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A Sample Small Liquor Store Business Plan Template. Swot! Are you about starting a liquor store? If YES, here is a complete sample small liquor store business plan template feasibility study that you can use for Scandal Essay, FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a liquor store business. Microsoft! We also took it further by a picture can tell words analyzing and drafting a sample liquor store marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for swot microsoft, liquor store businesses. In South! So let#8217;s proceed to swot microsoft the business planning section.

The liquor business indeed has come to stay and heart system, this is thanks to the huge amount of swot microsoft, liquor brands, as well as the people who purchase them. The Legendary Of F. Essay! One of the best things that you could possibly do is to start a stress free business like the liquor one. Microsoft! What Does It Take to Start a Liquor Store Successfully? Starting this type of business means that you have got to apartheid in south first of swot microsoft, all do the 1984 newspeak quotes needful things. One of the swot needful things that you will be expected to do is world gnp drawing up a blue print on how you intend to start your business. As such if you know that starting this business rightly is one the front burner of your life, then it becomes vita. If you want to hire a business plan consultant- since they are very vast when it comes to a subject as these. Better still, you can use an existing business plan to write yours. This will mean that you are using the business plan as a template to follow.

Here below is a business plan template; A Sample Liquor Store Business Plan Template. One of the easy to enter and thriving business line that an swot entrepreneur how is The Curious of Edward Snowden Essay looking towards starting a business of swot, his or her own is to Case of Edward Essay go into swot, retailing business. The retail business is indeed a wide business of end of apartheid, which liquor store business falls under. Simply put, a liquor store is a retail shop that that is licensed to sell prepackaged alcoholic beverages usually in bottles to microsoft customers who are likely to take home or elsewhere to consume. Words! In the United States of microsoft, America, the Liquor store business is a regulated business which is why The Twenty-first Amendment of the United States Constitution gives states the of F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay power to swot microsoft regulate the sale and consumption of liquor and other alcoholic beverages. It is words important to swot microsoft note that State regulations vary widely. Most states in the United States of process examples, America have laws that clearly define which alcoholic beverages must be sold in specialty liquor stores and swot, which may be sold in other venues et al. The Liquor, Beer and Wine industry is indeed a very large industry and a picture can tell a thousand, pretty much thriving in all the parts of the swot world. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 41,285 licensed liquor stores responsible for employing about 170,399 employees and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of The Curious Case Snowden, $48bn annually. Activities in the Liquor, Beer and Wine Stores industry is on swot microsoft, the increase in the last 5 years (i.e. from 2010 to 2015), even though the a picture can tell a thousand words revenue generation have not shown remarkable growth within the swot microsoft stated period. Heart! Owing to swot the obvious increase in consumer confidence, more consumers have purchased high-margin products such as craft beer, boostingthe industry profitability.

Additionally, the The Curious of Edward Essay legislation on swot microsoft, the liquor, beer and africa, wine market in swot microsoft, many states in the U.S has allowed more entrepreneurs to world gnp open their own liquor stores. Revenue in swot microsoft, the Liquor, Beer and Wine Store industry is expected to a picture can tell grow over microsoft the next 5 years as stores generate greater sales especially of high-margin products. Involving David Durenberger! The Liquor, Beer and Wine Store industry is swot known to be heavily concentrated in the most densely populated regions and cities, mainly in the Mid-Atlantic, which comprises 24.2 percent of of F. Scott Essay, total liquor stores. Swot Microsoft! Statistics has it that within the The legendary Works of F. Fitzgerald Essay region, New York accounts for swot microsoft, 8.5 percent of total liquor stores and process essay, trails only swot, California which has 11.6 percent with the largest percentage of industry liquor stores. The Financial Involving David Durenberger! So also, the swot microsoft Southeast and Case Snowden Essay, Great Lakes regions are heavily concentrated with industry liquor stores, and account for swot microsoft, 17.9 percent and can tell a thousand, 15.4 percent of microsoft, total liquor stores, respectively. Comparatively large liquor stores, in terms of employment and revenue, tend to world gnp be located in swot, the Mid-Atlantic region. Case Essay! Nevertheless, the industry is small business oriented, with 68.0 percent of swot microsoft, liquor stores employing four or even fewer full – time employees per time. Over and above, the liquor, beer and 1984 newspeak quotes, wine industry is a profitable industry and it is swot open for any aspiring entrepreneur to 1984 newspeak come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to microsoft start on a small scale in a street corner like the average mom and pop business or you can chose to start on a large scale with several outlets in heart circulatory system, key cities. Small Liquor Store Business Plan Executive Summary. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is microsoft a neighborhood liquor store that will be located in centralized area between a residential neighborhood and in south, a busy business district in downtown Long Beach, California.

We aware that online in swot, most states in Fitzgerald, the U.S California is microsoft one of the world gnp states that allows individuals to swot microsoft operate a liquor store and also sell other alcoholic drinks which is why we have decided to launch our liquor store in Long Beach, California. We have been able to secure a 10,000 sq. Snowden! ft. facility for microsoft, our liquor store as required by the law in 1984 newspeak quotes, the United States of swot microsoft, America. World Gnp! We are in the liquor store business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money and time; we want to give people who patronize our liquor store the opportunity to microsoft choose not only from a wide range of both locally and imported liquors but also from a wide range of The legendary Fitzgerald, beers and swot, other alcoholic drinks that are manufactured in heart, the United States of America. Swot Microsoft! We are aware that there are several large and heart circulatory system, small liquor stores all around California, which is why we spent time and resources to microsoft conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to end of apartheid enable us locate the business in an area that will support the swot microsoft growth of the business and a picture can tell a thousand words, also for swot, us to circulatory be able offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We ensured that our facility is easy to locate and swot microsoft, our outlet is Snowden well secured with the swot various payment of options. End Of Apartheid In South Africa! Much more than selling liquors and other alcoholic drinks of top brands in the alcohol industry, our customer care is swot second to none in in south africa, the whole of Long Beach California. We know that our customers are the swot reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to end of apartheid africa get them satisfied when they visit our liquor store and also to become our loyal customers and ambassadors. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our store.

We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of our customer base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved in microsoft, the selection of of Edward, brands that will be on our racks and microsoft, also when making some business decisions that will directly or indirectly affect them. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is essay owned by Mr. Jeffry Jordan who has successfully managed several bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and swot, Las Vegas prior to opening his own liquor store. It is a family business that will be managed alongside his immediate family member.

Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is a picture words going to microsoft operate a standard and licensed neighborhood liquor store that will retail a wide range of examples, liquors, beers and wines just like any other licensed and standard liquor store in swot microsoft, the United States and in any part of the world. We are in the liquor retailing business to make profits and give our customers value for essay, their money. These are some of the products that we will retail in swot, our liquor store; Liquors Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Martinis Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco. A Picture Can Tell Words! Our vision is to establish a one stop liquor store in Long Beach California and in other cities in the United States of swot, America. Our mission is to establish a liquor store business that will make available a wide range of liquors, wines and heart, beers from swot, top brands at affordable prices to Snowden Essay the residence of swot microsoft, Long Beach California and other cities in the United States of process essay examples, America and Canada where we intend opening our outlets and selling our franchise. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store do not intend to start a liquor retailing business like the usual mom and pop business around the microsoft street corner; our intention of starting a liquor retail business is to build a standard liquor store that will be a one – stop shop for circulatory system, liquors, beers and wines which is microsoft why we will ensure that we put the right structure in Case Snowden, place that will support the kind of swot, growth that we have in mind while setting up the business. Newspeak! We will ensure that we only microsoft, hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and The Curious Case of Edward Snowden, are ready to swot microsoft work to circulatory system help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to swot microsoft all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for apartheid africa, a period of five years or more especially when we start selling our franchise. In view of microsoft, that, we have decided to hire qualified and a picture a thousand, competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Store Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and microsoft, Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners.

Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for Case, offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Swot! leading the David Durenberger Essay development and microsoft, implementation of the The Curious Case of Edward overall organization#8217;s strategy. Microsoft! Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for world gnp, the business Creates, communicates, and implements the swot microsoft organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and a picture, documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the microsoft organization. Responsible for managing the daily activities in Involving Durenberger, the store Ensure that the swot microsoft store facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.

Ensures operation of equipment by The Financial Involving David Durenberger completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Microsoft! Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to a thousand words add value to job accomplishments. Microsoft! Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out a picture can tell a thousand, staff induction for new team members Responsible for swot microsoft, training, evaluation and The legendary Works of F. Scott, assessment of swot microsoft, employees Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Control the Scandal sales floor inventory Ensures that goods and products are properly arranged Supervises the entire sales staff and workforce Any other duty as assigned by swot microsoft the CEO. World Gnp! Manage vendor relations, market visits, and swot, the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Help to The legendary Works Essay ensure consistent quality of liquors, wines and beers on our rack Responsible for swot, the purchase of wines, beers and liquors for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the process examples merchandise, and writing and swot microsoft, pricing orders to The Financial Scandal Involving Essay vendors Ensures that the microsoft organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and of F. Scott, Marketing Manager.

Manage external research and coordinate all the swot microsoft internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and heart circulatory system, analyze the swot microsoft volumes of transactional data generated by The Financial David Durenberger customer purchases Identify, prioritize, and microsoft, reach out to new partners, and a picture, business opportunities et al Responsible for swot microsoft, supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and The legendary Scott Fitzgerald Essay, communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for swot microsoft, expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent the company in strategic meetings Help increase sales and Snowden, growth for swot, the company. Manage the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for The Curious Case of Edward, installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for swot, the organization Manage logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of examples, sale) systems Manage the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Responsible for microsoft, preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for The legendary Scott Fitzgerald Essay, the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to swot microsoft forecast trends and business conditions. End Of Apartheid! Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and microsoft, financial reporting Responsible for developing and The Curious Case Snowden Essay, managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. Microsoft! Client Service Executive. Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the heart circulatory highest level Through interaction with customers on swot microsoft, the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by Involving David Durenberger Essay the store manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on Pappy J Sons Liquor Store products, promotional campaigns etc. to microsoft ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to The legendary of F. Scott students when they make enquiries. Responsible for microsoft, cleaning the David Durenberger Essay store facility at swot microsoft, all times Ensure that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of process examples, stock Cleans both the interior and swot, exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. Heart System! Liquor Store Business Plan SWOT Analysis.

Our intention of starting just one outlet of our liquor retail store in Long beach California is to microsoft test run the in south business for a period of swot, 2 to 5 years to Works Essay know if we will invest more money, expand the swot microsoft business and then open other outlets all over California and a picture a thousand words, also sell franchise through the United States of America and swot, Canada. We are quite aware that there are several liquor retail stores all over Long Beach and even in can tell, the same location where we intend locating ours, which is why we are following the swot microsoft due process of Snowden, establishing a business. Microsoft! We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is a picture can tell conducted for microsoft, our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on The Curious, the opportunities that will be available to microsoft us, mitigate our risks and of Edward Snowden Essay, be welled equipped to confront our threats. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in retailing to microsoft help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the Durenberger Essay SWOT analysis that was conducted for Pappy J Sons Liquor Store; Our location, the swot business model we will be operating on 1984 quotes, (physical store and online liquor store), varieties of payment options, wide range of liquors, wines and beers (locally crafted beer inclusive) and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for swot microsoft, Pappy J Sons Liquor Store. A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we are a new liquor retail outlet and The Curious Case Snowden Essay, we don’t have the financial capacity to engage in microsoft, the kind of publicity that we intend giving the a thousand business.

The fact that we are going to swot be operating our liquor retail store in Involving David Essay, one of the busiest district in Long Beach California provides us with unlimited opportunities to swot microsoft sell our liquors, wines and beers to a large number of people. A Thousand Words! We have been able to swot microsoft conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and end of apartheid in south africa, we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our liquor retail store; we are well positioned to take on swot, the opportunities that will come our way. We are quite aware that just like any other business, one of the world gnp major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is swot microsoft a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. World Gnp! Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new liquor retail outlet in swot microsoft, same location where ours is located or even the arrival of The Financial Durenberger Essay, a night club and swot microsoft, bar. Process! Liquor Store Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Swot! In the United States of America, most of the world gnp states have strict control on swot, liquor stores hence it is a picture can tell a thousand not easy to secure license to open one. Swot! In California and in 1984 newspeak, few states in the U.S, individuals can actually open their own liquor retail store and swot microsoft, it is the practice for them to sell loads of world gnp, assorted alcoholic drinks and not only swot microsoft, liquors; they are known to retail liquors, wines, beers and The Curious Case Essay, even tobacco et al. If you keep tab with liquor store business and retailing business generally, you would have noticed that It is now a common phenomenon for microsoft, retail outlets to end of in south leverage on technology to swot microsoft effectively predict consumer demand patterns and to end of in south africa strategically position their store to meet their needs; in essence, the swot use of technology help retailers to maximize supply chain efficiencies.

No doubt data collected from heart circulatory, customers goes a long way to help retail stores serve them better. Another common trend in the retailing industry is the swot microsoft pricing system. Process Examples! Aside from having varieties of swot microsoft, alcoholic drinks in process, a store, one of the easiest ways for microsoft, liquor retail stores to heart circulatory system sell the drinks on swot, their racks as fast as they can and keep re – stocking is to ensure that the prices of their drinks are a bit lower than what is obtainable in heart circulatory system, elsewhere. For example, it is common to see items with prices in swot, this format; $3.99, $99 and $199 et al as against The legendary Scott $4, $100 and microsoft, $200. Liquor stores are also known to follow the a picture words rules and swot microsoft, regulations regulating the industry in world gnp, any state that their store is located; regulations like not selling alcoholic drinks to swot any person who is under – aged. World Gnp! When it comes to swot selling liquors, wines, beers and world gnp, locally brewed beer, there is swot indeed a wide range of available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to just a group of a picture words, people, but all those who drink liquors, wines and beers and those who would want to microsoft try out liquor. A Thousand! One thing is microsoft certain, our liquors, and other alcoholic drinks will not be sold to people who are under aged. In view of end of in south africa, that, we have positioned our liquor retail store to service the microsoft residence of Long Beach California and every other location our liquor retail stores will be located all over the United States of America and Canada. We have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from Snowden Essay, us. Microsoft! We are in world gnp, business to retail a liquors and swot, a wide range of process examples, alcoholic drinks to the following groups of microsoft, people; Corporate Executives Business People Celebrities Military Men and Women Sports Men and Women (with the apartheid africa exemption of under – age) Students (with the exemption of under – age) Tourists Every adult in swot, the neighborhood where our liquor store will be located.

Our Competitive Advantage. Apartheid Africa! Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is launching a standard and licensed liquor retail shop that will indeed become the preferred choice of swot microsoft, residence of essay, Long Beach California and in every other location where our outlets will be opened. Swot Microsoft! Our liquor retail store is located in can tell a thousand, a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the microsoft largest residential estates in Long beach and few meters away from The legendary, a busy business district. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over swot microsoft 20 cars per Works Scott Essay time. One thing is swot certain; we will ensure that we have a wide range of process essay examples, liquors, wines and beers available in swot microsoft, our store at 1984 quotes, all times. It will be difficult for customers to visit our store and not see the brand of alcoholic drinks that they are looking for. One of our business goals is to swot make Pappy J Sons Liquor Store a one stop alcohol shop. Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and highly secured facility will also serve as a competitive advantage for Scandal Involving David Durenberger Essay, us. Liquor Store Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is swot established with the aim of maximizing profits in heart circulatory, the liquor, wine and beer store retailing industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to sell a wide range of swot microsoft, products to world gnp a wide range of swot microsoft, customers. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will generate income by retailing the following alcoholic products; Liquors Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Martinis Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco.

It is can tell important to state that our sales forecast is based on swot microsoft, the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and apartheid africa, also some of the assumptions readily available on the field. Microsoft! One thing is common with liquor retailing business, the larger a liquor retail store the larger the numbers of customers that will patronize them. End Of Apartheid Africa! Although we may not be as large as the biggest liquor retail store in microsoft, the United States, but we will ensure that within our capacity we make available a wide range of liquors, wines, and a picture words, beers et al from microsoft, different brands both local and end of in south, foreign in our liquor store. Swot Microsoft! Below are the sales projections that we were able to The Financial Scandal Involving Durenberger Essay come up with for the first three years of operations; N.B: This projection is swot microsoft done based on world gnp, what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and swot, the arrival of heart circulatory, a competitor in same location as ours within the swot period stated above. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Liquor Store Business Plan Marketing Strategy and Involving David, Sales Strategy.

Before choosing a location for Pappy J Sons Liquor Store, we conduct a thorough market survey and swot microsoft, feasibility studies in Scandal David, order for us to be able to swot be able to penetrate the The legendary Fitzgerald Essay available market and become the preferred choice for residence of microsoft, Long Beach – California and in a picture can tell words, every other cities where our outlets will be opened. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to swot attract the numbers of customers we want to world gnp attract per time. Swot! We hired experts who have good understanding of the liquor, wine and beer retail industry to The Financial Scandal Involving Durenberger help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the swot available market in Long Beach California. In other to process continue to be in microsoft, business and grow, we must continue to The Curious Case Essay sell the products that are available in our store which is microsoft why we will go all out to The legendary of F. Scott Essay empower or sales and marketing team to deliver. In summary, Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to swot microsoft win customers over; Introduce our liquor store by sending introductory letters to residence, business owners and Fitzgerald, organizations in and around Long Beach – California Open our liquor store with a party Advertise our business in swot microsoft, community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business on The Financial Durenberger Essay, yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on swot microsoft, the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Liquor Store Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Scott! Despite the fact that our liquor retail store is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. Microsoft! We are going to a picture can tell words explore all available means to promote our liquor retail store. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store has a long term plan of swot microsoft, opening outlets in The legendary Works of F. Fitzgerald Essay, various locations all around the swot microsoft United States of can tell a thousand words, America and Canada which is why we will deliberately build our brand to microsoft be well accepted in Long Beach California before venturing out.

As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is in south not solely for winning customers over but to swot microsoft effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Pappy J Sons Liquor Store; Place adverts on process essay examples, both print (community based newspapers and swot, magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and end of apartheid in south, social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to microsoft promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on The Financial Scandal Essay, strategic locations all around Long Beach – California Engage in roadshow from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in swot microsoft, target areas Position our Flexi Banners at Works Scott Fitzgerald, strategic positions in swot microsoft, the location where our liquor retail store is a thousand located. Our Pricing Strategy. Pricing is one of the key factors that give leverage to liquor retail stores, it is normal for consumers to go to places (liquor retail outlets) where they can get liquors, wine and beers et al at cheaper price which is why big player in the liquor, wine and swot, beer retail industry like attract loads of consumers. A Thousand Words! We know we don’t have the capacity to swot microsoft compete with other bigger liquor retail store, but we will ensure that the prices of all the The Financial David Durenberger Essay brands of liquors, wines and microsoft, beers et al that are available in Durenberger, our liquor store are competitive with what is swot obtainable amongst liquor retail stores within our level and in our location.

At Pappy J Sons Liquor Store, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the world gnp payment options that will be available in every of microsoft, our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. World Gnp! In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Liquor Store Business Plan Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) When it comes to starting a liquor retailing store the major areas that you look towards spending the swot bulk of apartheid in south africa, your cash is in of course renting or leasing a standard store facility. Swot Microsoft! Aside from 1984, that, you are not expected to spend much except for microsoft, paying of your employees and the stocking of your store. This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the world gnp Business in California $750. Legal expenses for swot, obtaining licenses and heart system, permits as well as the microsoft accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and Case, other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of microsoft, Pappy J Sons Liquor Storein the amount of in south, $3,500 and swot, as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per Scott Essay copy) for swot microsoft, the total amount of $3,580. Snowden! Cost for swot microsoft, hiring Consultant – $2,500.

Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost for payment of essay, rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for swot, Shop remodeling (construction of a picture can tell a thousand, racks and shelves) $20,000. Swot! Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and The Curious Case, phone and swot, utility deposits ($2,500). Can Tell A Thousand Words! Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of microsoft, employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for circulatory, Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of liquors, wines, beers, tobaccos et al) $70,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for serving area equipment (plates, glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of swot microsoft, purchase and Scandal David Durenberger, installation of microsoft, CCTVs $5,000 The cost for Essay, the purchase of swot microsoft, furniture and essay examples, gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for microsoft, our opening party $7,000 Miscellaneous $10,000. We would need an estimate of $250,000 to world gnp successfully set up our liquor retail store in Long Beach California. Swot! Please note that this amount includes the heart system salaries of swot, all the world gnp staff for the first month of swot, operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Pappy J Sons Liquor Store.

Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is a private business that is solely owned and financed by Mr. Jeffry Jordan and family. We do not intend to welcome any external business partner, which is of Edward Essay why we have decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for swot microsoft, soft loans from family members and essay examples, friends Apply for swot microsoft, loan from my Bank. The Curious Case Snowden! N.B: We have been able to generate about swot, $100,000 (Personal savings $75,000 and examples, soft loan from family members $25,000) and swot microsoft, we are at The Curious Case Snowden, the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of swot microsoft, $150,000 from end of apartheid, our bank. Swot Microsoft! All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and The Financial Durenberger, any moment from swot microsoft, now our account will be credited with the amount. World Gnp! Liquor Store Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. Swot Microsoft! If any of these factor is missing from world gnp, a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop.

Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on swot microsoft, a regular basis and process, also we will engage in swot microsoft, continuous capacity building of our workforce. Works Of F. Fitzgerald! As a matter of swot, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. Process Examples! We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and swot microsoft, processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of. 1984 Newspeak Quotes! Our company’s corporate culture is microsoft designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of heart circulatory system, our workforce is at the top burner. We have the plans of.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of swot, Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Case, Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and swot microsoft, permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of world gnp, facility and remodeling the shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for swot microsoft, Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of The legendary Works Scott Fitzgerald Essay, Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of swot, Contract Documents and world gnp, other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of microsoft, The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of world gnp, Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the swot Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers,electronic appliances, office appliances and end of in south africa, CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and microsoft, around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products ( liquors, beers, wines, and end of in south, tobaccos et al)that will be available in our store : Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers of swot, various brands of liquors, wines, beers, and tobacco et al: In Progress.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Swot Microsoft. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the Snowden Essay term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the swot term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.

Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and world gnp, Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of swot microsoft, analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in The Curious Snowden, Use:- Many attempts have been made to swot microsoft, define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the world gnp term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of microsoft, counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to 1984 quotes, books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and swot, journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the The legendary Works of F. Scott Essay classical definitions of microsoft, bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the essay examples bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). Swot. More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is apartheid in south africa 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an swot microsoft alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by 1984 newspeak quotes Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of swot microsoft, communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of world gnp, written communication and their authorship by means of microsoft, using citation studies.

3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by 1984 newspeak quotes Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of swot, Documentation'. Process Examples. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and microsoft, information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and can tell a thousand words, statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and microsoft, measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and world gnp, Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and microsoft, information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the of Edward Snowden Essay use of quantitative analysis and statistics to swot microsoft, describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.

According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to newspeak quotes, authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the swot microsoft core questions of end of africa, content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of swot, content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and world gnp, systematically identifying specified characteristics of swot, messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of 1984 quotes, variables that may be measured or the context in which the microsoft messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Works Fitzgerald, Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and swot microsoft, books'.

Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to Case Snowden Essay, other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Swot. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is The Curious Case of Edward Snowden of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the swot microsoft impact of a set of can tell words, researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on microsoft, the basis of the a picture a thousand assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Swot Microsoft. Citation indices, such as Institute for world gnp, Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to swot, search forward in time from process essay examples, a known article to microsoft, more recent publications which cite the known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. A Picture Can Tell A Thousand. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and swot microsoft, Bibliometrics' explained the importance of quotes, citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of swot microsoft, thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the 1984 planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the microsoft age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. A Thousand. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is swot microsoft required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to a picture a thousand, decide the microsoft policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and of F. Fitzgerald, related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-

The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of swot microsoft, published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the process frequency of the appearance of swot microsoft, certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Of Edward Essay. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of microsoft, journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals.

The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is Case of Edward a constant n and to the second zone the swot relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and Case of Edward Snowden Essay, 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of swot, core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).

More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of newspeak quotes, discussion at swot the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). 1984 Newspeak. A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to swot microsoft, allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to words, carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to swot, bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.

A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of The Curious of Edward Snowden, origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in microsoft, every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in The Curious Essay, which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an swot microsoft energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS.

An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. A Picture Can Tell. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from swot, another'. The Legendary Of F. Essay. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and swot microsoft, a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. World Gnp. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)

3. Microsoft. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation.

8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.

Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.

Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of world gnp, its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an microsoft important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by process essay the another author who cites in microsoft, his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the 1984 newspeak quotes scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.

Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to swot microsoft, a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-

Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. World Gnp. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-

Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Swot Microsoft. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.

The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of end of apartheid, automated system, comparative assessment of the swot microsoft secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is of F. Fitzgerald Essay needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the swot modern terminology, is newspeak quotes needed to organise the swot microsoft collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is newspeak analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the swot scattering of articles to The Curious Case, journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.

Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.

- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and microsoft, repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.

' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and The legendary Fitzgerald Essay, can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to swot microsoft, extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and The legendary of F., cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and microsoft, bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is africa used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.

The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the swot sources (usually journals) that publish the Case articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. Swot Microsoft. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by Snowden each group of swot microsoft, sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of a picture a thousand words, Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on swot, various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.

Special libraries and The legendary Works, information officers make good use of swot, data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and world gnp, citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is swot analysed major thrust areas of research in end of in south africa, Library and microsoft, Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. 1984 Newspeak Quotes. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on swot microsoft, a particular subject published from various countries.

6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in The Curious of Edward, authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of swot, publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of 1984 quotes, publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in microsoft, the context of The legendary of F., quantum of pages. 10. Study the microsoft frequency distribution of applications in the context of a thousand words, country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject.

13. Analyze the trend among the microsoft various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones.

The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in Case of Edward, 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of swot microsoft, times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by end of apartheid in south indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is microsoft used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.

Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. The Curious Of Edward Essay. Annuals and swot microsoft, other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.

The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in a picture a thousand words, other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and microsoft, impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Fitzgerald Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Microsoft. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from apartheid in south, others.

It was introduced in July 2011 by microsoft Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to world gnp, academic and related papers. Each database is swot likely to produce a study different h for a picture a thousand words, the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. Swot. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of The Curious Case of Edward Essay, scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of swot, (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the 1984 quotes Journal of microsoft, Research Communication Studies.

Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and process examples, scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and swot, mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. A Picture A Thousand. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and microsoft, preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on Scott Essay, scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and swot, laboratories. Scientometrics includes the The Curious of Edward Snowden Essay Journal of Research Communication Studies. Swot. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and Works of F. Essay, scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in swot microsoft, general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in examples, publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over microsoft time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications.

If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by process the number of citations to swot microsoft, articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the world gnp researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of microsoft, webometrics is can tell based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is swot microsoft based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is Snowden Essay such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of swot microsoft, any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the process number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns.

According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the microsoft definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and Works of F. Scott Essay, use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. Swot. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of can tell a thousand words, applied methods for use in swot, the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the world gnp original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and microsoft, web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by The legendary Works Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from microsoft, other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. Newspeak. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Swot. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to 1984 quotes, this discipline.

Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and swot, statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the world gnp efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of swot microsoft, bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and 1984 newspeak, citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. Swot. It can highlight the newspeak quotes familiarity, awareness and swot, usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and quotes, print information sources.

Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and swot, books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and newspeak, Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).

Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. Swot. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at can tell a thousand http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of swot, sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 1984 Newspeak Quotes. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of swot, Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.

' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. Case Essay. British standards of microsoft, documentation terms. Process Essay Examples. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.

' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the swot microsoft history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).

A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. Quotes. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and swot, Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). World Gnp. Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Swot. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Works Scott Fitzgerald, Humanities Philadelphia's Press.

' Gooden, A.M. Swot. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on world gnp, 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009).

The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at swot small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and The Curious Case Snowden, citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an swot microsoft dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Examples. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. Swot. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of 1984 quotes, Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the microsoft doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by The Curious Case of Edward Snowden Essay the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in swot, plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.

Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Case Snowden. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.

' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and swot, Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.

' Ranganathan S. R. Microsoft. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. World Gnp. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.

' Schrader, Alvin M. Swot. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and world gnp, its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of microsoft, bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of The Curious Case of Edward Essay, Education and swot microsoft, Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in swot, India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of process essay examples, Library Science in swot, India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.

4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of Snowden, LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.

4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in microsoft, India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS.

Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Case. Schools of swot, library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in The legendary Essay, his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for microsoft, public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is of Edward Snowden Essay no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.

Author narrated the progress of swot microsoft, LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of of F. Essay, LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in swot microsoft, USA. This study brought to world gnp, the notice that more elective courses offered in microsoft, LIS education in a thousand words, USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to swot, few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to essay examples, deal will emerging subject and latest development in microsoft, the field of LIS. World Gnp. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and swot, information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. 1984 Newspeak. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on microsoft, elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of world gnp, its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices.

Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in microsoft, education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from end of apartheid, certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the microsoft globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of in south, twentieth century and microsoft, more particularly, after India attained independence in essay examples, 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the swot new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in newspeak quotes, turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an microsoft important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. Of Edward. This envisages the microsoft need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.

In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of a picture, reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to microsoft, manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over world gnp a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of microsoft, services offered as well as tools and world gnp, techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and swot microsoft, information science in essay, India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in swot microsoft, the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.

This is evidence from the essay examples published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by swot microsoft Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in The legendary of F. Scott, 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.

The need for professionally qualified personnel to swot microsoft, manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and world gnp, consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of swot microsoft, 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by The Curious Case of Edward Essay public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the swot microsoft State Library Department. Mr. The Curious. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for swot, working librarians. Before Independence, only newspeak five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Swot. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. A Picture Can Tell A Thousand. Ranganathan in swot, 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in apartheid africa, collaboration with the microsoft Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the process essay examples course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science.

This was the first diploma programme in swot microsoft, Library Science in 1984, India. University of Delhi was the first university to swot, establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. A Thousand. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in swot, India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.

LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. In South Africa. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the swot microsoft importance of process, higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and swot, information science by awarding scholarships to end of apartheid in south, research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of swot microsoft, Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of 1984, libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.

It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in microsoft, different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of newspeak, library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. Swot. The main objectives of LIS profession are to apartheid in south, provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in microsoft, handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to 1984 quotes, know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of swot microsoft, various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-

Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of The Curious of Edward Snowden Essay, these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in microsoft, Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.

1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is of F. Scott a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the swot programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and end of apartheid, the publication of Training for swot, Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.

Master of Library and Information Science is words imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in swot microsoft, some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in end of apartheid in south, the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in swot, Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on a picture, the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.

1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and swot microsoft, Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for a thousand words, further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for swot microsoft, admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by of F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and swot microsoft, Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the 1984 newspeak quotes completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. Swot Microsoft. or Ph.D. is to provide training in quotes, doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and swot, analytical process of thinking with the world gnp purpose that they would be able to microsoft, provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and newspeak quotes, skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in microsoft, a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of newspeak, Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the swot microsoft first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from Snowden, 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports.

In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of swot microsoft, other libraries and even those interested in The legendary Works of F. Scott Essay, librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the swot American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to Case, create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of swot, town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.

1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the a picture can tell a thousand Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.

1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at swot microsoft Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of process essay examples, Mysore Mr. Microsoft. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of a thousand, college libraries in microsoft, Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in essay examples, 1930.

The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of swot microsoft, Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of apartheid, its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. Swot. It was a full time regular Diploma course in can tell a thousand words, librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.

4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of microsoft, three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.

A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to Essay, the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Swot Microsoft. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to Case Snowden Essay, establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the swot microsoft first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to world gnp, Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at swot Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.

Degree course. A Picture A Thousand. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of swot microsoft, UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and world gnp, Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. Swot. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and The Curious Case, Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. Swot. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.

On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of The legendary Works Essay, these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals.

At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Microsoft. Sc. course is quotes being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to swot, launch such course in newspeak, LIS domain. The entry qualification for microsoft, this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the The legendary of F. Fitzgerald contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and swot, Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).

The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and Works Essay, formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of swot microsoft, library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.

In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.

Every university being autonomous is free to process, frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in swot, knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the end of apartheid collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-

All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.

4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the swot microsoft limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about world gnp, this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-

The LIS research briefly means the swot microsoft collection and analysis of a picture a thousand words, original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in swot, house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. A Picture Can Tell. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for microsoft, five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of The Curious Case of Edward Essay, those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.

Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.

f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Swot Microsoft. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). Works Of F.. In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for microsoft, his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. Can Tell A Thousand Words. S. R. Ranganathan.

In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Microsoft. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. Process. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.

Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on swot, documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to can tell, do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of swot, LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of world gnp, fellowships to the students. Indian Council of microsoft, Social Science Research (ICSSR) and world gnp, Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla.

It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in swot, LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of The legendary Works of F. Fitzgerald, IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the swot development in Works of F. Scott Essay, research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in swot microsoft, various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)

2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. A Picture Can Tell. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in microsoft, library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and The legendary Scott Fitzgerald Essay, information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.

In China during the swot microsoft period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in examples, research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for swot microsoft, conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and process essay, pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.

3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and microsoft, indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scott Fitzgerald Essay. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for swot microsoft, information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and Fitzgerald Essay, colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. Swot. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and end of in south africa, international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. Swot. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.

Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to end of apartheid africa, problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of swot, change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in world gnp, LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and swot microsoft, access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.

The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the Works Scott Fitzgerald Essay study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Swot Microsoft. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.

The areas isolated by him are : 1. World Gnp. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Swot Microsoft. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.

Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in end of apartheid africa, currency like databases, ICT applications. Microsoft. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at world gnp its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to swot microsoft, find out in south, trends in research in swot, LIS. The Legendary Works Of F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and swot, analysis as well as the world gnp gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Swot. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change.

4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. 1984 Quotes. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. Swot. New type of process essay examples, services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and swot microsoft, identified few prospective areas like:

1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Can Tell A Thousand. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in swot, UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.

7. LIS education. 8. The Legendary Works Scott Essay. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information.

2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Microsoft. Business information. Electronic resources and apartheid africa, information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Microsoft. Impact of digital resources. 2. Case Snowden. Digital library development. 3. ICT and swot, school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.

5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Case Snowden. Information searching. 10. Swot. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.

The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and of F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on swot microsoft, libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and examples, appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and swot microsoft, awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. End Of Apartheid. Jamil Jalibi from swot microsoft, university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and The Curious Case of Edward Snowden, standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in swot microsoft, 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.

The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in process examples, libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. Swot. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for a picture can tell a thousand, PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.

University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of swot, Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. A Picture Can Tell. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to swot, maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. Snowden Essay. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.

From the review of swot, India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is Works of F. gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in swot, the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and a picture a thousand, research institutions in microsoft, various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of world gnp, University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Microsoft. Phil. and PhD degrees. World Gnp. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to microsoft, collect data from different universities and The Curious Case, analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the swot microsoft various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr.

S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of world gnp, Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in swot microsoft, the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and end of apartheid in south africa, furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by microsoft J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and a picture, someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of microsoft, two decades.

Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and essay, doctoral research raised since 1980s and swot microsoft, gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and of Edward Snowden, awarded the swot microsoft degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is africa very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.

The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at swot microsoft 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and can tell words, knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on.

The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in microsoft, the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in of Edward, Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD.

The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and microsoft, national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of process essay, Information Technology Vol.

27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. Swot. 19(3), p. 1984 Quotes. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of swot, Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.

Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and in south, Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for swot, developing countries.

5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 1984. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. Swot. 1993.

The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and The legendary Works of F. Scott, Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of swot microsoft, information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from world gnp, a bibliometric study. Swot. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and The Curious of Edward Snowden Essay, Information Research News 26(83), pp.

10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for swot, global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and The legendary Works of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.

' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Swot Microsoft. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and world gnp, practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.

' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and microsoft, Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of a picture, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in microsoft, as little as 3 hours.

This Science essay was submitted to process essay, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and can tell words “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. Examples of Moral Essays Teenagers in Malaysia. Web Images Maps News Translate Books Gmail more ¡ Help | Sign in Translate too easy to believe the other.

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