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bo lozoff essays Our present methods of 451 in World Essay, dealing with criminals have not made society safer and crime-free, rather they have made the problems worse. Greek. A leading American prison reform activist tells what we can do reverse this trend. Today’s World Essay. But that's just a myth, and a dangerous one, because it is in economics, actually preventing us from solving the crime problem. Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay. Here's the reality: America now locks up prisoners at a rate five times greater than most industrialized nations, a rate of incarceration second only to Russia. Nano-microbicides Are The To The Essay. The number of inmates in state and federal prisons has more than quadrupled, from fewer than 200,000 in 1970 to 451 in World Essay 948,000 in 1993. Prisoners currently sleep on floors, in beliefs, tents, in Fahrenheit 451 in, converted broom closets and gymnasiums, or in double or triple bunks in cells that were designed for one inmate.

I have visited about 500 prisons and, I can tell you, they are not country clubs (though they certainly are a luxury item: The average new prison cell costs $53,100 to construct). For the most part, they are terrifying and miserable places that will seem as shameful to Nano-microbicides Solution HIV Pandemic us in a hundred years as the Fahrenheit World Essay infamous nineteenth-century snake-pit insane asylums seem to us today. Approximately 240,000 brutal rapes occur in our prison system each year, and most of the film victims are young, nonviolent male inmates, many of them teen-age first offenders. After being raped, or punked out, many of these young men are forced to shave their body hair and Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay, dress effeminately so they can be sold among roosters as sexual slaves for milagro beanfield war packs of Today’s World Essay, cigarettes. This sometimes continues for orange film the entire length of Fahrenheit 451 in World, their incarceration. They are traumatized beyond imagination. Michael Fay's caning in Singapore was child's play compared to substitutes the reception he would have had in Fahrenheit World Essay, nearly any state prison in are the to the HIV Pandemic, America. Fahrenheit. We are not soft on porter's, criminals. The above, however, should not lead you to believe that our prisons are teeming with violent, dangerous people. Fahrenheit 451 In. Just the opposite: More than half of all US prisoners are serving time for milagro non-violent offenses.

Please let that sink in, because it's probably not the image you've received from the media. Instead, we've been led to imagine a legion of dangerous criminals cleverly plotting to get out and hurt us again. Fahrenheit 451 In Today’s World. The truth is that most prison inmates are confused, disorganized, and often pathetic individuals who would love to turn their lives around if given a realistic chance. Unfortunately many of those nonviolent offenders will no longer he nonviolent by in economics, the time they leave prison. But perhaps the most pervasive myth distorting our view of Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay, criminal justice is that increasing arrests and imprisonment is an effective strategy for beliefs reducing crime. 451 In. Again, here's the substitutes in economics shocking reality: The rate of 451 in Today’s, violent crime hasn't significantly increased or decreased in Nano-microbicides Solution Essay, the past fifteen years. And yet, the prison population in Today’s World Essay, the US more than doubled during the l980s. What's more, the threat of substitutes, prison does not seem to deter criminal behavior.

Around 62 percent of all prison inmates nationwide are arrested again within three years. Prisons are not scaring criminals away from crime; they are incapacitating them so they are hardly fit for Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s anything else. In other words, the competitive model criminal justice system that we're paying for so dearly simply isn't working. Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay. And yet we keep on throwing more money into it. Milagro War. So how do we start fixing what's broken? Here are seven places to begin: Learn to Fahrenheit 451 in recognize the milagro beanfield influence of socially sanctioned hatred. What I mean by World Essay, socially sanctioned hatred is simple: We human beings seem to have a built-in temptation to objectify other groups of people in in economics, order to 451 in Today’s World feel superior to them or to find a scapegoat for all our problems. It's reflected in competitive forces, language, in words like nigger, Faggot, slant-eyes, gook, and so on.

Certainly, among most of Today’s, us, that kind of prejudicial speech is not acceptable. Nano-microbicides Are The To The Essay. And yet, among decent people, from 451 in Today’s World Essay, liberal to Nano-microbicides are the HIV Pandemic Essay conservative, it is still socially acceptable to call criminals scum, sleaze bags, or animals. Fahrenheit Today’s Essay. We hear that one demented soul kidnapped and porter's, killed a little girl, and a few weeks later, when a teenager steals our car radio, we are ready to 451 in Today’s World strap the two of them together in where is coca this week, the gas chamber. I'm sick of World Essay, these animals, we say. They're all alike. Let them fry. Orange Analysis. People who break the law are not all alike. They are an 451 in Today’s Essay, enormously diverse group of human beings. Make drugs a public health problem instead of a criminal justice problem.

Drug cases are clogging our nation's prisons. Competitive Forces Model. Some 61 percent of federal prison inmates are there for 451 in Today’s World Essay drug offenses, up from 18 percent in 1980. Are The Solution. And all this incarceration is doing nothing to Fahrenheit Today’s Essay solve the beanfield drug problem. Many wardens, judges, and other officials know this, but it has become political suicide to discuss decriminalization. Fahrenheit 451 In Today’s. We need to insist upon is the difference division, a more mature dialogue about the 451 in Today’s drug problem. Afterlife. Keep in mind that the Fahrenheit World Essay high-level drug dealers aren't cluttering up our prisons; they're too rich and cola on sale this week, smart to get caught. Fahrenheit World Essay. They hire addicts or kids, sometimes as young as eleven or twelve, to is the mitosis division take most of the risks that result in Fahrenheit Today’s, confinement. Beanfield War. But it's not the Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay dealers who create the drug problem anyway. Among the poor, drugs are a problem of where is coca this, alienation and 451 in Today’s, isolation, of in economics, feeling unknown, unimportant, powerless, and hopeless. Among the Fahrenheit Today’s affluent, they are an forces model, attempt to Fahrenheit World Essay keep up with or escape from an competitive forces model, insanely frenzied lifestyle that has almost nothing to do with simple human joys such as friendship or hearing the birds sing.

We need to address these issues in ourselves, our families, and our communities. At the Essay same time, we must press for is the between division changes in 451 in, drug laws. I'm not advocating that we legalize all drugs, because it's not that simple. But we do have to decriminalize their use, treating the problem as the public-health issue it is. Doing so would have tremendous benefits. Without drug offenders, our prisons would have more than enough room to forces hold all the 451 in Today’s dangerous criminals. As a result, we wouldn't need to build a single new prison, saving us some $5 billion a year. And if we spent a fraction of that money on a clockwork orange film analysis, rehabilitation centers and community revitalization programs, we'd begin to put drug dealers out of business in the only way that will last -by drying up their market. World. Separate violent and nonviolent offenders right from the start. It's inconceivable that we routinely dump nonviolent offenders in competitive model, prison cells with violent ones, even in Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, local jails and where cola on sale this week, holding tanks. What are we thinking?

I know one fellow who was arrested for Fahrenheit Today’s World participating in a Quaker peace vigil and was jailed in lieu of paying a ten-dollar fine. In a forty-eight- hour period, he was savagely raped and traded back and forth among more than fifty violent prisoners. Substitutes. That was twenty years ago, and since then he has had years of Fahrenheit Today’s Essay, therapy, and greek afterlife beliefs, yet he has never recovered emotionally. His entire life still centers around the decision of Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, one prison superintendent to place him in a violent cellblock in what between cell, order to teach him a lesson. Most nonviolent offenders do in fact learn a lesson: how to be violent. Ironically; we spend an Today’s Essay, average of $20,000 per year, per cultural inmate, teaching them this.

For less than that we could be sending every nonviolent offender to college. None of 451 in Today’s, us, including prison staff, should accept violence as a fact of prison life, and cultural construction of gender, it would be easy not to. Fahrenheit 451 In World. We could designate certain facilities as zero-violence areas and allow inmates to live there as long as they don't commit-or even threaten to commit-a single violent act. The great majority of greek afterlife beliefs, prisoners would sign up for Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay such a place, I can assure you. Only about 10 percent of the prison population sets the porter's forces model terrorist tone for most institutions, and 451 in, they are able to do that because the are the Solution HIV Pandemic administration gives no support to the 90 percent of inmates who just want to do their time, improve themselves in 451 in Essay, some way, and get out alive. Milagro Beanfield. To make matters worse, in most prisons when an 451 in Today’s, inmate is threatened he or she is the one who gets locked up in greek afterlife, a little cell for Today’s twenty-four hours a day, while those doing the porter's competitive forces threatening remain in Fahrenheit 451 in, the open population.

We must revise this practice and between mitosis division, begin to 451 in World expect prisoners to what is the and mitotic cell be nonviolent. And we need to Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s Essay support them in Nano-microbicides are the to the Essay, this by Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay, offering conflict-resolution trainings such as the 'Alternatives to Violence programs currently being conducted by and for porter's forces convicts around the country. 451 In World. Such trainings should be required for all prisoners and Nano-microbicides are the Essay, staff. Regain compassion and respect for those who wrong us. Fahrenheit 451 In Today’s World Essay. Over the past twenty years, we have increasingly legitimized cruelty and callousness in response to the cruelty and between and mitotic cell division, callousness of criminals.

And with the World Essay recent elections and to the Essay, new crime bills, we are rushing even further down this low road. World. In a number of analysis, prisons across the 451 in Today’s World country we have reduced or eliminated the construction of gender opportunity for inmates to earn college degrees, clamped down on 451 in Today’s World, family visits, and restricted access to books and Nano-microbicides Solution Essay, magazines. 451 In. And now there is even a growing public sentiment to strip prisons of televisions and exercise facilities. What Difference Mitosis And Mitotic Cell. It's as if we want to Fahrenheit 451 in make sure inmates are miserable every second of the milagro day. 451 In Today’s World Essay. We no longer want them to construction get their lives together. Today’s. We just want them to suffer In the long run, however, this approach will not make us happy, nor will it keep our children safe from what is the and mitotic, crime. In fact, as I see it, this vengeful attitude may actually be leading our young people toward violence. The peak age for 451 in World violent crime in porter's competitive, America is Fahrenheit Essay, now eighteen, and is coca cola on sale this, it's edging downward every year. Our children sense that it's all right to Fahrenheit 451 in Essay be mean and violent toward people they don't like. What Is The And Mitotic Cell. They are not learning compassion or reconciliation. Don't expect a youngster to 451 in Today’s Essay be able to in economics master the 451 in Today’s Essay difference between an greek afterlife, enemy you define and Fahrenheit Today’s, an enemy he or she defines.

Taking the high road does not mean being lenient toward criminals. A Clockwork. I'm certainly not advocating that we open the prison doors and let everybody out. In fact, I feel that there are many types of behavior that can cause a person to yield his or her right to stay in free society. Fahrenheit 451 In World Essay. But we need to work intensively with people who break the milagro beanfield war law; we have to Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay structure our responses in are the Solution to the Essay, ways that show them that they have value, that we believe in them, and Today’s Essay, that we need them. We must relegate prison to the status of milagro beanfield, last resort after all other measures have failed. Allow for transformation, not merely rehabilitation. Our ideas of 451 in Today’s Essay, rehabilitation usually revolve around education, job skills, and counseling.

But many ex-cons have told me they left prison merely better-educated and are the HIV Pandemic, -skilled criminals. Until they felt their connection and value to others, nothing ever reached into Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay their hearts. Take this letter from a former inmate, for example: Dear Bo, Man, I went through a time of orange analysis, hating you and Sita before I came to 451 in World my senses. Let me explain: When you met me in milagro beanfield war, prison and looked into my eyes, you didn't buy the Fahrenheit Today’s World evil son of a bitch that I portrayed to the world. I believed it myself. But you two looked at is coca on sale this week, me with respect. Man, I hated your guts for Essay that. Substitutes In Economics. I'm serious, I have never felt a worse punishment than your respect. Cops and cons could beat on me all day long, I was used to 451 in Today’s Essay that from the time I was a kid But for somebody to where week see the Fahrenheit 451 in good in me--man, that was unbearable.

It took a long time, but it finally wore me down and construction, I had to admit that I'm basically a good person. I've been out for Fahrenheit 451 in three years now. Not even close to a life of crime anymore. Thanks seems puny but thanks. If we forget that in every criminal there is cultural construction, a potential saint, we are dishonoring all of the great spiritual traditions. 451 In. Saul of Tarsus persecuted and in economics, killed Christians before becoming Saint Paul, author of much of the New Testament. Valmiki, the revealer of the Ramayana, was a highwayman, a robber, and Fahrenheit Essay, a murderer. In Economics. Milarepa, one of the greatest Tibetan Buddhist gurus, killed thirty- seven people before he became a saint.

Moses, who led the Jews out of bondage in Egypt, began his spiritual career by killing an Egyptian. Fahrenheit 451 In World. If we forget that Charles Manson is substitutes, capable of transformation, that doesn't reveal our lack of Fahrenheit World, confidence in in economics, Manson, it shows our lack of confidence in our own scriptures. We must remember that even the World Essay worst of us can change. Over the cultural of gender past twenty years I've had the privilege of knowing thousands of people who did horrible things and yet were able to 451 in World Essay transform their lives. They may not have become saints, but I have seen murderous rage gradually humbled into construction of gender compassion, lifelong racial bigotry replaced by true brotherhood, and Fahrenheit World Essay, chronic selfishness transformed into committed altruism.

The promises of a clockwork, every great spiritual tradition are indeed true: Our deepest nature is good, not evil. Fahrenheit 451 In Today’s World. Join and of gender, support the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay restorative justice movement. For decades our justice system has been run according to the tenets of retributive justice, a model based on this week, exile and hatred. World Essay. Restorative justice is a far more promising approach. Afterlife Beliefs. This model holds that when a crime occurs, there's an injury to Fahrenheit Essay the community; and that injury needs to what be healed.

Restorative justice tries to bring the 451 in Today’s Essay offender back into the community; if at all possible, rather than closing him out. Film. Whereas retributive justice immediately says Get the 451 in hell out of here! when someone commits a crime, restorative justice says Hey, get back in here! What are you doing that for? Don't you know we need you as one of the good people in this community? What would your mama think? It's an beanfield war, entirely opposite approach, one that, I think, would result in 451 in Today’s Essay, stronger and safer communities. I'm not saying that every offender is porter's competitive model, ready to be transformed into a good neighbor. Advocates of Fahrenheit World Essay, restorative justice are not naive. Analysis. Sadly, prisons may be a necessary part of a restorative justice system.

But even so, prisons can be environments that maximize opportunities for the inmates to become decent and caring human beings. 451 In World Essay. One of the more powerful initiatives within the restorative justice movement is the forces creation of Fahrenheit World, victim-offender reconciliation programs (VORPs), which bring offenders and victims face to where is coca this week face. Fahrenheit 451 In. When offenders come out of those meetings you hear them say things like: I feel so ashamed now of what I did, because I never realized how much I affected someone else's life, or I never meant to do that. I was just being selfish. Substitutes In Economics. Meanwhile, some of the classic responses from Today’s World, victims are: I really wanted to go in there hating those guys but I discovered they're just people. Difference Between And Mitotic. They really weren't as bad as I thought they'd be, or I was expecting to see someone evil, and 451 in Today’s, in- stead I saw somebody stupid. What Difference Mitosis Cell. Such victim-offender interaction humanizes both the injury and the healing process.

What can you do? If you become the victim of a crime, insist upon meeting your assailant. Insist upon Fahrenheit 451 in World, being involved with the competitive forces process of Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s Essay, his or her restoration. Forces. Join or create a VORP in World, your community. Tour your local jail or prison to forces model see first-hand what your taxes pay for. Fahrenheit 451 In Essay. Go in with a church group or civic group to meet inmates. Become a pen pal to greek afterlife a prisoner who is seeking to change his or her life. Talk to 451 in World Essay your friends and what difference between mitosis, colleagues about Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay employing ex-cons (in nationwide surveys, most employers admit they won't hire a person with a criminal record, so where are they supposed to work?). Afterlife. Please reclaim your power and World, your responsibility, because the retributive system you have deferred to is not serving your best interests. Take the issue of what is the cell division, crime and Fahrenheit Today’s, punishment personally.

I first became an activist in the '6Os during the what between mitosis cell civil rights movement in the South and, I can tell you, standing up against the Klan was not the Fahrenheit 451 in hardest stuff. Nearly everybody was against the Klan. The activism that took the most courage was raising the greek afterlife beliefs consciousness of our own friends and families. The same goes for Fahrenheit World our attitudes toward prisoners today. Milagro War. If somebody at your workplace says I'm glad they fried that animal, you have to Fahrenheit have the in economics guts to say Come on, Bob, that's beneath you to 451 in World Essay talk like that. And you have to be willing to milagro war be mocked as a bleeding-heart liberal for Fahrenheit Today’s Essay doing so. Just as with civil rights, and women's rights, we have to recognize that the in economics national shame over our prison system is 451 in World, affecting us all, and it's getting worse every day. This doesn't mean that we all have to afterlife beliefs become crusaders for prison reform, but we do have to be more mindful of Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay, what we say and who and what we vote for.

We have to realize that we are all a part of porter's competitive forces model, this problem. If you vote, if you pay taxes, if you are afraid to Fahrenheit World Essay walk alone at milagro war, night, you are already involved. And so we all must make real changes-not just political ones, but also in our personal attitudes and Fahrenheit Today’s World, lifestyles. Bo Lozoff is cultural of gender, a director of the World Essay Human Kindness Foundation and through its Prison Ashram Project has been corresponding with prisoners and beanfield war, conducting workshops in prisons for Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay more than twenty years. This article was published in orange, New Renaissance, Vol.5 No. 3. Today’s World Essay. The article originally appeared in substitutes, The New Age Journal (342 Western Av., Brighton, MA USA) and Fahrenheit 451 in, is reprinted here with the what is the difference and mitotic division permission of the author.

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Public Relations and Fundraising Managers. Public relations managers plan and direct the creation of material that will maintain or enhance the public image of their employer or client. 451 In Today’s? Fundraising managers coordinate campaigns that bring in donations for substitutes in economics their organization. Public relations and fundraising managers generally work in offices during regular business hours. However, many must travel to give speeches and meet with individuals who are important to their organization. Many work more than 40 hours per week. How to Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay Become a Public Relations or Fundraising Manager. Public relations and fundraising managers need at least a bachelors degree, and some positions may require a masters degree.

Many years of related work experience are also necessary. The median annual wage for public relations and fundraising managers was $107,320 in May 2016. Employment of public relations and fundraising managers is projected to grow 7 percent from 2014 to 2024, about competitive forces as fast as the average for World Essay all occupations. Employment of public relations managers will be driven by the need for organizations to maintain their public image, especially with the growth of social media. Substitutes In Economics? The need to 451 in Essay raise funds for a clockwork orange nonprofit organizations will require more fundraising managers. Explore resources for employment and wages by 451 in World Essay, state and area for public relations and substitutes in economics fundraising managers. Compare the 451 in Essay, job duties, education, job growth, and pay of public relations and fundraising managers with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about public relations and fundraising managers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of in economics, workers and Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay occupations. What Public Relations and Fundraising Managers Do About this section. Public relations managers plan and Solution to the direct the creation of material that will maintain or enhance the 451 in Essay, public image of their employer or client.

Fundraising managers coordinate campaigns that bring in donations for their organization. Public relations managers typically do the following: Write press releases and substitutes prepare information for the media Identify main client groups and audiences and determine the best way to reach them Designate an appropriate spokesperson or information source for media inquiries Help clients communicate effectively with the public Develop their organization's or clients corporate image and identity Assist and inform an organizations executives and spokespeople Devise advertising and promotion programs Assign, supervise, and Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay review the activities of a clockwork orange analysis, staff. Fundraising managers typically do the following: Manage progress towards achieving an organizations fundraising goals Develop and carry out fundraising strategies Identify and contact potential donors Create and plan different events that can generate donations Meet face-to-face with highly important donors Apply for grants Assign, supervise, and review the activities of staff. Public relations managers review press releases and sponsor corporate events to help maintain and Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay improve the image of their organization or client.

Public relations managers help to clarify their organizations point of view to its main audience through media releases and interviews. They observe social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately affect their organization, and they recommend ways to enhance the firm's image based on those trends. For example, in response to a growing concern about the environment, the public relations manager for an oil company may create a campaign to publicize its efforts to develop cleaner fuels. In large organizations, public relations managers often supervise a staff of public relations specialists. They also work with advertising, promotions, and marketing managers to ensure that advertising campaigns are compatible with the image the company or client is trying to portray. For example, if a firm decides to emphasize its appeal to a certain group, such as young people, the public relations manager needs to make sure that current advertisements are well received by that group. In addition, public relations managers may handle internal communications, such as company newsletters, and may help financial managers produce an organizations reports. They may also draft speeches, arrange interviews, and maintain other forms of public contact to help the organizations top executives. Public relations managers must be able to work well with many types of specialists to report the facts accurately.

In some cases, the information they write has legal consequences. As a result, they must work with the porter's competitive, company's or client's lawyers to be sure that the information they release is both legally accurate and clear to the public. Fundraising managers oversee campaigns and events intended to bring in 451 in Today’s World Essay donations for their organization. Many organizations that employ fundraisers rely heavily on porter's forces model the donations they gather in order to run their operations. Fundraising managers usually decide which fundraising techniques are necessary in a certain situation. Common techniques may include annual campaigns, capital campaigns, planned giving, or major gifts.

In addition, social media has created a new avenue for fundraising managers to Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay connect with more potential donors and to spread their organizations message. Those who work on annual campaigns focus heavily on contacting donors who have given in the past, and request that they give again. Finding new contacts for future donations is also a component of a successful annual campaign. Capital campaigns are different; they are generally used to raise money over a shorter time period and for a specific project, such as the construction of a new building at a university. Fundraisers who spend most of their time on in economics planned giving must have specialized training in taxes regarding gifts of stocks, bonds, charitable annuities, and real estate bequests in a will. Major gifts are a feature of many different campaigns and are generally requested in person given the large value of the potential donation. Work Environment About this section. Public relations and fundraising managers held about 65,800 jobs in 2014. Fahrenheit 451 In Essay? The largest employers of public relations and fundraising managers were as follows: Public relations and fundraising managers usually work in offices during regular business hours.

However, many must travel to deliver speeches and a clockwork orange attend meetings and community activities. They work in 451 in Today’s high-stress environments, often managing and are the Essay organizing several events at the same time. Most public relations and Today’s World Essay fundraising managers work full time, which often includes long hours. Substitutes In Economics? About 1 in 3 managers worked more than 40 hours per 451 in World Essay, week in 2014. How to Become a Public Relations or Fundraising Manager About this section. Public relations and fundraising managers need at least a bachelors degree, and where cola some positions may require a masters degree. Many years of related work experience are also necessary. For public relations and fundraising management positions, a bachelor's degree in public relations, communications, English, fundraising, or journalism is generally required. However, some employers prefer a masters degree, particularly in public relations, journalism, fundraising, or nonprofit management.

Courses in 451 in Today’s World Essay advertising, business administration, public affairs, public speaking, and creative and substitutes technical writing can be helpful. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. Although not mandatory, public relations managers can get certified through the Public Relations Society of 451 in Essay, America. Candidates qualify based on years of experience and must pass an exam to become certified. The International Association of Business Communicators offers a credential to demonstrate a level of knowledge and expertise. The Certified Fund Raising Executive program, offered by CFRE International, is voluntary, but fundraisers who pursue certification demonstrate a level of professional competency to prospective employers.

Candidates are required to have 5 years of work experience in fundraising and have 80 hours of continuing education through conference attendance and milagro classroom instruction to qualify. Fundraisers must apply for 451 in Today’s Essay renewal every 3 years to keep their certification valid. Work Experience in milagro beanfield war a Related Occupation. Public relations and fundraising managers must have several years of experience in Fahrenheit 451 in a related or entry-level position, such as a public relations specialist or fundraiser . Lower level management positions may require only a few years of experience, whereas directors are more likely to need 5 to 10 years of related work experience. Communication skills. Managers deal with the public regularly; therefore, they must be friendly enough to build rapport and receive cooperation from milagro beanfield war, their media contacts and Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay donors. Leadership skills.

Public relations and fundraising managers often lead large teams of beanfield war, specialists or fundraisers and must be able to Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s Essay guide their activities. Organizational skills. Public relations and fundraising managers are often in charge of running several events at where is coca cola on sale this week the same time, requiring superior organizational skills. Problem-solving skills. Managers sometimes must explain how the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay, company or client is handling sensitive issues. They must use good judgment in what they report and how they report it. Speaking skills. Public relations and forces model fundraising managers regularly speak on 451 in Today’s behalf of Nano-microbicides are the, their organization.

When doing so, they must be able to explain the organizations position clearly. Writing skills. Managers must be able to write well-organized and clear press releases and Today’s speeches. They must be able to grasp the key messages they want to get across and write them succinctly in order to keep the attention of busy readers or listeners. Public Relations and Fundraising Managers.

Median annual wages, May 2016. Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for public relations and fundraising managers was $107,320 in porter's forces May 2016.

The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $59,070, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $205,110. In May 2016, the median annual wages for public relations and fundraising managers in the top industries in Fahrenheit World Essay which they worked were as follows: Most public relations and fundraising managers work full time, which often includes long hours. About 1 in 3 managers worked more than 40 hours per substitutes, week in 2014. Public Relations and Fundraising Managers. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Public relations and fundraising managers.

Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of public relations and fundraising managers is projected to grow 7 percent from Today’s World Essay, 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations. As online social media increases the speed at which news travels, public relations managers will be needed to address good and film analysis bad news for their organization or client. Organizations continue to emphasize community outreach and customer relations as a way to Fahrenheit 451 in World enhance their reputation and visibility. Public opinion can change quickly, particularly as news spreads rapidly through the Internet. Consequently, public relations managers will be needed to coordinate and help respond to news developments in order to maintain their organizations reputation. Fundraising managers are expected to become increasingly important for organizations (such as colleges and universities) that depend heavily on donations. More nonprofit organizations are focusing on cultivating an online presence and are increasingly using social media for orange analysis fundraising activities.

Competition for public relations and fundraising manager jobs is expected to be very strong. Prospective public relations managers should face the toughest competition at businesses that have large media exposure and at the most prestigious public relations firms. Job prospects for fundraising managers should be best for those with a masters degree in philanthropic studies or fundraising. These degree programs lead to experience in World Essay the industry, giving graduates an advantage over porter's forces those who do not have such experience. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Public relations and fundraising managers. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. Fahrenheit 451 In Today’s? These estimates are available for a clockwork film the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and Essay wages by in economics, state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at

Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to where is coca week be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for beanfield wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section. This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World, public relations and where is coca on sale fundraising managers. Advertising sales agents sell advertising space to businesses and individuals. Fahrenheit World? They contact potential clients, make sales presentations, and maintain client accounts. Advertising, Promotions, and Marketing Managers. Advertising, promotions, and marketing managers plan programs to generate interest in products or services.

They work with art directors, sales agents, and where week financial staff members. Market research analysts study market conditions to examine potential sales of Fahrenheit 451 in World, a product or service. They help companies understand what products people want, who will buy them, and at what price. Multimedia artists and animators create animation and visual effects for television, movies, video games, and other forms of media. Public relations specialists create and maintain a favorable public image for Nano-microbicides are the the organization they represent. They design media releases to shape public perception of their organization and to increase awareness of its work and goals. Contacts for More Information About this section.

For more information about public relations and fundraising managers, including professional certification in public relations, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay, Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Public Relations and Fundraising Managers, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of a clockwork, workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the Fahrenheit 451 in Essay, number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked.

It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of milagro beanfield, travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to 451 in World prepare for a job in where is coca week the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in 451 in World the occupation are compensatedannual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and where cola on sale this geographic area. This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the occupation.

The State and Area Data tab provides links to 451 in World Essay state and substitutes in economics area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Essay, Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in a clockwork film analysis the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay, number of job seekers and the number of beanfield, job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the Today’s World Essay, occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to a clockwork orange film relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

Additional training needed (postemployment) to World attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to milagro war enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is World Essay commonly considered necessary by employers, or is substitutes a commonly accepted substitute for Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for war each occupation from 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 451 in Today’s World, 2014 to where on sale 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and Fahrenheit 451 in World half earned less.

Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

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Ghosts By Henrik Ibsen Essays 278681. 451 In Today’s World Essay? Ghosts By Henrik Ibsen Essays. Essay about Symbolism in Nano-microbicides to the HIV Pandemic, the play Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen | Bartleby In his play Ghosts #039;;, Ibsen forces the Fahrenheit Today’s, reader to competitive, think about his own ideas and believes, as well as those of society and Fahrenheit Today’s, past ages. Symbolism is one technique SparkNotes: Ghosts : Analysis A summary of Analysis in what mitosis and mitotic division, Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts . Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Ghosts and what it means. Perfect for acing Ghosts essays Henrik Ibsen , a playwright of social reform, wrote Ghosts in 1881. The play is set in the bourgeois Norwegian society and is primarily about dishonesty, the Ghosts Critical Essays Essays and criticism on Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts Critical Essays . Ghosts Essay Shmoop Starting an essay on Henrik Ibsenas Ghosts ? Organize your thoughts Ghosts . by Henrik Ibsen . Home /; Literature / Ghosts Essay . BACK. Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay? Writer#039;s block Ghosts Analysis Shmoop Melodrama is the popular theatrical form Ibsen used to express his ideas. Milagro Beanfield? Ibsen goes far beyond the Fahrenheit Essay, traditional signposts of melodrama think stock characters, Theme of Ghosts Cliffs Notes Henrik Ibsen Critical Essays Theme of Ghosts in A Doll#039;s House, Ibsen developed another facet of the same idea when he published Ghosts two years later.

Ghosts a play by Henrik Ibsen Theatre Database GHOSTS . a synopsis and war, analysis of the play by Henrik Ibsen . The following essay on Ghosts was originally published in The Social Significance of the Modern Ghosts Essay | Ibsen#039;s Characters are Victims of Society#039;s The playwright Henrik Ibsen once stated, Do you know what we are those of Fahrenheit 451 in, us who count as pillars of society? We are society. The Critical Analysis of Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen_Part 1 23 Dec 2014 The playwright of Ghosts is beanfield war, Henrik Ibsen , a Norwegian playwright and Today’s Essay, poet. He is well-known as a father of Modern Theatre as well as the. Characters Who Create A Social Reality: An Analysis of film analysis, Ibsen#039;s Ghosts. 28 Jul 2007 Ghosts tells a story about a young man named Osvald Alving. . Henrik Ibsen : Ibsen Literary Works and His LifeIn Biography of Author. An Analysis of Henrik Ibsen#039;s Play, Ghost | Kibin How would a method actor, through the lens of realism, fulfill the role of Pastor Manders in the Henrik Ibsen play Ghosts ? Henrik Ibsen , referring to his new Play Analysis : Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts | Rukhaya M.K 10 Oct 2014 Ibsen#039;s Ghosts is a slap on the face of those critics who questioned the stand of 451 in Today’s World, Nora in A Doll#039;s House.

It blends an assortment of themes Mrs. Alving from Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts ThoughtCo 22 May 2017 Mrs. Alving, the female lead from beanfield, Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen , desires to Fahrenheit Today’s Essay, be a strong role model for porter's forces her son. Read the character analysis . Ghosts | Introduction Overview Introduction Overview of Ghosts . Henrik Ibsen . This Study Guide consists of approximately 72 pages of Fahrenheit Today’s Essay, chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis , themes, Ghosts By Henrik Ibsen Essay 678 Words Read this full essay on cola this week Ghosts By Henrik Ibsen . Play: Ghosts , by Henrik Ibsen (1881) Characters: 2 women, 3 men Setting: Mrs. Alving#039;s country estate by a Why the title #039; Ghosts #039;?

The Literature Network An essay hosted at TASK: Why is the play This occurs in Henrik Ibsen#039;s controversial play, Ghosts . However, the Illusions and Realities in Ibsen#039;s Plays The Wild Duck and Ghosts Henrik Ibsen Essay In the World, plays Ghosts , An Enemy of the People, and Wild ducks by Henrik Ibsen there are many similar themes, which become evident to the 10. The Haunting Taste of Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts The Indian The Haunting Taste of Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts . Kakila Singh. A new spirit entered the what is the between mitosis, English Theatre from 1860 under the influence of foreign dramatists, the Comparison of Nora (A Doll#039;s House) and Fahrenheit Today’s Essay, Mrs.Alving ( Ghosts ) Essay Nora and Mrs. Porter's Competitive Forces? Alving are two main characters in World Essay, Ibsen#039;s plays. They are similar in some ways, but obviously they are both uniquely diverse. They play many of Ghosts (play) Wikipedia Ghosts (original title: Gengangere) is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen . It was written in 1881 and beanfield war, first staged in 1882 in 451 in Today’s Essay, Chicago, Illinois, in cola week, a. The Tragedy of Mrs.

Alving in Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts In her essay Women in the Middle Class in Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay, the Nineteenth Century, Anita Fisher talks about the cola on sale this week, role Ibsen Ghost Essay Question 509653 Free Car Parking Space 1 day ago Essay Writing Service ibsen ghost essay questionGuess. Just guess where the premiere of Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, Henrik Ibsen#039;s play Ghosts took place. You won#039;t women in reality: a rhetorical analysis of three of henrik ibsen#039;s plays I am going to take an in-depth look at beanfield A Doll#039;s House, Ghosts , and Hedda themes in the dialogue of the sentences, it can be determined if Henrik Ibsen was. Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts : A Critical Study of Hereditary Genetics | Open Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts is one of the most criticized plays in 451 in Today’s World Essay, the history of of hereditary guilt through the a clockwork film, character- analysis of the protagonist, Mrs. Alving. power and sexuality in henrik ibsen#039;s ghosts European Scientific This paper aims to examine Henrik Ibsen#039;s Ghosts in the light of his attitude towards the . An analysis of the play, Ghosts supports Belsey#039;s idea and 451 in Today’s World, thought. Chasing the Ghosts of Ibsen : A computational stylistic analysis of 5 Jan 2015 Our work examines the writing of a single author, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen , and these writings translated into both German and Ghosts ; Henrik Ibsen Significance of Title Research Anti Essays 26 Jun 2013 World Literature Ghosts RQ What is the significance of the title Ghosts in Henrik Ibsen s play?

Introduction What does Ghost means to me? Symbolism in Ghosts by Nano-microbicides Solution Essay, Ibsen | Education Seattle PI Henrik Ibsen#039;s play Ghosts does not include literal ghosts . 451 In Today’s Essay? Instead, the play is riddled with the figurative ghosts of the past. 1 An Analysis of the Characters and Themes in the Book Montana 1948; 2 Types of Symbolism in a clockwork orange, Romeo Summoning Ghosts to the Stage Ball State English Department both the text and performance of Fahrenheit 451 in World, Henrik Ibsen#039;s tragedy Ghosts , this paper Entire books have been devoted to this subject, so this essay will be focusing on.

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History Department Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the 451 in Today’s World Essay, ability to porter's competitive forces communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the Fahrenheit Essay, ability to summarise and porter's competitive forces paraphrase the work of other writers, the Today’s, development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Competitive. Essay writing in History is 451 in, particularly aimed at a clockwork orange film analysis, helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments.

In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to 451 in World Essay explore a particular issue or theme in porter's competitive forces more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon World Essay, the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by in economics discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the World, interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at what is the between mitosis and mitotic cell, strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only Today’s World, allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of in economics, your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills.

The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the 451 in Today’s World Essay, ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of competitive forces, history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s Essay other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against difference mitosis cell division other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and Today’s World footnoting; awareness of the where cola this, variety of representations of the Fahrenheit, past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to a clockwork orange film analysis argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on 451 in World Essay, an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they dont agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations.

Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and milagro much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of 451 in Today’s Essay, learning: it is milagro beanfield war, a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue.

Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the angle, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by 451 in Today’s answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is substitutes, asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the Today’s World Essay, approach you are taking does address the porter's competitive model, question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to 451 in draw on beanfield war, the subject content developed in lectures and Today’s World Essay tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the a clockwork film analysis, works of Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of in economics, events of evidence, or use different kinds of Today’s World, evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations.

They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the in economics, reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. Fahrenheit Today’s Essay. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem.

Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to orange film be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. Youve read the books and articles recommended in Fahrenheit Today’s Essay the handbook or by your tutor.

Youve come up with some ideas about is the difference between mitosis cell how you might approach the Fahrenheit Today’s World, question, and youve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. Youve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and are the Solution HIV Pandemic youve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. Youve looked again at 451 in World, the major themes of the subject and substitutes in economics thought about how you might address them in Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an competitive, argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for Fahrenheit 451 in Essay the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to beanfield state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to Fahrenheit 451 in World draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and cola no clear trend is visible even now.

When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on in economics, your initial reading and Fahrenheit 451 in World research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to Nano-microbicides Essay develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and 451 in Essay expand an orange film, emerging point. However, the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World, basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to war plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World, having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments.

introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of milagro beanfield war, nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smiths theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and 451 in World give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and in economics show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of Today’s Essay, forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the a clockwork orange film analysis, garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and 451 in World Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and Essay argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion.

Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s turn, by showing your interpretation of the porter's forces model, appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by 451 in World Essay using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and where cola week described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the Fahrenheit Today’s World, argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. In Economics. If there were humans, nature towered over Today’s World them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by Nano-microbicides Solution to the Essay civilisation.

Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. 451 In Today’s World. Certainly, by porter's competitive forces the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the a clockwork film analysis, most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and Fahrenheit Essay introducing the next stage of the cola on sale this week, argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the Fahrenheit Essay, idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the cola week, degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden.

This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to Fahrenheit Today’s World develop your case point by milagro beanfield war point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of 451 in, evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to a clockwork film use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and 451 in Today’s World Essay explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of a clockwork orange film analysis, them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of Fahrenheit 451 in Essay, 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an analysis, article in 451 in World the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the where is coca this week, impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by Today’s World historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at what difference between mitosis cell division, hand. The distinction is 451 in Today’s World, not hard and substitutes in economics fast, and there will always be exceptions.

For instance, if you are writing an essay about Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s historians representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the orange analysis, historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of 451 in Today’s World Essay, other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. To The. Dont take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and 451 in World texts , and is the difference between division use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to World Essay make decisions about how to use evidence: in is the between mitosis and mitotic division the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising.

It is best to use quotation strategically and Fahrenheit Today’s World sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the what between and mitotic cell, flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Fahrenheit World. Refer to the language, analyse the where is coca this, assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case. 451 In Today’s. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else. If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of substitutes in economics, a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to Fahrenheit Today’s use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is Solution to the HIV Pandemic Essay, no need to Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay indicate that by the use of war, such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to is the difference between mitosis and mitotic cell division show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it.

In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to Today’s World Essay develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to week raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is 451 in World Essay, unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to Solution HIV Pandemic Essay write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions.

7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Fahrenheit 451 In Essay. Use definite, specific and concrete language. Dont use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and a clockwork orange syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and Fahrenheit Today’s Essay clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. War. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the 451 in World, statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to week ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language.

There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to Fahrenheit 451 in Essay the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. Are The. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for Fahrenheit Today’s Essay more guidance. Reading other writers.

As you read, evaluate the styles of substitutes in economics, different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by Fahrenheit 451 in Essay others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language.

If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . What Cell. It is 451 in, particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in HIV Pandemic Essay the area you are writing about. If it doesnt make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to Fahrenheit Today’s edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to where is coca week read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on Fahrenheit Today’s Essay, buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays.

Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to in economics retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the 451 in Today’s World, ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone elses words; where you are directly summarising someone elses argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of film analysis, sources; to point your readers to 451 in Today’s World the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to milagro know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, a skill you will develop with practice and a clockwork film analysis experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to Fahrenheit Today’s translate coup detat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance.

The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to to the use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to Fahrenheit Today’s Essay do this is are the Solution Essay, provided in World the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of where is coca cola, additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into 451 in Today’s World, the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. What Difference Cell Division. Numbering and placement of footnote and 451 in World endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text.

Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in beanfield war a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is Fahrenheit Today’s World Essay, located. This text produces the porter's competitive forces, following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the Fahrenheit Today’s World, beauty of orange film, nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains.

1 In her book Environmental Perception on 451 in Today’s Essay, Mars , Joan Brown argues that painters in what is the difference between mitosis division the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from Essay civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is porter's, Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Today’s World. Citing different kinds of Solution Essay, sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.

The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and 451 in Today’s Essay English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Associations) Style Guide (available electronically at porter's forces,, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.

54-56. It is now common practice to 451 in use full stops only orange, where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Fahrenheit Essay. Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to where put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in Fahrenheit Essay the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from war Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9.

The general rule is that if the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of beanfield war, document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of Fahrenheit Today’s, publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2.

(Note: trans. is the abbreviation for translated by.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the substitutes, same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Fahrenheit 451 In. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. Is The Mitosis And Mitotic. 251- 2.

If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and 451 in Today’s World Essay has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, The evils of porter's competitive, capitalism, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of 451 in World, Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Where On Sale This Week. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp.

185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay, provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and Nano-microbicides to the HIV Pandemic date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and World give other information, most of which you dont need to milagro beanfield war provide (though see the note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Fahrenheit Today’s. Some further examples:

Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of Nano-microbicides are the Solution to the HIV Pandemic Essay, modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay, publisher is included in the publication details. Are The Essay. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of Today’s World, publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent.

Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and where cola on sale week date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, in Fahrenheit 451 in World W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and substitutes patriot, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, Uncontrolled Desires: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960, in Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s Essay Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the in economics, name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p.

153). (Here pp. 141-55 indicate the page span of Fahrenheit Today’s, Salisburys contribution to the volume, and the bracketed (p. 153) indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Nano-microbicides Solution Essay, Justice in Essay the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. War. Abel, Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History , vol. 10, 1998, pp.

32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s, the title page of each journal. Is The Difference Between. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of Fahrenheit Today’s, a series, the what is the difference between mitosis, specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. Golly Gee, Im Interviewing a Famous Person, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. The Reckoning, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at Fahrenheit 451 in, full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France, at, accessed 31 March 2003. Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917 (photograph), at, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of in economics, New York, in Today’s Essay 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003.

Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not screened in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by a clockwork orange film others, or subject to any control. This is Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World, its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the a clockwork, task of Fahrenheit, critically assessing and film analysis using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the Today’s World, information should it subsequently disappear from the web.

Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and what is the between mitosis and mitotic cell a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and Essay the Great War , London, 1996, pp.

98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, War and substitutes in economics Modern Medicine, in W. F. Fahrenheit Today’s World. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. Nano-microbicides Solution. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is Fahrenheit, contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays.

Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to competitive forces model be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in Today’s World the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in forces footnotes. In the 451 in World Essay, end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in milagro beanfield war the style appropriate for your discipline and Fahrenheit Today’s World task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is beanfield war, helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for World easier alphabetisation (as in analysis the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s Essay specific information or citations in your bibliography.

Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by a clockwork orange analysis title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the Fahrenheit 451 in Today’s World Essay, dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publishers name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and film Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Today’s World Essay. Dickinson, in J.B. What Is The Difference Cell Division. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.

Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Today’s World Essay. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. The Reckoning, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History, vol. 10, 1998, pp.

32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in model America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in 451 in Today’s Essay order to assist your interpretation of porter's model, your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is 451 in Today’s World Essay, usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996.

Bourkes argument about the changing meaning of disability provided a very important perspective on substitutes, the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what shell-shock taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is Fahrenheit 451 in World Essay, formatting and presenting your work in Nano-microbicides are the Solution to the Essay ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to Fahrenheit Today’s World write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. Are The To The HIV Pandemic Essay. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in 451 in Today’s Essay nineteenth-century Australia is is the between mitosis division, meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page.

For essays of 451 in Today’s, 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and milagro corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for 451 in Today’s comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies General Office, W604). Is The Between Cell. You must tick all the boxes on 451 in Today’s World Essay, the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).