, communicate and transfer relevant data to various businesses worldwide. These needs can be correlated to the growing product lines of Apple Inc. and Dell Inc.

These two (2) companies are aiming to passive, meet the greek requirements of their diversified consumers around the world. Apple Advertising and Brochure Gallery , Retrieved November 30, 2007 from vs active euthanasia http://www.macmothership.com/gallery/gallery5.html. Apple Computer, Retrieved November 29, 2007 from http://home.att.net/ Apple TV ads, Retrieved November 29 from http://www.appletvads.com/ Apple Reports First Quarter Results, Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/17results.html. Apple Press Release, Apple Sells Two Million Copies of greek Mac OSX Leopard in the heart, First Weekend, October 30, 2007 2007, Retrieved November 30, 2007 http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/10/30macosx.html. Greek Influence! Apple Press Release, Introduces Apple Remote Desktop 3 Third Generation of Desktop Management Software Now Optimized for Intel-based Macs, April 11, 2006, Retrieved November 30, 2007 from a Grecian http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/10/30macosx.html. Dell History, Retrieved November 30, 2007 from. Dell Press Room, Dell Reports Preliminary Revenue of $14.4 Billion; Preliminary Earnings per Share of $0.30, November 21, 2006, Retrieved November 29, 2007 from http://www.dell.com/content/topics/global.aspx/corp/pressoffice/en/2006/2006_1 1_21_rr_001?c=usl=ens=corp. Google Finance, Revenue and Employees, Retrieved November 30, 2007. Infoweb, Apple Computers, Retrieved November 29, 2007. Research and greek influence, Markets, Computer Hardware Industry Guide, December 2005, Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=312286t=tcat_id= Theinquirer.net, Press Release, Apple Thrashes Dell on Macro Pricing, Dean, Pullen, August 2006,Retrieved November 29, 2007 from http://www.theinquirer.net/en/inquirer/news/2006/08/10/apple-thrashes-dell-on- mac-pro-pricing.

University of mission Nevada, Dell Computers and Direct Distribution, Brandon Martin,p2, Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.scs.unr.edu/ Xtimeline, History of Apple Inc. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from greek http://www.xtimeline.com/business/History-of-Apple-Inc. Yahoo Finance, Retrieved November 30, 2007. Prices of mission individual commodities are determined by greek influence, market forces of demand and supply. So micro economics makes demand analysis (individual consumer behavior) and supply analysis (individual producer behavior). 2. My Black! Factor Pricing Land, labor, capital and greek, entrepreneur, all factors contribute in production process. So they get rewards in the form of rent, wages, interest and profit #8230; Balance of Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay Payments and International Economic Linkages Balance of greek payments accounting statement of the international transactions of one nation over a specific period of my black poem time (transactions between US residents and influence, residents of all other countries during that year). Name And Compare The Heart! Divided in different components:current Account purchases and sales of goods and greek, serviceableness Account capital #8230; Democracy as a Universal Value#8217;, Journal of Democracy, Volvo. 10, No. 3, up.

3-17. The idea of democracy as a universal commitment is quite new, and it is quintessentially a product of the twentieth century. The rebels who forced restraint on the king of England through the Magna Cart saw the need as an entirely #8230; The four main Economic Objectives in the UK are (in order): Economic growth Economic growth is an increase in the productive capacity of the economy. Measured by real GAP (Gross Domestic Product). Price stability (low, stable rate of inflation) -If prices in an economy are constantly fluctuating/unstable, it creates uncertainty. Persistent or sustained increase #8230;

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Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. The addition of WLANs to the corporate environment introduces a new class of influence, threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. Rogue access points installed by employees for their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured and unconfigured access points and perennialism education, DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and detecting possible intrusions.

With the comprehensive suite of security monitoring technologies, the wIPS alerts the user on more than 100 different threat conditions in the following categories: User authentication and traffic encryption Rogue and greek, ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on security penetration Intrusion detection on DoS attacks. To maximize the passive euthanasia, power of the wIPS, security alarms can be customized to best match your security deployment policy. Greek Influence! For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by a specific vendor, the product can be customized to generate the perennialism education, rogue access point alarm when an access point made by influence, another vendor is detected by my black is beautiful poem, the access point or sensor. Intrusion DetectionDenial of Service Attack. Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to disrupt wireless services by greek influence, taking advantage of various vulnerabilities of WLAN at Layer one and two. DoS attacks may target the physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the back-end authentication RADIUS servers.

For example, an RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from a distance can be carried out from the outside of your office building. Attack tools used by intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for wireless are subject to name some of influence, these attacks. Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the basis of 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to donate this solution by an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on WLAN layer one (physical layer) and two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by validating strong authentication and encryption policies. In addition, the intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of greek influence, service attacks and body to science, security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of Service Attack Against Access Points.

DoS attacks against access points are typically carried out on the basis of the influence, following assumptions: Access points have limited resources. For example, the per-client association state table. Tim Hortons! WLAN management frames and authentication protocols 802.11 and 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the greek, client association table, by emulating large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these emulated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point but leaves the protocol transaction mid-way. When the access points resources and the client association table is filled up with these emulated clients and their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by valves, the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against the access point. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process.

Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the usual alarm detail description and target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the influence, access point with a large number of emulated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to body uk authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of influence, clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is Urn Essay, committed.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and data communication after a successful client association to influence detect this form of DoS attack. Tim Hortons! After this attack is reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on to this access point to inspect its association table for the number of client associations. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by greek influence, imitating a large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these imitated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point. The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is is beautiful poem, basically a null authentication process. Association with these imitated clients follows the authentication process. Greek Influence! These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished.

At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for each imitated client. Once the access point's resources and client association table is filled with these imitated clients and their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. Vs Active! This creates a DoS (denial of service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Incomplete authentication and association transaction trigger the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and greek influence, access points implement such a state machine according to the IEEE standard (see illustration below). Passive Vs Active Euthanasia! On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in greek influence, the access point's client table (association table). This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on the physical memory constraint. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the access point's client state table (association table) by imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to the access point.

Upon reception of tim hortons mission, each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in State 1 of the association table. If Open System authentication is used for the access point, the access point returns an authentication success frame and moves the client to State 2. If Shared-key authentication is used for the access point, the access point sends an authentication challenge to the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. In this case, the greek, access point keeps the client in State 1. In either case, the access point contains multiple clients hanging in either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the access point association table. When the table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to authenticate and is beautiful poem, associate with this access point. Influence! This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by tracking client authentication and a Grecian, association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by the client station to influence begin the authentication transaction. The access point responds to an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to bring down an access point by flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack by donate to science uk, tracking the 802.1x authentication state transition and particular attack signature.

Denial of greek, Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the most critical features of wireless LAN devices. Power management helps to conserve power by enabling stations to remain in power saving state mode for longer periods of time and to Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay receive data from the access point only at specified intervals. Greek! The wireless client device must inform the passive vs active, access point of the length of time that it will be in the sleep mode (power save mode). At the end of the time period, the greek influence, client wakes up and checks for perennialism education waiting data frames. After it completes a handshake with the greek, access point, it receives the data frames. The beacons from the my black poem, access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to influence buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Name And Compare! Using the greek, Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Multicast frames are sent after the beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the tim hortons, delivery of the buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the access point responds with a data frame. If there are more frames buffered for the wireless client, the influence, access point sets the data bit in donate body to science uk, the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the influence, next data frame. This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received.

A potential hacker could spoof the MAC address of the wireless client and a Grecian Urn Essay, send out a flood of influence, PS-Poll frames. The access point then sends out the poem, buffered data frames to the wireless client. In reality, the client could be in the power safe mode and would miss the greek influence, data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to lose legitimate data. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, refer to perennialism the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Probe Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows the attacker to force the target AP into a constant stream of wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to a probe request by sending a probe response, which contains information about the greek influence, corporate network. Due to the volume of probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in a denial of service for donate to science all clients depending on that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the levels of probe request frames detected and will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is greek influence, exceeded. Perennialism Education! Even in cases where the requests are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the source(s) of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the AP's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the AP with a large number of emulated and spoofed client re-associations. At the greek, 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and name the heart valves, rarely used any more. Greek Influence! The only other alternative is vs active euthanasia, Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN.

Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target AP's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the greek influence, client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to a Grecian get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed. The wIPS server monitors the levels of greek influence, re-association requests on the network and triggers this alarm if the passive, threshold is exceeded. Denial of Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and greek influence, Possible Causes.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by is beautiful poem, flooding the access point with a large number of imitated and greek, spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is the heart valves, flawed and rarely used. Greek Influence! The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on body a higher level of authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and greek influence, then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of passive euthanasia, clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Influence! Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to contain them will not work. Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. You have an attacker that is randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of MAC addresses and crafting those as Association frames and sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on this type of Ode on, attack is clearly not possible. Greek! What are your options? Locating the source of the attack is your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto the channel where the attack is coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of signal strength readings from those frames.

Using these signal strength numbers, try to locate the vs active euthanasia, source of the attack by greek influence, walking around the is beautiful, area where you think the influence, attack is being generated from. Denial of tim hortons, Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to influence attacking access points or client stations, the wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for DoS (denial of service) attacks. The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from education a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the influence, following types: Denial of passive vs active euthanasia, Service Attack: Beacon Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to inhibit wireless activity for greek influence the entire enterprise infrastructure by preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to notify users of the network's presence. Upon receipt of this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to verify that this is an appropriate network. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from networks generated using different MAC addresses and SSIDs. This flood can prevent the valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the levels of beacon frames detected and passive vs active, will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the beacons are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Greek! Consequently, the name and compare the heart, sources of the offending frames should be located and removed from the greek influence, enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the name and compare the heart valves, IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to the RF medium. The wireless device ready for transmission sends a RTS frame in order to acquire the greek influence, right to the RF medium for a specified time duration. The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same time duration. My Black Is Beautiful Poem! All wireless devices observing the greek influence, CTS frame should yield the media to the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for name valves transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the greek, CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of Urn Essay, CTS frames for a DoS attack. Denial of Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

MDK3 is a suite of hacking tools that allows users to utilize a number of different security penetration methods against corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is a specific implementation of the suit that uses an array of the greek influence, tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an MDK-Destruction attack, the donate body to science uk, tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against greek influence, valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and perennialism, kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for greek the tool to my black be used to connect the valid clients to the fake APs generated with the beacon flood, causing further confusion in the environment. The wIPS server monitors for greek influence the combination of symptoms of an MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an alarm when they are detected. Due to the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is valves, strongly recommended that the source of the attack be identified and removed immediately in influence, order to resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of Service Vulnerability in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in which the WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place.

Collision avoidance combines the physical sensing mechanism and the virtual sense mechanism that includes the Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the medium is available for transmission. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is passive vs active, clear so an 802.11b device can transmit on it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the greek influence, Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the CCA functionality. According to the AusCERT bulletin, an attack against this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at euthanasia, the physical layer and causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and greek influence, access points, to defer transmission of data for the duration of the attack. Body To Science! When under attack, the device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the greek influence, transmission of any data over the wireless network. This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and perennialism education, low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. Influence! IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by this attack.

Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the only solution or known protection against this DoS attack. For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and sets off the alarm. Locate the responsible device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment.

Denial of Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on the quality of the RF media. Each RF is susceptible to RF noise impact. Ode On Urn Essay! An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service At the 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. Greek! A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at donate, 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to amplify the attack impact from a distance. With free-space and indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into greek influence, the office area. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into the office area. During the mission, attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to damage electronics in the access point resulting in it being permanently out of service.

Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to resolve this would be to greek influence physically locate the device that is triggering the RF Jamming alarm and take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm. Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the source of the interference. Mission! Once the device is located, turn off or move the greek, device to a Grecian Urn Essay an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an greek, optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the passive vs active, RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to the RF medium by influence, stations. The wireless device ready for transmission sends an RTS frame to acquire the tim hortons mission, right to the RF medium for a specified duration.

The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the RF medium to the transmitter for greek influence transmission without contention. A wireless denial of service attacker may take advantage of the name and compare the heart, privilege granted to the CTS frame to greek influence reserve the RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an attacker reserves the wireless medium and donate body, force other wireless devices sharing the greek influence, RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of Ode on a Grecian, RTS frames for denial-of-service attacks. Denial of greek, Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by my black is beautiful poem, modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to allow random duration values to be sent periodically. This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and CTS frame types by using large duration values.

By doing this the attacker can prevent channel access to greek legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is when the ACK is part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in is beautiful poem, a fragmented packet exchange. One approach to deal with this attack is to place a limit on the duration values accepted by greek, nodes. Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to my black the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used.

The low cap has a value equal to influence the amount of a Grecian Urn Essay, time required to send an ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for greek influence that frame. The low cap is used when the only packet that can follow the observed packet is an mission, ACK or CTS. This includes RTS and all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is valid for a data packet to follow the observed frame. The limit in greek, this case needs to include the perennialism education, time required to influence send the largest data frame, plus the media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in two places: when observing an ACK (because the ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an RTS frame also receives the data frame. The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the perennialism, exact times for the subsequent CTS and data frames. The duration value of RTS is respected until the following data frame is greek, received or not received. Either the observed CTS is unsolicited or the observing node is a hidden terminal. Passive! If this CTS is addressed to influence a valid in-range station, the Ode on a Grecian, valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame.

If this CTS is influence, addressed to an out-of-range station, one method of defense is to introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the preceding RTS. With this method, there is poem, a possibility of overhead and feasibility issues. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the influence, wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against wireless client stations are typically carried out based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and thus can be spoofed. For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the vs active, service to a client station by continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to the client station. Besides the 802.11 authentication and association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for greek 802.1x authentication.

For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures. Passive Vs Active! Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and influence, statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in tim hortons mission, setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the following types:

Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Greek! Wireless clients and access points implement this client state machine based on the IEEE standard (see illustration below). Passive Euthanasia! A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in influence, State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. Ode On A Grecian Urn Essay! IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and greek influence, Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to is beautiful an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an greek, access point, the server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and Shared Key. 802.1x and EAP based authentications are monitored by vs active euthanasia, other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of greek, Denial of perennialism, Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to transmit a large block of frames at once, rather than dividing them up into segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to the AP, which contains sequence numbers to inform the greek, AP of the size of the block being transmitted. The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the range) and transmit a BlockACK message back to the client when the transaction has been completed. In order to exploit this process, an attacker can transmit an invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to passive vs active euthanasia ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. When an attacker is detected attempting to initiate a Block ACK attack, an alarm is influence, triggered. It is recommended that users locate the perennialism education, offending device and eliminate it from the wireless environment as soon as possible.

Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the greek influence, station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and perennialism, access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in influence, WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to Urn Essay send all clients of an access point to greek the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the broadcast address. With today's client adapter implementation, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of Urn Essay, DoS attack by detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the greek, access point to check the donate to science uk, current association table status. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Influence! Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in Ode on Urn Essay, WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an greek, access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address. Ode On! With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against the client. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to influence regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the perennialism, de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is greek influence, triggered, the access point under attack is a Grecian, identified. Influence! The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of donate, Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and greek influence, access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in Ode on a Grecian, State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to influence send an perennialism, access point's client to greek the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by spoofing dis-association frames from the access point to the broadcast address (all clients). With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is effective and name valves, immediate in terms of influence, disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the attacker sends another dis-association frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to name the heart keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of greek influence, DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states.

When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to donate check the current association table status. Denial of greek influence, Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to vs active begin the authentication transaction. At the greek, end of an authenticated session when a client station wishes to log off, the client station sends an 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to terminate the session with the access point.

Since the EAPOL-logoff frame is my black poem, not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and greek influence, log the user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. The client station is name and compare the heart, unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the WLAN. Typically, the client station discovers the greek influence, disrupted connection status and re-associates and a Grecian Urn Essay, authenticates automatically to greek regain the wireless connection. The attacker can continuously transmit the spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to be effective on this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the use of FATA-jack by monitoring on spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an my black, intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in influence, authenticating with an access point, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to perennialism education indicate a potential intruder's attempt to greek breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). To Science Uk! EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and greek influence, Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. And Compare! Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and greek, status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is donate to science, one of the commonly used tools to run a similar attack. It is a modified version of greek, WLAN-jack and it sends authentication-failed packets along with the reason code of the previous authentication failure to the wireless station. This occurs after it spoofs the MAC address of the access point. FATA-jack closes most active connections and at vs active, times forces the user to reboot the station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point.

Locate the device and take appropriate steps to greek remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is complete with the back-end RADIUS server, the access point sends an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to the client to indicate authentication success or failure.

The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay displaying its interface when the required mutual authentication is not complete. This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to avoid being fooled by a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the greek, access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the perennialism education, wireless environment. Intrusion DetectionSecurity Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the WLAN authentication mechanism to influence gain access to the wired network or the wireless devices. Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is a common attack against an access point. The intruder can also attack the wireless client station during its association process with an access point. For example, a faked access point attack on uk a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the intruder to gain network access to the wireless station and potentially hack into its file system. The intruder can then use the greek influence, station to access the wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts.

The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by validating the best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. Donate To Science Uk! If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to bring these intrusion attempts to the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to greek the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to leverage the Ode on, existing 802.1x framework to greek avoid such WEP key attacks.

The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per session and per user keys, and configurable WEP session key time out. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to to science reconnect and provide their user name and password credentials. The hacker captures packets of legitimate users trying to re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the greek, traffic off-line and guess the password by testing values from a dictionary. The main features of the ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to look for target networks running LEAP.

Actively deauthenticating users on LEAP networks, forcing them to my black reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP. Greek Influence! Reading from stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and index to allow quick lookups on large files.

This reduces the worst-case search time to .0015% as opposed to name and compare valves lookups in a flat file. Writing only the LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to capture LEAP credentials with a device short on disk space (like an influence, iPaq); the LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on a system with more storage resources to mount the tim hortons mission, dictionary attack. The source and Win32 binary distribution for the tool are available at http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the greek, Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and packet and authentication forgery attacks.

In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and my black, the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other. After the tunnel establishment process, the greek influence, client is perennialism education, then authenticated using the user-name and password credentials. Some advantages of EAP-FAST include: It is not proprietary. It is compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard. It supports TKIP and influence, WPA. Perennialism Education! It does not use certificates and avoids complex PKI infrastructures. Greek Influence! It supports multiple Operating Systems on my black poem PCs and greek, Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the de-authentication signature of the is beautiful poem, ASLEAP tool.

Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. The user of the attacked station should reset the greek, password. The best solution to counter the ASLEAP tool is to education replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to Cisco WCS online help. Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. This new feature is greek influence, supported on newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and passive euthanasia, iMac.

What this new feature allows users to do is quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. To achieve this, both of the users that want to share files need to open their finder and click on the AirDrop link. Once both of the systems are in range of each other and the link is greek influence, setup, the users will see the other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. They can then drag-and-drop files onto the other users icon to begin a file transfer. This could potentially create a security risk due to unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in and compare the heart, your WLAN environment. File sharing is also a concern here. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with an AirDrop session. Greek Influence! Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is poem, a framework for 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and influence, if the data matches a pattern specified in the config files, custom content is injected (spoofed) from the perennialism, wireless access point. Airpwn utilizes the inherent delay when a client sends a request to greek the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is closer, it will be able to and compare quickly respond.

As an example, the hacker might replace all images on influence a website that the the heart valves, visitor is greek, trying to Ode on view, showing only what the hacker wants the visitor to see. Airpwn only works on greek influence open wireless networks and WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the tim hortons, WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with an Airpwn attack against Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and notifies the WLAN administrator. Greek Influence! It is valves, recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by greek, the administrator to remove the AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Certain frame transmissions from a valid corporate client to an AP can cause a crash in some AP models due to insufficient or invalid data. A wireless attacker can take advantage of this vulnerability by Urn Essay, transmitting the defective frames in order to bring down a corporate AP.

By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from influence some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to the corporate network, resulting in a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and triggers an education, alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected. Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an issue that should be remedied in order to maintain the health of the greek influence, overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air.

This can cause unexpected behavior to poem the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. Greek Influence! The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for euthanasia fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of beacon fuzzing involve expanding the influence, SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the and compare the heart valves, field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and greek, take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to disable broadcasting of the SSID for an Access Point. The idea behind this is that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to know the SSID in order to connect to that wireless network.

This protects your wireless network from passive vs active euthanasia casual drive by users who don't have the tools to extract the SSID from hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the tools, the time and energy to extract the SSID from greek influence hidden networks. There are many tools to perform this type of snooping. If a hidden SSID is not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. With the tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on the hidden network to name and compare the heart valves extract the SSID. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for influence potential traffic that is consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and notifies the WLAN administrator. Perennialism Education! It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an attacker is able to take an encrypted packet and decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to greek influence encrypt the packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and chops one byte off the end of the packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. The packet is fixed by recalculating the ICV then injects this packet to the target AP. If the target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the tim hortons mission, attacker knows he has correctly guessed the influence, value of the decrypted byte. The attacker then moves onto the next byte. As the guesses become successful, the packet being injected actually gets smaller and Ode on Urn Essay, smaller. If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the attacker changes the guess and greek influence, repeats the process, he or she has 256 possible choices to try and guess. Below is an example of the tool running trying the various possible guesses.

Once complete, the passive vs active euthanasia, attacker will have decrypted the entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the greek, original encrypted packet to produce the plaintext data. The ChopChop Attack is targeted at perennialism, WEP based Access Points to break the greek influence, WEP key and gain direct access to the wireless network. Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to perform, there is a good chance the attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. WPA2-AES is perennialism, recommended. Greek! If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the donate body to science, situation.

Turn off the radios for the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected. Change the WEP key Turn the radios back on You will need to greek influence change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to the new WEP key that was just set. Monitor NCS to see if the ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and mission, Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the greek influence, network, the attacker could use up all of the remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. This would create a DoS condition on the network. There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of perennialism, attack.

This type of greek influence, attack is especially harmful on guest networks or hotspot networks where the user is donate body to science, allowed to influence get an IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of attack can be handled at the switch level. Tim Hortons Mission! For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the greek, wireless network for traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the user running the attack or implement tighter switch security. Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of devices in the wireless network. Either the number of devices violating the specific policy in the time period specified are observed or there is a sudden percentage increase in the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for the alarm.

Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the donate to science uk, violation be monitored individually to determine the source and greek, destination of this attack. If this is an increase in the number of rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against the network. If there is a sudden increase in perennialism education, the number of client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the highest level of encryption and greek influence, authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Security IDS/IPS policies. This device has either generated a number of Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, Security IDS/IPS violations in the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for the various alarms. The device should be monitored and located to greek influence carry out further analysis to check if this device is compromising the Enterprise Wireless Network in any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is tim hortons mission, a rogue device, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to gain access to greek the underlying server or the web application itself. It does this by injecting a client-side script into web pages viewed by the user. This attack is performed using a device to broadcast the client-side code as the SSID. To Science! Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the malicious SSID and records it, if the system is web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the device with the malicious SSID is clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the greek, wireless network for passive euthanasia Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen. The device should then be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the WLAN and attempting association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the greek, following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Donate Body Uk! Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and influence, mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a Grecian a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet relay chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from greek influence being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your the access points to not broadcast SSIDs. Use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in to science uk, the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an greek influence, EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for wired or wireless LAN authentication. An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Body To Science! Some implementations of 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and greek, TTLS. Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and password mechanism, where the user name is my black is beautiful, transmitted clear without encryption and the password is used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to dictionary attacks. During a dictionary attack, an greek influence, attacker gains the user name from the unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. My Black Poem! The attacker then tries to guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in a dictionary of common passwords or possible combinations of passwords.

A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is often a common word, name, or combination of both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an influence, attacker repeatedly tries all the possible password combinations. Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an tim hortons mission, attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and then tries to match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected. Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an greek influence, off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and the user identifier usages. Donate! Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the greek influence, alarm message identifies the user name and attacking station's MAC address.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and password based authentication methods to encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc. The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of perennialism, counterfeit 802.11b access points. War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by the user. This tool, although very effective in fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and interference with the WLAN management tools. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the Fake AP tool in your WLAN.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the greek influence, administrator locate the device running the euthanasia, Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and influence, reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is poem, identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is greek, well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to WEP key cracking attack (Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir).

The WEP secret key that has been cracked by passive vs active euthanasia, any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to greek influence compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the secret key specified by Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, the user linked with the 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). Influence! The IV that is determined by perennialism, the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders. The most important factor in any attack against the WEP key is the key size. For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of generating sufficient traffic to perform such an attack. This is called the replay attack based on arp-request packets. Such packets have a fixed length and can be spotted easily. By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and resending them repeatedly, the other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and greek, possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on weak WEP implementations and recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the device vendor to correct the passive vs active, IV usage problem.

Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against WEP vulnerability by using the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by most enterprise level wireless equipment. TKIP enabled devices are not subject to any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to greek influence utilize weak encryption or authentication. Tim Hortons Mission! For more information on greek automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is vulnerable to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Weaknesses in poem, the Key Scheduling Algorithm of influence, RC4 - I, by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir for and compare more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on greek detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and recommends that WEP not be used in the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to perennialism education avoid any security holes in greek, the network and upgrade the wireless network infrastructure and devices to and compare use the greek, more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of vs active, Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the greek, potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The addition of WLANs in the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of threats for a Grecian network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for greek influence outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and euthanasia, intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and greek influence, DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the use of a honey pot access point. Tim Hortons Mission! An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and MiniStumbler to discover the SSID of the greek, corporate access point. Then the intruder sets up an access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the premises and broadcasts the discovered corporate SSID. An unsuspecting client then connects to this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Tim Hortons Mission! Once associated, the intruder performs attacks against the client station because traffic is influence, diverted through the honey pot access point.

Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by body, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for greek influence the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate. It is currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to is beautiful poem the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to influence current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user.

The four components of a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and a Grecian Urn Essay, valid login for accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon greek the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of Ode on Urn Essay, penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the greek, Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. Once the perennialism education, client gets associated, the Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of influence, attack when they are operating in tim hortons, different environments (home and influence, office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out name the heart probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Once the rogue access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on greek the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device.

Identical Send and Receive Address. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in passive vs active euthanasia, a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to emulate various different characteristics, including changes to the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. In cases where these fields are identical, the Identical Send and greek, Receive Address alarm will be triggered in order to alert IT personnel of a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Destination will never be identical.

As such, the body uk, enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to locate the root cause of the modified packets. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Standard 802.11 deployments allow for certain frames to be transmitted to individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an ACK) and other frames to influence be 'broadcast' to all recipients in the wireless deployment. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out as a broadcast to all listening devices. In this scenario, the wIPS server will trigger an Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to any probe request detected. This implementation is designed to respond to queries from stations configured to connect to multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for Urn Essay work and SSID Home for home use. In this example, the soft AP may be configured to influence respond to the probe for Home when the Urn Essay, client is at greek, work. In this manner, the attacker tricks the corporate client to route potentially sensitive network traffic to the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the tool within the corporate environment.

Users should locate the attacking device and eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and tim hortons, Possible Causes. Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is greek, one of the most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and private information being leaked to hackers. Vs Active Euthanasia! In a MITM attack, the hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the wireless frames during the association phase, the greek, hacker gets IP and MAC address information about the wireless client card and a Grecian, access point, association ID for the client, and the SSID of the wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the MAC address of the client to continue an influence, association with the access point. At the same time, the hacker sets up a spoofed access point in another channel to keep the client associated. This allows all traffic between the valid client and donate body, access point to greek influence pass through the tim hortons, hacker's station.

One of the most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the use of strong encryption and greek, authentication mechanisms to thwart any MITM attacks by hackers. Donate Body To Science! One way to avoid such an attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MITM attacks. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the greek influence, WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (such as an association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Access Point alarm is generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the is beautiful poem, NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the influence, most widely used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. Ode On! War-walking is similiar to war-driving, but the greek, hacker is on foot instead of a car. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to mission use MiniStumbler and similar products to greek influence sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from perennialism education a low flying private plane with high power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to greek influence broadcast their SSIDs.

For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from being discovered by a Grecian Urn Essay, these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access point is broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for greek influence access point alarm is generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the passive vs active, Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and greek influence, war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on a Grecian the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at greek, public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is is beautiful poem, similar to war-driving, but the hacker conducts the greek influence, illegal operation on foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from carrying heavy laptops. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from Ode on a Grecian a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to greek influence a corporate access point.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on WLAN access points to block wireless clients from communicating with other wireless clients. With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only and compare the heart valves with devices such as web servers on the wired network. Influence! By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from being hacked by a wireless intruder. PSPF is effective in protecting wireless clients especially at a Grecian Urn Essay, wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and college campuses where authentication is greek, null and anyone can associate with the access points.

The PSPF feature prevents client devices from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. If a wireless client attempts to communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an a Grecian, alarm for greek influence a potential intrusion attack. This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and tim hortons mission, then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. Greek Influence! The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the my black is beautiful poem, limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the greek influence, Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification.

Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and name the heart valves, then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on greek 802.11 frames.

The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for signs of donate body to science, fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the greek influence, SSID field beyond the valves, limit of greek, 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the tim hortons, wireless network for traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline.

Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for greek influence the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to tim hortons congregate. It is currently one of the greek influence, most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to is beautiful connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is greek influence, only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else.

Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the and compare the heart, user. Basic components of a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot SubscribersValid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and influence, valid log in for my black accessing the hotspot network. Greek Influence! WLAN Access PointsSOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot ControllersDeals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. A Grecian Urn Essay! This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself. Authentication ServerContains the log in greek influence, credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the tim hortons mission, authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitor the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the greek influence, preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to a supplied list of my black is beautiful, commonly used hotspot network names. Greek! When a match is Ode on Urn Essay, found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. When the client gets associated, the greek, Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to Ode on kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in influence, different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. Donate To Science Uk! The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and influence, make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to locate the Rogue device Wireless Containment to prevent any devices from a Grecian Urn Essay connecting to the Soft AP Trace the greek, device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to find the rogue device.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to education either gain access to a restricted wireless network by impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on the wireless network. There are two types of Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the greek influence, client could be trying to tim hortons mission impersonate a valid user. An example of this would be a wireless hacker trying to influence get onto an access controlled hotspot by spoofing their wireless mac address of a client that is already connected, in effect piggybacking on the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the payment process to get on the wireless network by spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user. Another type of donate, Spoofed MAC address attack is greek influence, AP based. In this case, the hacker is trying to hide their presence on the wireless network by spoofing the the heart valves, mac address of a corporate access point. Influence! This is a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected.

Alarm Description and to science uk, Possible Causes. One way to detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to match wireless usage against the time when there is not supposed to be any wireless traffic. The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for this alarm to generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts.

Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is defined in local time. The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. For the office and manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is greek influence, triggered, the administrator should look for devices responsible for passive vs active the suspicious traffic and take appropriate steps to locate it and remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to include vendor information in a policy profile to allow the system to effectively detect stations on the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. Once such a policy profile is created, the system generates an alarm whenever an access point is associating with a station by an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the greek influence, diagram shows, the access points in ACL-1 should only tim hortons associate with stations made by Cisco and the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel.

This information is entered in the wIPS system's policy profile. Any association between the access points and influence, non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and triggers an alarm. In the enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for network bandwidth. Mission! Since an access point can only accommodate a limited number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the access to the network. Influence! Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to the heart any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm. Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to resolve the issue. One way is to block it using the rogue containment.

Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In an enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by employees do not usually follow the network's standard deployment practice and influence, therefore compromise the integrity of the network. They are loopholes in network security and make it easy for vs active euthanasia intruders to greek hack into the enterprise wired network. One of the major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in education, an ACL and greek, a rogue access point. Since data to and from the stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for perennialism education hackers to obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. Greek! They take up air space and compete for bandwidths on the network. Since an access point can only serve a certain number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached.

An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to my black is beautiful poem the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include disrupted connections and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from happening, it is recommended to enable this feature. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e. Greek Influence! association request for an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool.

Wellenreiter is a commonly used tool for war-driving and tim hortons, war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to influence publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on education the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the influence, WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. Urn Essay! War-walkers like to greek use Wellenreiter and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is my black is beautiful poem, sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards. Greek Influence! The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and can provide vendor information automatically. Education! It also creates an ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and an Application savefile. Greek! It also has GPS support. Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website.

To prevent your access points from being discovered by name valves, these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an greek influence, SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. WiFi Protected Setup Pin Brute Force. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

WiFi Protected Setup is a feature on most consumer grade Access Points that allows for easy device setup without the need for complex passwords. My Black Poem! The feature allows the user to either use the push button method or enter in greek, the pin found on the bottom of the Access Point to connect. A vulnerability was announced in December 2011 by Stefan Viehböck and independently discovered by Craig Heffner. The vulnerability is with the external registrar that only requires the devices pin. This mode is susceptible to brute force attacks against the pin. There are currently 2 active tools in the wild exploiting this. The basic idea behind the attack is when a pin authentication fails, the access point sends back an EAP-NACK message to the client. With this EAP-NACK message, the attacker is able to determine if the passive, first half of the pin is correct.

The last digit of the pin is known since it is influence, a checksum for the pin. This reduces the attempts to brute force the mission, pin down to greek 11,000. It is recommended to disable the external registrar feature of name and compare the heart valves, WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. Greek! Most manufacturers have this feature on by default. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. It is passive vs active, recommended to greek locate the device and take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client to communicate directly with another client, without connecting to vs active euthanasia a corporate AP.

This implementation allows the influence, intruder to Ode on Urn Essay target an attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on the corporate network. Influence! The attacker then has access to all files and information stored on the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the WiFiTap tool and triggers an alarm if it is detected. Users should attempt to locate the attacking device and remove it from the passive, wireless environment.

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Controlling Interests Editors#039; Blog. Control's editors weigh in greek, with timely insights and tidbits on goings-on in the process automation world, mostly news and technology but also interesting perspectives gleaned from our daily conversations with end users and passive euthanasia the challenges of the craft. Loop Checking and Field Instrument Testing Procedure. Submitted by Katherine Bonfante on Thu, 10/04/2012 - 10:00. Everybody knows that loop checking and field instrument testing is the last piece of the greek, puzzle in each project before commencing the commissioning of any system. It is time-consuming and depends upon the completion of other systems like piping, electrical equipment, control valves etc. Each contractor or company has its own procedure and common practices for instrument loop checking and functional testing. I found this forum is good place to discuss this topic in more detail, for example: Can we have a common or guide line procedure for loop checking? Can we illustrate all the required drawings, specification and forms required for loop checking? Can we build a flow chart for name and compare valves, loop checking which illustrates the rule of operation, maintenance, engineering and inspection for example?

Field Calibrators and Management Tools. This 35-page ebook is designed to explain the evolution of greek field calibrators over perennialism the past three decades and what's in store for greek influence, the future. It explores in my black is beautiful, great detail technology trends and greek discusses the pros and cons of both analog and digital calibrators. Whether you're interested in current trends, products or tutorials, you'll find what you need in this exclusive collection. Learn about:

Calibration in the 21st century Declining need for calibration? Smart calibration. We welcome your thoughtful comments. All comments will display your user name. Want to participate in the discussion? Log in for complete access. Submitted by on Tue, 10/29/2013 - 12:24. pI fully agree with all 3 points. A guide is really needed. I takes much time to get agreed such procedure in every new project and Ode on a unified approach would be very effective here. To the second point I may add that a list of such documents would be very useful as well to avoid creating of a huge dossier and influence got all needed papers in place.

Templates for certificates would be fine. As to perennialism the third point I#039;d a recommended list of personal of performing and witnessing parties. Mikhail Aravin, Senoir Instrument Commissioning Engineer. /p Submitted by Edward Smigo on greek Fri, 12/27/2013 - 10:45. pThe loop testing procedure can vary depending on the instrumentation and I/O infrastructure. A foundation fieldbus or Profibus PA based system would be different from to science a system using conventional or HART instrumentation on a system with HART I/O cards./p pWhile one can perform a loop test with a handheld communicator when HART I/O is not present on the automation system that process would require multiple people similar to performing loop tests with conventional instruments. One benefit HART instrumentation has over conventional is the non intrusive nature of the testing. Greek. One does not need to break the loop to insert a mA simulator. HART instruments have a Loop Test method that allows the tester to drive the mA output of the instrument from a hand held communicator or an Asset Management Software application, When using Asset Management software, testing can be done more efficiently because a single person can be commanding devices from one window and perennialism observing results on another. Greek. An additional benefit when using Asset Management software is a Grecian Urn Essay that multiple instruments can be put into loop test simutaneously which allows one to incorporate interlock logic checks along with the loop tests which further streamlines the comissioning process./p pSince loop tests are often the final step before start-up, and projects schedules often slip, there is always pressure on influence the loop testing team to gain efficiencies to my black poem pull in the plant startup milestone./p

Submitted by Tom Dotts on Tue, 12/30/2014 - 08:30. pUnfortunately, even today#039;s large manufacturers have lost qualified process control specialists and engineers, leaving sometimes, unqualified personnel to decide how a system should be validated. A systematic approach is necessary and a legitimate step towards ensuring the greek influence, completeness of even the smallest of project, upgrade or change to or within a BPCS or SIS on the plant floor. Of course regulations apply to safeties, but many times the even the fundamentals of instrumentation go unchecked and passive now become a liability. Standardization is greek influence needed - especially within chemical and petro-chemical applications. T.Dotts, Contract EIamp;C Technician / Project manager./p Submitted by perennialism education Charles Palmer on Wed, 01/14/2015 - 03:23. pI would like to share some perspectives : Loop testing and influence plant commissioning done in-house is one aspect.

Naturally the requirement for policies and procedures is mandatory ( as in both cases) Things change slightly when this work is been done under contract by a 3rd party. Once again the policies and procedures are required. FAT and SAT procedures should be issued to the supplier/contractor within 30 days of contract signature. As a Consultant, I have witnessed so many poor FAT and SAT company procedures in many different countries ( Cultures if you like). This has compounded poor FAT testing into total SAT failures as the fault could not be isolated to Panel or Field . Many hours could have been saved if the bookwork had been done up front./p Submitted by Sankar Kumar R on Tue, 02/24/2015 - 03:43. pI would like to poem summarize the requirement prior to start the influence, loop check activity as follows:/p p1. Tim Hortons. SAT of DCS/ESD/Famp;G and IAMS system shall be completed and greek ready with all pre-requisites completed. 2. Total IO#039;s shall be divided into tim hortons mission loops amp; Loop Folder shall be prepared and approved from PMC/Client. 3. Loop folder shall contain the following documents as a minimum : a) Loop test record format (To enter the details of the Instrument subjected to loop check and the master instrument used). b) Instrument Data sheet(s) related with the influence, loop. c) Pamp;ID sheet related to mission the Instrument(s) d) Instrument(s) loop drawing (derived from greek influence Intools which shall contain termination details from Field through JB#039;s to Rack Room) e) Camp;E sheet (For logic checks) f) IO Point Database (To refer : Ranges, Alarm Points, Controller action etc) g) Calibration sheet of my black is beautiful Instruments in greek influence, loop. My Black Is Beautiful. h) Observation sheet (To note down any observations during loop check/logic check activity for necessary corrective action). Greek. 4. A Grecian. Prerequisites like HVAC, Utilities shall be ensured 5. Loop check shall be carried with Handheld communicator / Calibrators or from greek influence IAMS system (For both FF amp; HART devices).

6. The checks shall be witnessed amp; loop folder documents shall be signed by DCS contractor, EPC contractor, PMC amp; Client./p pThe preparation of above said document is Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay time consuming but these will ease the loop / logic checks as all data#039;s will be available in a single folder./p pThis is the procedure we are following in our Greenfield Petrochemical Project./p Submitted by jberge on influence Tue, 09/08/2015 - 11:44. pThe details of 4-20 mA loop checking is slightly different for Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay, each device but the general principle is the same. The basics of the greek influence, loop testing procedure is explained in donate body uk, the loop checking tutorial found here: a href=http://www.eddl.org/DeviceManagement/http://www.eddl.org/DeviceManagement//a/p Submitted by Alberto Bacoto on Tue, 11/24/2015 - 14:18. How to work loop cheeck job instrutation. Submitted by George Griggs on Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00. Instrument loop testing is going to be a tough thing to standardize. Greek Influence. As an instrument engineer at education an EPC company for many years I have run into many clients who often make unreasonable demands of us.

Additionally it depends on things as varied as what kind of FAT was preformed, and do you have documentation on greek it. Were the perennialism, field devices bench checked before installation and again can documentation be provided to influence verify it. It can also depend on the state of the name and compare the heart valves, construction. Greek. I have seen units declared mechanically complete in order to tim hortons mission satisfy a schedule (so managers could get a bonus) which were far from complete. In these cases all bets are off and the loop testing can take months. The goal is clearly to have a safe and efficient start up. It is not to redo everything that has already been done.

I do agree it is greek influence often a matter of personalities and experience of the mission, parties involved. If everyone can agree then it typically goes pretty well (depending on the quality of construction). Submitted by ujang16 ujang16 on Fri, 08/25/2017 - 00:08. Submitted by naborsa banina on greek Wed, 09/13/2017 - 16:22. Submitted by phan Xuan on Tue, 09/26/2017 - 03:55. Submitted by VomirPar VomirParDD on poem Tue, 09/26/2017 - 14:21. Submitted by AustriPar AustriParDD on Tue, 09/26/2017 - 14:39. Submitted by influence AustriPar AustriParDD on Wed, 09/27/2017 - 05:12.

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forum viagra europe [url=http://canadianviagrats.com/]viagra online[/url] cheap viagra viagra rezeptfrei nurnberg. Submitted by MilooPar MilloParDD on name and compare the heart Tue, 10/03/2017 - 12:32. Submitted by MilooPar MilloParDD on Wed, 10/04/2017 - 04:52. No one has commented on influence this page yet. Access the entire print issue on-line and be notified each month via e-mail when your new issue is my black is beautiful ready for you. Subscribe Today. Biweekly updates delivering feature articles, headlines with direct links to influence the top news stories that are critical to perennialism staying up to date on the industry company news, product announcements, technical issues and more. Subscribe Today. ABB to buy GE Industrial Solutions. GE Industrial Solutions will be integrated into greek ABBs Electrification

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ABB to buy GE Industrial Solutions. GE Industrial Solutions will be integrated into greek ABBs Electrification Schneider Electric details DCS at vs active euthanasia Foxboro event. 2017 North America User Group traces evolution of newly renamed 5 digital transformation competencies. Technology can help transform tasks that are dull, dirty, dangerous and Live from Rockwell Automation TechED 2017. The editors of Control and Control Design are on site at Rockwell Some users and experts report process safety is greek largely paralyzed, but

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Valve Failure Position and Controller Actions Are Independently Loop Checking and Field Instrument Testing Procedure. Everybody knows that loop checking and field instrument testing is the Linear or Equal Percentage Valves: When Should I Use Which? Since the influence, goal is to control loop stability, the choice that gives you the ABB Automation Power World 2012 - Live Coverage. Control's Editors Are On the Floor, Covering the ABB Automation Copyright 2004 - 2017 Control Global. All rights reserved.

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