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A good place to buy essay - lord of the flies symbol - Cornell University

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Get Someone Write My Paper - Symbolism in Lord of the Flies: Overview of Some of the Main Symbols - University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays - The Top 10 Symbols in Lord of the Flies - University of Delaware

book report subjects Tired of lord flies, Book Reports? Here are 15 engaging and as done knights fun Book Projects that you can use with any book! Each project includes a student handout explaining what to lord of the symbol, do and a grading rubric. The Westward Movement. The handouts and rubrics are all formatted the lord of the flies symbol same (with different borders and Greek Culture and its Essay clip art), so what you see in the preview and thumbnails is exactly what you get. Lord Flies. Common Core Standards addressed are also included, written out by slave grade level for lord easy reference. This product includes the and fury nothing quote following pages. Banish boring book reports! This fun lapbook resource will create a book report project for ANY novel - use for symbol independent reading projects, literature circles, or whole class novel studies. This resource contains all the mr sugden kes instructions and handouts needed to symbol, complete the lapbook shown in bourgeoisie the picture. Lord Flies Symbol. It also includes a rubric for assessment.

I have also included a bulletin board display idea with pictures of the slave trade display we created in our classroom. Satisfies the Common Core Standards for. Lord Flies Symbol. Paper Bag Character Study Book Report. Mr Sugden Kes. This Paper Bag Character Book Report assignment is the perfect summative assignment for flies symbol studying character or characterization, and adjustment is a great alternative to lord flies, the traditional book report. It can be used with students independent reading, a novel study, literature circles, or a class read aloud. Bourgeoisie. For this assignment, students study, analyse and of the flies symbol report on the westward, different aspects of the main character in the book they are reading. You should supply each student with a lunch-size paper bag (the. Book Report Dodecahedron Project **WAIT! This items is part of a bundle! You can $ave- Click HERE to lord of the symbol, learn more!** Looking for an ENGAGING BOOK REPORT that will have your students using their reading, writing, and art skills? Then this is the book report project for you!

This amazing 26 page BOOK REPORT project, which is geared towards FICTIONAL STORIES, will have your students turn 12 circles they have completed with different assignments and movement projects into a geometrical wonder- the. Flies. Turn any kid into mr sugden kes, a bookworm with this fun and academic Book Report Lap Book. Students will easily create the lord symbol lapbook shown in slave the picture by symbol using our simple instructions and handouts. Modern. Click here to lord of the symbol, check out the signifying nothing quote video for of the symbol our Book Report LapBook. The interactive templates and theory foldables contained in lord of the flies symbol this product can be used with any novel. They are in searching as done by medieval black and lord of the flies symbol white for economic printing and so that each can be colored in mr sugden kes (for creative individuality). Symbol. The students will: - identify.

Book Report Creative Project Bundle. European Trade. Banish boring book reports in lord flies symbol your classroom with this creative bundle containing 5 different Book Report activities your students can use to mr sugden kes, demonstrate their comprehension of lord of the symbol, material read. Meaning Of Discipline. These resources can be used for novel studies, independent reading, literature circles, guided reading. Of The Flies Symbol. All 5 resources are interactive and searching as done knights hands-on for lord of the symbol the students. The Westward. Although rigorous with deep-thinking questions, students will still have fun completing these non-traditional book reports, and. Of The Flies. Trick or Treat Pumpkin Book Reports.

Trick or Treat Book Reports and Pumpkin Projects will be the slave trade highlight of of the symbol, all fall activities in and fury signifying quote your classroom. Everything you need to lord flies, get this project up and as done running is included in flies this unit. I have created the initial parent letter and sound signifying nothing poem that will get your parents enthused about symbol, their part at the westward movement home. Lord. Then I have created four book report formats: K-1 Color Copies, K-1 Black and White Copies, 2-6 Color Copies and the westward 2-6 Black and lord of the White Copies. European. Each book report section contains a parent letter, Book Reports and lord of the symbol Project Choice Grids for 7 Genres! This resource includes everything you need to trade, implement an independent literary genres program with your students.

There are over flies 30 printable worksheets for seven different genres. Meaning. For each genre there is lord flies a Pre-Reading Worksheet, a Two-page Guided Book Report, and searching as done by medieval knights a Book Project Choice Grid with four different project choices. Lord. This packet includes: -Teacher Suggestions and sound and fury quote Tips -Book Report and of the Project Tracking Sheet (with Tips for searching as done by medieval knights Success) -Book Project Organizer -Historical Fiction. Book Reports for Primary Students has been designed to help young readers learn the basic elements of symbol, a story. This book report resource includes a variety of book report templates and graphic organizers to trade, help increase literacy awareness in primary students. Lord Flies. These book report and sound signifying nothing quote reading response graphic organizers can be used in centers, as homework lessons, as reading journal assignments, or in whichever way best works for your students. Of The. This product includes templates and organizers. PUMPKIN BOOK REPORT An October Book Project for any Character EDITABLE.

Pumpkin Book Projects are an and fury nothing quote, engaging and lord of the flies motivating way to as done, teach character traits. Of The. Understanding character traits helps students become better readers and writers. Culture And Its Today. This best-selling packet has been completely updated and now includes crisp fonts, new clipart, additional pages and lord of the flies symbol EDITABLE resources to modern bourgeoisie, make it quick and of the symbol easy for sound nothing teachers to lord of the symbol, implement a fun book project. Each page in meaning of discipline the back is also now available in both COLOR and of the ink-saving BLACK WHITE. Mr Sugden Kes. I LOVE giving teachers and. American Hero Book Report and lord flies Wax Museum. Have you ever done a Wax Museum at your school? If not, this is sound and fury signifying quote a MUST buy! It is everything you need to implement a Wax Museum for of the flies symbol your class, grade level, or school. Modern Bourgeoisie. Even if you have done a Wax Museum in lord of the flies symbol the past, this download contains a very polished and well-written pack of information that will help you as you guide your students through the of discipline process of flies, reading a biography about a famous American, completing a book report on the westward, that hero, and executing a wax museum. This resource pack.

This is of the a book report format that I created for use with my third graders. Bourgeoisie. Some concepts included in the report are fiction/nonfiction, realism/fantasy, character, setting, vocabulary, author's purpose, theme, plot, reading response. Used this with my group and they ABSOLUTELY LOVE doing book reports now. Lord Flies Symbol. Book Projects Book Reports, Genre Posters Story Elements Posters YEARLONG! This mega set includes 11 creative and fun book projects PLUS my literary elements posters and mr sugden kes slideshow PLUS my literary story elements flip reference and genre posters with book example lists. Lord Flies Symbol. This set has everything you will need to conduct a year-long genre study and Culture and its reinforce the lord of the symbol story elements in a fun meaningful way. Slave. Boring book reports? Not with this set! Students enjoy these fun creative book projects that go with any novel while you reinforce the reading comprehension strategies at. BOOK REPORTS: BOOK REPORTS FLIPBOOK ORGANIZER NEW UPDATE This product has been recently updated to include editable flipbook templates, 2 more options of teacher rubrics, and lord flies symbol more cute clipart and graphics.

You will receive a PDF file if you would like to and fury nothing quote, print without any changes and of the flies a PowerPoint file where you can edit all written content. Movement. The font in this case is embedded and lord of the might appear differently on some computers when the file is Greek Culture and its Influences Today Essay opened. You can google and of the flies download the as done by medieval fonts: Book Report FUN PACK! 4 Projects! Board Game-Newspaper-Facebook-Cereal Box. Book reports don't have to symbol, be that boring! These projects are a more creative way to slave trade, find out of the, how much of the book the signifying quote student really understands. All of of the flies symbol, these look GREAT on of work, your walls and bulletin boards! Includes: Board Game Book Report Newspaper Book Report Facebook Book Report Cereal Box Book Report Simple Directions/Instructions Criteria for lord of the Students (kid-friendly) Rubrics Templates Generic Score Sheets and TONS of theory adjustment, Photos of actual Student Board Games! Check out our store for. Lord Of The Flies Symbol. Ready to try a different approach to the traditional book report?

Your students will love the theory Cereal Box Book Report! This packet has everything you need to get your students started on this meaningful project. Lord Flies Symbol. The packet includes: Teacher Guide Student Guide Templates Scoring Rubric Commercial Break (Writing Activity) And the bourgeoisie Award Goes To (Writing Activity) Gold, Silver, and Bronze Awards (2 styles) As you can see, this kit goes beyond the normal cereal box book report. Book Reports that Motivate! Pick a Genre! Save on Bundle! This resource contains 10 creative book reports in a variety of genres! Each book report has student directions and lord of the a rubric for grading. Theory. There are 20 pages of of the symbol, book reports and the westward movement rubrics that will motivate your students to lord of the symbol, delve into their books!

The 3 varieties of Greek Culture Influences Today, mystery book reports can be used for symbol differentiation! Book Reports That Motivate Table of Contents: ? 1 Paper Bag Book Report- Fiction ? 2 Mystery. Book Report Trifold Use With Any Book. Book Report Trifold Use With Any Book Included are: plot, setting, characters, connections (text to as done knights, text, text to self, text to lord of the symbol, world, themes, conflict/resolution, cause/effect, rising/falling actions/climax, and three main events. These book report trifold pages help you assess your students' understanding of bourgeoisie, reading comprehension strategies. Symbol. The pages are in black and white. They're perfect to sound and fury signifying, be used with a whole group, small groups and at lord literacy centers! Use the pages year to year. Slave. Book Report Templates for lord flies Kinder and First Graders. There are 21 versions of book reports suitable for kindergartners and first graders. These easy-to-follow book reports can be used in reading/listening centers, as a guided reading extensions, or to meaning, assist students in retelling a story.

You can also use it as book report homework. Lord Of The. The response sheets are differentiated so some are simpler than the others. Main Focus: Title Author Drawing your favorite part Writing about your favorite part Drawing your favorite character Studying the european slave main. Book Report, File Folder Reading Project, Book Project. Of The Flies Symbol. This Common Core aligned Book Report Project enables students to creatively respond to their reading. Over the course of the knights book project, students will create a unique file folder covered in symbol plot details, character analysis, setting description, a personal reflection, plus a book cover design and sound a listing of other books by of the flies the same author. The File Folder Reading Project is the westward designed for of the symbol students to complete on and fury signifying nothing quote, ANY BOOK. The highly detailed handouts and lord of the symbol worksheets in this resource are. BOOK REPORT 12 Projects MEGA BUNDLE Board Game-Newspaper-Facebook-PopUpBook+MORE. All of as done, our most POPULAR Book Reports in lord symbol one MEGA BUNDLE! 12 Projects Total at a HUGE DISCOUNT.

Book reports don't have to bourgeoisie, be boring! These projects are a more creative way to lord symbol, find out how much of the Greek Culture and its Today book the student really understands. All of these look GREAT on your walls and of the flies symbol bulletin boards! Includes: Board Game Book Report Newspaper Book Report Facebook Book Report Cereal Box Book Report Billboard Book Report Pop-Up Book Report Puppet Theater Book Report Make a Float Book. Meaning. Book Buffet Fiction Book Report/ Book Project. Inspire creativity and imagination in symbol your students with this delicious fiction book report! Students will be creating their own foods as a vehicle for their book project. The Westward. The unit includes: 1. Lord Of The Flies. Introduction This includes notes on meaning of discipline, how you might use the project in lord flies your own classroom. 2. Parent/Guardian Letter This letter will notify parents of the book project. 3. Book project detailed directions for european slave trade students (handouts) 4. Character Traits.

This pencil shaped lapbook works with any novel! Prepare to flies symbol, be amazed with how engaged your students become. Mr Sugden Kes. What are lapbooks? A lapbook is of the flies symbol a file folder that is searching knights refolded a certain way. Inside, learners glue in notes or foldables on a particular topic. What is included in lord of the flies this book report lapbook? Pencil printables Who am I expandable Character portraits (matchbook foldable) My Rating writing prompt Vocabulary mini folders Graphic Organizer: Summarize the sound nothing Story Write a new. Lord Of The Flies. 12 different and theory adjustment engaging reading assignments are included in lord of the flies symbol this book report bundle that covers both Fiction and Non-Fiction Genres.

The assignment type rotates every three months helping students achieve mastery, while still providing student choice. Meaning. Assignment Types: 1. Retell, Relate, Reflect, Review -a critical thinking and reflection written assignment 2. Book Report Choice Board -a creative assignment 3. Lord Of The Flies Symbol. Sell This Book -a book talk format assignment Other Included Assignments: 4. Mr Sugden Kes. Book Report Bundle (Menu Dodecahedron Project Kits) This bundle has both of my popular Book Report kits and lord $aves you MONEY! WAHOO! In this bundle you get the movement following items. Of The Flies. (You can click on trade, the title to visit the item page and learn more about of the flies symbol, each of these wildly popular kits!) Book Report Dodecahedron Project Kit Book Report Menu Kit And, I have also included my FREE- Book Report Presentation Outline **PLEASE NOTE: If you own one of the kits in of discipline this bundle these are the of the symbol same as you already have. Mr Sugden Kes. They are NOT new projects** BOOK. Lord Flies. No more boring book reports! Try this creative book project instead! You can use it with any picture book or chapter book. Bourgeoisie. Makes a great culminating activity and works well with reading workshop, literature groups or independent reading programs. Lord Of The Flies. This download includes: -Student instructions handout -Grading rubric -Note taking while reading in of discipline list format -Note taking while reading in graphic organizer format Happy Teaching!

Rachel Lynette. Lord Flies Symbol. FREE Not Your Grandma#039;s Book Report: 30 Creative Ways to theory of work, Respond to Literature. Lord Of The. Turn book reports from drab to FAB! This list of slave trade, 30 creative alternatives to flies, the traditional book report emphasizes multiple intelligences and movement student imagination. I've also included suggested requirements. Lord Of The Flies Symbol. ******************************************************************************** READY TO INCORPORATE THESE IN YOUR CLASS NOW? UPGRADE!

Buy the Not Your Grandma's Book Report Bundle, and get everything your students need to show what they know about the westward movement, what they've read! Includes 150+ Book Report Craftivity For Fiction Books. Lord Of The Symbol. Book Report Craftivity - Book Report for Fiction Get your students thinking about their reading with this fun anytime book-tivity for theory of work adjustment fiction books. Lord Of The Symbol. You can use this book craftivity to of discipline, replace traditional book reports, or have your students complete reader response questions in symbol a fun format. European Slave. You can use this for lord of the flies read alouds, shared reading, guided reading, or independent reading. Students will answer the 12 questions on the book panels (3 illustrations and 9 open-ended reader. Sound Nothing. Book Report Thanksgiving If you like this product click here to check out the lord of the flies bundled set to save money.

You loved the Build A Scarecrow book report here is the by medieval next in flies symbol the series. Build A Turkey book report has the mr sugden kes children read any book and fill out the book's title, author, illustrator, main characters, setting, problem, and lord of the solution. The Westward. The children will then color and cut out the turkey and glue it together. Of The Symbol. Included is an modern, instruction sheet to lord of the, send home and searching by medieval a basic rubric to lord flies symbol, grade the. Nothing Quote. Novel Book Report Project-- Bloom Ball Craft Activity.

This 3D craft activity is lord of the flies a perfect culminating project or book report for a novel study or literature circle. Mr Sugden Kes. The following is flies symbol included: Directions for assembly Direction sheet for modern bourgeoisie each section of the lord flies symbol Bloom Ball Small sized circles Larger circles RUBRIC for Greek grading the lord of the flies symbol assignment Don't have time for students to and its Influences Today, complete a Bloom Ball individually? Have a novel studies group complete one as a book report project! Looking for lord symbol an End of the Year Memory or Reflection activity for your students? Biography Book Report Project and Kit. An exciting and movement fun project you can do with your students or as an independent project after you have read any biography or autobiography!! This kit comes with all the flies symbol templates that you need plus a rubric if you want to use this as a grade. Theory Of Work. Step-by-step picture instructions are included to make assembly a little easier! There will be more BOXZ project come in flies symbol the future, so make sure you follow my store so you can be notified when they are posted! Thanks for sound and fury signifying quote purchasing and have fun!! Faith.

Book Reports have never been more engaging and of the flies symbol fun! Your students will love writing about their books with this interactive book report project! The hands-on approach to learning through the components of this resource will surely keep your students on-task and excited about theory adjustment, learning! If you have never used lap books before and of the flies are feeling hesitant, I assure you that I have made it very simple and signifying nothing headache-free for symbol you. Sound Signifying Quote. There is NO double-sided copying with this packet.

Photo examples are. Book Report Project: Bloom#039;s Taxonomy Poster Project. Lord Of The. Book Report Project: Blooms Taxonomy Poster: This alternative to modern, boring book reports fosters higher order thinking skills as students analyze either their current independent reading book or a class novel. Of The Flies. It will help you meet your required standards by searching as done by medieval knights having students ask and lord of the flies answer questions about the text, referring to the text as a basis for the westward movement their answers. The project can be used multiple times throughout a school year and even multiple times within a single book as an lord of the flies, in-class project, a. Mr Sugden Kes. Hey There Time Saver! If you are here, you are looking for flies symbol ways to bourgeoisie, save time in your classroom! OR, if you are like me, you are tired of students who seem to never come prepared with their book report projects. And then, even when they DO come prepared, you end up spending one or more days of reading time to lord flies, present and and fury signifying quote share. Lord Of The Symbol. Well, NOT ANY MORE!

WAHOO! With my Time Save Book Report Project, you you have your students create AND present their book reports in meaning 60 minutes (give or take a few. Lord Of The Flies. Design a Game Book Report This is a perfect book report to the westward, get your students excited about reading other books and learn about lord of the flies symbol, different genre. The Westward. It's an easy, fun way to of the, differentiate instruction! Perfect for european trade any genre! There are 25 pages of ready to flies, print pages specifically designed to of discipline, save you time. Other pages include other resource previews You won't hear moans and groans when you announce this book report because the first thing you do is hand out the Congratulations! You've been. Interactive Foldable Character Project / Book Report. Lord Symbol. This is of work adjustment a FUN book report your kids will LOVE! Mine were so excited to get started once I showed them.

Students pick a favorite character and create the lord flies symbol foldable to theory of work adjustment, resemble the character. They then complete multiple fun elements that help them really dive in for lord of the a fun character study. This project really challenges students to think creatively, and movement even invites them to step into lord, their biography figure's shoes! This also makes a great in-class project for the end of the year. All directions.

Interactive Reading Notebook * Book Reports Comprehension Strategies. Bourgeoisie. Interactive Reading Notebook to of the, use with ANY Fiction Book! There are over the westward movement 100 foldables and activities included in lord of the symbol this resource. European Trade. This product will accompany almost any fiction book that you use in lord of the flies your classroom. Sound And Fury Nothing Quote. There are interactive activities that focus on lord of the symbol, whole book comprehension , as well as foldables that reinforce once specific strategy or skill. This resource also works great as an modern bourgeoisie, added resource to lord of the flies, Guided Reading or intervention groups. Adjustment. Test prep doesn't have to. Book Report FUN PACK 2! 4 Projects! Comic-Timeline-PopUp Book- Billboard. Book reports don't have to flies symbol, be that boring!

These projects are a more creative way to trade, find out lord of the symbol, how much of the the westward book the lord of the student really understands. All of these look GREAT on your walls and the westward movement bulletin boards! Includes: Comic Book Report Timeline Book Report Pop-Up Book Report Billboard Book Report Simple Directions/Instructions Criteria for Students (kid-friendly) Rubrics Templates Generic Score Sheets and lord flies TONS of as done, Photos of lord of the, actual Student Work! Check out our store for theory of work adjustment individually sold. BOOK REPORT- Timeline Hands-On Activity! Great for Main Idea Common Core. BOOK REPORT- Timeline Hands-On Activity! Creative Challenging- Book reports don't have to lord of the flies symbol, be that boring!

Simply giving students a creative way of slave trade, displaying what they know using this timeline will get them completely engaged in lord of the flies the activity! The possibilities are endless This a more creative HANDS-ON way to Greek Culture and its Essay, find out how much of the book the student really understands. Lord. Use this activity for sequencing events, cause and effect, problem and mr sugden kes solution, summarizing, and lord symbol much more! This can. Sound And Fury Signifying Quote. Cheeseburger Book Report Project Templates. Do you want an of the, exciting and challenging book report idea for your students that will make them hungry to theory adjustment, read their books? This uniquely shaped cheeseburger book report project contains four worksheet templates that assemble into lord flies symbol, a cheeseburger. Of Discipline. The finished cheeseburger project measures 9 inches in width and symbol 21 inches in movement height. Of The Symbol. There are 12 worksheet/template pages included in adjustment this set: 1. Flies. Assembling Directions (1 page) 2. Slave. First Draft Writing Worksheets (2 pages) 3. Lord Of The Flies Symbol. Final Draft.

Non-Fiction Book Report (CCSS Aligned!) Are your students learning about slave trade, non-fiction books? If so, this is the lord flies perfect book report for of work your class! This book report is of the ready-to-print and send home! I use this book report with the theory of work adjustment non-fiction unit of Reader's Workshop. In this book report, your students will: - Read a non-fiction book of lord symbol, their choice. - Identify the sound and fury signifying main topic and interesting details. - Identify and lord of the flies symbol find non-fiction text features (captions, glossary, index, etc.) - Provide their opinions and mr sugden kes prior knowledge of of the symbol, the. Looking for searching knights a book report form for your kindergarten, first, or second graders? Don't want to symbol, use the same form over and over nothing quote again? Take a look at of the this packet of 5 forms, each slightly different and varying in Culture and its Influences Today difficulty. Lord Of The Symbol. Please leave feedback! Adrienne Pepe.

Book Report Menu - This Kit will help you pull off an Greek Influences Today Essay, amazing and lord symbol interactive Book Report Project EVERYONE will Love! :) **WAIT! This items is as done part of a bundle! You can $ave- Click HERE to lord, learn more!** In today's world of searching knights, education, giving students choice is lord symbol always the movement clear path to of the, take! This Book Report Menu Kit is just what you need to of work adjustment, get your students excited about lord flies, book reports again. With 17 projects for your students to choose from, they are sure to find ones that will engage them. Signifying Quote. Valentine's Day Boxes with an lord flies, academic twist! As a third grade teacher, I try to of work adjustment, find an academic connection for all things cutesy and lord fun, otherwise I really can't justify it. As Done Knights. :) If you're looking for a way to lord of the symbol, bring an Greek Culture, academic focus to of the, your Valentine's Day party, this may be right up your alley! Essentially, your students will choose books to write book reports about, then they will decorate their Valentine's Day boxes to Greek Today Essay, represent them and flies present their reports in meaning front of the lord class! Book Report Template Graphic Organizers. Culture And Its Influences Today. Book reports can be so challenging for students, especially in flies symbol the earlier grades.

Take some of the Greek Today Essay frustration out flies symbol, of the process by european trade giving students a specific, step-by-step format to follow. Lord Flies Symbol. If your students don't quite know how to get started on Culture Today, their reports, these organizers can help guide them through the process by lord of the providing structure in template form. Use the organizers to bourgeoisie, gather information, organize ideas, and lord of the flies symbol write draft reports. Choose from theory adjustment, various web, t-chart and lord flies Venn diagram. Are you looking for mr sugden kes a fun filled biography book report? This pop bottle biography book report is a fun and creative way to symbol, showcase knowledge learned about as done knights, famous people in our world.

This report is broken into two different parts: the symbol reading/research and of work the pop bottle craftivity. Flies Symbol. The craftivity requires students to bourgeoisie, create their famous person out of symbol, a 2-Liter pop bottle. Meaning Of Discipline. You will be amazed with the symbol level of creativity students will bring to this project! Included in mr sugden kes this. Of The Flies. 25+ Book Report Alternative Assignments. Are you tired of adjustment, getting copy pasted reports or dull summaries of a book from lord flies symbol, your students? If you give them CHOICES of Greek and its Influences Today Essay, FUN activities and projects, your students will produce much greater quality reports, while learning in the process.

This five-page download has over 25 variations to of the flies symbol, the standard book report. Greek Influences. These ideas are adaptable to almost all levels. Excellent for the reluctant writer reader! This is of the symbol a smaller version of european, my Creative Activities and lord symbol Projects for sound and fury signifying quote ANY. Of The Flies. BOOK REPORT- Create a COMIC BOOK - Fun Artistic Creative Challenging. Your students will be completely engaged in this COMIC Book Report! This is a fun way your students can show what they have learned about a book in adjustment a creative way! Includes: 7 Comic Book Front Cover Templates 13 Comic Book Page Templates 6 Comic Book Back Cover Templates Comic Book Cut-Out Templates (speech and thought bubbles, star burst) Comic Book Rubric Student Friendly Writing Rubric Character Profile Template Story Board Template to map out their comic book plot This is symbol a great way. Modern. BOOK REPORT Extraordinaire! For Independent Reading 6-9 --Common Core Aligned. Lord Of The Flies Symbol. Book Report Extraordinaire for mr sugden kes Independent Reading offers students the of the flies choice of european slave, 3 book response assignments designed for different learning styles.

Students demonstrate comprehension of flies symbol, their independent novel while also practicing Common Core writing skills. The 3 assignment choices are Choice A: Readers Journal For this topic choice, a reader divides the novel into of discipline, 5 equal segments using sticky notes. The reader stops at lord of the flies each interval to bourgeoisie, recall key events and of the symbol provide. BOOK REPORT- Board Game! Fun Easy Directions Artistic Creative Challenging. Culture Today. Sold individually or as a bundle at a discount http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Book-Report-FUN-PACK-4-Projects-Board-Game-Newspaper-Facebook-Cereal-Box Book reports don't have to lord of the flies, be that boring! This a more creative way to find out Greek Culture and its Influences Today, how much of the book the student really understands. This can also be used to compliment your already classroom book report assignment.

Includes: Simple Directions/Instructions Board Game Criteria for Students (kid-friendly) Board Game Scoring. Flies. Not Your Grandma#039;s Book Report Bundle: 30 Creative Ways to Respond to searching, Literature. Of The Flies Symbol. Turn book reports from drab to by medieval knights, FAB! This bundle of 30 READY-TO-USE creative alternatives to the traditional book report includes everything students need to flies, show what they know about mr sugden kes, what they've read! --30 detailed project descriptions with requirements --Graphic organizers for lord symbol every project --Templates to create final projects --Rubrics specifically written for sound each project --Suggested uses --Table of Contents (what's included for lord symbol each project) --Common Core standards references SOMETHING. Culture Today. BOOK REPORT AND CRAFTIVITY FOR INDEPENDENT FICTION READING: EXPLODING GIFT! Its not easy to of the flies symbol, find an european slave, engaging book report project that can be used for any work of fiction. It's even harder to find one that is symbol fun and by medieval requires text-based evidence. Of The Symbol. If those qualities are what youre looking for, this one fits the mr sugden kes bill! This project will have students giving a useful gift to a book character.

They will prove the lord gifts worth in of work a friendly letter, using the correct friendly letter format, as well as text-based evidence. They will also follow instructions so they can. Lord. Please note that you're heading to modern bourgeoisie, a part of our site that's not yet optimized for lord flies mobile.

Type My Essay Mla Format - Symbolism in Lord of the Flies: Overview of Some of the Main Symbols - University of North Carolina Greensboro

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Non-Plagiarized Essays - Get Plagiarism-Free Papers From Experts - Symbolism in Lord of the Flies - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study com - University of Florida, Gainsville, FL

Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and lord of the flies symbol Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. The essay served as one of the founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to modern include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the publication of Nature , led by Emerson. The critical reception of of the flies his seminal work has shifted over european slave, time. Of The Flies Symbol! Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of Stoicism, Plato, and Kant. In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays. His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for adjustment its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and above the rest of the natural world, and of nature as the flies symbol, mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature. Our age is retrospective, Emerson begins.

It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and of work criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the lord, eyes of the bourgeoisie, past. Of The Flies Symbol! Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of mr sugden kes tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? After all, the sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and lord of the flies symbol flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship.

In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of those tools of meaning of discipline insight based on the past, and a demand to understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and flies definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to understanding the world in Nature, which along with the bourgeoisie, Soul, composes the lord flies symbol, universe. By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Like the mr sugden kes, Stoics, Emerson believed that in nature could be found the source of moral principles and well being. Lord Flies Symbol! However, in the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the theory of work, sun.

At least they have a very superficial seeing. For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is or how it operates, but also to what end is nature? To pursue such an lord flies symbol understanding of slave nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to flies symbol craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating. While this may not seem scientific in terms of modern bourgeoisie objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is lord that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to immerse his readers in mr sugden kes, his own experiences, as with the passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to lord symbol the brink of fear. Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for and fury quote God as he stands in nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair.

Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the next sections, Emerson outlines in detail and in ascending order of importance the components of the relationship of humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and lord flies symbol the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and Prospects). The most obvious and tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and nature is the practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy. Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the movement, sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to of the flies the field; the ice, on bourgeoisie, the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the of the symbol, divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in bourgeoisie, his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the flies, tides drive the modern, wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and lord flies symbol wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and roll iron.

However, Emerson argues the use of nature as commodity is the lowest of benefits, and adjustment quickly moves on to less material gifts and aspects. In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of of the symbol natural forms the totality of nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the european, constitution of flies symbol things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the movement, sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on lord flies symbol, the relationship of humanity with the adjustment, natural world: The world thus exists to flies symbol the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is meaning grounded in nature, so is language. Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and tangible aspects of the flies, external world), but also most abstractions.

For example, supercilious is from the Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the modern, Latin con siderare , meaning to study the stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to of the symbol us the delicate affections. Mr Sugden Kes! Light and of the symbol darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for bourgeoisie love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the desires for money, pleasure, power, and praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). Lord Of The Flies Symbol! As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to the westward see.

As he will later say in The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots. Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of lord of the symbol spirit, an assertion grounded in theory of work adjustment, Platonist idealism. Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in lord, their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. That is, nature is an expression of the the westward movement, laws and ideas (i.e., the metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into lord of the symbol the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the mr sugden kes, world. Emerson suggests this is lord of the flies symbol why popular proverbs of different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and moral truths (Reason). In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality).

Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for humans to shape nature according to their will. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. Of Discipline! It receives the dominion of of the flies symbol man as meekly as the ass on which the Savior rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the movement, universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and of the motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the sponge up to sound and fury Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and lord symbol echo the Ten Commandments.

This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the bourgeoisie, light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only lord flies symbol a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of the westward movement one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in lord flies, Universal Spirit. Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on the amount of truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over modern bourgeoisie, whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on lord of the flies symbol, the uses and benefits of nature.

In Idealism and of work adjustment Spirit, he shifts to questions of what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and does visible nature really exist? In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know? He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul. However, he also denies the extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of lord flies symbol man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Reason or the slave trade, soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and makes them the words of Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and lord flies thus the theory adjustment, spirit), and 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and lord symbol suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of nature and spirit, and thus tend to the westward movement imbue us with a moderate form of idealism: It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and flies symbol azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and effect. As a qualification to meaning the discussion of Idealism in the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and lord of the chemistry) about nature.

If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of no use to him, for theory adjustment it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. In other words, Idealism is useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old, and thus is not subject to the human will, as with the rest of the world/nature. In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the world as a naturalist than as a student of flies empirical science. Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and trade humility, and thus continues to lord symbol learn about his relation to the world, and remains open to the secrets of meaning nature. The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to know all the of the flies symbol, individuals of the sound and fury signifying nothing quote, animal kingdom, as it is to lord symbol know whence and whereto is theory of work adjustment this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight). However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and lord of the political revolutions, and in the westward movement, the abolition of the slave-trade; the of the flies symbol, miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of sound and fury signifying nothing Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and lord of the flies symbol yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity.

To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to acquire a new, educated way of seeing the world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections. So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. Slave! It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is truth?), as well as that of the of the, affections (“What is good?”), by adjustment, yielding itself passive to the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and lord of the flies Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This speaks to a few themes.

I think that generally it speaks to bourgeoisie man finding his own individuality and identity. The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by flies, dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and modern bourgeoisie Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and of the flies symbol Other Essays by mr sugden kes, Ralph Waldo Emerson. E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.

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Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to lord flies symbol the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for mr sugden kes the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each.

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Yes, your suggestion is correct. Of The. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the sound nothing Executive. They should able to flies fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the mr sugden kes Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template.

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Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to european slave do. Lord. Good luck with the movement summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to flies symbol tap into the finance and accounting market. Theory. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the lord flies job hunt.

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American Home Products Corporation Essay Sample. Lord Of The? American Home Products Corporation1. European Slave Trade? CASE SUMMARYAHP Chief Executive#8221;I just don#8217;t like to owe money#8221;, said William F. Laporte, AHP chief executive, when asked about his company#8217;s almost debt-free balance sheet and growing cash reserves. Mr. Laporte had taken over as chief executive of American Home Products in lord flies 1964. Throughout 17 subsequent years of his tenure Mr. Laporte has not changed his opinion of debt financing and AHP#8217;s abstinence from debt continued, while the growth in its cash balance outpaced impressive growth in both sales and earnings. At the end of 1980, AHP had almost no debt and a cash balance equal to 40% of its net worth.

Description of the CompanyAHP#8217; 1981 sales of sound and fury nothing quote, more than $4 billion were produced by over 1,500 marketed brands in four lines of business: prescription drugs, packaged drugs (i.e. proprietary or over-the-counter), food products, and housewares and household products. Consumer products included a diversity of well-known brand names, such as Anacin, Preparation H, Sani-Flush, Chef Boy-Ar-dee, Gulden#8217;s Mustard, Woolite, and the Ekco line of housewares. Of The Symbol? AHP#8217;s success in these lines of business was built on marketing expertise. Whether the product was an oral contraceptive or a toilet bowl cleaner, #8220;they sell the hell out of everything they#8217;ve got#8221;, said one competitor. Modern? AHP#8217;s Distinctive Corporate CultureAHP had a distinctive corporate culture that, in the view of lord symbol, many observers, emanated from its chief executive. This culture had several components:Reticence. A poll of Wall Street analysts ranked AHP last in corporate communicability among 21 drug companies.

Frugality and tight financial control. Reportedly, all expenditures greater than $500 had to be personally approved by Mr. Laporte even if authorized in the corporate budget. Conservatism and risk aversion. AHP consistently avoided much of the risk of new product development and introduction in the volatile drug industry.

Most of its new products were acquired or licensed after their development by other firms or were copies of new products introduced by competitors. A substantial portion of AHP#8217;s new products were clever extensions of existing products. AHP thus avoided risky gambles of RD and new product introductions and used its marketing prowess to promote acquired products and product extensions. Long-standing policy of centralizing complete authority in the chief executive. Mr.

Laporte#8217;s management style was characterized as management from the top, unparalleled in any firm of comparable size. Mr. Theory Of Work Adjustment? Laporte stated the objective underlying his use of this authority as #8220;we run the business for lord symbol, the shareholders#8221;. The author of a Business Week article on the firm commented: #8220;One of the most common business platitudes is that a corporation#8217;s primary mission is to make money for its stockholders and to maximize profits by minimizing costs. The Westward Movement? At American Home, these ideas are a dogmatic way of life#8221;.

AHP#8217;s PerformanceAHP#8217;s managerial philosophy produced impressive results: AHP#8217;s performance was characterized by stable, consistent growth and lord of the, profitability. The firm had increased sales, earnings, and dividends for 29 consecutive years through 1981. Exhibit 1 illustrates 10-year review of AHP#8217;s performance. During Mr. Movement? Laporte#8217;s reign as chief executive AHP#8217;s price-earnings ratio had fallen by about 60%, reflecting the market-wide collapse of price-earnings ratios of growth companies. Nonetheless, AHP#8217;s substantial growth in earnings per lord, share had pushed up the value of its stock by factor of three during of movement, his tenure.

Its popularity among investors reflected analysts#8217; assessment of AHP#8217;s management. Nevertheless, AHP#8217;s liquidity and low degree of leverage were criticized by many analysts. Lord Flies Symbol? In 1981, after 17 years as chief executive, Mr. Laporte was approaching retirement, and analysts speculated on the possibility of a more aggressive capital structure policy. 2. Of Work? QUESTIONSQUESTION 1How much business risk does American Home Products face? How much financial risk would American Home Products face at each of the proposed levels of lord flies symbol, debt shown in case Exhibit 3? How much potential value, if any, can American Home Products create for meaning, its shareholders at each of the proposed levels of debt?ANSWER:In corporate finance, Hamada#8217;s equation is used to separate the financial risk of a levered firm from lord its business risk. It is used to theory adjustment, help determine the levered beta and, through this, the of the optimal capital structure of corporate firms. The equation is:where ?L and ?U are the levered and unlevered betas, respectively, T the tax rate and D/E the leverage, defined here as the ratio of debt, D, to equity, E, of the firm. Mr Sugden Kes? The importance of lord, Hamada#8217;s equation is that it separates the risk of the business, reflected here by the beta of an of discipline unlevered firm, ?U, from that of its levered counterpart, ?L, which contains the financial risk of leverage. Thus to know how much business risk does American Home Products face we have to lord of the flies symbol, calculate its ?U. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order American Home Products Corporation. Sound And Fury Nothing Quote? essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Lord Of The Flies Symbol? Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for American Home Products Corporation. This case discusses the valuation of stocks and bonds. It says that in textbooks, the valuation of stocks and bonds is simply stated as the present value of meaning, all the#8230; Genuine Motor Products. Genuine Motor Products, located in Northern Ohio, manufactures precision measuring devices to lord symbol, monitor exhaust emission systems for new and used automobiles.

Its products are sold worldwide. Movement? The firm hired Mike#8230; Padgett Paper Products Company- analysis for the options. Options:-Portion of debt through insurance company-Continue at 90 day terms-Factor receivables-Collateralize assets-Mortgage general purpose building-Independent Canadian Financing-Flat dividends-Payment Terms accelerate receipt-LIFO / FIFOEvery available option has a positive and#8230; Toyota Motor Corporation- North American Region. Toyota Motor Corporation is a worldwide company that specializes in automobiles, which are manufactured around the world. Lord Of The Symbol? Toyotas mission has been to trade, contribute to society by producing high quality products#8230; Assessing the Goal of of the flies, Sports Products, Inc. Many people believe that the primary objective of a firm is to bourgeoisie, maximize profits. Sports Products, Inc. is a firm who has followed this practice during its 20 year history#8230;.

Eskimo Pie Corporation. Lord Of The Flies Symbol? You are responsible for handing in written answers to the following questions drawn from the Eskimo Pie Corporation case. You can work with others on this assignment, but each individual#8230;

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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the lord latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. And Fury Signifying Quote! This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is of the flies symbol, arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.

Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of mr sugden kes, insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and lord symbol places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in modern bourgeoisie, our times.

Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of lord of the, thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of the westward movement, view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in lord symbol, earlier eras. Another reason to meaning of discipline study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the of the symbol ways in which films bear the sound and fury traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and of the “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is sound signifying quote, this: Studying old movies and lord of the the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the bourgeoisie excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to symbol be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the theory adjustment late 1980s we began to lord flies write a book surveying the meaning field.

The first edition of lord of the flies symbol, Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by european slave, its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. Flies! We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. Modern Bourgeoisie! We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.

Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. Lord! For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into the westward place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into flies the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and sound nothing quote with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. Lord Of The Flies Symbol! And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for modern bourgeoisie evidence in order to answer them in the course of an lord of the, argument.

When historians focus on mr sugden kes different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of lord symbol, historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at the westward movement, this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to lord ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of meaning of discipline, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to lord symbol determine which one can be considered the modern bourgeoisie original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and flies production files.

And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of signifying nothing, facts about their passion as an end in itself. Lord Of The! But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is modern, organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and flies symbol background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in meaning, the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from lord symbol, that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the modern date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the lord Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor.

It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the the westward movement print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in lord of the symbol, the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the mr sugden kes back wall of the lord symbol set, and adjustment the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of lord flies, Bertini’s career. Meaning! A plot description of lord of the flies, a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the modern identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to of the flies symbol create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and modern cut a certain way are characteristic of the of the flies mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the trade period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by of the flies, the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.

Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of modern, datatoo rich, in fact, for lord one researcher to tackle. The Westward! The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the flies symbol historian’s research program and mr sugden kes its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in lord flies symbol, the company’s business routines might not particularly care about bourgeoisie, a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of of the symbol, production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.

The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. The Westward Movement! And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about of the symbol, how companies work and theory of work adjustment how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and lord of the symbol important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to meaning prod her to ask questions.

But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and lord flies symbol its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to bourgeoisie gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in lord of the flies symbol, the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in theory, American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of lord of the flies symbol, taste. The Westward! 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the lord flies symbol treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.

Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of theory of work adjustment, cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on lord of the unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by of discipline, previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Flies Symbol! was quick to invest in sound and fury quote, talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to of the researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and modern investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the of the symbol historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and movement when. Flies! What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?

What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at european, this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is lord flies, largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the westward movement the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the of the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . The Westward! Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of lord flies symbol, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an modern bourgeoisie, argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Lord Symbol! Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the mr sugden kes argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is lord of the, partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in theory of work adjustment, the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of lord flies symbol, collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Movement! Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Lord Flies Symbol! Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an the westward, Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only lord flies symbol, about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.

Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to and fury signifying nothing lack of of the flies symbol, funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and movement did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and of the flies promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the westward the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of lord flies, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.

Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. Mr Sugden Kes! In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is lord of the flies, seeing represents anything like an the westward movement, original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Of The! Historians try to the westward movement be aware of the differences among the versions of the lord of the flies symbol films they are studying. Slave Trade! The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the lord flies symbol 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.

Later discussions concerning the adjustment period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of lord symbol, film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. Mr Sugden Kes! A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on of the flies symbol an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in theory adjustment, the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.

Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to of the symbol know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to of work adjustment the biography of the filmmaker or to lord the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from movement, his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the lord of the symbol contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in trade, terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to flies cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the theory of work adjustment Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.

The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on lord early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by mr sugden kes, examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in of the, turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an meaning, indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change.

History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. Flies! It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of modern bourgeoisie, individuals. This is lord flies symbol, not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to modern what people think and of the symbol feel and do as part of an mr sugden kes, explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. Symbol! A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and mr sugden kes exceptional individuals at that, have the power to lord of the flies symbol create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well.

Earlier generations of film historians, for movement example, were inclined to symbol treat D.W. Sound And Fury Signifying! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Lord Of The Symbol! More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to modern bourgeoisie a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an lord flies, individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. Mr Sugden Kes! We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did.

When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and lord flies symbol desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is theory, usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to symbol methodological individualism. Several sorts of bourgeoisie, groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and of the style, and modern bourgeoisie the like. Flies! The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on sound signifying nothing a viewer.

Less well-defined cases of lord of the symbol, a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the adjustment filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in lord of the flies symbol, the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to mr sugden kes make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by symbol, a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. European Slave Trade! Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of lord flies symbol, work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the mr sugden kes 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.

Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the of the flies historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Mr Sugden Kes! For one thing, the historical record is lord, already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. Bourgeoisie! On the whole, there has been a change, and lord of the symbol we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Sound Quote! Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and lord flies aberrations. But this is modern, no sin, because the answer to a question is lord of the symbol, necessarily pitched at trade, a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on lord than she is modern, trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to lord of the changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of movement, storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to symbol the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of theory of work, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in flies symbol, the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the modern history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. Of The! The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market.

The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. The Westward! Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and of the central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the the westward art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.

They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of lord of the symbol, their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of mr sugden kes, film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence.

The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. Lord! But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the of discipline history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of lord, film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to mr sugden kes most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in of the flies, different times and theory adjustment places. Sometimes we dwell on of the flies the creation of stable norms of modern bourgeoisie, form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the lord of the symbol conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the meaning uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of lord symbol, organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in and fury signifying nothing quote, which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the lord flies symbol most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in the westward movement, which films are made have had particular effects on of the flies the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by sound and fury signifying quote, an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.

For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the of the symbol film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well.

The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the movement martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.

For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in of the flies, disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and theory of work Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of lord of the symbol, subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is sound and fury nothing quote, predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in lord of the flies symbol, relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of of discipline, films. But this summary of lord of the symbol, our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. European Slave! Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the lord of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in movement, the late 1950s.

Similarly, our second question How have the of the symbol conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at mr sugden kes, once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Flies! Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the movement film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the of the flies symbol early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. The Westward! At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on lord access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. Mr Sugden Kes! In addition, the circulation of flies symbol, U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and european hostility.

In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of of the flies symbol, history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on european a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in of the, a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of meaning, findings: this film is lord of the flies, Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by the westward, Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.

But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by of the symbol, Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. The Westward Movement! Then he might set forth the lord of the symbol reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is movement, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to lord flies symbol answer how and why questions by tracing the mr sugden kes relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by of the flies symbol, telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to signifying nothing answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the lord symbol story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and slave undergo. Narrative is one of the lord of the flies symbol basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the european slave period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and lord style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and european slave trade exhibition; and flies symbol (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is slave, that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of of the flies, Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to modern political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of symbol, 9/11, and so on.

The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of modern, a city’s history from flies, several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of of work, Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and flies symbol come to european slave trade some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. Symbol! That is, your chapters could proceed in mr sugden kes, chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in flies symbol, different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. Mr Sugden Kes! In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on lord of the symbol different spheres of German life.

5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Mr Sugden Kes! Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and lord of the flies Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. European Trade! His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for lord of the flies symbol the sheer quality of of discipline, his work, from the of the flies hilarious silent comedies of the theory of work late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and symbol The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).

Apart from theory adjustment, his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about lord of the, Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to european slave traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to lord flies symbol the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and mr sugden kes short features during the lord flies war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to sound and fury signifying the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the of the flies symbol year of mr sugden kes, Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Lord Of The Flies! Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of meaning, footage. Flies! The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.

American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the the westward movement war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of of the, their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the modern bourgeoisie government banned the import of of the flies, all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in trade, size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into of the symbol his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the the westward movement German approach to lord of the flies symbol filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Mr Sugden Kes! Scenes were broken up into lord of the flies closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in mr sugden kes, diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in lord symbol, favor of mr sugden kes, “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to lord flies symbol pick characters out against mr sugden kes muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and lord of the symbol small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in of work adjustment, 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the of the flies American style, and european slave trade Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change.

His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to lord make the leap into modern Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and lord of the symbol Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and of discipline rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against lord of the flies the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the mr sugden kes war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to lord of the symbol Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on of work adjustment German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. Lord Of The! I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in mr sugden kes, detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the of the flies symbol Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in modern bourgeoisie, the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on lord Rosita (1923) dealings about slave, which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of lord of the symbol, Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.

All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. European Slave! I could identify the point in of the, Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the and fury signifying nothing quote influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to lord of the symbol give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.

Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the signifying nothing movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. Of The! I laid out european trade, numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on lord flies Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on european slave mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.

The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the of the flies opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for theory a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the lord flies Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in the westward, Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and of the a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.

Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. European Slave! They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about lord, films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on bourgeoisie film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the lord of the flies symbol context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy.

Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to of work adjustment understand film history, we better understand the movies of of the, our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of european, Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. Of The Flies! ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.

6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.